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Finland

P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT

Tel. +358 20 722 111

Fax +358 20 722 7001

CALCULATION SHEET

Job No.

VALCOSS

Sheet

Job Title

RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Subject

**Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made
**

of hollow sections

1

of

9

Rev

Client

Made by

PTY/AAT

Date

Jan 2006

RFCS

Checked by

MAP

Date

Feb 2006

**DESIGN EXAMPLE 13 - HOLLOW SECTION LATTICE GIRDER
**

The lattice girder supports roof glazing and is made of square and rectangular hollow

sections of grade 1.4301 stainless steel; a comparison is made between material in two

strength levels - the annealed condition (fy=220 N/mm2) and in the cold worked condition (strength level CP460, fy = 460 N/mm2). Calculations are performed at the ultimate limit state and then at the fire limit state for a fire duration of 30 minutes. For the

CP460 material the reduction factors for the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures are conservatively taken as those for grade 1.4318 C850 (Table 7.1).

The structural analysis was carried out using the FE-program WINRAMI marketed by

Finnish Constructional Steelwork Association (FCSA) (www.terasrakenneyhdistys.fi).

The WINRAMI design environment includes square, rectangular and circular hollow

sections for stainless steel structural analysis. WINRAMI solves the member forces,

deflections and member resistances for room temperature and structural fire design and

also joint resistance at room temperature (it also checks all the geometrical restraints of

truss girder joints). In the example, the chord members are modelled as continuous

beams and the diagonal members as hinge jointed. According to EN 1993-1-1, the

buckling lengths for the chord and diagonal members could be taken as 0,9 times and

0,75 times the distance between nodal points respectively, but in this example conservatively the distance between nodal points has been used as the buckling length. The

member forces were calculated by using WINRAMI with profile sizes based on the

annealed strength condition. These member forces were used for both the annealed and

CP460 girders.

This example focuses on checking 3 members: mainly axial tension loaded lower

chord (member 0), axial compression loaded diagonal (member 31) and combination

of axial compression and bending loaded upper chord member (member 5). The weight

of the girders is also compared.

The welded joints should be designed according to the Section 6.3, which is not included in this example.

**Annealed : lower chord 100x60x4, upper chord 80x80x5, corner vertical 60x60x5 diagonals from left to
**

middle: 50x50x3, 50x50x3, 40x40x3, 40x40x3, 40x40x3,40x40x3, 40x40x3.

CP460 : lower chord 60x40x4, upper chord 70x70x4, corner vertical 60x60x5, all diagonals 40x40x3.

**Span length 15m, height in the middle 3,13 m, height at the corner 0,5 m.
**

Weight of girders: Annealed: 407 kg, CP460 307 kg. The weight is not fully optimized.

191

A

+358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No. j G k. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 2 of 9 Rev Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 A Actions Assuming the girder carries equally distributed snow load. CP460: 70x70x4 mm Nc.1 kN Self weight of girder (is included by WINRAMI ) Variable action Load from snow: 1. j Gk.245 kNm Mmax .Ed = 46.1 Eq.fi. Nt.9 kN Mmax.1 kN Forces at critical member are: Forces are determined by the model using profiles in the annealed strength condition Lower chord member .2 kN Mmax .Ed = -49. glazing and its support structures and weight of girder : Permanent actions (G): Load of glazing and supports 1 kN/m2 Dead load of girder (WINRAMI calculates the weight) Variable actions (Q): Snow load 2 kN/m2 Load case 1 to be considered (ultimate limit state): ∑γ G.3 j Load case 2 to be considered (fire situation): ∑γ GA.7 kN Nc.Ed = 0.fire.fire.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.35 x 4.Ed = -21.731 kNm Diagonal member.1 kN. CP460: 40x40x3 mm Nc. Box 1000.2 γQ. j = 1.Ed =142. 192 EN 1990 EN 1991-1-2 .Ed =0.Ed = 2. j =1.O. j + γ Q.Ed = -149.Ed = 0.1 j Ultimate limit state (room temperature design) Fire design γG.2 kN.1 Qk. Upper chord member.0 γψ1. Mmax.1 = 1.5 x 8. 2.Ed = -65. j + γ ψ1. member 31 Annealed: 50x50x3mm.fire.672 kNm.1 = 0.1 Qk. member 5 Annealed: 80x80x5 mm.149 kNm.5 (Recommended partial safety factors for actions shall be used in this example) Factored actions for ultimate limit state: Permanent action: Load on nodal points: 1.fire.35 (unfavourable effects) γGA. member 0 Annealed: 100x60x4 mm.9 kN. Nc. CP460: 60x40x4 mm Nt. FI-02044 VTT Tel.

