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Practice Paper 3

1. The urea cycle is a cycle of biochemical reactions occurring in many animals


that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3). Organisms that cannot
easily and quickly remove ammonia usually have to convert it to some other
substance, for example urea, which are much less toxic. The following reactions
are part of the urea cycle. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, abbreviated NAD,
is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

C=O
Reaction I Reaction II

These reactions are carried out in the cells of animals.

(a)(i) [Alkenes] If reaction I is carried out in the chemistry laboratory, not on animal
cells but with organic materials, state the mechanism, reagents and conditions of
reaction I. Industry conditions are not required. [3]

(ii) [Organic chemistry] Suggest the chemical role of NAD in reaction II, which
is carried out in animal cells. [2]

(b) Heavy toxic metals can be removed by a chelating agent, such as EDTA. The
structure of EDTA is shown:

Chelation therapy is the use of chelating agents to detoxify poisonous metal agents
such as mercury and arsenic by converting them to a chemically inert form that can
be excreted without further interaction with the body. Mercury(II) ions, Hg2+, can also
be chelated by EDTA in the laboratory.

(i) [Atomic structure] Suggest the electronic configuration of Hg2+ ion. You
may use [Xe] as an abbreviation and 4f14 orbitals in your answer. [2]

(ii) [Transition metals] Suggest the co-ordination number of the Hg2+-EDTA


complex. [2]

(i) [Transition metals] Ethylenediamine, H2N-CH2-CH2-NH2 , is another


chelating agent. Suggest the mole ratio of Hg2+ : H2N-CH2-CH2-NH2 in
which the metal ion can react with ethylenediamine to form a stable
complex ion. [2]

(ii) [Transition metals] Draw the structure of the complex ion when the
mercury(II) ion reacts with ethylenediamine. You may use organic
skeletal formula. [2]

(c)(i) [Ethanoic acid derivatives] Draw the formula of the organic product Z when
ethylenediamine reacts with excess ethanoyl chloride. [2]

(ii) State the reagent and condition for converting the product Z into
ethylenediamine and ethanoic acid. [1]

(i) Compare the basicities of phenylamine and ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2.


[2]

(ii) Draw the product when ethylamine and chloroethane react in a 1:1 mole
ratio. [2]

[Total : 20 marks]

2(a) [Chemical kinetics] The half-life of Paracetamol, an analgesic, is 2 hours. 1000


mg of Paracetamol was fed to a patient. How much time will elapse when the dose in
the patient’s body drops to 62.5 mg? [2]

Paracetamol

(b) [Phenols] Draw the product(s) when Paracetamol reacts with hot aqueous
sodium hydroxide. [2]
(c) State what observation is made when Paracetamol is added to a neutral
solution of iron(III) chloride. [1]

(d) [Arenes] Draw the organic product(s) obtained when dilute nitric acid is added
to Paracetamol at room temperature. Name the mechanism. [3]

(e) [Chemical energetics] The phenyl ring is part of the structure of Paracetamol.
With the use of the Data Booklet, calculate the enthalpy change of
hydrogenation of benzene into cyclohexane. [3]

(f) Explain why the value you obtained in (e) is higher than the accurate value of
-209 kJ mol-1. [2]

(b) [Electrolysis and Group VII] In the electrolysis of concentrated brine solution,
NaCl (aq), small amounts of sodium chlorate(I), NaClO, are produced.

(i) State and explain which products are formed at the cathode and anode.
[4]

(ii) Explain why sodium chlorate is produced, with the inclusion of a relevant
equation. [2]

(iii) If the temperature is raised further to 80oC, sodium chlorate(V), NaClO3,


is produced. Write an equation for the formation of this product. [1]

[Total : 20 marks]

3. The use of the data booklet is useful for this question.

Sulfur burns with a blue flame that emits sulfur dioxide, which has a “burning
rubber” odour.

(a) [Atomic structure] Write down the electronic configuration of sulfur. [1]

(b) Explain why sulfur has a lower first ionisation energy than phosphorus. [3]

(c) [Gases and liquids] 10 dm3 of a sample of sulfur dioxide at a temperature of


400oC exerts a pressure of 2 atm. Calculate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the
sample. [3]

(d) A sample of sulfur dioxide is bubbled into acidified hydrogen peroxide solution.

(i) Construct a balanced equation for the reaction. [2]

(ii) Calculate the standard cell potential for the reaction. [2]
(iii) State a chemical test for the sulfur product. State also the observations
expected. [2]

(iv) Which is the reducing agent in the reaction? [1]

(e) Sulfur reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide, an atmospheric pollutant. Draw
an energy level diagram to calculate the bond energy of the S=O bond in sulfur
dioxide.

Given that : Atomisation energy of sulfur = 278.7 kJ mol-1

Enthalpy change of formation of

sulfur dioxide = -296.84 kJ mol-1[4]

(f) Draw the Lewis structure of sulfur trioxide, SO3 and state the bond angle
about sulfur atom. [2]

[Total : 20 marks]

4. Magnesium is used as a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect underground


tanks, pipelines and water heaters. Magnesium compounds have varied uses.

(a) The chlorides of magnesium and silicon differ considerably in their physical
and chemical properties.

State and account for one difference in the

• Physical property
• Chemical property

Of the two compounds, writing equations where appropriate. [6]

(b) Draw the Born-Haber cycle of magnesium oxide. Calculate the sum of the 1st
and 2nd electron affinities given these data:

Lattice energy for MgO (s) = -3866 kJ mol-1


Standard enthalpy of the formation of MgO (s) = -601.70 kJ mol-1
Standard enthalpy of atomisation of Mg = +147.70 kJ mol-1
[5]

(c) Calculate the enthalpy change of solution of magnesium fluoride given:

Lattice energy of MgF2 (s) = -2957 kJ mol-1


Hydration energy of Mg2+ = -1920 kJ mol-1
Hydration energy of F- = -330 kJ mol-1
State the formula that you use.
[3]

(d) Write the chemical equation for the thermal decomposition of magnesium
nitrate. Why does magnesium nitrate decompose at a lower temperature than
calcium nitrate? [2]

(e) Magnesium oxide has a high melting point. State one use of magnesium oxide.
[1]

(g) When magnesium is burned in air, it gives the nitride, Mg3N2, in addition to its
oxide. Explain why this is so. [3]

[Total : 20 marks]