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Dictionary of
and Publishing

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Dictionary of
and Publishing

Michael Barnard
John Peacock

Pira International

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The facts set out in this publication are from sources which we believe
to be reliable. However, we accept no legal liability of any kind for the
publication contents, nor for the information contained therein, nor
conclusions drawn by any party from it.

No part of this publication other than that excluded below may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright holder.

First edition © Chapman and Hall 1990
Second edition © Pira International 2000

© Pira International 2000

ISBN 1 85802 381 5

Published by
Pira International
Randalls Road
KT22 7RU

Tel: +44 (0)1372 802080
Fax: +44 (0)1372 802079

Typeset in the UK by Heronwood Press

Printed and bound in the UK by TJI Digital

we have opted for common usage rather than precision as the criterion. . work. In this new edition we have tried.Dic. in explaining paper sizes. we have not followed the dictionary convention of identifying parts of speech as this seemed to us unhelpful. The sources we have consulted are many and various and we have also borrowed from some of our own work – in particular The Print and Production Manual. we have in this edition deleted some of the more obscure and obsolete language. This is intended to be a functional. We have not struggled to achieve any sort of uniformity in selecting parts of speech for headwords. Ten years is a long time in the vocabulary of industries which have been subjected to rapid technological progress and we had undoubt- edly reached the sell-by date of The Blueprint Dictionary of Printing and Publishing when Pira acquired the Blueprint list towards the end of the millennium. MB and JP . from which Pira has allowed us to extract many entries. . often originating in the computer industry. but short-run printing tech- niques will allow us to remedy our errors quite soon in the next edition . so please let us know. to bear in mind two classes of user: the newcomer to the trade who needs help with traditional terms and the experienced printer or publisher who must attempt to keep up with new tech- nical terminology. rather than an academic. Where there has been debate about the precise definition of a term. For this reason. tabular material would be helpful (for example. we are no doubt guilty of some obvious omissions. as before. Where we considered additional.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page v Introduction The first edition of this dictionary was published in Chapman and Hall’s Blueprint list in 1990. For the new computer-related and multimedia terms which we must all accommodate in the 21st century we have relied heavily on David Penfold’s excellent Multimedia and Communications Glossary. Hence we have included words ranging from archaic mediaevalisms to tech- nocratic jargon although. in an attempt to contain the book to a manageable size. metric conversions etc) we have included this in an appendix at the back of the book to try to avoid the blocks of text which can sometimes inhibit reference by interrupting easy visual access to alphabetical sequence. offering the form in which we believe a word is most often used in practice. although we have sometimes offered alternative uses. Despite much scanning by colleagues and comparison with other works.

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cable). See authorÕs corrections. cheapernet. The other three methods information in words that are 4 bytes or 32 bits are oxidation. polymerisation.) See Appendix. accelerator card An add-on device which can be 8-bit colour See under 1-bit colour. See 8-bit computer. abstract Short summary of the contents of an aca- 32-bit computer A machine capable of handling demic paper or scientific article. allow Photo. a programmer to use an address that has fewer ages data.) A&I Abstracting and indexing: the act of mak- 10Base5 The original thick Ethernet cabling ing summaries and indexes for books or jour- standard. so the number of paper sizes reducing from 4A at 1682 3 2378mm colours is limited by the size of the computer through A0 at 841 3 1189mm to A10 at memory. e. CD to be viewed and will eventually play accelerator Chemical. in which computers C. ABI See application binary interface. and evaporation. Contrast relative Fast Ethernet. program code and memory address characters than the full address. with subsidiary RA and SRA sizes. bit computers are capable of handling data in abort Controlled termination of a processing multiples of 16 bits. the more memory is A The A series is an international IS0 range of required to handle them. suppression. through ageing. address requires less decoding time. 10Base2 A type of Ethernet. See 16-bit computer. also called a unit volume of atmosphere. abridgement The concise version of esp. are connected by thin coaxial cable. 8-bit and 24-bit colour The number of bits of information (colour resolution) that can be represented in the pixels (dots) on the screen. speed up the development of photographic 431A The type of plug that fits a standard type film. in which ABA American Booksellers Association computers are connected by twisted pair cable. the higher the number of bits. requiring fibre-optic connections. abbreviated addressing A process which enables 16-bit Describes hardware or software that man.Dic. AC Author’s Correction. requires two twisted pairs and 100Base-T4. See 8-bit computer. paper) to abrasion. 16. A The higher the number of bits. e.g. a transparent material’s degree of 24-bit colour See under 1-bit colour. In optics. 1-bit Each size folds in half to preserve the same pro- colour is monochrome line. four principal ways in which inks dry. guages to indicate a stress. portions of 1:=2 at each reduction. it is 32-bit Describes hardware or software that man. data in multiples of 32 bits.g. See bilevel coding. material surface (e. program code and memory address printing on newsprint.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 1 1-bit. providing a information in words that are two bytes or 16 faster means of processing data as the shorter bits wide. an 8-bit data word. absorbency The degree in which paper takes up which requires four pairs (but of lower-quality contact moisture measured by a standard test. which uses thick yellow cable. 1 . the more colours or grey scales you can have. 32-bit activity in a computer system. one-quaternary. In turn. which humidity. such as borax.g. 32-bit accents Marks added to letters in some lan- computer. a book. Includes 100Base-TX. accelerated ageing Testing of paper to determine 3DO A games system including animation. used to video CDs using MPEG. 16-bit computer Developed in the mid-1970s. associated most readily with coldset web-offset ages data. known as thin Ethernet or thinnet. 600 BT telephone socket. rather than the monitor used. strength loss or other physical changes caused which will also play audio CDs. installed into a computer to speed up certain 8-bit computer Describes computers that employ processes. 8-bit 26 3 37mm. and 24-bit are the most commonly used. which absolute humidity Quantity of water vapour in is based on CSMA/CD technology. é (acute e) in French. computer. graphics performance. 16-bit computer. commonly AA Author’s Alteration. 100Base-T A 100 Mbps Ethernet standard. abrasion resistance Measured resistance of a 100Base-FX Part of the 100Base-T standard. 2B+D See basic rate ISDN. 10Base-T A type of 10 Mbps Ethernet. wide. (See also B. (See also AAL See ATM adaptation layer. absorption Absorption or penetration is one of the 2B1Q See two-binary. See authorÕs corrections. nal articles.

accession number Serial number used in a ACN See Advisory Committee on Networking. (See also Cromalin. Systems that allows documents created on one accordion fold Parallel folds in paper. acronym Abbreviation. The controlled use of database header giving information about the receiver information in such a way that restrictions may to the sender. networking imposed by hardware and soft. through a program called Acrobat Distiller. showing which that a connection has been achieved. transmission through a telephone handset over accessions New books added to a library.) The latest version (Acrobat 3. a charac- operations that may be performed. ranging from 1. nent replacement). ter transmitted by a device as a response to a access control list (ACL) A list giving the ser. available in differ. are not present on the system where the docu- era-ready artwork used for positioning repro ment is viewed. opening computer system to be read and printed on other like an accordion bellows. 2 . 2. the public switched telephone network by access provider See Internet service provider. Amber during development and allows more achromatic colour An intermediate grey level in capability in viewing documents over the World the monochromatic grey scale in computer Wide Web. which are produced accordion insert Periodical insert with accordion either directly as a print option in the source fold. library indexing system which shows when the acoustic coupler A device that permits data new book was first acquired. ‘Multiple Mastering’ technology or for marking instructions. ment format (pdf) files. Also an acknowledgement number in a TCP ware controls.Dic. Acrobat can be acetate proofs Acetate sheets. Matchprint. which can be developed and used with ISDN) and for electronic publishing.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 2 acceptable use policy (AUP) The official policy removal). modulating audible (analogue) tones. Also called ICR (inte- Different networks have different AUPs. or complementary. as prepress proofs. be imposed on the data items available and the acknowledge In data communications. can also be included. grated colour removal) or GCR (grey compo- acceptance testing The process by which a manu.0) was described as acetone Fast-drying solvent used in printing. application or by running PostScript code accumulator A computer store location for arith.) which is free from acid-producing chemicals access The ability to retrieve data from a com.17 ACK (acknowledgement) The ASCII character Mbps to 34 Mbps. is used to simulate those fonts. graphics. All metical calculation. NSFNET. elements of any example. (See also beta testing. and neutral sized paper. The black printer carries more detail applied by networks concerning the use to than with conventional separations and the ter- which the network may be put. formatting information is embedded in the com- Accunet A switched 56 kbps service provided by pressed file and graphics and font information AT&T in the US. The technology uses portable docu- direction from the preceding fold. plastic always an ideal format for viewing on-screen. The control system in computer vious transmission has been correctly received. pronouncable word. If the fonts in the document acetate Transparent sheet of film fixed over cam. A forerunner of ISDN. See permanent paper puter storage medium or peripheral device. acknowledgements page Page of a book in access fee Fee charged by a museum or gallery which the author gives his list of sources and for the facility of photographing items in its references. access class In SMDS. access time The time taken to retrieve data from Acrobat A technology developed by Adobe a computer storage medium or a peripheral. with code 6. usually in the form of a achromatic separations Colour separations pro. signal from another device to acknowledge vices available on a server. made up of the initial let- duced by CCR (complementary colour ters of other words. Also called colour overleaf although the facsimile of the printed page is not proofs. collection. different access classes. Also called a facility fee. facturer tests a new system to demonstrate that acid-free paper Generic term to describe paper it is in working order. An acknowledgement that a pre- access control 1. the type (or bandwidth) acid resist Acid-resisting coat on printing plate. used for proofing (particularly in conjunction ent colours. Different types of access line offer ACK See acknowledge. which reduce longevity. hosts are permitted to use which service. colour hue are removed. of access. ACL See access control list. for tiary. does not allow commercial use. proof. each in an opposite systems.