76·103 mm3 CP460 Member 0: Member 5: A= 695 mm A=1015 mm2 Iy=72.7ε .4 Table 2.5 CP460 40x40x3 : c/t = 11.93·1000 mm3 Wpl.3 c ≤ 25.y = 24.Rd = 695 mm2×460 N/mm2 / 1.y = 9.2. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Material properties Use material grade 1.32·104 mm4 iy = 14. FI-02044 VTT Tel.fi = 1. γM. Box 1000.y = 5.4301 Annealed: fy = 220 N/mm2 CP460: fy = 460 N/mm2 Job No. 4.1.Rd = Ag f y γ M 0 Eq.7.1 γM0 = 1.3 mm iy = 19 mm Wpl. γM1 = 1. therefore both profiles are classified as Class 1 t A=421 mm2 Iy=9. DESIGN IN ROOM AND FIRE TEMPERATURE (Member 0) A) Room temperature design Tension resistance of cross section Section 4. 193 .39·103 mm3 iy=26.2 =0.2 kN OK.12·104 mm4 Classification of the cross-section of member 5 and member 31 Annealed : ε =1.74 ·103 mm3 Wpl.9 mm Wpl.44·104 mm4 Iy=19.O. Member 31: CP460 70x70x4 : c = 70 – 8 = 62 mm CP460 40x40x3 : c = 40 – 6 = 34 mm Table 4.6 For Class 1.16·1000 mm3 Wpl.y= 13.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.01 CP460 : ε Table 4.2 CP460 70x70x4 : c/t = 15.1 = 235 kN > 142.Rd = 1175 mm2×220 N/mm2 / 1.72·103 mm3 LOWER CHORD MEMBER.0 Cross section properties Annealed Member 0: Member 5: Member 31: A= 1175 mm2 A=1436 mm2 A=541 mm2 Iy=131.y= 37.1 = 290 kN > 142.2 kN OK.22 Annealed : Npl.1 Section 3.7 mm Wpl.1.698 Assume conservatively that c = h − 2t Annealed 80x80x5 : c = 80 − 10 = 70 mm Annealed 50x50x3 : c = 50 – 6 = 44 mm Flange/web subject to compression: Annealed 80x80x5 : c/t = 14 Annealed 50x50x3 : c/t = 14.y =39. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 3 of 9 Rev Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 fu = 550 N/mm2 fu = 650 N/mm2 E = 200 000 N/mm2 E = 200 000 N/mm2 Partial safety factors The following partial safety factors are used throughout the design example: A Table 3. CP460 : Npl.2 Npl.47·104 mm4 iy=30.

2proof.0 = 95.672 kNm OK. 4.11) = 0.10)) ×650 N/mm2 = 135.θ = 52.θ = 0.8 N/mm2 + 0.θ NRd [γM0 / γM. Ed + ≤1 N Rd M y .θ + g2.3 N/mm2 f 2. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.27-0.1 ⋅ 10 6 Axial tension and bending moment interaction Eq.2 kN 0.2 Table 7.6 N/mm2 k 2.240×220 N/mm2 = 52.202 f 0.50 kNm OK.35 – 0.14) = 0.1 Section 7.θ = 0.5/220 = 0.1 Eq.50 kNm > 0. CP460 : 142.θ ) Annealed : k 0.0 = 59. 7.202×460 N/mm2 = 93.225×290 kN×1. 194 .7 Eq.Rd = k2. Rd Annealed : 142.θ = 81.5 N/mm2 k 2. 5.θ = f 0.93 × 103 × 220 1.672 kNm + = 0.2proof.Rd = Wpl f y γ M 0 CP460 : 9 Client Moment resistance of cross-section Annealed : Mc.35 -23/100× (0.θ.2proof.24-0.8) N/mm2 = 81.Rd = 0.θ – f 0.370×235 kN×1. 4.58 kNm OK. 7.θ = 103.θ = 93.24 .25×(135. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 4 Mc.2 Table 7.1 Eq. 13. 1.357×(133. Box 1000.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.2 proof.1 Section 7.θ (f u.Rd = of Eq.6 kN > 46.4 Mc.2proof.2 Steel temperature after 30 min fire Θ = 823 °C f2.Rd = Rev Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 A Sec.1) N/mm2 = 103.6 Annealed : Nfi.O.9 kN OK.1 Tension resistance of cross section Nfi.1/1.23/100× (0.θ.69 ≤ 1 235 kN 7.58 kNm > 0.61 ≤ 1 290 kN 5.672 kNm + = 0.θ = (0.27-0.4.1× 106 = 7.27 37.39 N Ed M y .2 kN 0. CP460 : Nfi.240 f 0.1 N/mm2 g 2.38) = 0.3 kN > 46.23-23/100× (0.θ = 0.37 CP460 : k 0.8 N/mm2 g 2.23/100× (0.27-23/100×(0.6 /460 = 0.2proof.3 – 52.15)) ×550 N/mm2 = 133.7.θ.9 kN OK.1 N/mm2 + 0.fi ] Eq.16 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ 460 = 5.1 – 93.θ = ( 0. B) Fire temperature design εres = 0.1/1. 7. 7. FI-02044 VTT Tel.225 Section 7.1 N/mm2 f 2.672 kNm OK.θ = 0.357 f u.25 f u.θ = 0.27.θ = ( 0.23-0.Rd = 0.

