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WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen

Cell Planning in GSM Mobile

JALAL JAMAL HAMAD-AMEEN
M.Sc, College of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Dept.
Salahaddin University, Erbil,
IRAQ
E-mail : jalal3120002000@yahoo.com

Abstract: — Cell planning in GSM mobile system is one of the most important operations must be done
before the installation of the system, cell planning means studying the geographic area where the system
will be installed and the radius of each BTS coverage and the frequencies used. Like other communication
systems the GSM mobile has the frequency band used in the systems depends on the type of the GSM
system, cellular system means dividing the area region the system installed in it in to many cells, each cell
and each channel must has it’s own frequency, so the frequency planning is very important to the future of
the system installed because of continuously expanding the area of each city and increasing the users of
GSM system, the frequency band for the system is limited, so it must be taken account the number of
frequencies using, in this paper, cell planning before installing the system has been studied and the
advantages of this process for system future installed in that area has been shown by some examples.

Keywords: — GSM Mobiles, Cellular system, Clusters, Frequency reuse.

1 INTRODUCTION effective subscriber density and acceptable
Today, GSM is used mainly for speech blocking probability .
communication, but its use for mobile data This spatial frequency reuse concept led to the
communications is growing stendtly. The GSM development of cellular technology , which
Short Message Service (SMS) is a great success allowed a significant improvement in the economic
story: several billion text message are being use of frequencies . the essential characteristics of
extended between mobile users each month. The the cellular network principles are as follows:
dividing factor for new (and higher bandwidth) * The area to be covered is subdivided into cells
data services is the wireless access to the internet. (radio zone).for easier manipulation ,these cells are
The key technologies that have been introduced in modeled in simplified way as a hexagons .most
GSM, the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) models show the base station in the middle of the
and the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) [1]. cell …
Because of the very frequency bands a mobile * To each cell (i) a subset of the frequencies (fb) is
radio network has only a relatively small number assigned from the total set (bundle) assigned to the
of speech channels available .for example ,the respective mobile radio network .two neighboring
GSM system has an allocation of 25MHZ cell must not use the same frequencies ,since this
bandwidth in the 900MHZ frequency rang ,which world lead to severe co-channel interference from
amounts to a maximum of 125 frequency channels the adjacent cells.
each with carrier bandwidth of 200KHZ . within * Only at distance (d) (the frequency reuse distance
an eightfold time multiplex for each carrier ,a )can a frequency from the set (fbi)be reused …i.e.
maximum of 1000 channels can be realized . this cells with distance (d) to cell(i) are assigned one or
number is further reduced by guard bands in the all of the frequencies from the set (fb1)belonging to
frequency spectrum and the overhead required for the cell I. if (d)is chosen sufficiently large ,the co-
signaling . in order to be able to serve several 100 channel interference remains small enough to affect
000 or millions of subscribers in spite of this on the speech quality [2].
limitation ,frequencies must be spatially reused ,i.e. * When a mobile station moves from one cell to
deployed repeatedly in a geographic area . in this other during a ongoing conversation ,an automatic
way ,services can be offered with a cost- channel /frequency change occurs (handover) ,

ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5, Volume 7, May 2008
393

Band : 1920 – 1980 MHz and 2110 – 2170 MHz.1) MHz upper band: F1(n) = F1(n) + 45 MHz n1. May 2008 394 . • Users in different geographical areas (in different cells) may simultaneously use the same frequency. • Frequency reuse causes mutual interference (trade off link quality versus subscriber capacity). The clusters generated in this frequency band is : way can comprise the whole frequency band. Ru is Reuse Distance and cos( π /3) = 1/2 Fig. ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5. : Frequency reuse • Frequency Reuse is the core concept of cellular mobile radio. Fig. in Band : 890 – 915 MHz and 935 – 960 MHz. Frequency Reuse Distance between cell centers Reuse distance : π Ru = i 2 + j 2 + 2ij cos 3 R (2) 3 where :R is Cell Radius..2 + 0. for the others depend on f the mentioned bands.1 . the clustering of cells .2. 2. the frequency band is cluster is characterized by the number of cells per : cluster K . clusters .1 . The number s designate the respective For UMTS. Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) lower band: F1(n) = 890. Volume 7. distance D ..124 (1) Each frequency channel can be obtained from the above relation depending on the channel assignment and the cell in the system which is an example for the GSM900. this case all of the frequencies in the available channel spacing : 200 kHz ( but signal bandwidth spectrum are used within a cluster.2) shows some examples of channel spacing : 200 kHz. Frequency reuse and cluster formation [2] 2. the size of a = 400 kHz ). figure (2.2 Formation of clusters The frequency band of the GSM mobile depends The regular repetition of frequencies results in a on the type.. capacity and spectrum efficiency .WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen which maintains an active speech connection over • Frequency reuse drastically increases user cell boundaries. the frequency band is : frequency sets Fbi used within the single cells. channel spacing :200 KHz . for GSM900. For GSM1800. which determines the frequency reuse Band : 1725 – 1780 MHz and 1820 – 1875 MHz.2 (n . for example. 2 CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY 2.