compiles an output from the sum of two or ing origination. minus plug-in device which provides support for green). more network facili. Their com- located more readily. file which allows the most used records to be Known also as the light primaries. trol procedure. plements or ‘opposites’ are known as the light AD 1. additive colour The production of colour by active document The part of an electronic docu. colours out of the three. This increas. often as a pasted-in slip.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 3 across the gutter Printed over the gutter margin add/drop multiplexer A device that can extract of a book. input. certain specified lower-bandwidth signals acrylic A polymer based on synthetic resin and from a high-bandwidth signal and insert other used for surface coatings among other applica. They are adapter In computing. 8-bit and 24- applications running under Microsoft bit colour. waterproof. communications. in computer networks. adaptive digital pulse code modulation address The sequence of bits or characters that (ADPCM) A compression technique in which identifies the station to which a message or the difference between successive samples is packet of data must be routed. blending different colours of light. sion slots to provide additional features such adaptive answering The ability of a fax modem as additional memory. the device that action cycle The complete set of actions. Subtractive colour is used in printing (see ActiveX A set of utilities developed by Microsoft CMYK). (See also 1-bit. storage. add-on device See peripheral. ADPCM is used on CD. Acrylic coatings are tough. flexible and addendum Late addition to book after printing. addressability The number of addressable ADAR Air-dried all rag paper. add-on board An expansion board (or card) that munications capabilities. green and blue light gives white light and other active file A file that has an expiry date later than combinations give other colours. output and more input numbers. lower-bandwidth signals.Dic.e. taken in turn. using white light. performed on data. the router checks the network (IP) address. See air-dry secondaries: each one is made up of two pulp. This should be the job date. ACs AuthorÕs corrections. an add-on board or other cyan (i. performance characteristics as covering power. address checking A security procedure in which ADCCP See advanced data communication con. minus red). tions. its design task. ADC See analogue-to-digital converter. graphics points within a defined display or ADB See Apple Desktop Bus. rather than their values. operand (item of information being operated 3 . contrasted with the way in which we normally active matrix A design of liquid crystal display. minus blue). the keyboard or mouse. mail address. Colour (RGB) ment that is displayed in the current window computer monitors and television sets use addi- and is therefore receptive to commands from tive colour. See electronic encoded. MAC medium es the amount of audio that can be stored on a access control address. includ. is inserted into one of the computer’s expan- ties etc. permanence etc. object. see. to decide whether an incoming call is a fax or graphics etc. so as to allow interactive using additive colours have a colour gamut content to be run over the Internet. adder In computer architecture. when the colour perceived active vocabulary In speech recognition systems. work address. green and blue. address field The particular portion of a com- A/D conversion See analogue to digital conver. magenta (i. tional words can be added by the user.) Windows. Internet address. by which a component is prepared to perfom drying. processing. Blending equal amounts of red. is made up of the wavelengths reflected by an the default built-in vocabulary to which addi. with those absorbed subtracted. ActiveX is which does not include all the colours that can an implementation of OLE and thus limited to be viewed in nature. additional facilities: more memory. net- CD about 16-fold. additive Substance added to ink to control such activation The process. It should also be noted that devices as an answer to Java. image area. memory address. 2.e. data call.e. additive primaries Red. which activity loading A method of storing records in a when added together as light appear as white. See administrative domain. ROM XA and CD-I disks. puter word containing either the address of the sion. SCSI address. more com. yellow (i.

dure (ADCCP) An ANSI-standardised bit- adjust An editing feature in wordprocessing by oriented synchronous data link control proto- which the processing software automatically col equivalent to HDLC (high-level data link adjusts the right-hand margin for the insertion control). Inc. ing the Internet address of a host is transmitted Adobe Type Manager (ATM) A program that and the Ethernet address will be returned by uses Type 1 PostScript fonts to display type on that host or by another host. font images on screen. which offers high-resolution protocol. physically or electrically. Examples are MCI Mail an address to identify a sector or track on a and ATT Mail in the US and British Telecom magnetic disk.Dic. The communica. address track A track on a magnetic disk con. address mask Used to identify which bits in an IP Adobe Leading graphic arts software developer address correspond to the network address and with many industry-standard applications. administrative domain (AD) The hosts. ARP tion that the resolution of the display screen allows Internet addresses to be independent of allows. Assignment of addresses to the in all countries provide the X. tium of European scientific publishers. description language which has become the de address resolution Conversion of an Internet facto standard. a technology that allows doc- protocol used to find an Ethernet address from uments created on one computer system to be an Internet address. er to an author from which royalties based on adjacent channel The communications channel sales will subsequently be deducted. Each host caches the screen to provide the best on-screen rendi- address translations to reduce delay. instructions in a program. This Adobe Illustrator A drawing program with vec- mask is also referred to as the subnet mask tor imaging and editing software. 4 . threadless binding. it. between two or more APPC systems. mapping. An ARP packet contain.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 4 upon) or the information required to derive that Administration management domain (ADMD) A address. Together. read and printed on other systems. back to hold the pages and cover together. advance A prepublication payment by a publish- thermoplastic binding. Hosts that do not support ARP use constant outline fonts. in closest proximity. See address resolution Type Manager. routers tions method by which an originating unit and network(s) managed by a single adminis- selects a device to which to send a message. stored on other tracks of the same disk. Photoshop. Adobe (Ethernet) address. adoption Approval for a book to be used in State adhesive binding Binding style for books and schools. ADPCM See adaptive digital pulse code modu- melt adhesive to the roughened or ground lation. which to the subnet portions of the address. advanced data communication control proce- to the one in use. Other programs include: address into the corresponding physical Illustrator. ATM will also allow output of Type 1 Ethernet addresses but only if all hosts support fonts to a non-PostScript printer. magazines involving the application of a hot. adopt Include a textbook on the official list of taining the addresses of files and records books to be used in State schools. Adonis A document delivery service based on address screening The procedure in SMDS the supply of scanned images of the full text Switched Multimegabit Data Service by which and graphics of a large number of biomedical a user can control the destinations and/or the journals. responsible for some of the early software which Addressograph Proprietary name of a machine led to the creation of desktop publishing.400 backbone. the ADMDs addressing 1. The service was initiated by a consor- sources of information. 2. a popular graphics package. the developers of the PostScript page and addresses. See fonts. IBM procedure that routes data in a network ADMD See administration management domain.400 Message Handling System telecom- address format The arrangement of the parts of munications provider. Also ADSL See asymmetric digital subscriber line. Gold400 Mail in the UK. public X. and Acrobat. called cut-back binding. for retouch- Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) The TCP/IP ing. In which uses individual plates to print names particular. tration. be determined by the class encoded in an IP Adobe Systems. because the network portion of the address can Adobe PhotoShop See PhotoShop. perfect binding. or deletion of copy during playback and by advanced peer-to-peer networking (APPN) An which word wrap is automatically performed. Software development house address.

ucts. AGV Abbreviation for automatic guided vehi. (See also intelligent lution with the development of PageMaker. ALGOL Algorithmic Language.Dic. advance feed Sprocket holes in paper tape which air knife cooling Cooling using jets of com- align with code hole positions to indicate start pressed air. against the grain Folding or cutting at right Albion press An old cast-iron hand press still in angles to the grain of the paper. (APPC) An implementation of the IBM AIFF See audio interchange file format. the form of programmed instructions which ed warehouses. rather than on steam-heated cylinders. performs a recurring task. preparing informa. It al ink spraying on artwork. a driverless or robot cart which travels high-level language used mainly for scientific round a factory floor carrying materials. Also Committee of the UK Universities Funding called an air consignment note. and was used for early networking research. Standard measurement of advertising with albumen dichromate. algorithm An arithmetical computer routine in ern newspaper printing plants and in automat. fin. off. client-server computing. It has long AFS See Andrew file system. air waybill Air-transport term for the document Advisory Committee on Networking (ACN) A made out on behalf of the sender as evidence of committee of the Information Systems the contract of carriage by air freight. art printing work. as air-dry pulp Pulp with a standard moisture con- well as providing a central backbone during tent of 10%. alcohols Solvents used in some inks. since been abandoned. ished products etc. funded development of ARPANET (which air consignment note See air waybill. Used extensively in mod. the development of the Internet. usually below advance sheets Folded and collated sheets for 40gsm. airmail Lightweight paper. photographs etc. which implies that the agent is involved the first comprehensive page make-up package in some decision-making process. Also called albumen plate Lithographic printing plate coated ruby. A modern development from the grater Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) An roller which transfers the web by physical con- agency of the US DoD responsible for the tact (and sometimes leaves smudges and set off). columns: 14 agate lines = 1 column inch. interconnected by leased lines using packet air knife coater Device which applies a jet of switching to communicate. teletext and telex. It became operational in 1968 for high-quality production. used for stationery when postage cost the publisher’s approval before binding.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 5 advanced program-to-program communications AI See artificial intelligence. Protocols used compressed air to the coating on a web of paper included ftp and telnet. and mathematical applications. wordprocessing. is critical. Albert A name given by British Telecom to a A format paperback Massmarket paperback of machine intended to combine telephone. to achieve a smooth level film while fluid. air-dried paper Paper dried by passing the web Advanced Research Projects Agency Network through warm air with only minimum support (ARPANET) The predecessor of the Internet. advertorial Magazine article written by an adver. agate Obsolete term for 5H pt type. was the basis of the Internet) and TCP/IP. agent. trimmed size 178 3 111mm. Tiny holes in the bar ‘float’ the the processing of programs is shared between web on a minute cushion of air. preventing set- the systems. 5 . Council.) with PostScript output. SNA/SDLC protocol which allows communi. Contrast with use for producing lithographs and other fine the grain. tion and handling information exchange on Aldus Software house which led the DTP revo- behalf of client or server. A computer cle. trapped air. Used funded by ARPA. ALA American Library Association aerograph See airbrush. development of new technology for use by the airbrush Small compressed-air gun for fine manu- military (for some time called DARPA). air shear burst Break in paper reel caused by tiser with the aim of boosting a product or prod. alcohol damping The use of alcohol as the agent A program that acts as an intermediary in damping solution in a litho press. air bar Bar on a web-offset press which conveys cation between interconnected systems so that the web of paper. of tape. The air gap The narrow air gap between a magnetic ARPANET consisted of individual computers read-write head and the disk surface. Often coloured pale blue.

