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Wesley Crow

Music 518 – Dr. Tracz


Unit Study – The Witch and the Saint

Unit 1: Composer
Steven Reineke is a native of Ohio where he graduated from Miami University of Ohio
with a Bachelor of Music degrees with honors in both trumpet performance and music
composition. Presently, Reineke is an acclaimed conductor in North America as he serves as the
director for multiple, major ensembles. For example, Reineke currently serves as the Music
Director of the New York Pops at Carnegie Hall, Principle Pops Conductor of the National
Symphony Orchestra at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, and Principal Pops
Conductor of the Houston Symphony and the Toronto Symphony Orchestra. Reineke has also
served as Principal Pops Conductor of the Long Beach and Modesto Symphony Orchestras and
Associate Conductor of the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. In addition, Reineke is a frequent guest
conductor with The Philadelphia Orchestra and has been on the podium with the Boston Pops,
The Cleveland Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at Ravinia. If that isn’t enough
evidence of his acclamation as a conductor in North America he has also conducted in San
Francisco, Seattle, Edmonton, Pittsburgh, Vancouver, Ottawa (National Arts Centre), Detroit,
Milwaukee, and Calgary. As a pops conductor Reineke has collaborated with a variety of leading
artists from the worlds of Hip Hop, Broadway, television, and rock including: Common,
Kendrick Lamar, Nas, Sutton Foster, Megan Hilty, Cheyenne Jackson, Wayne Brady, Peter
Frampton, and Ben Folds, as well as others.

Reineke’s recognition as a conductor is clear; yet, it goes hand-in-hand with his


reputation as an arranger/composer. For instance, he has composed more than one hundred
arrangements for the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. “His numerous wind ensemble compositions are
published by the C.L. Barnehouse Company.” (Barnhouse)

Unit 2: Composition
The Witch and the Saint (2004) is a programmatic tone poem for symphonic band
composed by Steven Reineke in 2004. The piece was commissioned for the youth wind orchestra
of the city of Ellwangen, Germany conducted by Werner Emmenecker. This grade 4 difficulty
piece is constructed into five distinct sections and is approximately 10:22 in duration.
Unit 3: Historical Perspective
The Witch and the Saint (2004) is based upon a novel by Ulrike Schewikert (a current
German writer). The story goes that twin sisters (Sibylla and Helena) were born in 1588 in
Ellwangen, Germany. In those times, the birth of twins was considered a bad omen, so the sisters
were separated as children. As the sisters grew up it became clear that they had the gift of second
sight and could predict future events. One sister, Sibylla, had a hard life, being constantly
mocked and bullied by the village where she lived for her strange ability. She was looked down
upon and feared by many of the townspeople who considered her to be a witch. She was later
arrested for witchcraft and sentenced to life in prison. The other sister, Helena, was sent away to
a convent to become a nun. Her ability made her a saint and prophet among the nuns and people
of her village. When Helena learned of her sister’s imprisonment, she went back to her birth
village to rescue Sibylla. Helena broke Sibylla out of prison and as they were trying to escape
they were captured. Helena, the saint, for fear of being burnt at the stake, drank poison and died
in her sister’s arms and Sibylla, the witch, rides off in sorrow.

