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CHAPTER-10

FORMULAE, CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS

10.1 FORMULAE

1. Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)


= Mud density (ppg) x TVD (feet)

2. Pressure Gradient (psi/feet)


= Mud density (ppg) x 0.052

3. Drilling Mud Density (ppg)


= Pressure (psi) ÷ [TVD (feet) x 0.052]

4. Formation Pore Pressure (psi)


= Hydrostatic Pressure in Drill string (psi) + SIDPP (psi)

5. Pump Output (bbl / minute)


= Pump displacement (bbl / stroke) x Pump rate (SPM)

6. Annular Velocity (feet / minute)


= Pump Output (bbl/minute) ÷ annular capacity (bbl/feet)

7. Equivalent Circulating Density (ppg)


= {Annular pressure loss (psi) ÷ [TVD (feet) x 0.052]} + Mud density (ppg)

8. Mud density with Trip margin included (ppg)


= {Safety margin (psi) ÷ [TVD (feet) x 0.052]} + Mud density (ppg)

9. Approximate new pump pressure with new pump rate (psi)


= Old Pump pressure (psi) x [New pump rate (SPM) ÷ Old Pump rate (SPM)]²

10. Approximate new pump pressure with new pump density (psi)

= Old Pump pressure (psi) x [New mud density (ppg) ÷ Old mud density (ppg)]

11. Maximum allowable mud density (ppg)


= {Surface LOT pressure (psi) ÷ [Shoe TVD (feet) x 0.052]} + LOT Mud density (ppg)

12. MAASP
= [Max. allowable mud density (ppg) – Current mud density (ppg)] x 0.052 x Shoe TVD (feet)

13. Kill mud density (ppg)


= {SIDPP (psi) ÷ [Well TVD (feet) x 0.052]} + Original mud density (ppg)

14. Initial circulating pressure (psi)


= Kill rate circulating pressure (psi) + SIDPP (psi)

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15. Final circulating pressure (psi)
= [Kill rate circulating pressure (psi) x Kill mud density (ppg)] ÷ Original mud density (ppg)

16. Length of influx along hole (feet)


= Influx volume / Pit gain (bbl) ÷ Annular capacity (bbl/feet)1

17. Influx vertical height (feet)


= Length of influx along hole (feet) x Cosine inclination

18. Pressure gradient of influx (psi/feet)


= Drilling mud density (ppg) x 0.052 – {[SICP (psi) – SIDPP (psi)] ÷ Influx vertical height (feet)}

19. Shut in casing pressure (psi)


= {[Drilling mud density (ppg) – Influx density (ppg)] x 0.052 x Vertical ht. (ft)} + SIDPP (psi)

20. Barite required to increase drilling mud density (lb/bbl)


= {[Kill mud density (ppg) – Original mud density (ppg)] x 1500} ÷ [35.8 – Kill mud density (ppg)]

21. Percolation rate (feet/hour)


= Increase in surface pressure (psi/hour) ÷ [Drilling mud density x 0.052]

22. Gas laws


P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

23. Pressure drop per foot tripping dry pipe (psi / feet)
Drilling mud density (ppg) x 0.052 x Metal displacement (bbl / feet)
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Riser / Casing capacity (bbl / feet) – Metal displacement (bbl / feet)

24. Pressure drop per foot tripping wet pipe (psi / feet)
Drilling mud density (ppg) x 0.052 x Closed end displacement (bbl / feet)
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Riser / Casing capacity (bbl / feet) – Closed end displacement (bbl / feet)

25. Drop in fluid level tripping out all tubulars dry(feet)


Length of tubular (feet) x Metal displacement (bbl / feet)
= ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Riser / Casing capacity (bbl / feet)

26. Length of tubulars to pull dry before overbalance is lost (feet)


Overbalance (psi) x [Riser / Casing capacity (bbl / feet) – Metal displacement (bbl / feet)
= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Drilling mud density (ppg) x 0.052 x Metal displacement (bbl / feet)

27. Volume to bleed off to restore BHP to formation pressure (bbl)


Increase in surface pressure (psi) x Influx volume (bbl)
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------
Formation pressure (psi) – Increase in surface pressure (psi)

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28. Slug volume for a given length of dry pipe (bbl)
Length of dry pipe (feet) x Pipe capacity (bbl / feet) x Drilling mud density (ppg)
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Slug density (ppg) - Drilling mud density (ppg)

29. Pit gain due to U – tubing of slug (bbl)


= Slug volume (bbl) x {[Slug density (ppg) ÷ Drilling mud density] – 1}

30. BOP closing ratio


Wellhead pressure at BOP / Rated working pressure of BOP (psi)
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hydraulic pressure required to close (psi)

31. BOP opening ratio


Wellhead pressure at BOP / Rated working pressure of BOP (psi)
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hydraulic pressure required to open (psi)

32. Hydrostatic pressure loss if casing shoe fails (psi)


Mud gradient (psi/feet) x casing capacity (bbl / feet) x Differential height (feet)
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Casing capacity (bbl / feet) + Annulus capacity (bbl / feet)

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10.2 CONVERSIONS

1. DEPTH Feet x 0.3048 to give metres (m)


Metres x 3.2808 to give feet (ft)

2. VOLUME (U.S.) Gallon x 0.003785 to give cubic metres (m3)


(U.S.) Barrel x 0.1590 to give cubic metres (m3)
Cubic metre x 6.2905 to give barrel (U.S.)