(See through to the first comma if there is one or if also anti-aliasing. compound words and phrases are counted aliasing A possible undesirable result of display. allotter Computer device which directs files to alphanumeric Relating to the full alphabetic and specific peripherals.Dic. a sound card with a sam. horizontally or vertically. a group of addresses.g. This can create a jagged or pixel. tional or controversial. digits and Web and for Usenet newsgroups. handled independently. e. the frequency of extraction from the and is commonly used for general indexes. second is the more explicit and eliminates any ed. but may contain control AM See amplitude modulation. moirŽ. Hawaiian greeting). especially designed for 6 . or letter-by-letter. aphabetical and Arabic numerical symbols. Amber The development name for Adobe alphabetic shift The key or control for selecting Acrobat version 3. is too low. so that the image is unless the hyphenated prefix cannot stand on split into cells. There can send a message to a group of people while are two broad schemes: word-by-word. base align. alphabet length Length of a lower-case type using a typographical criterion. numeric character set of a machine. e.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 6 algorithmic language A language designed for an alphabetic character set on an alphanumeric expressing algorithms such as ALGOL. ASPIC. Basic ALOHA is par. and.g. which uses alignment The lining-up of printed characters. ignoring all hyphens and word- in the conversion of digital sound to analogue breaks on the way. those including satel. where apparently only using one address. AltaVista A search engine for the World Wide alphabet A set of all the characters. ment. The first is the more tradi- sound using a sound card. To avoid aliasing. the same way as in drawing programs.g. so that you and phrases requires rather more care. beginning of a time slot. its own). Packets are broadcast and alphasort To sort data into alphabetical the sending system listens to see if they collide sequence. components in papermaking size. topics. on which it runs. if so. i. If the sampling tional (and in some ways the more intuitive) rate. alpha channels A feature used in the storage of aligning numerals See lining figures. and special characters. CompuServe individual words is normally straightforward email addresses).e. glossaries or technical indexes. The remaining eight bits with appropriate spacing. ALOHA A system of contention resolution alphanumeric sort A computer sort of items into devised at the University of Hawaii (‘aloha’ is a alphabetical order. alum Aluminium sulphate.) Aliasing also occurs not to the end. alloy Composition of several metals. alternatively. alphanumeric data Data displayed using both all rag paper Paper made from rag pulp. ters. only as far as the first word break (compound ing or printing an analogue or continuous words are normally treated as two words image in a digital format. re-transmits after a random time. font. A set of was mounted by DEC to demonstrate the the characters used in a code language such as power of the alpha chip.0. 32-bit QuickDraw. for use by bitmap alkali resistance Quality in paper which resists editors such as Adobe PhotoShop. lites. if the mail soft. alias A method of allocating an easily remembered alphabetisation The sorting of words or phrases name to an email address (if perhaps the actual into alphabetical order. but not digits. One of the main alphabetic character set One which contains let. masks and layering effects. keyboard. subjective judgements. such as correct connection of components. align To line up type. e. alpha testing The testing of a software package at Slotted ALOHA forces packets to start at the a first preliminary stage prior to a beta testing. are used by the alpha channels to hold infor- alignment pin Any pin or key that will ensure mation on other aspects of the image. enough. the digital sample. in much staining or discolouration by alkaline materials. The alley Space between columns of type on a page effect is that different parts of the image can be (US). 24-bit images on the Macintosh. the sound is distort. which stands ticularly appropriate for networks with long for ‘alternative’ and includes many unconven- propagation times. but alphabetising compound words ware allows. The alphabetisation of address is hard to remember. alt A Usenet newsgroup category. where compound lated image and is particularly noticeable on words and phrases are counted all the way low-resolution devices and in fine detail. AltaVista symbols used in a language or work. and is often used for pling rate of around 40kHz is required.

). screening. which is used by conversion. information from analogue form (such as the mal agreement. variables such as speed. telephone lines. a hypertext link. Newer methods. which is the half and magazines. Note that the which produces digital output from an ana- values for individual high-level characters differ logue input. Interchange (ASCII) An agreed method of rep.g. Virginia. Extended analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) A device ASCII consists of 256 characters. (Contrast digital. sion of a subject is reduced/enlarged to a dif- mission in which the amplitude level of a car. whereas previously.) characters and some other characters. and Iris proof generated from a colour file).g. such as hotel and plane reservations and shop. As dis- offers electronic mail.g. lable noise level in a circuit or at a location. 7-bit ASCII consists of 128 characters. it was necessary to down. conferencing. Contrast American Standard Code for Information digital computer.) analyse scanner or analyse unit The input half of America Online (AOL) A US online service a colour scanner which scans the original and provider based in Vienna. screening. nary numbers. which produces a bell or ital proof produced from a computer file (e. is sometimes called ‘basic ASCII’. interactive newspapers tinct from the output scanner. check the frequencies they are using. US. logue signals and thus modems are required to noise etc. anamorphic scaling Scaling in which one dimen- amplitude modulation (AM) A form of trans. such as Bell. load the whole document before any of it could AM screening See amplitude modulation be viewed. software libraries. Compare digital-to-analogue from the ANSI character set. ampersand Symbol (&) for the word ‘and’.Dic. CompuServe. 8-bit characters are often loudness of a sound) to digital (so that it can be described as ‘extended’ or high-level ASCII and represented in a computer). anchor A marker for the beginning or the end of ates dots of different sizes positioned over a reg. loudness of sound). amberlith Proprietary name for an orange acetate analogue Information that can vary in a continu- sheet with a peelable coating. Although there has been no for. See frame relay and asynchronous transfer mode noise. online classes and services ating the separations. Microsoft Windows. modulation. where the dots generated are all the sible to view a document page by page as it is same or very similar minuscule size (microdots) downloaded.) ancestral file A file back-up system (son to father amplitude modulation (AM) screening Tra.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 7 transmitting and accessing Acrobat pdf files via Contrast FM screening.g. with earlier but are spread over an area to lesser or greater versions of Acrobat. length or voltage guages. also called stochastic the World Wide Web. that records the scanned signals onto film cre- computing support. ferent proportion from the other dimension: rier frequency is changed to determine the e. (e. rather than by digital representation. are digital. means from physical materials. signal (defining different shades of grey) gener.) ambient conditions Those conditions pertaining The conventional telephone system uses ana- to the surrounding medium (temperature. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) analogue computer A computer which repre- Creates standards for a wide variety of indus.) gests procedures for their solution. digital modulation. a Cromalin plus some characters which provide certain proof produced from film) as distinct from a dig- functions. such as ISDN. to grandfather file). (See also EBCDIC. With this version it is pos. a half-tone reduced 30% across the width encoded information. (See also sam- include many of the commonly used accented pling. containing light-proof masks when assembling films. sents numerical data by analogous physical tries. cessing and DTP processes to indicate where 7 . ASCII represents the characters analogue proof Proof produced by mechanical that can be keyed on a standard PC keyboard. AOL takes the scanning signals into memory. analyst A person who defines problems and sug- ping. no discontinuous elements. including computer programming lan. where the son is the cur- ditional screening method where the variation in rent working file. (See also Prodigy. Also used within wordpro- ularly spaced cell structure (screen ruling). degrees to give the shades of grey required. convert digital signals for transmission over ambient noise level A random and uncontrol. analogue loopback A self-test for modems to resenting alphanumeric characters by 7-bit bi. (See also frequency and retained at original size in the depth. plain ASCII analogue-to-digital conversion Conversion of or flat ASCII. used to make ous fashion (e. an bleep.