Unit 4: Technical Considerations


One of the aspects that makes this piece interesting to listen to is the fact that it shifts
tonal centers a number of times throughout the piece. While one of the main melodies within the
piece switches tonal centers, there is one tonal center that remains the same throughout the piece.
The generic tonal center I am referring to is d-minor and can be recognized in the piece as the
Gregorian chant-type motif first introduced at the beginning of the piece.
The instrumentation for this piece is that of a standard concert band (including a piccolo
part and an optional string bass part). The ranges for each instrument are as follows: Piccolo
performs between concert Cb5-Ab6, Flutes performs between concert Ab4-A6, Oboe performs
between concert G4-A5, Clarinets perform between concert G3-Bb5, Bass Clarinet performs
between concert D3-Eb5, Bassoon performs between concert Bb1-Eb4, Alto Saxophones
perform between concert E4-E6, Tenor Saxophone performs between concert C3-Ab5, Baritone
Saxophone performs between concert D3-D5, Trumpets perform between concert A3-Bb5,
French Horns perform between concert Eb3-C5, Trombones perform between concert D2-G4,
Euphonium performs between concert G2-Eb4, Tuba performs between concert A1-Eb3, and the
String Bass performs between concert E2-D4. Generally, each instrument is in a fairly
comfortable register throughout the piece. The director might consider the range of the Flutes,
however, as it may get shrill at times when going for their higher notes. Make sure balance and
the pyramid of sound is emphasized.
The percussion parts include: chimes, glockenspiel, tambourine, timpani, cymbals,
triangle, snare drum, bass drum, deep floor tom, tam tam, and cabasa. The timpani’s pitches
include: D2, Eb2, E2, F2, G2, Ab2, A2, Cb3, C3, and D3.
There are multiple solos throughout the piece. Most of the solos are featured overtop of
the Gregorian chant-like drone/chords and often include mixed meters to help create the effect of
a Gregorian chant. These solo instruments include: French Horn, Euphonium, Trumpet 1, Tenor
Saxophone, and Bass Clarinet and take place in the following measures: 5-15 (French Horn 1,
Euphonium), 17-26 (French Horns, Euphonium, Tenor Saxophone, Trumpet 1), 118-130 (French
Horn, Bass Clarinet), 202-207 (Bass Clarinet). The other solos in this piece are found in the main
melodic line of the piece. For example, in m. 35 the oboe solo introduces the melody for the first
time. Then, at m. 133 the Flute plays the melody as a solo.
The meter of this piece switches multiple times. Different sections of the piece are in
different meters. For example, anytime it is a Gregorian chant-like section, it will be comprised
of 4/4 meter plus a variety of other meters that only last for one bar to help create the chant-like
effect for the soloist. Those added meters during the Gregorian chants include: 5/8, 7/8, 9/8,
11/8, and 3/4. There are two other sections of the piece and one of them is the main melody
which is in 3/4 time. Lastly, the faster sections of the piece are comprised primarily of 5/4 (3+2)
and 4/4 meter. This driving 5/4 pattern is altered in m. 185 as it is extended to two 3/4 bars plus a
2/4 bar. As a director, one might consider really working on the subdivision of the mixed meter
with students, whether that be the 3+2 feel to help drive the rhythm in the 5/4 or internalizing
steady/constant eighth notes during the slow Gregorian chant sections to help stay together
through the odd meter bars (7/8, 5/8, 9/8, 11/8). In addition to the changing meters, this piece
often fluctuates in tempo. For instance, there are numerous tempo markings such as: “Poco Piu
Mosso”, “Molto Rit.”, Molto Rall.”, and many more. These marking are used to help romanticize
the music (push and pull), however, they are also used to slow things down in order to transition
to a new section. One example of that would be the “Molto Rall.” in m. 113 which brings the
tempo back down to the slow tempo required for the Gregorian chant theme.

Unit 5: Stylistic Considerations


This piece does not include any style markings! Rather, this piece gets most of its style
from tempo changes, dynamics, articulation, and phrasing. In terms of articulation, there aren’t a
whole lot of articulation markings throughout the piece. This means two things. One, anything
without an articulation marking should be played full value. Two, when there are articulations, it
is important to observe them closely because the composer has a distinct purpose behind that
articulation. For instance, in m. 51 Reineke uses a tenuto and accent marking on the quarter notes
to ensure that each quarter note is sustained for the full value in addition to the weight of the
accent. Another example, in the 5/4 allegro section, Reineke uses accents and marcotos to
emphasize the meter and the style in which the rhythmic pattern should be played. Reneike also
uses the accents to help pulsate the mixed meter. The cabasa exemplifies this in m. 56. The next
two stylistic considerations (dynamics and phrasing) work together. Dynamically each phrase
either grows or diminishes towards the end of the phrase. This sense of direction helps insure
that the musical idea is not stagnant, but rather transitions well into the next idea of the piece.
One way the director could help the ensemble in this facet is by making sure they know where
each section of the piece starts and stops, that way they keep their place in the dynamic
progression of the piece and its themes. Dynamics are also used throughout the piece to
emphasize the composer’s desire for that specific spot to be played with a lot of emotion. For
instance, the melody at m. 141 includes this typical dynamic shape “< >” (crescendo one bar,
decrescendo the next). These swells are crucial to creating the emotional turmoil within the
piece/story.
Unit 6: Musical Elements
Melody:
The main melody of the piece is arguably the beautiful line in 3/4 time first exhibited by
the oboe in m. 35. Another example of melodic content is the Gregorian chant-like motif heard in
the euphonium solo starting in m. 5. The last melodic line this piece features is found in the fast
5/4 section. It can first be identified by the Flute 1 part in m. 68. These three melodies help tell
different parts of the story as they reoccur throughout the piece. The director might consider
having these melodies played individually so that the ensemble can identify them. Then, it may
be beneficial to associate a part of the story or feeling with each section. This way, the ensemble
not only listens for the melody, but plays with more meaning when they understand what is
being played.