3. PRESSURE PSI x 6.895 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa)


KPa x 0.14503 to give psi
Kg / cm2 x 98.1 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa)
Bar x 100 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa)

4. MUD WEIGHT PPG x 119.8 to give Kg / m3


Kg / m3 x 0.00835 to give ppg

5. ANNULAR Feet / minute x 0.3048 to give m / minute


VELOCITY Meters / minute x 3.2808 to give feet / minute

6. FLOW RATE Gallons / minute x 0.003785 to give m3 / minute


Barrels / minute x 0.159 to give m3 / minute
Cubic metres / minute x 6.2905 to give barrels / minute
Cubic metres / minute x 264.2 to give gallons / minute

7. PRESSURE PSI / foot x 22.62 to give KPa / m


GRADIENT KPa / metre x 0.04421 to give psi / feet

8. MUD WEIGHT PPG x 0.052 to give psi / feet


TO PRESSURE SG x 0.433 to give psi / feet
GRADIENT Bbl / m3 ÷ 144 to give psi / feet
Kg / m3 x 0.000434 to give psi / feet
Kg / m3 x 0.00982 to give KPa / m

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10.3 GLOSSARY FOR WELL CONTROL OPERATIONS

Abnormal Pressure: Pore pressure in excess of that pressure resulting form the
hydrostatic pressure exerted by a vertical column of water salinity normal for the
geographic area.

Accumulator: A vessel containing both hydraulic fluid and gas stored under pressure as a
source of fluid power to operate opening and closing of blowout preventer rams and
annular preventer elements. Accumulators supply energy for connectors and valves
remotely controlled.

Accumulator Bank isolation valve: The opening and closing device located upstream of
the accumulators in the accumulator piping which stops flow of fluids and pressure in the
piping.

Accumulator Relief valve: The automatic device located in the accumulator piping that
opens when the pre-set pressure limit has been reached so as to release the excess pressure
and protect the accumulators.

Accumulator Unit: The assembly of pumps, valves, lines, accumulators and other items
necessary to open and close the blowout preventer equipment.

Air Pressure switch bypass valve: The opening and closing device located in the air
supply line which blocks air flow in one line to be redirected through another. In open
position, air flow is not routed through the air pressure switch for automatic shut-off
thereby allowing the air pumps to continue to run.

Air pump suction valve: The opening and closing device located in the piping line that
draws fluid from the reservoir into the fluid end of the pump when the air motor is
operating.

Air Regulator: The adjusting device to vary the amount of air pressure entering as to the
amount to be discharged down the piping lines.

Air supply valve: The opening and closing device in the connecting line of the
compressed air routed to flow into the accumulator system lines as a power source for
components.

Annular Preventer: A device which can seal around any object in the wellbore or upon
itself. Compression of a reinforced elastomer packing element by hydraulic pressure
affects the seal.

Annular Regulator: The device located in the annular manifold header to enable
adjustment of pressure levels which will flow past to control the amount of closure of the
annular preventer.

Annulus friction pressure: Circulating pressure loss inherent in annulus between the drill
string and casing or open hole.

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Back Pressure (Casing Pressure or Choke Pressure): The pressure existing at the
surface on the casing side of the drill pipe / annulus flow system.

Baffle: A partition plate inside the reservoir to prevent unbalancing by sudden weight
shifting of the hydraulic fluid.

Barite Plug: A settled volume of barite particles from a barite slurry placed in the
wellbore to seal of a pressured zone.

Belching: A term to denote flowing by heads.

Bell Nipple (Mud riser, Flow nipple): A piece of pipe, with inside diameter equal to or
greater than the blowout preventer bore, connected to the top of the blowout preventer or
marine riser with a side outlet to direct the drilling fluid returns to the shale shaker or pit. It
usually also has a second side outlet for the hole fill-up line connection.

Blind Rams: Rams whose ends are not intended to seal against any drill pipe or casing.
They seal against each other to effectively close the hole.

Blind / Shear Rams: Blind rams with built-in cutting edge that will shear tubulars that
may be in the hole, thus allowing the blind rams to seal the hole.

Blowout: An uncontrolled flow of gas, oil or other well fluids into the atmosphere. A
blowout or gusher occurs when formation pressure exceeds the pressure applied to it by the
column of drilling fluid.

Blowout Preventer: The equipment installed at the wellhead to enable the driller to
prevent damage at the surface while restoring the balance between the pressure exerted by
the column of drilling fluid and formation pressure. The BOP allows the well to be sealed
to confine the well fluids and prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space
between the casing and rill pipe or in an open hole.

Blowout Preventer drill: A training procedure to determine that rig crews are completely
familiar with correct operating practices to be followed in the use of blowout prevention.

Blowout Preventer stack: The assembly of well control equipment including preventers,
spools, valves and nipples connected to the top of the wellhead.

Blowout Preventer test tool: A tool to allow pressure testing of the blowout preventers’
stack and accessory equipment by sealing the wellbore immediately below the stack.

Bleeder Valve: An opening and closing device for removal of pressurized fluid.

Borehole pressure: Total pressure exerted in the wellbore by a column of fluid and / or
back pressure imposed at the surface.

Bottom-hole pressure: Depending upon context, either a pressure exerted by a column of


fluid contained in the wellbore or the formation pressure at the depth of interest.

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Broaching: Venting of fluids to the surface or to the sea-bed through channels external to
the casing.

Bullheading: A term to denote pumping into a closed-in well without returns.

Casing head / spool: The part of the wellhead to which the blowout preventer stack is
connected.