the characters can also be (Distributed Computing Environment) archi. acters that are not displayed on the keyboard uted system project at Carnegie Mellon are accessed using the alt key on a PC key- University. while the cursor moves other elements into dif. jaggies. (See also cel animation. morphing. A AND B character set used by Microsoft Windows. access other directories on the system. Yet Published). In Windows. anti-oxidant Ingredient in an ink which extends which can be text. graphics.Dic. anti set-off spray Fine spray sometimes applied files. containing the publicly accessible files. the ANSI and ASCII character sets. ANSI character set The character set adopted by ferent positions. Also called anodised plate Printing plate used for offset antique wove. deformable plates. animal-sized paper Paper treated by passing it anthology A published collection of poems or through a bath of animal size (gelatine). audio or video. bits. a distrib. at a speed that anti-aliasing Ways of improving the display of is fast enough to create the illusion of smooth analogue or continuous images in digital for- movement. typically APDU See application protocol data unit. NYP (Not using flexible. (See also aliasing.) reducing the creation of artefacts when the anisochronous data channel A communications colour resolution is low. machine direction. Used in flexography. aniline printing Obsolete name for flexography. a fixed point ANSI See American National Standards which remains anchored to its original position Institute. tem to a query about availability of a book. then provided to a special directory hierarchy AOL See America Online. login name anonymous or ftp and the user’s anti-tarnish paper Paper with additives which electronic mail address as password. answer-only modem A modem (usually a very anilo roller Roller used in flexography which cheap one) which can receive messages but not applies aniline ink. Phong shading. ANSI char- tem developed in the Andrew Project. hinting. accessed using the Character Map utility. stories by one author or several. Gouraud mats by reducing the pixellated appearance or shading. programs and other archived data over the on printing machines at the final stage to pre- Internet by ftp to a standard guest account with vent set-off.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 8 graphic or other imported information is in a subdirectory called ‘pub’. ANSI as the standard for computers. anonymous ftp The facility to transfer documents.g. but not timing informa. so that the character set comprises 256 AND gate Computer function interpreting the characters. The printable characters of the concept AND in program code. Can use either dither- channel in which data. opportunity to add additional information. has a true result only if both of the variables A Unlike the ASCII character set. tion. slight differences between them. send them. e. anchor point In DTP systems. Also called an asynchro. the open time of an ink on press. It is not possible to linked to the main document text flow. a relief printing process Usually indicated in code form. antique A printing paper with a rough finish but grammer to append messages or notes to a good printing surface valued in book printing flowchart. ing or grey levels. ansi.sys A configuration file needed in MS-DOS to angle cutting In web sheeting. tecture. answer Response of publisher’s computer sys- aniline ink Volatile ink which dries very quickly.g. existing node. ASCII character set have the same code in both Andrew file system (AFS) The distributed file sys. subsequently adopted by the OSF board and the option key on a Macintosh key- (Open Software Foundation) as part of the DCE board.) nous data channel. anti-rust paper Paper with additives which pro- tion. a new node linked to an photographic film which prevents halation. 8 . Access is protect bright metals against tarnishing. annotation symbol A symbol used by a pro. ANSI uses all 8 and B are true. usually select- animation Displaying a series of images with ed by an editor. tweening. tect metal surfaces against rusting. anti-halation backing Coating on the back of annotation In hypertext. for its high-volume characteristics. litho and specially coated to prevent oxida. If the software allows it. this antimony A metallic element forming part of the provides both authors and readers with the alloy used in metal type. is transmitted. also the AND A logical operation in which e. when the the web be able to display block graphics and other is cut at an angle rather than horizontally to the effects.

transmission of specific applications through a appendix Addition to a book or document fol. elements. EtherTalk is an implementation grams used to solve problems specific to a par- of AppleTalk on an Ethernet LAN. LocalTalk.) opers. devel. ters specially written to permit or prevent the ferent appearing sizes. The apparent density Weight of paper per unit of application layer is concerned with the user’s volume. Inc. This is at the Apple products) and technical information. green the application has been started but then mini- and red in the same plane. routines for requesting services from lower lev- AppleLink An electronic mail and information els of the network or from communication pro- service reserved for Apple employees. level of security as it also allows all traffic to be Apple Popular make of computer widely used in monitored.Dic. application layer The top layer of the ISO seven- tem produced by Agfa using the pdf format for layer model. application protocol data unit (APDU) A packet which provides product announcements and of data exchanged between two application updates (for third-party products as well as for programs across a network. application program interface (API) The interface Apple Computer. appropriate ABI. operating system. as opposed to administrative or utility pro- application binary interface (ABI) The interface grams. Provides a high lowing the main text.) scientific. security gateway or firewall. application service element (ASE) Software in AppleTalk A proprietary local area network the presentation layer of the OSI seven-layer protocol developed by Apple Computer. model. work transparency and resource allocation. expressed as via which an application program accesses the an F number. an API provides applications with Macintosh to write disks in IBM-PC format. dealers etc. (See also ticular application. Apogee Digital workflow and production sys. An API can well as the earlier Apple I. and is independent of the network layer on applications package A suite of computer pro- which it is run. the API also helps applications Apple Desktop Bus A system for connecting manage windows. (See also API. applet See Java applet. Inc. a graphic that rep- operators. and other com. AppleTalk is built into the Macintosh specific services. For a local area network and on the Apple File Exchange A utility that allows a Internet. also provide an interface between a high-level Founded in 1983 by Steve Jobs and Steve language and lower-level utilities and services. which handles aspects such as net- standardising and controlling pages.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 9 aperture Lens opening on a camera. business. application layer of the OSI seven-layer AppleShare File server software from Apple for model and may actually be transmitted as sev- handling networked or connected Macintosh eral packets at a lower layer including extra computers. view of the network. Binary-compatible appli- API See application program interface. For Windows. ASEs are split into common services and puters. Manufacturer of the that an application program uses to request Macintosh range of personal computers as operating system and other services. Wozniak. vary. 9 . apparent specific gravity See apparent density. universities. tion layer with a local representation of data that appearing size The physical size of a type. the graphic arts industries. Two type. opposed to its nominal point size. information for routing etc. Apple II and Lisa. tion layer (the next layer) provides the applica- munications. mised.) ing an extensive set of data structures and application icon In Windows. areas such as electronic mail. The presenta- APPC See advanced program-to-program com. application-level gateway A filter or series of fil- faces of the same point size can have very dif. icons and other GUI input devices to the Macintosh. as is independent of the format used on the network. directory services and file transfer. user groups. cations should run on any system with the APL A powerful algorithmic language employ. APDUs. resents a running application: it appears after apochromatic Lenses which focus blue. (See also ABI.g. financial. which provides an interface to handle for communication between Apple products. Because applications and networks principally the Macintosh. e. menus. tocol stacks. application Software such as a wordprocessor or applications program A program written to spreadsheet that is used to perform a specific accomplish a specific task (such as wordprocess- type of work. ing)..

) ished to a high finish.g. art See artwork. such as data en route between a peripheral and its business systems. Japanese product for the manufacture of ARP See Address Resolution Protocol. ics into a page or area layout. future use in a computer system. Arabic symbols. archival paper A paper with long-lasting quali. ftp sites and ftp archives. Original illustrative copy or typesetting ties. architecture The design or arrangement of com. art canvas Loose wove.Dic. Represents area composition See page make-up. There may be several archive sites x-height. gauged by standard test. arithmetic unit Computer unit which performs APR Asahi Photosensitive Resin. III. photopolymer plates. that can also be artboard Woodfree board coated to a high finish used to create Web pages from RTF docu. storage destination in a computer. Illus- also permanent paper. 2. artwork 1. (See also for. stored for public access via anonymous ftp. (See also Archie. Arabic figures can be typeset arrowhead Printed sign © which usually refers as lining or non-lining figures. carbon (thus. 10 . ascender The part of a letter extending above the dling tools. (See ready for reproduction at pre-film stage. 4 etc. to a cross-reference. parchment. source in photography or plate-making. Arachnophilia A Windows freeware HTML edi. wide area information art paper Paper coated with china clay and pol- servers.) trations. say. processors that can perform functions normal- Archie A system to automatically gather. for fine printing of half-tones. artificial parchment A paper which simulates tions of information. Archive sites are also known as Information Interchange. a Usenet newsgroup. carbon arcs). The reasoning. tor. art platen Platen printing machine used for ponents in a microprocessor. Evolved from arrow Printing sign ➔ used to indicate direction. ASN See autonomous system number. designs or photographs used in print- archive To store data economically offline for ing. AS See autonomous system. Proprietary calculations. learning and self-improvement in initial implementation provided an indexed such a way that a device can improve its own directory of filenames from all anonymous ftp operation. eration. tinct from the Roman I. In many programming applications. 2. the term is taken to refer simply to an area set arabic figures The numerals 1.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 10 applications software Programs which are area storage A buffer of storage reserved for live applied to solve specific problems. World Wide Web or other file-han. d. ments. as e. II. pattern. ARCnet See Attached Resource Computer ash or ash content Residue of paper after incin- Network. h. (See also archive site. usually of ASDL See asynchronous digital subscriber loop.) be recognised as the main one and the others ASCII See American Standard Code for act as mirrors. index ly identified with human intelligence such as and serve information on the Internet. strong cotton with a tis- archetype Document or book written about the sue lining. aside to store program data. in b. which arcs across two electrodes. proofing or printing half-tones. Gopher. typical themes and motifs of a particular time artificial intelligence (AI) The development of and subject. k and l.) ASCII coding See American Standard Code for arc lamp Lamp that produces light by a current Information Interchange. Prospero. Artype Proprietary name for a make of transfer archive site An Internet host where files are type. Later versions provide other collec. usually with good colour retention. aquatint Type of print using ‘mottled’ areas ARPANET See Advanced Research Projects designed to resemble water-colour painting. the amount of loadings and fillers (mineral area make-up Bringing together text and graph. APPN See advanced peer-to-peer networking. A series See A. Used as a light ASE See application service element. IV. content) that there are in the paper. as dis. fine-screen gelatine-coated plate and offset array A series of items arranged in a meaningful printing. AR Aspect ratio. ARPA See Advanced Research Projects Agency. Used in bookbinding. Gopher. Agency Network. aquatone Form of collotype printing using a ARQ See automatic repeat request. where one may descender. 3. available from ZDNet. archives.

