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:

Heat Transfer
:
Heat conduction equations in three
dimensional for rectangular and cylindrical
coordinates
:
Sir Bilawal
:
Rana Abu Bakar
:
2017-CH-729
:
25-02-2019
Three Dimensional Heat Conduction
Equations of Rectangular Coordinates

Consider a small rectangular element of

length ∆x, width ∆y, and height ∆z, as
shown in.

Assume the density of the body is and the

specific heat is C. An energy balance on this
element during a small time interval t can be
expressed as in equation:

Rate of Rate of
Heat heat

Conduction - conduction +
At x, y and z at ∆x, ∆y and ∆z

Rate of Rate of change of

Heat energy contents
generation = of the element
Inside
The element

. . . . . . .
Q x + Q y + Q z - Q x+ x - Q y+ y - Q z+ z + G element
∆ ∆ ∆ =

∆E element
∆t
(1)
Noting that volume of element is
Velement = ∆x∆y∆z
So change in energy of the system can be
expressed as
∆Eelement = mC (Tt+∆t + Tt)
As
ρ= 𝑚𝑣
so
m = ρv
m = ρ∆x∆y∆z
so change in energy of element becomes
∆Eelement = C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)
Now heat generation within the element can
also be represented as

G.element = g.Velement

G.element = g. ∆x∆y∆z
Substituting the values of change in energy
and heat generation within the element in
equation (1).
Q.x + Q.y + Q.z - Q.x+∆x - Q.y+∆y - Q.z+∆z + g.
C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)
∆x∆y∆z =
∆t

Divide the whole equation with ∆x∆y∆z

Q.x − Q.x+∆x Q.y − Q.y+∆y Q.z − Q.z+∆z
+ + +
∆x∆y∆z ∆x∆y∆z ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧
g.∆x∆y∆z C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)
=
∆x∆y∆z ∆t ∆x∆y∆z

So the equation becomes

1 Q.x − Q.x+∆x 1 Q.y − Q.y+∆y 1
+ +
∆y∆z ∆x ∆x∆z ∆y ∆𝑥∆𝑦
Q.z − Q.z+∆z C ρ(Tt+∆t + Tt)
+ g. =
∆𝑧 ∆t

Taking common “-”

1 Q.x+∆x − Q.x 1 Q.y+∆y − Q.y
- - -
∆y∆z ∆x ∆x∆z ∆y
1 Q.z+∆z − Q.z C ρ(Tt+∆t + Tt)
+ g. = (2)
∆𝑥∆𝑦 ∆𝑧 ∆t

Now applying limits ∆x, ∆y, ∆z and ∆t 0

In X direction
1 Q. x + ∆x − Q. x
lim
∆𝑥 → 0 ∆y∆z ∆x
1 𝜕𝑄𝑥
=
∆y∆z 𝜕𝑥
1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
= -k ∆y∆z
∆y∆z 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

In Y direction
1 Q.y+∆y − Q.y
lim
∆𝑦 → 0 ∆x∆z ∆y

1 𝜕𝑄𝑦 1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
= -k ∆x∆z
∆x∆z 𝜕𝑦 ∆x∆z 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝜕 𝜕𝑇
=- k
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

Now in Z direction
1 Q.z+∆z − Q.z
lim
∆𝑧 → 0 ∆𝑥∆𝑦 ∆𝑧

1 𝜕𝑄𝑧
=
∆x∆y 𝜕𝑧
1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
= -k ∆x∆y
∆x∆y 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
𝜕 𝜕𝑇
=- k
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

Now we apply limit with respect to time

C ρ(Tt + ∆t + Tt)
lim
∆𝑡 → 0 ∆t
𝜕𝑇
= Cρ
𝜕𝑡

Equation 2 becomes:-
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
k + k + k +g. =C ρ
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡

Divide the whole equation with “k”

Equation becomes
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 g. C ρ 𝜕𝑇
+ 𝜕𝑦 + + =
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝒌 𝜕𝑡
Thermal diffusivity
𝑘
α=
𝜌𝐶
1 Cρ
=
𝛼 𝒌