Casing Seat test: A procedure whereby the formation immediately below the casing shoe
is subjected to a pressure equal to the pressure expected to be exerted later by a higher
drilling fluid density or by the sum of a higher drilling fluid density and back pressure
created by a kick.

Check valve: A valve that permits flow in only one direction.

Choke: A variable diameter orifice installed in a line through which high pressure well
fluids can be restricted or released at a controlled rate. Chokes also control the rate of flow
of the drilling mud out of the hole when the well is closed in with the blowout preventer
and a kick is being circulated out of the hole.

Choke line: The high pressure piping between blowout preventer outlets or wellhead
outlets and the choke manifold.

Choke line valve: The valve(s) connected to and a part of the blowout preventer stack that
control the flow to the choke manifold.

Choke manifold (Control manifold): The system of valves, chokes and piping to control
flow from the annulus and regulate pressures in the drill pipe / annulus flow system.

Circulating head: A device attached to the top of drill pipe or tubing to allow pumping
into the well without use of the Kelly.

Clamp connection: A pressure sealing device used to join two items without using
conventional bolted flange joints. The two items to be sealed are prepared with clamp
hubs. These hubs are held together by a clamp containing two to four bolts.

Closing unit: The assembly of pumps, valves, lines, accumulators and other items
necessary to open and close the blowout preventer equipment.

Closing Ratio: The ratio of the wellhead pressure to the pressure required to close the
blowout preventer.

Conductor pipe: A relatively short string of large diameter pipe which is set to keep the
top of the hole open and provide a means of returning the up flowing drilling fluid from the
wellbore to the surface drilling fluid system until the first casing string is set in the well.

Choke Manifold Remote Control Panel: A panel containing a series of control that will
operate the valves on the control manifold from a remote point.

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Control Pod: An assembly of subsea valves and regulators which when activated from the
surface will direct hydraulic fluid through special apertures to operate blowout preventer
equipment.

Cut drilling fluid: Well control fluid which has been reduced in density or unit weight as
a result of entertainment of less dense formation fluids or air.

Cylinder: A device which converts fluid or air power into linear mechanical force and
motion. It consists of moveable elements such as a piston and piston rod, plunger rod,
plunger or rams operating within a cylindrical chamber.

Degasser: A vessel which utilizes pressure reduction and / or inertia to separate entrained
gases from the liquid phases.

Discharge check valve: The device located in the expelling line of a pump (air or electric)
which allows fluid to flow out only and thereby prevents a back flow of fluid into the
pump.

Diverter: A device attached to the wellhead or marine riser to close the vertical access and
direct any flow into a line away from the rig.

Drain port: The plugged openings on the lower side portions of the reservoir, in a control
unit, which can be opened to empty or release the hydraulic fluid and through which the
reservoir can be cleaned.

Drilling fluid weight indicator: An instrument in the drilling fluid system which
continuously measures drilling fluid density.

Drilling spool: A connection component with ends either flanged or hubbed. It must have
an internal diameter at least equal to the bore of the blowout preventer and can have
smaller side outlets for connecting auxiliary lines.

Drill pipe safety valve: An essentially full opening valve with threads (and / or cross-
over) to match the string in use. This valve is used to close off the tubular to prevent flow.

Drill Stem Test: A test conducted to determine production flow rate and / or formation
pressure prior to completing the well.

Drill string float: A check valve in the drill string that will allow fluid to be pumped into
the well but will prevent flow from the well through the drill pipe.

Drive pipe: A relatively short string of large diameter pipe driven or forced into the
ground to function as conductor pipe.

Electric pump suction valve: The opening and closing device located in the piping line of
a control unit that draws fluid from the reservoir into the pump inlet when the motor is
operating.

Feed-in (Influx, Inflow): The flow of fluids form the formation into the wellbore.

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Equivalent Circulating Density: The sum of pressure exerted by hydrostatic head of
fluid, drilled solids and friction pressure losses in the annulus divided by depth of interest
and by 0.052, if ECD is to be expressed in pounds per gallon.

Fill port: The plugged opening in the top of the fluid reservoir of a control unit through
which hydraulic is added.

Fill-up line: A line usually connected into the bell nipple above the blowout preventers to
allow adding drilling fluid to the hole while pulling out of the hole to compensate for the
metal volume displacement of the drill string being pulled.

Air filter: Apparatus used to clean air flow of dirt, moisture and other containments.

Hydraulic filter: A device whose function is the retention of insoluble contaminants from
a fluid.

Final Circulating pressure: Drill pipe pressure required to circulate at the selected kill
rate adjusted for increase in kill drilling fluid density over the original drilling fluid
density; used from the time kill drilling fluid reaches the bottom of the drill string until kill
operations are completed or a change in either kill drilling fluid density or kill rate is
effected.

Flow meter: A device which indicates either flow rate, total flow or a combination of
both, that travels through a conductor such as pipe or tubing.

Flow rate: The volume, mass or weight of a fluid passing through any conductor such as
pipe or tubing, per unit of time.

Formation Breakdown: An event occurring when borehole pressure is of magnitude that


the exposed formation accepts whole fluid from the borehole.

Formation Competency (Formation Integrity): The ability of the formation to withstand


applied pressure.

Formation Competency test (Formation Integrity test): Application of pressure by


superimposing a surface pressure on a fluid column in order to determine ability of a
subsurface zone to withstand a certain hydrostatic pressure.

Formation pressure (Pore pressure): Pressure exerted by fluids within the pores of the
formation.