e. 11 . the previous operation has been completed. which converts a high. using dial-up connections over modems. designed to ports. assembly language A low-level computer lan. AT&T had a monopoly on the supply of without the need for rewiring. ing. assembler A computer program which converts equivalent to start and stop bits. in kbps and downstream bit rates of up to 9 layer model to describe the sort of information Mbps. the manner in which individual assembler box Part of a Linotype composing cells are allocated to different users in response machine in which the line is assembled. mation can be obtained from the IANA asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) A high- (Interernet Assigned Numbers Authority). When devices do not have to be synchronised and graphics are transferred from one software thus the data is sent in groups or blocks. Also known as ‘fast packet’ asymmetrical modulation A scheme in which and generally associated with a fast packet the use of a communications line is maximised switching technology called cell relaying. when to transfer control of the conversation. Similarly. Until VCR-quality video could be delivered to homes 1983. broadband-ISDN.Dic. Asynchronous can also refer to events tem. asymmetric digital subscriber line (or loop) One of the largest US telecommunications (ADSL) A digital telecommunications protocol providers. integrate the transport of all services on a sin- asterisk Star-shaped symbol (*) often used as a gle network. devices (terminals. a display that this provides an alternative to ISDN. (See video on telephone services in the US. asynchronous assignment In asynchronous level language into machine code. The Unix operating system and the that allows transmission of VHS quality video C and C++ programming languages were over standard telephone lines. Machine which rently. bandwidth for access to the Internet to those aspect ratio The ratio of width to height. Compare compiler. rather package to another. vides an interface for up to 16 communications rently assigned values used in network proto. bandwidth method of transporting informa- The IANA assigns numbers to new protocols. or block. between two devices. provides part of the National Information (1:1) are considered preferable. Although square pixels US. in by giving a larger share of the bandwidth to which information is handled in fixed cell the modem which is transmitting the most lengths of 53 octets. Inc. transfer mode.) Uses the principles of asymmetrical language for describing abstract syntax. AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph. used modulation with upstream bit rates measured in the presentation layer of the OSI seven. The OSI demand. The data must include start and stop bits to ASPIC Acronym for Authors’ Symbolic Prepress indicate the beginning and end of each group Interfacing Codes: an early generic coding sys. preserve aspect ratios. to the varying demands of the traffic. asynchronous multiplexer A device which pro- assigned numbers The RFC in which the cur. care needs to be taken to than as a steady stream. The aspect ratio asynchronous Not synchronous (or synchro- of graphics will not always appear to be the nised). Also called the next is controlled by signals indicating that planning. information.g. use aspect ratios of about 5:4. assembly Bringing together pieces of film to asynchronous computer A digital computer in make up rows of pages and produce final which automatic progress from one operation to imposed foils for platemaking. asynchronous data channel See anisochronous guage which needs an assembler to translate it data channel. Most often refers to data communi- same on paper as it does on screen (partly cations in which the sending and receiving because the pixel aspect ratio is not 1:1). tion in short. printers. a telephone conversation is paper tape. This means that developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One. fixed-length cells. keyboards). In the screen or a graphic. col implementations are documented. This Programmable functions include parity check- RFC is updated periodically and current infor. asynchronous. Defined by the ITU-T for public footnote reference mark. Will also effectively provide a greater being exchanged. that occur at different times rather than concur- ASR Answer Send and Receive. links etc. which indicate a low-level language into machine code. Note Common uses are to describe a pixel. most displays Infrastructure (NII). in that signals are recognised.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 11 ASN. into machine code. email communication is asynchro- can send to and receive from a computer by nous.

were made and by whom.g. logarith- by Hayes Microcomputer Products for software mic or mu-law. 12 . Audio bridges over ISDN transfer mode) switching protocol. Audio is replayed through a control of modems. times a second. The quality of the dig. ic or bold. voice). 1984. Files using this format attribute Property or characteristic. (twisted pair. tronic whiteboard or shared screens as part of ATS (Animal Tub Sized) Paper sized after man. ufacture with animal gelatine. such as or uuencoding. a tag may include a particular AUP See acceptable use policy. signature.) matic teller machine.g. the facility Markup Language) (and HTML (Hypertext to keep track of all successive versions of doc- Markup Language)) tags or elements. audio bridge A way of connecting a small num- ATM adaptation layer (AAL) The interface ber of telephone lines in order to provide an between services and the ATM (asynchronous audio conference. as well as to the colours and styles of fills. used within Windows. entity. Sound is one com- ed as standard for modems used with PCs. attachment A file sent with an email message. audio (ARCnet) Originally a proprietary network IFF) A sound format developed by Apple developed by DataPoint. (See also digital styles. lication. ment instance. Slower than Ethernet at 2. (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) to audio-visual interleaved (avi) A video format enable the attachment.g. such as ital. as well as uments with information on when changes possible values for an attribute. defined for SGML (Standard Generalised audit trail In workflow management. Is widely used as part of rates of up to 20 Mbps (see bits per second). Within a docu. voice mail systems.) authorÕs corrections Corrections made by the audio Sound on computers (and on audio com. printer’s the original is sampled tens of thousands of errors or literals are marked in red. This set was emulated in sound card which converts the digital file back Hayes-compatible modems and is now regard. thus emulating a private circuit or leased audio levels and background noise conditions. attributes may be Player. AAL 5 is a null audiographic teleconferencing Use of an elec- adaptation layer.) tionless service (e. Computer for storing high-quality sampled etary. Author’s corrections The continuous (analogue) sound waveform of are by convention marked in blue. AAL 4 emulates a connec. Adobe Type Manager. It protocol. The encoding may be linear. Within typography. ital encoding is also affected by the number of author-date system See Harvard system. copy. (See also audio IFF. versation. In most cases uses MIME sound tapes and slides. as distinct from printerÕs error or literals dled by storing a sequence of discrete samples. Attached Resource Computer Network audio interchange file format (AIFF. ponent of multimedia. into an analogue waveform. audio interchange file formats and aliasing. Each sample represents the author-date A bibliographical reference system intensity of the sound pressure wave for each comprising the author’s name and date of pub- frequency at that instant.Dic. Within a DTD can be replayed using the Windows Media (document type definition). e. person or process. AAL 1 pro. (See also computer conferencing oriented service.5 Mbps but is now also used by Silicon Graphics and some allows different kinds of transmission media professional audio packages. In a communication system. while in paint and draw programs. AAL 3 emulates a connection. made by the typesetter. audio-visual (AV) Information provided on May be compressed or encoded using BinHex media that use both sight and sound. author on proofs and changing the original pact discs and digital audio tape). auto. SMDS). This is han. encryption. Uses a star topology and a token-passing audio and musical instrument information. line. are more effective than those over the PSTN vides a constant bit rate at source and destina. authentication Verification of the identity of a attribute is used to mean type style. A revised access a database of audio messages using a specification called ARCnet Plus supports bit touch-tone telephone.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 12 AT command set A set of commands developed bits used. because there are fewer problems with varying tion. now no longer propri. coaxial cable and fibre-optic cable) audiotex A system in which it is possible to to be mixed in the same network. AAL 2 emulates a variable bit rate service audioconferencing A multi-party telephone con- (e. and videoconferencing. ATM See asynchronous transfer mode. authentication verifies that messages really attribute refers to line weights. colours and come from their stated source. audio IFF See audio interchange file format.) (See also element. teleconferencing. Brown. value for an attribute.