245 kNm OK.418×421 mm2×460 N/mm2/1. FI-02044 VTT Tel.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.Rd = 0.Rd = 0. 5. 5.2832) = 1.0= 3. OK.57 ≤ 1 95.50 kNm ×1. 7.9 kN OK.Rd = χAf y / γ M 1 Eq.9 kN 0.2a Annealed : λ= Lcr 1 1253 1 ( f y / E) = (220 / 200000) = 0.5(1+0.49(0.Rd Axial tension and bending moment interaction N Ed M y . +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.696 19 π i π ϕ = 0.0= 1.97 ≤ 1 59.540 − 1. 5.245 kNm + = 0.540 χ= 1 ϕ + (ϕ 2 − λ2 ) = 1 2 2 1.283 ) = 0.1/1.5(1+0.39 OK.815 + (0.3 Nb.5a Eq.3 kN > 65. 5. Mfi. 5.θ.245 kNm + = 0.08 kNm 46.49(1.245 kNm OK.696-0.283-0.36 kNm Eq.807×541 mm2×220 N/mm2/1. 5.58 kNm ×1.370 ×7.4 Eq.9 kN 0.08 kNm > 0.9 kN OK.540 + (1.θ M Rd [γ M 0 / γ M . Ed + ≤1 N Rd M y .5(1 + α (λ − λ 0 ) + λ2 ) = 0. 5.θ.4)+1.36 kNm > 0.418 Nb.5(1 + α(λ − λ 0 ) + λ2 ) = 0. DIAGONAL MEMBER DESIGN IN ROOM AND FIRE TEMPERATURE Buckling length = 1253 mm (Member 31) A) Room temperature design Nb. fi ] Eq.θ. CP460 : = 0.5a Eq.6962) = 0.Rd = k 2.225 × 5. 195 Eq.1/1.13 Annealed : Mfi.Rd = 0.815 − 0.6 kN 3.9 π i π ϕ = 0.4)+0. CP460 : λ= Lcr 1 1253 1 ( f y / E) = ( 460 / 200000) = 1. Rd Annealed : CP460 : 46.3 . Box 1000.815 χ= 1 = ϕ + (ϕ 2 − λ2 ) 1 2 2 0.4 Eq.1 = 73.696 ) = 0.283 14.6 kN > 65.O. 5.1 = 87.807 Eq. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 5 of 9 Rev Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 A Moment resistance of cross-section Mfi.3 kN 1.