Harmony:
One of the primary intervals Reineke uses for harmonization throughout the piece is the
perfect-fifth, more specifically the notes D – A. For example, we hear this interval in the
Gregorian chant-like section (m. 5) between the Euphonium and French Horn. This open interval
creates the chant-like sound concept. The other harmonization technique Reineke uses with D
minor through the piece is having a drone, or pedal note sustain. This can be heard in the
Gregorian chants as a D is held out underneath the moving chant line(s). This is also heard at m.
51 on a concert D with the big, fortissimo beat one that is then sustained to harmonize with the
moving quarter notes above. Reineke does a great job of transitioning from one section to the
next harmonically as well. To better understand these transitions and help the ensemble
understand where they are headed throughout the piece, it would be a good idea to study these
transition sections to identify what is going on harmonically.

Rhythm:
There are two main items to consider rhythmically when preparing for rehearsal with this
piece. One, when working in the faster section of the piece (specifically the 5/4), really spend
time feeling and becoming familiar with that accent pattern. If you are able to set up a groove
with your percussion section and rhythmic ostinato patterns, tempo, balance, style, and
everything else with fall into place and lock-in in this section. Time must be spent creating that
feel though first. Some time may need to be spent on switching in and out of the 5/4 as well.
Two, there are some meters within this piece that many of your students may have never
seen before (5/8, 9/8, 11/8). Keep it simple. While these meters only show up during the solo,
Gregorian chant-like sections, it is important that everyone understands how to count these
meters to stay together. One consideration would be to put steady eighth notes on a metronome
and emphasize that those eighth notes never change when switching meters.

Timbre:
The overall timbre of the piece changes depending on the number of instruments playing
in one section and which instruments are combined. For example, in m. 64 The low voices (low
reeds and low brass), plus the horns, present the rhythmic pattern with a bold timbre. Then, four
bars later, just the clarinets play the harmonic pattern, while the flute plays the melody. This
timbre is considerably different than the powerful timbre created by the lows (including low
brass timbre). While a different a timbre, the flute melody does keep the intense timbre created
by the lows.
Unit 7: Form and Structure:

Measure Number: Section: Musical Considerations: Tonal Centers:

m. 1 - 26 Introduction Keep in mind the constant 8th notes D minor


throughout the changing meters.

Listen to the moving eighth notes in this


m. 27 - 34 Transition section. Starts mp  f. Identify how it C minor
builds harmonically.
This is one of the major melody of the
m. 35 - 50 A pieces. 3/4 time. Work on constant air C Major
stream
Notice the tenuto and accent on the
m. 51 -55 Transition quarter notes. D minor

Work on accent pattern. Pay close m. 64 – 95 (D minor)


m. 56 – 116 B attention to articulations. m. 96 – 99 (F minor)
m. 100 – 112 (C minor)
Keep in mind the constant 8th notes
m. 117 – 132 Transition throughout the changing meters. D Minor

Work on building this section steadily m. 133 – 148 (Ab


m. 133 – 165 A throughout. Keep good balance as you Major)
add in more instruments. m. 149 – 156
m. 157 – 165 (Eb
Major)
Work on accent pattern. Pay close m. 167 – 174 (E minor)
m. 166 - 199 B attention to articulations. (change of key m. 175 – 178 (G minor)
signature) m. 179 – 199 (D minor)
Keep in mind the constant 8th notes
m. 200 – 209 Transition throughout the changing meters. D minor

Work on good full band balance, playing


m. 210 - 226 A this section in new key. F Major

Keep in mind the constant 8th notes


m. 227 – 241 Transition throughout the changing meters. D minor
Unit 8: Suggested Listening
Works by Reineke: Works by other composers:
 Celebration Fanfare (2008)  Tournament (1997) Stephen Bulla
 Fate of the Gods (2001)  Celebrations (1998) J. Zdechlik
 Goddess of Fire (2006)  Emperata Overature (1964) Claude T.
Smith

Unit 9: Additional Resources


“The Witch and the Saint by Steven Reineke.” AHS Wind Ensemble, 25 Jan. 2014,
andersonwindensemble.wordpress.com/2014/01/25/the-witch-and-the-saint-by-steven-
reineke/.

“The Witch and the Saint.” The Witch and the Saint Sheet Music - C. L. Barnhouse Company,
www.barnhouse.com/product.php?id=012-3391-00.