You are on page 1of 11

INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Introduction to Hydrocarbon Exploitation
Directional Drilling

Section
By Pratap Thimaiah

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deviated Holes

 The Reasons for Directional Drilling:
– Side tracking existing wells
– Restricted surface locations
– Reaching Multiple targets
– Reduction in number of offshore platforms
Drilling Technolo gy-D ire ctional D rilling

– Horizontal drilling
– Thin reservoirs
– Environmental foot print
– Avoiding salt domes
– Geological requirements
– To avoid gas and water conning
– Intersecting fractures
– Re-entry of existing wells

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling Applications

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Directional Well Planning

 Specification of Target, Size & Shape.
 Rig Location
 Location of Adjacent Wells
 Casing and mud Programmes
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Co-ordinate systems

 Geographic Co-ordinates (Figure 11.1 pg 376-
Rabia)

They are an imaginary network of lines
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

superimposed on the globe

– Latitude (degrees north or south of Datum plane)
– Longitude (degrees east or west of Datum plane)

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Co-ordinate systems

 UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) (Figure
11.6 pg 382-Rabia)

– Grid used to cover the world except for the polar
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

regions.
– Based on 60 zones, each is 6 degrees of
longitude wide ad extends from 80 degree S to
84 degree N latitude .
– Meters is the unit of measurement.
– Greenwich meridian is chosen as the zero degree
reference meridian.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Reference directions

 There are 3 azimuth reference systems-
– True Geographic north
– Grid north
– Magnetic north
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Geographic North

 It is referred to as true north or a true azimuth.
 Geographic north points to the north pole and
indicated by the polar star.
 By convention it is referred to as a star on UTM
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

grid

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Well Profiles

 Having fixed target and location of well rig,
next is to plan geometrical profile of well to
reach target.
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Well Profiles
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling Well Profiles

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deflection Tools

 Badger Bit (Jet Deflection)
– Using full fluid power directed through one enlarged nozzle of b it.
– Bit lowered into assembly with a non magnetic drill collar and
stabilizer
– Oriented bit with Enlarged nozzle is pointed in required direction.
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

– By pumping through the bit while the string is rotated-washed
pocket
– Continuous jetting working on pipe.
– Used mainly in soft formations.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Deflection Tools

 Whip stock-
– Steel wedge run in the hole and set at KOP.
– Standard removable used for side tracking and kick off wells.
– Permanent whipstock is designed to remain permanently in hole. To
bypass junk or collapsed casing
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deflection Tools

 Rebel Tool
– Designed to give bit push either push
to left or right.
– Tool body has a groove cut along its
length inside which is a torsion bar.
– Rod is free to rotate and has a curved
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

paddle connected on either end.
– Paddles pivot in the milled recesses in
tool body.
– When the top paddle rotates to low side
of hole, it is forced into its recess.
– Inward force on top paddle is
transmitted through torsion rod and
causes an outward force on bottom
paddle.
– Bottom paddle then projects laterally
against the formation.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Deflection Tools

Rebel Tool
 Advantages
– Makes gradual changes in direction
– Allows normal rotary drilling
– Cheaper than downhole motors
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deflection Tools-PDM

 Positive Displacement Motor

– Downhole mud motor .

– Drives Bit without rotating the
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

entire drill string.

– Powered by using drilling fluid, air
or gas.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Deflection Tools-PDM
Components

 Dump Valve
– By pass valve that allows the drill string to fill up or drain when tripping.

 Motor Assembly
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

– consists of lined stator which contains a spirally shaped cavity or elliptical
section.
– Solid steel spiral shaft.
– Top end is free, lower end fixed to connecting rod.

 Connecting rod
– Equipped with universal joint at each end
– Accommodates eccentric rotation of rotor and transfers to drive shaft.

 Bearing Assembly
– Consists of thrust & radial bearings to allow smooth rotation
– Drive shaft is connected to bit sub

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deflection Tools-PDM

 Some PDMs are multistage
motors.

 Drilling fluid is pumped
through the motor and
forced between rotor &
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

stator cavity.

 Rotation transferred by
drive shaft to the bit.

 To deviate a well, a bent
sub must be run above the
PDM.

 Above the bent sub an
orienting device such as
steering tool or MWD is
accommodated

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Deflection Tools-PDM

 Bent sub
– Short length or collar sized pipe
– Axis of lower connection is slightly
offset from vertical
– Sizes of 1 to 3 degrees are common.
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

Advantages using PDM
– accurate control over deviation
– Less risk of dog legs
– Can be used to build or drop angles
– Can be designed to operate in high
solids or with LCM.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Deflection Tools-Turbo Drills
 Type of mud motor which
turns bit without drill string
rotation.
 Can be powered by liquid
drilling fluids.
 Bladed rotors & stators
mounted at right angles to
fluid flow.
 Rotors attached to drive
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

shaft, while stators to outer
case.
 Rotor-stator pair is called
stage. There are 75 to 250
stages typically.

Advantages
– Used for straight hole
sections also.
– Casing wear reduced
– Low torque applied
– Better penetration rates

Disadvantage
– Rotor prone to damage
with mud debris
©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION

Development Phase

Bottom Hole Assembly
 BHA refers to combination of collars, stabilizers and
other tools run above bit.
 BHA designed to build, drop or hold.
Drilling T echnology -Directio nal Drilling

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

Bottom Hole Assembly
 Packed Hole Assembly
– DC and stabilizers so positioned to reduce bending and keep bit straight.
– Bottom stand is made as stiff as possible.
– Short DC and reamers or stabilisers used

 Pendulum Assembly
– Unsupported weight of DC to force the bit against low side of hole.
Drilling Technolo gy-Dire ctional Drilling

– Resulting decrease or drop off in angle depends on WOB, rpm, stabilization
– To increase tendency to drop:
 Apply less WOB
 More pump pressure in soft formations
 Use bigger Monel DC below reamer and smaller DC above.

 Fulcrum Assembly
– Always run a reamer near bit
– When WOB is applied, the DCs above reamer will tend to bend against low
side of hole, making reamer act as a fulcrum ,forcing the bit upwards.
– Rate of build-up depends upon WOB,size of collars, position of reamer and
stabilization above reamer.
– To increase build:
 More WOB
 Smaller size Monel
 Less rpm and pump rates in soft formations

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005 September – October 2005