j=2 Design Objectives for Cluster Size : • High spectrum efficiency many users per cell small cluster size gives much bandwidth per cell • High performance Little interference Large cluster sizes Adaptation to growth of system : Fig. DECT vs.30 km • Micro-cellular 200 . shorter delay spreads •Different cell layout.j=1 3) Interference limited C= 4 i=2. May 2008 395 . j= 0 } Cluster size for CDMA net Example: Broadcasting.7. This changes coverage and interference. .. more interference Combining these two expressions gives Ru = R C • cells follow street pattern • more difficult to predict and plan Possible Cluster Sizes : • more flexible.200 meter i 2 + j 2 + ij Rc = Ru / 3 = R (3) 3 The effect of decreasing cell size : •Increased user capacity Cluster Size : •Increased number of handovers per call C: number of channels needed for (i. Cluster radius [3] Decrease Cell Sizes : Radius of a cluster : • Macro-cellular 1 .j= 0 } cellular telephone nets C=12 i=2.. self-organizing system needed (cf. 3.3. redo 1-2-3 C= 1 i =1 .j = I } Usual cluster sizes for analogue C= 9 i = 3. SRu = CSR = (3 3 / 2) { Ru/ 3 } (4) • lower path loss exponent.WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen C = 7 i = 2.4.. SR = (3 3 / 2) R2 • Safer operation Surface area of a (hexagonal) cluster of C cells is •Different propagation environment. Volume 7.j=0 step 1: assign frequencies and powers to base ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5.j) grid • Increased complexity in locating the subscriber C: is proportional to surface area of cluster •Lower power consumption in mobile terminal: Surface area of one hexagonal cell is : • Longertalktime. Netherlands PTT Ceasar C=3 i=1. GSM) We have seen : Ru = R 3C and also : Ru = i 2 j 2 + ij 3R (5) 4 DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR Thus: FREQUENCY PLANNING c= i2 + j2 + ij with integer i and j 1) Coarse planning (no terrain data used) 2) coverage limited 3 CELLULAR TELEPHONY step 1: find coverage of base station step 2: make interference matrix Choose C to ensure acceptable link quality at cell step 3: find useful map coloring pattern boundary (recursively ?) recursive approach: change transmit Typical Cluster Sizes : powers Cluster size C=i2+ij +j2= 1.2000 m • Pico-cellular 4 .9.

B) Cell Splitting: • Adjacent channel interference: If the cellular system contains N cells with total Transmission on close frequencies allocation of C channel .9 & 13 respectively as follows : A) Without clusters : Fig. an area of 3500 km2 and the cell radius of 3km has been taken as an example. Example: Ericsson plannings tool Problems : 4) Dectralized Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) Propagation path loss for signal power: quadratic • DECT system. the frequencies conversations possible within the same unused be as shown in the results table and the figures 7. not for GSM or higher in distance A) Accuracy of cell planning depends on: fixed network needed for the base stations • accuracy of propagation models handover (changing from one cell to another) • resolution and accuracy of terrain data necessary Data bases • often based on satellite images interference with other cells: • available from several companies Measurements • Co-channel interference: When a new planning tool is used for first time in a new country. Cell splitting [4] For GSM900. after reaching its capacity .9&13 has been taken. one needs to adjust propagation Transmission on same frequency models [3]. 4 smaller cells were superimposed on cell C : Fig. May 2008 396 . Further cell splitting in creases the 152 frequency channel unused and for the UMTS. 124 frequency because the cell area all cells is 23. but by formation of clusters. Adjacent channel interference 5 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE PLANNING In this paper.e. or the number of 183 channel. four cases as an optimization has been calculated : without cluster. but by the same steps any other area can be taken for the planning.38 km2. the frequency band is used therefore cell splitting is not necessarily done for completely i.8&9. number of voice paths . This process is called ( cell splitting). in this simultaneous paper 7. 4. with clusters 7. then each cell will contain SC/N channels . 5.To grow further from the capacity Receiver filter S . Volume 7. and thus zones allows the system to meet the growing cellular recursive approach: modify powers and frequencies demand.WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen stations step 2: find coverage and interference Cell splitting decreases the cell area . region . but for the GSM1800 there will be in the system. the cell boundaries has to be revised so that each cell now contains several cells. The results according to the assumptions : ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5. f1 f2 f3 interference In the figure below .