Flow line Sensor: A device to monitor rate of fluid flow from the annulus.

Fracture Gradient: The pressure gradient at which the formation accepts whole fluid
from the wellbore.

Gas Buster: A slang term to denote a mud gas separator.

Gate valve: A valve which employs a sliding gate to open or close the flow passage. The
valve may or may not be full opening.

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Gauge: An instrument for measuring fluid pressure that usually registers the difference
between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the fluid by indicating the effect of such
pressure on a measuring element (as a column of liquid, a bourdon tube, a weighted piston,
a diaphragm or other pressure sensitive devices).

Gland: The cavity of a stuffing box.

Gunk Plug: A volume of gunk slurry placed in the wellbore.

Gunk Slurry: A mixture of diesel oil and bentonite.

Gunk squeeze: Procedure whereby gunk slurry is pumped into a subsurface zone.

Hard Close-in: To close in a well by closing a blowout preventer with the choke and / or
choke line valve closed.

Hydrostatic Head: The true vertical length of fluid column.

Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure which exists at any point in the wellbore due to the
weight of the vertical column of fluid above that point.

Indicating Lights (BOP remote control panel): The bulbs of the electric control panels
that shine to point out which electrical contacts have made a circuit. The electrical panel
bulbs make circuit contacts through pressure switches, transducers and solenoid valves to
demonstrate activation.

Initial Circulating pressure: Drill pipe pressure required to circulate initially at the
selected kill rate while holding casing pressure at the closed-in value; numerically equal to
kill rate circulating pressure plus closed-in drill pipe pressure.

Inside Blowout Preventer: A device that can be installed in the drill string that acts as a
check valve allowing drilling fluid to be circulated down the string but prevents back flow.

Inspection port: The plugged openings on the sides of the fluid reservoir, in the control
unit, which can be opened to view the interior fluid level and return lines from the relief,
bleeder, control valves and regulators.

Kelly Cock: A valve immediately above the Kelly that can be closed to confine pressures
inside the drill string.

Lower Kelly Valve: An essentially full opening valve installed immediately below the
Kelly with outside diameter equal to the tool joint outside diameter.

Kick: Intrusion of formation fluids into the wellbore.

Kill Drilling fluid density: The unit weight selected for the fluid to be used to contain a
kicking formation.

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Kill line: A high pressure fluid line connecting the mud pump and the wellhead at some
point below a blowout preventer. This line allows heavy drilling fluids to be pumped into
the well or annulus with the blowout preventer closed to control a threatened blowout.

Kill rate: A predetermined final circulating rate, expressed in fluid volume per unit time,
which is used to circulate under kick conditions; kill rate is usually some selected fraction
of the circulating rate used while drilling.

Kill rate circulating pressure: Pump pressure required to circulate kill rate volume under
non-kick conditions.

Leak-off test: Application of pressure by superimposing a surface pressure on a fluid


column in order to determine the pressure at which the exposed formation accepts whole
fluid.

Lost Circulation (Lost returns): The loss of whole drilling fluid to the wellbore.

Lubrication: Alternately pumping a relatively small volume of fluid into a closed


wellbore system and waiting for the fluid to fall toward the bottom of the well.

Air Lubricator: A device which adds controlled or metered amounts of a substance into
the air line of a fluid power system to prevent or lessen friction.

Manifold Bleeder valve: The opening and closing device in the piping that connects the
manifold header and the reservoir. It can be opened to release the fluid pressure and vent it
back into the reservoir.

Manifold Header: The piping system which serves to divide a flow through several
possible outlets. The 4-way control valve inlets connect to the piping so that high pressure
fluid is available to pass through any or all off the valves.

Manifold Regulator: The device located in the manifold header which can vary the
amount of pressure that enters and exits its chamber. The manifold regulator controls the
pressure level of the fluid flowing through and out the 4-way control valves.

Manifold Regulator bypass valve: The opening and closing device which blocks flow in
one line to be re-directed through another. This valve is located in the manifold piping so
that in the open position the high pressure fluid does not flow through the regulator in the
manifold header, thereby allowing higher pressure fluid to be available to the 4-way
control valves.

Manifold Relief valve: The automatic opening device located on the manifold header that
opens when the set pressure limit has been reached thereby releasing any excess pressure
and protecting the manifold header.

Minimum internal yield pressure: The lowest pressure at which permanent deformation
will occur.

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Motor starter: Automatic device which starts or stops the electric motor driving the
duplex or triplex pump which works in conjunction with the automatic electrical pressure
switch for pressure limits of pump start-off and shutoff.

Mud Gas Separator: A vessel for removing free gas from the drilling fluid returns.

Needle valve: A shut-off (2-way) valve that incorporates a needle point to allow fine
adjustments in flow.

Normal pressure: Formation pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a vertical column
of water with salinity normal for the geographic area.

Opening Ratio: The ratio of the well pressure to the pressure required to open the blowout
preventer.

Overbalance: The amount by which pressure exerted by the hydrostatic head of fluid in
the wellbore exceeds formation pressure.

Overburden: The pressure on a formation due to the weight of the earth material above
that formation. For practical purposes this pressure can be estimated at 1 psi / feet of depth.

Pack off Stripper: A device with an elastomer packing element that depends on pressure
below the packing to affect a seal in the annulus. It is used primarily to run or pull pipe
under low or moderate pressures. This device is not dependable for service under high
differential pressures.

Petcock: The small faucet or valve used to release compression or drain moisture
accumulated in the interior chamber of the lubricator.