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authoring Creating a hypertext or hypermedia adjust the letter fit of certain character combi-
document. There are a number of authoring nations in text so that spacing is kept visually
languages, such as Apple’s HyperCard, as well even.
as an ever-increasing number of Web author- automatic pile delivery System on modern
ing tools for creating HTML documents for the printing machines which jogs printed sheets
World Wide Web. into an orderly pile and gradually lowers the
Authorware Interactive Studio Software from accumulating stack.
Macromedia for developing interactive multi- automatic programming Any technique em-
media applications. Takes a more structured ployed to simplify program writing such as the
approach than the same company’s use of an assembler to translate a programmer’s
Macromedia Director. (See also Shockwave.) symbolic code into machine language.
auto-answer A feature supported on many automatic repeat request (ARQ) An error control
modems and all fax machines which allows protocol used in modems, in which the receiver
incoming calls to be answered automatically, asks the transmitter to resend corrupted data.
even if the user is not present. automatic teller machine (ATM) Cash dispenser
auto-dial A feature of advanced modems, usual- which uses credit or debit cards, authenticated
ly used for call-back, so that the modem can by the use of a PIN number.
call automatically without human interven- automatic transfer press A web-fed press which
tion. allows make-ready to proceed on one set of
autoflow In DTP systems, a facility which allows plates while a job is still running on a second set.
text to flow automatically into a preset layout There is then no press stop when the new job
or template. starts.
autograph Written words in the author’s hand- autonomous system (AS) A collection of routers
writing. under a single administration using a common
autographic transfer Method of reproducing Interior Gateway Protocol for routing packets.
hand-written material from a special hard- autonomous system number (ASN) Used for
sized transfer paper by lithography. routing on Internet. See autonomous system.
autokerning See automatic kerning. autopaster See flying paster.
autoleading In DTP, automatic leading set at autoplate Machine for producing curved print-
120% of the body type size. ing plates.
auto-lithography Drawing of original artwork autopositive film Photographic material which
on a lithographic printing plate. produces a positive image from a positive orig-
automatic bootstrap loader Allows system start- inal without an intermediate.
up from a variety of peripheral devices without auto-redial A feature supported on many
the need to enter commands from a keyboard. modems which allows redialling until a connec-
automatic dialling unit A device (typically a tion is made. The redial time can usually be set
modem) that is capable of automatically gener- to a value to suit the user. This is a particularly
ating signals which correspond to the dialled useful feature for dial-up connection to bulletin
digits of a call. boards and Internet points of presence.
automatic error correction Referring to the autoreversal film Type of film used for making
detection and correction (usually involving contact film duplication without requiring an
retransmission) of transmission errors. The intermediate stage of negative or positive,
degree of correction will be dependent on the i.e. will give a negative from a negative or posi-
error checking codes employed and equipment tive from a positive. Also known as direct-
configuration. duplicating film.
automatic feeder Device on a printing or folding autosplice See flying paster.
machine which draws paper into the machine. autotracing The conversion of a bitmap to a vector
automatic guided vehicle See AGV. or outline image. Most autotracing programs
automatic heading The positioning of a heading are able to trace images in TIFF or pcx format
on consecutive pages by means of a generic and output as Encapsulated PostScript.
instruction at the start of a project, common on Autotracing is useful for converting images
modern page make-up systems. which have been scanned to images which can
automatic imposition equipment See projection be manipulated using a draw program.
platemaking equipment. auxiliary storage See backing store.
automatic kerning or autokerning The ability of AV Audio-visual.
some typesetting systems automatically to avatar A computer-generated figure, intended to


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represent a human on a computer screen. In the machine, e.g. hyphenation and justification of
early days of videoconferencing, it was suggested a text file while other material is being input.
that such an approach might be used to reduce background processing Low-priority tasks, in a
bandwidth requirements. multitasking environment, that are performed
avi See audio-visual interleaved. when higher-priority programs are inactive. In
a/w See artwork. wordprocessing, performance of a task such as
azerty Keyboard arrangement used in France as printing while the operator completes other
alternative to the standard qwerty keyboard tasks.
arrangement of characters. Accommodates background program One which does not
accents. depend on interaction with the user.
azure laid Blue-tinted laid paper, usually used backing In binding, the operations which form a
for stationery. shoulder on each side of the spine. Also known
azure wove As azure laid but without character- as jointing. In paper the carrier sheet for a
istic laid lines. peel-off stock.
backing store Mass storage medium on a com-
puter, e.g. floppy disk, magnetic tape etc.
backing-up See back-up.
back lining Strip of paper or fabric glued to the
B spine of a book to give reinforcement strength.
(See also first and second linings.)
back link A link back to the point from which
the last link was made.
B The B series is an international ISO range of backlist Publisher’s list of those books published
sizes designed for large items (wallcharts, before the current date and still in print.
posters) and falling between the A series sizes. back margin The margin of a book nearest the
(See also A, C.) See Appendix. spine.
BA Booksellers Association. back number Copy of a previous issue of a peri-
BABT approval Approval by the British odical.
Approval Board for Telecommunications, indi- back-of-book Pages in a periodical following the
cated by a green circle. Any equipment, most editorial; often classified advertising.
commonly modems, requires this approval backoff Where a host that has experienced a
before it can be legally connected to the UK collision on a network waits for a (random)
telephone system. A red triangle means that amount of time before attempting to retrans-
approval has not (yet) been obtained. mit.
back 1. The binding edge of a book. The back backplane The wiring and connecting units
margin is the space between the type and bound that allow a computer to be connected to its
edge. 2. In binding, to form a shoulder on each peripherals.
side of the spine. See backing, rounding and backplaning (or back planing) Method of reduc-
backing. ing the thickness of newly cast stereos (see
backbone The primary connectivity mechanism stereotype) by trimming the reverse side on a
of a hierarchical distributed system. All stub planing machine.
and transit networks which have connectivity backs Combined back margins of a book.
to an intermediate system on the backbone are backslant Backward sloping typeface, i.e. oppo-
assured of connectivity to each other. site to italic.
backbone site A key Internet site, which backslash The slash character (\). It is used to
processes a large amount of third-party traffic, separate subdirectories in DOS commands.
especially if it is the home site of any of the Note, however, that Unix uses the forward
regional co-ordinators for the Usenet maps. slash command for this purpose and, as most
(See also rib site, leaf site.) Internet hosts run on Unix machines, it is nec-
back-edge curl Distortion of the back edge of a essary for DOS users to remember this when
sheet of paper usually caused by heavy solids using such programs as ftp.
too close to the back edge. Also, tail-end hook. backspace The movement of the cursor of a
backer card Display card fixed to back of dump VDU or a printing head in a backwards direc-
bin or stand. tion along a line.
background Computer processing mode which back-step collation See black-step collation.
can occur concurrently with the main use of the backstrip A strip of paper or linen which is glued


Dic.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 15

down the spine of a book after the pages have banding An effect seen on low-resolution print-
been sewn and rounded, prior to the case being ers when graduated fills are printed, in that
added. the transition is shown in distinct, contrasting
back swell A build-up of thread or glue at the bands rather than in one continuous flow. The
spines of books during binding causing the higher the resolution of the printer, the less
spines to swell undesirably. banding will be visible. It is also possible to
backup MS DOS command for saving selected observe banding on-screen, depending on the
groups of files held on from disk, usually the screen resolution, but this does not mean that
hard disk, to a back-up disk. (See also Restore.) the bands will necessarily print.
back-up The act of duplicating data for security band strapping Enclosing a stack of printed
purposes. material with a strong, thin plastic band to
back-up ad Advertisement published in conjunc- secure it. The machine is a Ôband strapper’.
tion with an insert or editorial announcement. bandwidth Technically, the difference, in hertz
Backus-Naur form (BNF) A grammar of gram- (Hz), between the highest and lowest frequen-
mars (or metasyntax) for specifying the syntax of cies of a transmission channel or the range of
programming languages, command sets etc. frequencies required to transmit a signal.
SGML and HTML Document Type Definitions However, as typically used, the rate at which
can be regarded as BNF grammars. data can be sent through a given communica-
backward read A technique which allows a mag- tions circuit: e.g. voice over the telephone net-
netic tape to be read while the tape is running work requires a bandwidth of 3kHz while
backwards. uncompressed video requires a bandwidth of
backwater Liquid containing dissolved ingredi- 6MHz. See broadband, voice band, wideband.
ents in papermaking process, which is passed bandwidth top-up The opening up of an ISDN
through the wire when stock is deposited. Also channel when a private circuit becomes con-
known as whitewater. gested. The channel is closed again when the
BackWeb A push technology that enables Web traffic subsides.
site owners to create their own controlled bang path A way of describing a UUCP elec-
Internet channels to deliver targeted and per- tronic mail address naming a sequence of
sonalised content directly to end users. This is hosts through which a message must pass to
rather like PointCast, except that PointCast get to the addressee. So called because each
sends only public information. BackWeb’s hop is signified by a bang sign (or exclamation
patented Polite Agent unobtrusively monitors mark ‘!’). Now that Internet addressing is
an Internet user’s online activity and, when available, this notation is rarely used, although
bandwidth is available, BackWeb incremental- the terminology is used to described the
ly downloads user-requested information sequence of hosts through which a message
using UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Because may pass before it is delivered to the intended
the downloads take place when data-transfer recipient.
levels are otherwise low, they do not affect a bank Grade of lightweight writing and printing
user’s other activities and real-time delays paper used for correspondence, multi-part sets
appear shorter. Users are able to schedule dead- etc. Weights over 60gsm are known as bonds.
lines by which time files should be available. banner 1. Large headline on advertisement or
(See also Castanet and Netscape Netcaster.) newspaper story. 2. Poster or cloth strip con-
bad break Undesirable end-of-line hyphenation taining an advertising message.
of a word. barcode A horizontal strip of vertical bars of vary-
bagasse Fibre sometimes used in papermaking ing widths, groups of which represent charac-
obtained from sugar cane. ters. There are various different standards but
baggy paper Loosely wound web. each symbol typically contains a leading quiet
BAK A filename extension used by several oper- zone, start character, data character(s) including
ating systems to identify backup copies of files. an optional check character, stop character and a
band A group of tracks on a magnetic disk. A trailing equate zone. In addition to convention-
communications frequency range between two al barcodes, there are also radial and two-
defined limits. dimensional coding systems, which are used for
Banda A type of duplicator, which draws the specialised applications such as automatic
image onto a sheet of special paper which is warehousing. Barcode readers usually use visi-
then attached to a drum. The drum rotates and ble red light with a wavelength between 632.8
prints onto paper passing under it. and 680 nanometers.