1 Nb.714 Eq.12 2 Eq. UPPER CHORD MEMBER DESIGN IN ROOM AND FIRE TEMPERATURE Buckling length = 1536 mm A) Room temperature design M y .49(0.9412 − 0.11) = 0.5(1+0.fi.fi.y = 1.θ = 0.5)NEd /Nb.23-32/100×(0.2 Eq.5(1 + α (λ θ − λ 0 ) + λ θ ) = 0.27-32/100×(0.12 Eq.283 (0.822 Eq.7 kN OK.2≤ ky ≤ 1. y f y / γ M 1 ( N b .535 i π 30.439 2 ) = 0.40 Annealed : βW. 7.11 ϕ θ = 0.0 class 1 cross section ky =1.35) = 0. 5.5a .8222) = 0.52-32/100×(0. 7. yW pl .4)+0.2 Steel temperature after 30 min fire Θ= 832 °C Annealed : k 0.2 Table 7.θ ) = 0.27-0.5 kN > 21.977×541 mm2×0.Rd = 0. 7.941 χ fi = 1 ϕ θ + (ϕ θ2 − λ2θ ) = 1 0.2 Table 7.4)+0.714×421 mm2×0.θ / k E .191 k E.0+2(λy -0.572 CP460 : k 0.439-0.Rd.11 Eq.2+2NEd /Nb.822 2 ) = 0.941 + (0. 5.1 Section 7.45) = 0. Ed + N Ed e Ny N Ed ≤ 1.0 = 26.y λ= (Member 5) Lcr 1 1536 1 ( f y / E) = ( 220 / 200000) = 0. fi Eq.14) = 0.696 (0.228 / 0. 7.49(0.228 k E.8 Annealed : λ θ = λ (k 0.θ = 0.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.822-0.191×460 N/mm2/1.7 Section 7.10 Nb.10 Nb.63-0.191 / 0.5(1 + α(λ θ − λ 0 ) + λ θ ) = 0.2proof. 5.θ / k E .465 A Section 7.52-0.t.3 π 196 Sec.5(1+0.θ f y / γ M . FI-02044 VTT Tel.606 2 − 0. 2 proof . Rd ) min Eq.θ = 0. 7.2proof. 2 proof . 2 proof .fi. CP460 : λ θ = λ (k 0.4392) = 0.0 = 26.606 χ fi = 1 ϕθ + (ϕ θ2 = − λ2θ ) 1 0.Rd = 0.θ ) = 1.7 kN OK.23-0.606 + (0.Rd = χ fi A k 0.θ = 0.63-32/100× (0.977 Eq.5. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 6 of 9 Rev Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 B) Fire temperature design εres = 0. 7.t. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.4.4 kN > 21.y.465 ) = 0.t. Box 1000. 7.O.228×220 N/mm2/1.0 + ky βW .572 ) = 0. but 1.439 2 ϕ θ = 0.Rd.

0+2(0.1 kN A Eq.27-10/100× (0.002 2 − 0.5(1 + α(λ − λ 0 ) + λ2 ) = 0. + 1.2proof.1 kN Sec. 5. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.3 1.27.63 – 10/100× (0.2 ≤ ky ≤ 1.1 = 263.676 + (0.49(0.394 k E.Rd.0 λ= class 1 cross section Lcr 1 1536 1 ( f y / E) = ( 460 / 200000) = 0. 5.394.878-0.27-0.394 3 285.63-0.535-0.81 < 1.θ = 0. 5. 5.3 Eq.8782) = 1.27-0.74 × 10 × 220 / 1. but 1.5352) = 0.7 π ϕ = 0.002 χ= 1 2 = 2 ϕ + (ϕ − λ ) 1 1.673 Nb.149 × 1000 2 = 0.15)) ×550 N/mm2 = 141.002 + (1.40 CP460 βW.4.878 2 ) = 0.612 197 Eq.3 Eq.10/100× (0.6 /220 = 0.2 + 2(149.2a ky = 1.9 N/mm2 f 2. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 7 of 9 Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 ϕ = 0.1 .1 2.θ = (0.5.5(1 + α (λ − λ 0 ) + λ2 ) = 0. FI-02044 VTT Tel.2. the value of ky = 1.6 = 1.θ = 56. thus ky = 1.353 f u. 7.676 1 χ= = 2 2 ϕ + (ϕ − λ ) Rev 1 0.1 =285. 5.1 Eq.1 2.0 OK.676 2 − 0.9 – 56. 5.7 Section 7.2a ky = 1.257 f 0.257×220 N/mm2 = 56. Box 1000.878 i π 26.4)+0.535-0.6 1 .1 Eq.y = 0.5)149.14) = 0.5) ×149. 1 B) Fire temperature design εres = 0.2 Steel temperature 80x80x5 mm Θ= 810 °C Steel temperature 70x70x4 mm Θ= 823 °C Annealed : k 0.Rd.878-0.38) = 0. 5.45) = 0.2 Eq.673×1015 mm2 ×460 N/mm2/1.0 × 39.4)+0.5N/mm2 + 0.5 N/mm2 g 2.5) N/mm2 = 86.40 Section 7.θ = (0.3 kN > 149.2proof.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.4 Eq.1/285.0 OK.917 Nb. + 1.35 – 0.917×1436 mm2×220 N/mm2/1.6) = 2.0+2(0.353× (141.1/285.890 < 1.O.49(0.394 149.2 3 263.1/263.4 Eq.2 Table 7. 5.6 kN > 149.149 × 1000 2 = 0.2.244.039 because calculated value is less than 1.5(1+0. 0 × 24 .5a Eq. 76 × 10 × 460 / 1 .y = 1. 5. 149. 5.θ = 0.θ = 0.3 = 1.535 2 ) = 0.35 -10/100× (0.y = 0.5(1+0.6 N/mm2 k 2.θ = 86.