Pipe rack: The connecting pipelines between the control valve outlets and the BOP stack
preventers which carry the high pressure operating fluid. The lines of pipe are laid together
and are often covered with a grating to create a walkway.

Pipe rams: Rams whose ends are contoured to seal around pipe to close the annular space.
Separate rams are necessary for each size (outside diameter) pipe in use.

Pit volume indicator: A device installed in the drilling fluid tank to register the fluid level
in the tank.

Pit volume totalizer: A device that combines all of the individual pit volume indicators
and registers the total drilling fluid volume in the various tanks.

Plug valve: A valve whose mechanism consists of a plug with a hole through it on the
same axis as the direction of fluid flow. Turning the plug 90 opens or close the valve. The
valve may or may not be full opening.

Pore pressure (Formation pressure): Pressure exerted by the fluids within the pore space
of a formation.

Normal pressure gradient: The normal pressure divided by true vertical depth

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Air pressure switch: The automatic device to start and stop the air pump operation when
the set pressure limits are reached.

Electric pressure switch: An electrical switch, operated by fluid pressure, which


automatically starts and stops the electrical pump when the present pressures are reached.

Pressure Transmitter: It is a device which sends a pressure signal, converted and


calibrated to register the equal pressure reading on a gauge. The air output pressure is in
proportion to the hydraulic input pressure.

Primary well control: Prevention of formation fluid by maintaining a hydrostatic pressure


equal to or greater than formation pressure.

Air pump: A device that increases the pressure on a fluid or raises it to a higher level by
being compressed in a chamber by a piston operated with an air pressure motor.

Electric Pump: A device that increases the pressure on a fluid and moves it to a higher
level using compression force from a chamber and piston that is driven by an electric
motor.

Ram: The closing and sealing component on a blowout preventer. One of three types –
pipe, blind or shear – may be installed in several preventers, mounted in a stack on top of
the wellbore. Blind rams when closed, form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it, pipe
rams when closed, seal around the pipe and shear rams when closed, cut through a drill
pipe and then form a seal.

Recorder: An automatic device that reads and records pressure outputs continually on a
revolving chart to provide continuous evidence of pressures.

Regulator: A device that varies and controls the amount of pressure of a liquid or gas that
passes through its chambers.

Relief well: An offset well drilled to intersect the subsurface formation to combat blowout.

Reservoir: The container for storage of liquid. The reservoir houses hydraulic fluid at
atmospheric pressure as the supply for fluid power.

Rotating head: It is a rotating, low pressure sealing device used in drilling operations to
seal around the drill stem above the top of the blowout preventer stack.

Rupture disk: A device who’s breaking strength works to relieve pressure in the system.
The rupture disk is contained as a safety device for the test unit system.

Safety factor: In our present context, an incremental increase in drilling fluid density
beyond the drilling fluid density indicated by calculations to be needed to contain a kicking
formation.

Salt water flow: An influx of formation salt water into the wellbore.

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Shear Rams: Blowout preventer rams with a built in cutting edge that will shear tubular
that may be in the hole.

Soft close-in: To close-in a well by closing a blowout preventer with the choke and choke
line valve open and then closing the choke while monitoring the casing pressure gauge for
maximum allowable casing pressure.

Solenoid valve: The opening / closing device which is activated by an electrical signal to
control liquid or gas pressured flow to be sent to open or close the 4-way control valves.
The valve position is controlled by an electromagnetic bar, enclosed by a coil.

Solenoid valve box: The explosion proof enclosure, located on the accumulator unit,
which contains the electrically powered actuators for the remote controlled electrical panel.
The box is wired to the electrical supply and houses solenoid valves, pressure switches and
transducers.

Sour gas: Natural gas containing hydrogen sulphide.

Space out: Procedure conducted to position a pre-determined length of drill pipe above the
rotary table so that a tool joint is located above the preventer rams on which drill pipe is to
be hung-off and so that no tool joint is opposite a set of preventer rams after drill pipe is
hung-off.

Space-out joint: The joint of drill pipe which is used to hang-off operations so that no tool
joint is opposite a set of preventer rams.

Squeezing: Pumping fluid into one side of the drill pipe / annulus flow system with the
other side closed so as to allow no outflows.

Stack: The assembly of well control equipment including preventers, spools, valves and
nipples connected to the top of the casing head.

Strainer: A porous material which retains contaminants passing through a line along with
the gas or liquid flow.

Suction Strainer: The porous element, located in a ‘y’ shaped fitting of the pump suction
lines, which cleans the hydraulic fluid or air of contaminants before entering the pumps.

Surge damper: The one quart capacity bladder accumulator used to absorb the shocks and
waves caused by an initial flow of high pressure fluid. It is located in the downstream line
of the annular regulator.

Swabbing: It is denoted by lowering of the hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore due to


upward movement of tubular and / or tools.

Swivel joint: A connecting device, joining parts so that each can pivot freely. Swivel
joints are used at the ends of the pipe rack to ease connections to the control valve outlets
and to the BOP stack.

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Transducer: The device located in the solenoid valve box which is actuated by hydraulic
pressure and converts the force to an electrical force for indication on a meter. The
electrical output signal is in proportion to the hydraulic input pressure.

Trip gas: An accumulation of gas which enters the hole while a trip is made.

Trip margin: An incremental increase in drilling fluid density to provide an increment of


overbalance in order to compensate for effects of swabbing.

Underground blowout: An uncontrolled flow of formation fluids form a subsurface zone


into a second subsurface zone.

