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Objectives
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION:
This presentation aims to increase our awareness of various affective factors related to SLA.  Further, we will have the opportunity to reflect on how personality factors have affected our SLA.

PERSONALITY FACTORS
Isabell C. Camillo and Andrea Castrogiovanni November 1st 2010

Copyright
© Isabell C. Camillo & Andrea Castrogiovanni 2010 This PowerPoint presentation is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Isabell C. Camillo & Andrea Castrogiovanni. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors only.

Agenda
Introduction  Affective Domain-Activity One  Affective Factors-Activity Two  Reflection  Class Discussion  Conclusion

Modern Psychology
“If we were to devise theories of second language acquisition or teaching methodologies that were based only on cognitive considerations, we would be omitting the most fundamental side of human behaviour”. (Brown, 2007, p. 152)

Modern Psychology

According to the science of Psychology, there are three parts to an organism: 1. The cognitive (mind) 2. The conative (behaviour) 3. The affective (emotion)

What does this mean?

It is our emotional side that makes us HUMAN!

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Affective Domain
What is meant by the term affective? - Relating to moods, feelings and attitudes (Merriam-Webster).  And affective domain as it relates to SLA ? - The affective domain consists of the emotional issues of human behaviour that are key factors of the process of human interaction with language (Brown, 2007).
 

Extended Definition
Provided by Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, (1964) in Brown (2007). Language is a part of virtually every aspect of our behaviour.

ACTIVITY ONE: Matching
Receiving - acknowledgement of target language  Responding - willingly to the target language  Valuing - deep belief in the value of SLA  Organization - hierarchical formation of values in to belief system  Value System - self-identification in accordance with belief system

Interpersonal Exchange
“Second language learners need to be receptive to both those with whom they are communicating and to the language itself, responsive to persons and to the context of communication, and willing and able to place a certain value on the communicative act of interpersonal exchange” (Brown, 2007, p.153).

Factors of the Affective Domain
Factors within the Affective Domain? ACTIVITY TWO: Definitions  We will look at the following today-Maddie and Kelly will discuss motivation and affect next week: - Self-Esteem - Self-Efficacy - WTC - Inhibition - Risk Taking - Anxiety - Empathy - Extroversion

Factors of the Affective Domain
Self-Esteem

Factors of the Affective Domain
Self-Efficacy
 One’s

Value an individual places on themselves and the knowledge of one’s capabilities, significance and successes.  Global Self-Esteem: general view a person holds of themselves  Situational Self-Esteem: the view a person holds of themselves in a specific context (i.e. academically, athletically, etc.)  Task Self-Esteem: the view a person holds of themselves in relation to a particular task within a situation (i.e. Feel capable academically but feel they are better at writing essays then performing presentations)

sense of being able to carry out a task will affect the effort put into achieving success.  Essentially, a learner must believe in their writing abilities in order to successfully produce an essay.

Willingness to Communicate

  

 In

relation to learning another language, self-esteem is important in that high self-esteem may result in a student being more willing to communicate in the target language.

Related to self-efficacy and self-esteem “The intention to initiate communication given a choice” (Brown, 2007) The capability to communicate does not correspond to a willingness to do so Factors such as motivation and personality affect an individual’s willingness to communicate

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Factors of the Affective Domain
Inhibition
  

Factors of the Affective Domain
Anxiety

Related to self-esteem and self-efficacy Putting up barriers to protect oneself from being embarrassed Language ego is the identity a person develops in relation to the language they speak. The more an individual feels a part of the culture, the less inhibitions they have in learning the language.

 

Language anxiety is a state level fear identifiable in communication apprehension, worry of negative social evaluation and academic evaluation apprehension. Facilitative (helpful) anxiety is a motivational factor that can lead to working harder (competitiveness’) Debilitative (harmful) anxiety can have a negative effect on performance

Risk-Taking
 

Ties into all above mentioned factors More willing to take chances in the target language with the possibility of being wrong

Empathy
 

The ability to reach beyond the self and feel what someone else is feeling In using a second language, empathising becomes difficult because the learner is insecure and lacks fluency in the language

Factors of the Affective Domain
Extroversion  In relation to SLA, extroversion is the need for reassurance from other people  In relation to SLA, introversion is the affirmation that comes from inside oneself  It is not clear if one is better than the other in relation to SLA  It was originally thought that extroverts would be more willing and frequent participants in class (and thus possibly better at speaking), however a study testing oral skills showed that introverts were significantly better than extroverts in pronunciation

Reflection

Individually, reflect on how affective factors played a role in your learning of a subsequent language. Did it help or hinder? In what way? In pairs, share your experiences. Do you have any in common? What does your collective experience lead you to conclude about affective factors and the role they play in your SLA experience? If you were an SLA instructor, how could you use the information you have learned regarding the affective domain to help your students overcome the negative aspects of these factors (i.e. low self-esteem, high inhibition)?

Conclusion

References

We have learned that affective factors have a significant influence on L2 learning. Do you think any of these factors are more significant than others? Why? As evident from the presentation today, affective factors greatly influence the learning of a subsequent language. Some factors might be more significant than others for some people based on their life experiences and personality. It is therefore difficult to place emphasis on specifics and it may be more realistic to generalize.

 

Brown, D. H. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education, Inc. Professor D. Hayes-Lecture Materials

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From Andrea and Isabell…

THANK YOU!!

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