Dic.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 16

barcode reader See optical wand. material, usually paper, defined in grams per
baryta Heavy grade of coated paper sometimes square metre. 2. (US) Weight in pounds per
used for reproduction proofs. ream of paper cut to basic size. Typical US
BAS A filename extension common to several weights for book papers are 50lb (equivalent to
operating systems denoting BASIC source 74gsm), 55lb (equivalent to 81gsm), 60lb
program files. (equivalent to 89gsm). See Appendix.
base alignment Aligning characters of different Baskerville Typeface designed by John Baskerville
sizes on the same line. See baseline, align. in the 18th century and still widely used.
baseband A transmission method through which bastard progressives Set of progressive proofs
digital signals are sent without modulation. In showing every possible colour combination of
general, only one communication channel is the four process colours.
available at any given time. Most local area bastard size Non-standard size of any material
networks are baseband networks, e.g. Ethernet. or format.
baseboard artwork or baseline artwork Artwork bastard title See half title.
presented on a stiff base with a tissue overlay BAT An operating system filename extension
indicating colour splits. that denotes a batch file.
base-level synthesizer The minimum capability batch Method of computer processing where
required by the Microsoft MPC specification input data is collected into batches before pro-
for a music synthesizer within Microsoft cessing, as distinct from real time or interactive
Windows. It must be capable of playing at least operation. A batch pagination program is one
six simultaneous notes on three melodic instru- where the machine operator sets up the specifi-
ments, together with three simultaneous notes cation parameters by using a menu, and then
on percussion instruments. (See also MIDI.) allows the program to make up the text into
baseline The line on which characters are based, pages with no further intervention. Contrast an
i.e. the line along the bottom of characters, such interactive page make-up program, which
as a, b and c, which do not have descenders (as requires continuous dialogue with the operator.
in j, p, q and y). Line spacing is measured Bath Information and Data Services (BIDS) A
between baselines. Leading is extra spacing data provision service at the University of
added, based on the strips of lead (the metal) Bath, providing bibliographic and electronic
which compositors used to add between blocks document delivery services to the UK higher
of type. education sector.
base paper Paper to which a coating is to be batter Broken or damaged type, blocks or plates.
added. Also called body paper or body stock. battered Damaged printing surface.
BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic battery-backed RAM A form of non-volatile
Instruction Code. A widely used high-level storage in which power is permanently sup-
computer programming language. plied to memory modules even when power to
basic bandwidth unit (BBU) The smallest unit of the computer is removed.
bandwidth which can be allocated. baud The information-carrying capacity of a com-
basic rate interface (BRI) See basic rate ISDN. munication channel in terms of the number of
basic rate ISDN (BRI) This is a UK version of changes of state or level per second, i.e. the fre-
ISDN which consists of two 64 kbps channels quency of electrical oscillation. This is the same
(B – bearer – channels) for speech or data, plus as the bit rate only for two-level modulation
a 16 kbps channel (D – delta – channel) used with no frame or stop bits. Many people con-
for signalling and control purposes. The aggre- fuse bit rate and baud, probably because most
gate data rate is thus 2 3 64 + 16 = 144 kbps. lower-speed modems have the bit rate and baud
Basic rate ISDN is often referred to as 2B + D. rate (also called ‘symbol rate’) identical. It is
BRI is the kind of ISDN interface most likely to therefore less ambiguous to use the term bits
be found in a residential service. per second (bps) when describing modem rates
basic size American paper term for the specified of transmission. The term baud was originally a
sheet size used to define basis weight. unit of telegraph signalling speed, set at one
Different papers have different basic sizes: the Morse code dot per second and named after
basic size applied to book papers is 25 3 380. Emil Baudot (1845-1903), the French engineer
basil Grade of leather produced from sheepskin who constructed the first successful teleprinter.
and used in the production of account book baud barf The apparently random characters
bindings. which appear on a monitor when a modem con-
basis weight or substance 1. The weight of a nection is used with some protocol setting (espe-


belts for printing books in-line from a paper baudy language A graphical language for con.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 17 cially line speed) incorrect. Operates to measure the weight of paper. under real conditions. Berne Convention International copyright types. superseded by photographic screen tints. 2. See basic rate ISDN. Now more nication occurs on the same line. and experienced hackers (in Bell 103 The variant of V. software. such as videoconferencing. See Cameron belt press. ready for binding at veying feelings. BER See bit error rate. Also known as a flange . See internal-sizing. Many Internet hosts BDG Binding. real-time need and is classified as a best-effort area academic computer network in the US service. custom the cone refiner. Type-high metal strips. Electronic mail. certain types of real-time fibres are mechanically treated in a cone-refin. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) An B-channel The main type of component channel implementation of a Domain Name Server of ISDN services. ) = the performance of a device under typical con- wink. pletely random. the US. between the face and the shoulder. Sloping surface of a piece of type beeper See pager. communication. 17 .Dic. ring a bell on teletype equipment. Replaced in modern papermaking by application for a single customer. baud). used for carrying data or developed and distributed by the University of voice. Outer Bekk smoothness Measurement of smoothness edges of letterpress printing plate which are of paper surface using the Bekk instrument. BDG/ND Binding/no date. and smileys. now run BIND. : ( frown. BCC See block check character. Named after its developer. Baudot code Five-bit code developed by the bell code Code permitting more commands than French engineer Emil Baudot in the 1870s (see is possible on the TTS six-level coding structure. beater-sized pulp Papermaking furnish to which best effort A classification for low-priority net- the size is added during beating rather than at work traffic. sizing. Ben Day. surrounding standard and distributed by Unisoft. BBS See bulletin board system. as a single network with EARN in Europe and beta testing The stage at which software is tested other networks in different parts of the world. the type for protection when moulding stereo. . The possibilities are limited only ditions. web to a delivered book. Flat surfaces at the end of printing agreement signed in Berne in 1886. based originally on IBM mainframe systems beta ray gauge Device which uses radio isotopes connected via leased 9600 bps lines. which is regarded as the de facto bearers 1. on the other hand. California at Berkeley. when it had a telephone system monopoly in mation from it about the sending modem. Obviously a pun on baud (and of benchmark test A routine designed to evaluate course ‘body language’) e. bespoke software Software written for a specific uid pulp. Baud barf is not com. bevel 1. by imagination and the ASCII character set. has no Because ItÕs Time NETwork (BITNET) A wide. B stands for ‘bearer’. below type height and by which the plate is bell A control character originally employed to secured.g. Tim The leading developer of the beater (beating engine) Large vat used midway World Wide Web at CERN in the early 1990s.21 created by AT&T both the good and bad senses) can extract infor. ent bandwidth requirements and therefore dif- beating Part of the papermaking process where ferent priorities: e. Internet. ity. : ) = smile. Also. BBU See basic bandwidth unit. prior to general release. belt press Printing press using two continuous baud rate See baud. also described as emoticons the end of the press. refining. through the papermaking process to refine liq. Berkeley Network (B-NET) Unix Ethernet soft- beard Distance from the bottom of the x-height of ware developed at the University of California a piece of type to the bottom edge of the body. bed The flat metal part of a printing machine See acceptance testing and alpha testing. Different kinds of traffic have differ- engine-sizing. or when there commonly used to permit more codes than is is really bad line noise. Ben Day Mechanical process of tint laying bboard See bulletin board system. Berners-Lee. 2. er (beater) to modify their characteristics to need a certain minimum guaranteed band- those required by the desired paper quality in width and latency and thus need a high prior- manufacture. Also. when voice commu.g. press cylinders. possible from the TTS six-level coding structure. at Berkeley. still used for telex. which holds the type form during printing. used with reference to the a later stage in the process.