Under balance: The amount by which formation pressure exceeds pressure exerted by the
hydrostatic head of fluid in the wellbore.

Unit / Remote selector: The valve located on the manifold header whose ports allow flow
into the annular regulator. The valve position determines the source of flow supply and
subsequently controls the location of operation.

Valve (Float): A device that is positioned as either open or closed, depending on the
position of a lever connected to a buoyant material sitting in the fluid to be monitored.

Valve (Manipulator): A control device having three positions, giving four direction
selections for flow which alternately pressurizes and vents the pressure outlets. The
manipulator style valve vents all pressure outlets when placed in the center position.

Valve (Poppet): The opening and closing device in a line of flow which restricts flow by
lowering a piston type plunger into a valve passageway.

Valve (Pre-charge): The device located on the accumulator bladder ports which open and
close for the nitrogen pressure contained.

Valve (Relief): A valve that opens at a set pressure to relief excessive pressures within a
vessel or line whose primary function is to limit system pressure.

Valve (Selector): A control device having three positions, giving four direction selections
for flow which alternately pressurizes and vents the pressure outlets. The selector style
valve blocks all pressure points if placed in the center position.

Valve (Shut-off): A valve which operates fully open or fully closed to control the flow
through the lines.

Valve (Shuttle): A connective valve which selects one of two or more circuits because
flow or pressure changes between the circuits.

Viscosity: A measure of the internal friction or the resistance of a fluid to flow.

Weight cut: The amount by which drilling fluid density is reduced by entrained formation
fluids or air.

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 275


Wireline preventers: Preventers installed on top of the well or drill string as a
precautionary measure while running wirelines. The preventer packing will close around
the wireline.

Zero adjustment: The control to move the meter gauge indicator for resetting calibration
accuracy. Control used to make the mater read zero by applying an offset voltage to the
meter to offset any positive voltage at the meter, even though there is no pressure at the
input of the transducer.

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 276


10.4 WELL CONTROL PROBLEMS

1. What would be the reduction in Bottom Hole Pressure if the drilling fluid level
dropped by 500 feet, with a density of 11.5 ppg?

2. A well has been drilled to a depth of 8000 feet TVD and the current density of the
drilling fluid is 12.25 ppg. What will the fluid pressure be at 4920 feet if 400 psi pressure
is applied from the surface with the BOP closed?

3. Failure to fill the hole when pulling out pipe resulted in the mud level in the hole
dropping by 580 feet and causing the well to flow. If the true vertical depth of the well is
9500 feet and the mud density is 11.9 ppg, what is the bottom hole pressure when the well
starts to flow?

4. It was decided to reduce the mud weight from 11.2 ppg while tripping in the well of
9,680 ft TVD. String was run to 5,400 ft and original mud was displaced by 10.6 ppg mud.

a. What will be the bottom hole pressure now? _____________psi

b. When string was run down to bottom the entire well was displaced by ppg mud.
Calculate the bottom hole pressure in static condition.
_____________psi

5. WELL DATA
Drill pipe capacity : 0.0178 bbl/ft Average stand length : 93 feet
Drill pipe metal displacement : 0.0082 bbl/ft
Calculate the volume of mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulled ‘wet’, with no
return of mud from the well.

6. A vertical well has been drilled to a depth of 8000 feet.

Overbalance : 170 psi Casing capacity : 0.157 bbl/feet


Mud gradient : 0.72 psi/feet Drill pipe metal displacement : 0.008 bbl/feet

How many complete stands can be pulled dry before the overbalance is lost? (Assume one
stand equals 90 feet)

7. Calculate the Maximum Allowable Annulus Surface Pressure (MAASP) using the
following information:
WELL DATA:
13-3/8 inch Casing shoe vertical depth : 4921 feet
Formation strength at the shoe : 3626 psi (determined by a leak-off test)
Current mud density : 10.0 ppg

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 277


8. While drilling, the mud weight was increased from 10 ppg to 11.2 ppg expecting
little higher formation pressure below. How this increase of mud weight will affect
MAASP
(The casing shoe is at 4697 ft TVD)?

9. Calculate the formation strength at the casing shoe using the following information:
WELL DATA:
Casing shoe vertical depth : 9780 feet
MAASP : 1885 psi
Drilling mud density : 10.0 ppg

10. Calculate the Maximum Allowable Mud Weight using the following information:
WELL DATA:
Casing shoe depth: 7,400 feet TVD
Leak-off Test pressure at Pump: 1650 psi
Density of drilling mud in hole: 10.6 ppg

11. A vertical well is drilled to a depth of 9,000 ft with 1t.7 ppg mud, following are the
recorded data:

WELL DATA:
Pump speed 70 spin.
Pressure losses in surface equipment 140 psi
Pressure losses in drill string 800 psi
Pressure losses in annulus 100 psi
Pressure losses at bit nozzles 1400 psi

a. Calculate Bottom Hole Pressure when well is static ___________psi


b. Calculate B H P when mud is circulated at 70 spm ___________psi
c. Calculate pump pressure when mud is circulated at 70 spm ___________psi
d. Calculate the equivalent circulating density __________ ppg

12. A vertical well is 6020 feet deep and filled with 11.5 ppg mud. While circulating at 80
spm the friction losses in the well system are as follows:

120 psi pressure loss through surface equipment.


680 psi pressure loss in drill string.
1570 psi pressure loss through bit nozzles.
110 psi pressure loss in annulus.