frequency planning for the GSM mobiles has been studied with cases : without clusters. WITH CLUSTER 13 In this paper. 6. this GSM Total Frequencies Unused number is further reduced by guard bands in the Type Cells Used Frequencies frequency spectrum and the overhead required for GSM900 43 81 signaling. with cluster : K = 7. May 2008 397 .the GSM1800 34 242 GSM system has an allocation of 25MHZ 276 bandwidth in the 900MHZ frequency rang. 276 deployed repeatedly in a geographic area.1 Without clusters : GSM Total Frequencies Unused Type Cells Used Frequencies GSM900 1 as a guard 124 124 band GSM1800 276 124 152 UMTS FIG.2 With cluster of 13 : GSM Total Frequencies Unused Type Cells Used Frequencies GSM900 24 100 124 GSM1800 24 252 276 UMTS 24 283 307 FIG 8.WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen 5. which UMTS 34 272 amounts to a maximum of 125 frequency channels 307 each with carrier bandwidth of 200KHZ. i. which determines the frequency reuse distance D. in order to be able to serve several 100 124 000 or millions of subscribers in spite of this GSM1800 43 233 limitation. Volume 7. within 5. in this case all of the frequencies in the available spectrum are used within a cluster. WITH CLUSTER 7 5. 7. FIG. the size of a cluster is characterized by the number of cells per cluster K.9&13. WITH CLUSTER 9 307 124 183 5.services can be offered with a cost-effective 307 subscriber density and acceptable blocking probability. for example . The clusters generated in this way can comprise the whole frequency band.e. in this UMTS 43 264 way . this spatial frequency reuse concept led to the development of cellular technology.a maximum of 1000 channels can be realized. frequencies must be spatially reused. the frequencies ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5. which allowed a significant improvement in the economic use of frequencies.4 With cluster of : 7 an eightfold time multiplex for each carrier .3 With cluster of 9 : 6 CONCLUSION GSM Total Frequencies Unused Type Cells Used Frequencies Because of the very frequency bands a mobile GSM900 34 90 radio network has only a relatively small number 124 of speech channels available.

2001. as a conclusion in this paper. GSM900.WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Jalal Jamal Hamad-Ameen used in each type of mobile systems. “GSM. [4] Dharma PrakashAgrawal. 2000. second edition. the frequency planning must be taken in account and must be applied for the future after installation to prevent the above problems mentioned. before the system installation.” book. but for the future expanding and covering there will be a big problem of the frequency using without clusters. with the cluster using and formation.2 &3 respectively. but this problem is less than GSM 900 in the system GSM 1800 and UMTS. specially UMTS system as shown in the results in chapter four. the frequencies used in the GSM band for each system reduced which is useful for the future planning and expanding the system for covering more areas and without clusters. cdmaOne and 3G System” book. Chin-Chun Lee & Peter Gould. the areas covered is limited according to BTS’s used each with it’s own frequency. paper by : the international Engineering Consortium (IEC). References: [1] Jorg Eberspacher. Services and Protocols” book. 2001. Volume 7. “ Mobile Communications” book. GSM1800 and UMTS are shown in the tables and figures 1. paper by : Mats Nilson. [3] Cellular Communications. 2003. “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems. John Weley & SonsLTD. [2] Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). So. [7] 3G Off Road 450 MHz Digitalisation. ISSN: 1109-2742 Issue 5. [6] Jochen Schiller. we see that. paper by : the international Engineering Consortium (IEC). May 2008 398 . [5] Raymond Steele. “GSM. specially the system GSM900. Switching .