Final equation we get:-

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 g. 1 𝜕𝑇
+ + + =
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

1 𝜕𝑇
=0
𝛼 𝜕𝑡

g.
=0
𝑘

For transient and steady state system

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
+ + =0
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
Cylindrical Coordinates Equation
The
general heat conduction equation in
cylindrical coordinates can be obtained
from an energy balance on a volume
element in cylindrical coordinates,
Shown in Figure:-

An energy balance on this element during a

small time interval ∆t can be expressed as
Net heat Heat energy
Accumulated in + generated = stored __1
Element due to within to the
Conduction element element
Use Fourier’s law
Of thermal conduction Qg Q= mc∆t
𝑑𝑡
Q = -KA
𝑑𝑥

Net heat:-
. 𝑑𝑡
Q r = -k drdФdz dτ
𝑑𝑟

. 𝜕 ..
Q r+dr = Q r + Q r dr
𝜕𝑟

. . . 𝜕 .
dQ r = Q r - Q r - Q r dr
𝜕𝑟

. 𝜕 .
dQ r = - Q r dr ___________2
𝜕𝑟
.
Put the value of “Q r” in eq. 2

. 𝜕 𝑑𝑡
dQr =- -k drdФdz dτ dr
𝜕𝑟 𝑑𝑟

𝜕 𝜕𝑡
= k drdФdz 𝜕𝑟
r
𝜕𝑟

𝜕2 𝑡 𝜕𝑡
= k drdФdz r 2 + dτ
𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟
𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡
= k rdФdzdr + 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 dτ
𝜕𝑟 2

Tangential direction:-
. 𝜕𝑡
Q Ф= -k drdz dτ
𝑟𝜕Ф

. . 𝜕 .
Q Ф+dФ = Q Ф + Q Ф rdФ
𝑟𝜕Ф

. . .
dQ Ф = Q Ф - Q Ф+dФ

𝜕
= Q.Ф - Q.Ф - .
Q Ф rdФ
𝑟𝜕Ф
𝜕 .
=- Q Ф rdФ
𝑟𝜕Ф
.
Put the value of “Q Ф”

𝜕 𝜕𝑡
=- -k drdz dτ rdФ
𝑟𝜕Ф 𝑟𝜕Ф
1 ∂2 𝑡
= k rdФdrdz dτ
𝑟 2 𝜕Ф2

Axial direction
𝜕𝑡
.
Qz = -k rdФdr dτ
𝜕𝑧
. . 𝜕 .
Q z+dz = Q z + Qz dz
𝜕𝑧

dQ.z = dQ.z - Q.z+dz

𝜕
= Q .z - Q .z - Qz
.
dz
𝜕𝑧
𝜕 .
=- Qz dz
𝜕𝑧

.
By putting value of “Q z”

𝜕 𝜕𝑡
=- -k rdФdr dτ dz
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
∂2 𝑡
= k rdФdrdz 𝜕𝑧 2

Net Heat
𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡 1 ∂2 𝑡 ∂2 𝑡
= k rdФdrdz 𝜕𝑟 2
+ 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 +𝑟2 𝜕Ф2 + 𝜕𝑧 2

Heat generated
.
Qg = qg rdФdrdz dτ

Energy stored in element

Q = mc∆t
By substituting values of “m” & “v” we get
As
ρ= 𝑚𝑣
So
m = ρv
= ρ rdФdrdz
𝜕𝑡
Q = ρ rdФdrdz C dτ
𝜕τ

By substituting the values in equation “1” we derived the

heat conduction equation of cylindrical coordinates

𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡 1 ∂2 𝑡 ∂2 𝑡 𝜕𝑡
k 𝜕𝑟 2
+ 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 + 𝑟2 𝜕Ф2 + 𝜕𝑧 2
+ qg = ρC
𝜕τ

References
1. Heat Transfer by Yunus A.Cengal