What is the bottom hole pressure in the well when the pumps are running at 80 spm?

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 278


13. A pump pressure of 1200 psi was recorded at a pump speed of 35 SPM. What
would the approximate pump pressure be at a speed of 30 SPM?

14. Calculate the new pump pressure if mud density is changed from 11.5 ppg to 12.2
ppg. The old pump pressure was 2500 psi

15. At 40 spm, with 10 ppg mud, the pump pressure is 1000 psi. What would the pump
pressure be if the rate was decreased to 25 spm and the mud density increased to 11.4 ppg?

16. While drilling a vertical well at a depth of 9,000 ft with 13 ppg mud, gas cut mud
was observed at shale shaker. Tool Pusher decided for bottoms –up monitoring out coming
mud .The following were the recorded data:

Depth Interval Average MW


0 - 900 ft 12.2 ppg
900 - 1500 ft 12.5 ppg
1500 - 9000 ft 13.0 ppg

Due to the gas cut mud, how much was the reduction in bottom hole pressure?

17. While drilling ahead, partial losses are measured at 20 bbl/hour. A total power loss
occurs.
Annular capacity : 0.073 bbl/feet (with pipe)
Mud density : 11.2 ppg
What will be the reduction in bottom hole pressure after 2½ hours if the hole cannot be
filled?

18. Prior to tripping out of hole, the drilling mud density is increased by a 0.5 ppg trip
margin. Based on the information below, calculate the increase in Bottom Hole Pressure
resulting from this trip margin.

WELL DATA:
Well depth (TVD) : 8300 feet
Well depth (MD) : 8900 feet
Drilling mud density without trip margin : 11.2 ppg
Drill pipe capacity : 0.01782 bbl/feet
Drill pipe metal displacement : 0.00751 bbl/feet

19. Calculate the rate of gas migration, in feet per hour, if the Shut in drill pipe
pressure increases by 50 psi in 15 minutes. The fluid density is 10.5 ppg.

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 279


20. After observing self flow the well is shut in, Killing could not be resumed due to
power failure. The following data have been recorded

TVD - 11,000 ft
Mud weight - 12.3 ppg
Kick size - 25 bbls
SIDPP - 350 psi
Gas gradient - 0.115 psi/fl

It is observed that after I hour the drill pipe pressure has risen to 550 psi due to closed well
migration. Calculate volume to bleed to keep the BHP constant.

21. While drilling through a fault in the horizontal section of a well, a kick is taken and
the well shut in. Calculate the new mud density required to kill the well using the data
below.

WELL DATA:
Measured depth at start of horizontal section : 7690 feet
Measured depth at time of kick : 13680 feet
True vertical depth at start of horizontal section : 5790 feet
True vertical depth at time of kick : 5820 feet
Mud density : 12.8 ppg

KICK DATA:
Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure : 230 psi
Shut In Casing Pressure : 240 psi

22. A cup-type test tool is used on a drill pipe test joint to pressure test a surface BOP.
DATA:-
Inside diameter of casing: 12.41 inch
Cross sectional area corresponding to inside diameter of casing: 121 square inch
Outside diameter of drill pipe test joint: 5 inch
Cross sectional area corresponding to outside diameter of test joint: 19.5 square inch
Annulus cross sectional area corresponding to inside diameter of casing and outside
diameter of test joint: 101.5 square inch
Test pressure: 5000 psi

Calculate the tension on the drill pipe test joint:

23. What will the Shut-In casing pressure be if:

Well depth : 7,500 feet TVD


365 feet of the annulus is filled with gas whose pressure gradient is 0.1 psi/feet
Formation pressure gradient : 0.55 psi/feet
Fluid density : 9.6 ppg

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 280


24. A string of 5 inch drill pipe equipped with a float valve is stripped in to the hole
through an annular preventer.

Average length of a stand : 92 feet Closed end displ. : 0.0250 bbl/ft


Drill pipe inside capacity : 0.0176 bbl/ft Metal displacement : 0.0074 bbl/ft

(I) If 10 stands of pipe are stripped, how many barrels of mud must be bled off from the
annulus?

(II) If 10 stands of pipe are stripped, how many barrels of mud must be filled in the drill
pipe?

25. Well is closed using annular preventer on 5" d/pipe, the recorded SIDP is 750 psi
and SICP is 1000 psi. What should be closing pressure as per the following graph?

P 700
R
E 500 2.7/8” – 3.1/2” a. 300 – 400 psi
S b. 200 – 300 psi
S 300
U 4” – 5.1/2” c. 400 – 500 psi
R
E 100 7”-9.5/8”
500 1000 1500 2000 2500
WELL BORE PRESSURE (PSI)

26. It is required to close, open and close all functions on BOP. How many
gallons of fluid will be required if a safety factor is taken as 20%?