5(1 + α(λ θ − λ 0 ) + λ θ ) = 0. y − 3) λ y .8 Eq. Ed ≤ 1.2 Table 7.6 /460 = 0.θ + fy Rev k y M y .44×2.2 kN OK. 7.0 81.11 Eq.11 χ fi = 1 ϕθ + (ϕθ − λθ ) 2 ky =1− = 2 1 0. 7.θ ) = 0.569-0.0 M y .202×460 N/mm2 = 93.fi]MRd = 0.29 ≤ 0.547 2 − 0.257 / 0.θ = 93.731 kNm = -0.257×220 N/mm /1.0×1436 mm ×0.28 Eq.70 < 1.23-23/100× (0.5(1+0. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.θ = 0.θ = 103.2×2.0= 81.12 Eq.1 N/mm2 + 0.569 2 ) = 0.347 2 ) µ y N fi . 2 proof . fi = 1.29 Eq.24-0.1) N/mm2 = 103.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.666 βM. 7.466 – 0.515 × = 0.3472) = 0.347-0.515 49.878 (0.44β M .θ.θ f y / γ M . 7.1/1.731 + 0.θ / k E .49(0. because calculated value is less than 0.547 Eq. Table 7.8. fi Ag k 0.1 Eq.fi.703 2 − 0. 7.731 kNm OK.202 f 0. fi Ag k 0.25 f u. 7.θ = 0.θ[γM0/γM.487 kNm/0. fi .θ = (0. fi Ag k 0. 7. 7.79 OK.O.52 – 23/100·(0.25× (135.2 kN/81. 7.4)+0. fi =1.29 = 0.5(1+0.202 / 0. 7.2 kN > 49. Rd A Section 7.23/100× (0.8-0. fi .52-0.θ + 0.θ f y / γ M .03 = 1.11) = 0.5(1 + α (λθ − λ 0 ) + λθ 2 ) = 0.466-3)0.2 kN = 0.466 µy = (1. the value of µy = 0. ψ = -0. 2 proof .49(0.0 ≤3 Eq.1 – 93.θ = 0.394 ×1.703 χ fi = 1 ϕ θ + (ϕ θ2 − λ2θ ) = 1 0.703 + (0.24 γ M .2proof.23-0. y − 0. Ed χ min.2proof. 7.θ .535 (0.2 Eq.481) = 0. fi Annealed : λ θ = λ (k 0.2 3.29 µ y = (1. 7.78.612 ) = 0. 2 proof .80×49. 7. FI-02044 VTT Tel.5692) = 0. 2 proof . Ed χ y .481 N fi . Box 1000.347 Eq.35) = 0.2β M .θ ) = 0.12 ϕθ = 0. 7.7×ψ = 2.896 198 Eq. Eq.13 ky Eq.74×103×220/10002 = 3.θ / k E .79 kNm >0.2 0.8 2 2 χ min.6 N/mm2 k 2.θ = 0.1N/mm2 f 2. 2 proof .10)) ×650 N/mm2 = 135.3 Eq. 7.y = 1.8 My.10 .1 N/mm2 g 2.547 + (0. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 8 of 9 Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 CP460 : k 0.225 k E.24.4)+0.347 + 0.0×39.10 Eq.24 CP460 : λ θ = λ (k 0.0.Rd = k2.569 2 ϕ θ = 0.28 = 1.

7.2×2.81 Table 7.72 < 1.666 βM.7×ψ = 2.731 kNm = -0.5 kN = 0.0=84.466 – 0.896×1015 mm ×0.76×103×460/10002 = 2.y = 1.24 199 A . Box 1000.0 84.80 × 49.0. Eq.5 2. 7.225×1. fi Ag k 0. VALCOSS Sheet Job Title RFCS Stainless Steel Valorisation Project Subject Design Example 13 – Stainless steel lattice girder made of hollow sections 9 of 9 Rev Client Made by PTY/AAT Date Jan 2006 RFCS Checked by MAP Date Feb 2006 2 2 χ min.8-0. Eq.466-3)0.VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland P.Rd = k2.8 Eq. because calculated value is less than 0.2 0.81 kNm >0.θ[γM0/γM.8. 7.44×2.2 kN/84.29 Eq.fi.fi]MRd = 0.θ f y / γ M . 7.3 Eq. the value of µy = 0.487 kNm/0. ψ = -0.202×460 N/mm /1. fi =0.5 kN >49.569 + 0.2 kN OK.28 OK. FI-02044 VTT Tel.0×24.O.731 + 0.1/1.13 ky = 1.466 µy = (1.8 My.29 = 0. 2 proof . +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 CALCULATION SHEET Job No.534 49. 7.θ.771.534 × = 0.731 kNm OK.

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