17.6 gallons to Close


Annular & 17.1 gallons to open

5.8 gallons to Close


Pipe & 5.4 gallons to open

1.1 gallons to Close Blind Shear


Open Close
& 1.1 gallons to open

HCR HCR
Kill Line Choke Line
Pipe
Open Close

_________________________Gallons

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 281


10.5 KILL SHEET

WELL DATA

Hole Size : 12-1/4 inch


Hole Depth : 12900 feet MD, 11680 feet TVD
Casing : 13-3/8 inch set at 4100 feet TVD/MD
Drill pipe : 5 inch, capacity 0.0177 bbl/ft
Drill collars : 8 inch, 590 feet long, capacity 0.0077 bbl/ft
Mud density : 12 ppg
CAPACITIES
Drill collars in open hole : 0.084 bbl/ft
Drill pipe in open hole : 0.12 bbl/ft
Drill pipe in casing : 0.13 bbl/ft

Mud Pumps : displacement = 0.103 bbl/stroke


Slow Circulating Rate : 670 psi at 30 spm

A leak-off test was carried out at the 13-3/8 inch casing shoe using a mud density of 10.6
ppg. A surface pressure of 1380 psi was recorded

The well has been shut-in after a kick

KICK DATA

Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure : 580 psi


Shut-in Casing Pressure : 740 psi
Pit Gain : 19 bbl

This well will be killed using the Driller’s method at 30 spm. Answer the following
questions:

1) How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from surface to bit? __________
2) How many strokes are required to pump from the bit to casing shoe? ___________
3) How many strokes are required to pump from the bit to surface? _______________
4) What is the kill mud density? __________
5) What is the initial circulating pressure? __________
6) What is the final circulating pressure? __________
7) What is the MAASP at the time the well was shut-in? __________
8) What is MAASP after circulation of the kill mud? __________
9) What is the time for one complete circulation? __________
10) Total annular volume?____________
11) Pipe pressure reduction per 100 strokes? ___________

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 282


Surface BOP (Vertical Well) Kill Sheet API Field Unit

Formation Strength Data: Current Well Data :

Surface Leak-off Pressure, (A) __________psi


Mud data:
Mud Weight (B)__________ppg
Mud Wt. __________ppg
Maximum Allowable Mud Weight
(A)
(B) + -------------------------------------------- = Casing Shoe Data:
Shoe True Vertical Depth x 0.052
Size in
(C) ______________ppg
Initial MAASP M.D. ft.
{(C) -Current Mud Weight} x Shoe TVD x 0.052
T.V.D. ft.
= ______________ psi

Pump No.1 Pump No.2 Hole Data:


Displacement Displacement in
bbls/stroke bbls/stroke Size
ft.
Slow Dynamic Pressure Loss ( PL} M.D.
Pump Rate ft.
Data T.V.D.
Pump No.1 Pump No.2

spm

spm

Pre-Volume Data: Length Capacity Volume Pump Time


Ft. Bbls/ft. Bbls Strokes minutes
Pipe Drill x = Pump
Heavy Wall Drill Pipe x = . Volume . . Strokes .
Pump Slow Pump
Drill Collars x = Displacement Rate
Drill String Volume (D) bbl (E) stks min

DC x Open Hole x =

DP/HWDP x Open Hole x =

Open Hole Volume (F) bbl stks min

DP x Casing x = (G) bbl min


stks

Total Annulus Volume (F+G) = (H) bbl min


stks
Total Well System Volume (D+H) = (I) bbl min
stks

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 283


Kick Data:
SIDPP _______________psi SICP ________________ psi Pit Gain
_______bbls

Kill Mud Weight SIDPP


Current Mud Weight + ---------------------- =
KMW TVD ppg

Initial Circulating Pressure


Dynamic Pressure Loss + SIDPP =
ICP psi

Final Circulating Pressure Kill Mud Weight


--------------------------- x Dynamic Pressure =
FCP Loss psi
Current Mud Weight

( K ) x 100
( K ) = ICP – FCP psi ---------------- = psi /
100 stks.
(E)

Strokes Pressure Static & Dynamic


Drill Pipe Pr. (psi)

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

S T R O K E S

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 284


10.6 Using the BOP configuration below answer the following six questions. (The
questions are based on whether the operations can be physically performed)

Annular
Preventer

Blind Ram

5” Pipe Ram
HCR HCR

Kill Line Choke Line


3½” Pipe Ram

Casing
Head

I. With the well shut in under pressure on 5 inch drill pipe, is it possible to repair a
leaking flange on the drilling spool?
a) Yes
b) No
II. With the well shut in under pressure and no drill pipe in the hole, is it possible to
change the 3-1/2 inch rams to 5 inch rams?
a) Yes
b) No
III. With the well shut in on 3-1/2 inch rams on 3-1/2 inch pipe under pressure, and
with a safety valve in the string, is it possible to change 5 inch rams to variable
bore rams?
a) Yes
b) No
IV. With the well shut in on 5 inch pipe rams under pressure, is it possible to change
blind rams to 5 inch pipe rams?
a) Yes
b) No
V. With the well shut in on 5 inch pipe rams under pressure, can the annular element
be replaced?
a) Yes
b) No
VI. With the well shut in on 5 inch pipe rams under pressure, can the manual valve on
the choke line be replaced?
a) Yes
b) No

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 285


HANDOUT-1

PROBLEMS ON HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, BHP

1. What would be the reduction in Bottom Hole Pressure if the drilling fluid level
dropped by 500 feet, with a density of 11.5 ppg?

2. It was decided to reduce the mud weight from 11.2 ppg while tripping in the well of
9,680 ft TVD. String was run to 5,400 ft and original mud was displaced by 10.6 ppg mud.

a. What will be the bottom hole pressure now? _____________psi

b. When string was run down to bottom the entire well was displaced by ppg mud.
Calculate the bottom hole pressure in static condition.
_____________psi

3. A well has been drilled to a depth of 8000 feet TVD and the current density of the
drilling fluid is 12.25 ppg. What will the fluid pressure be at 4920 feet if 400 psi pressure
is applied from the surface with the BOP closed?

IWCT, Oil India Limited, Duliajan 286