to a written work. signed by the person giving it. the information to be synchronised before trans- bibliophile A collector or lover of books. white pixels in appropriate proportions. 1 and ing output. ing a series of bistable devices.) to right and right to left in a line printing binary system (base two) A method of working machine (e. ASCII) 18 . All data input mail. either black or white with no representation of binder 1. databases. links and widely used in networks on main- biblio page Reverse of title page. Each item in the list may include A protocol developed by IBM for half-duplex details of author. lated on output by a mixture of black and bindery Place where binding is carried out. books. because 1 and 0 can represent on and off. white bitmap. bilevel coding A black-and. requir. or weight. strong. system in which each decimal digit is repre- ed. Person who does bindery work. title. a degree of greyness. See case board. trimmed size 198 3 126. millboard. Named after a Unix utility.g. Thus the two levels of a bilevel bitmap allows binary files to be transferred between are black or white. Originally made for bibles and prayer sented by four binary digits. scientific and technical one which contains more than just standard (7- publications. barked when the post arrived. for exporters. (See also asynchronous trans- bi-directional printing Movement both from left mission. bibliography List of books and articles relating binary synchronous communications (BSC. and the non-printing area is usually bf Bold face. is need. the covers of a case-bound book. binding 1. 0. Two leading suppliers are BRS bit) ASCII characters. online information service providing indexed binary file Any file that is not ordinary text. Device for holding loose-leaf sheets. and as a receipt by the shipping line. mission begins. grey on demand or at a fixed and determinable board. binary See binary system. usually given at the end of bisync(h) or bisynchronous communications) the work. This includes spread- Information Technologies and DIALOG sheet files.e. cover. Used in all digital computing systems BIDS See Bath Information and Data Services. executable programs and Information Services. defined as ‘an unconditional stitching etc.e. binary file using only printable (i. opaque printing binary-coded decimal A numeric representation paper used where low bulk. Bisynch communications need the gives bibliogrphical details about the book. Octal and hexadecimal systems (based on 8 bilevel bitmap.e. bible paper Very thin. a sum certain in money to the BinHex A Macintosh format for representing a order of a specified person. The process of fastening printed bill Poster. order in writing. most wordprocessing files. The bound part of a publication. unlined chipboard. also used for dictionaries and air mailed binary counter A computer component compris- publications. Usually good ing the person to whom it is addressed to pay quality and single-ply. publisher etc. addressed by one person to binding board or binderÕs board Board used in another. which was in into computer systems and transferred over turn named after a golden Labrador at the communications links is therefore converted University of California at Berkeley which from the everyday decimal system to binary. bill of exchange A common payment instrument 2. or to bearer’. access to scholarly. Used B format paperback Massmarket paperback of for long runs. or flip flops. future time.Dic. with numbers based on only two digits. See bold. i. the page which frames. and 16) are also widely used in computing. Bibliographic Retrieval Service (BRS) An each storing one bit of a byte.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 18 Beyond Press Software package which allows bill of lading A statement of goods being carried QuarkXPress files to be repurposed in HTML by sea. daisywheel printer) thus increas. i. where each pixel in a scan is represented as BIND See Berkeley Internet Name Domain. stainless steel or chromium. aluminium. used as a document of title by the con- for the Web. sheets together and securing them in a cover. or biff To notify someone that they have incoming connected and disconnected. BŽzier curve Geometric curve whose shape can bimetal plate Lithographic plate where the be defined through a series of intermediate printing image area base is usually brass or points called control handles. signor. in which each pixel is either on binary transfer A File Transfer Protocol which or off. copper. Bilevel coding is used in fax computers. 2. Grey levels can be simu. See clocks on the computers sending and receiving copyright page.

8-bit and 24-bit colour.0 files are designed for communica. indi. Bit bang was used on cer. where character is stored as an array of pixels (or a the signal alternates between positive and neg. Such fonts are not easily scalable. there will be more than one bit for each software for non-Macintosh computers in pixel. display has fast updating compared with a ter- BinHex 4. bits per second (bps) A measure of bandwidth bitmap A two-dimensional array. with errors relative to the total number of bits measured in bps or kbps or Mbps. areas. received. i. in which pixels or data transmission speed. a single output bit at bitmap image See bitmap and bilevel bitmap. bits are transferred one at a time.e.0 automatically. bite.) displayed corresponds directly to one or more BinHex 4. In serial commu. The difference between is specified first. the smallest outline fonts are created on the fly.Dic. particularly at large sizes. contrast to vector or outline fonts (like those B-ISDN See broadband ISDN. Each application of the acid The user is responsible for protocols above the increases the depth of the etch and is called a physical layer. called bytes. Line and tint drawings and type can be nications. BITNET See Because ItÕs Time NETwork. in software. have errors. Unlike vector text. bit rate The rate at which digital information bit error rate (BER) The number of bits received can be sent over a communications system. order to read and use these files. 1-bit.0 A 7-bit-wide representation of a bits in the computer’s video memory. loss of quality. which not only limits their function- bisynchronous communications See binary ality but also takes up space on the storage synchronous communications. or plate with acid. which personal computers and workstations have can cause problems if the receiving machine is bitmap displays. Compare with bit bang Serial data transmission by rapidly vector graphics. displayed as bitmap graphics. medium. bisynch See binary synchronous com. uuencode. outline and bitmap fonts is that the bitmaps for bit An acronym for binary digit.e. Such a Macintosh file with CRC error checking. images. Often used ITU-T has set a number of standards for data 19 . consisting either of solids or flat tinted nations of bits. Some speed of the line limits the speed at which the Macintosh mailing systems will put attach. bisync. Of course. bit pipe A path using circuit switching which bite Stage in the process of etching a metal block provides unrestricted transfer of information. bitmap fonts need to be stored in all the sizes munications.) usually indicates a BinHex format file. together with BIOS Basic Input Output System: that part of an interactive graphics and choice of on-screen operating system that controls the interface fonts. user interfaces can be used. each colour will have its own bits. display can be updated. tain early computers. kbps (1000 bps) or Mbps (1million bps). which means that graphical not also a Macintosh. If a bitmap represents a coloured although it is necessary to obtain appropriate image. Often quoted in are either on or off. essentially represent. (See bitmap display A screen on which each pixel also BinHex 4. arrays of dots. because it takes very little processor time.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 19 characters. black or white. Bitmap graphics are typically line ingful information is handled by using combi. appropriate times. i. The technique is now bit-oriented protocols Protocols that deal with being used again on some RISC architectures information transfer at the bit level. Because BinHex files are simply to describe the image itself. The suffix hqx (See also raster. bipolar signal An electrical line signalling bitmap font (raster font) A font in which each method used in digital communication.0. bitmap editors See paint program. used in PostScript and TrueType). See bpi. bits per inch The number of bits recorded per cating that 1 in 1 000 000 (a typical error rate) inch of magnetic tape or disk track. in ative polarities. changing. In practice. required. given either as 1 in 106 or as 10-6. bitmaps cannot be resized without mail systems and stored on most computers. Almost all modern ments into BinHex 4. they can be sent through most electronic graphics. bitmap). Sometimes called a paint-type ing a switch being open or closed. with computer hardware. minal connected via a serial line where the tion of Mac files over long paths. The Can easily be stored in a computer. or 1 or 0. big-endian The ordering of the components of a all fonts are bitmapped when displayed hierarchical name in which the domain name onscreen or printed. item of information which a computer can bitmap graphic A graphic image made up of hold. More mean. being either 1 or 0. graphic.

Dic. blad Sample pages of a book produced in the blind stamping See blind blocking. size (see trim) is usually 3mm to ensure a clean black printer The black plate in four-colour cut-off. black box Colloquial term for an electronic Treatments include exposure to chlorine. then levelled and controlled by a flexible steel blister cut Paper defect resulting in a web cut blade. device which converts one type of input into chlorine dioxide. Offers email and con. usually regarded which transfers the printing image from plate as potentially endless and occurring at regular to paper. operated independently. the cylinder of an offset litho printing press bit stream A sequence of bits. Caused by a particle ing for impressing or stamping a design on a lodged behind the blade during coating. which is cut to separate one book from the blade coating. parency in bit-oriented protocols.) blade coater Machine for blade coating. material becomes attached to the litho blanket bit stuffing A method of ensuring data trans. The bromide print by paper being too damp when calendering. often diagonally to machine direction. viewed. together in the sewing process. blade cut Paper defect where a blade scratch blister pack Packaging method using a sheet of cuts deeply into the web. Sometimes called mono or chemical treatment is used to purify. particle. bleach-out Underdeveloped bromide print used dered paper where areas darken. nals or reproductions as distinguished from bleaching Part of papermaking process where multi-colour. Blocking or stamping of covers or jackets and detail. is bleached away after the drawing is finished. sion cylinders printing both sides of the sheet black and white Single colour black-only origi.) visual display (e. 2. when the spine of the complete publication is Also called blind stamping. Can be caused as a basis for a line drawing. lis. like indentation in a coated surface running in block Etched copper or zinc plate used in bind- the grain direction. Method of ensuring sections of a a litho plate where the image has lost its ink publication are gathered in the correct receptivity.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 20 transmission over analogue networks (V blanket A rubber-surfaced sheet clamped around series). brighten and improve permanence of the pulp. (See also kettle-stitch. monochrome. plastic holding bubbles of air which form a blade scratch Paper defect where there is a hair. intervals. blackening Paper defect associated with calen. cover. or web simultaneously. a plate typically blade streak Paper defect which is similar to a containing a line or half-tone illustration blade scratch but larger and caused by a larger which is mounted and printed with the type. block check character (BCC) A character which 20 . screen or marching display). whiten. cushion of protection. Note also that BitStream is a compa. A type style bleed Printed matter running off the cut edge of a based upon a style of handwriting popular in page. In letterpress printing. blanket cylinder The cylinder around which the BIX A US online service owned by Delphi but blanket is clamped. It is this stitch blade-coated cartridge See coated cartridge. The bleed allowance beyond the trimmed the 15th century. as well as its own Windows access two blanket cylinders act as opposing impres- to the Internet. the rules form a stepped pattern. form of a booklet and used for promotional blind stitch The stitch which joins the books purposes. The or jackets without metallic foil in order to position of the rule on each section is such that smooth down. (See blind keyboard Typesetting keyboard with no also collate. or emboss the surface. The outer fold of each section is blind blocking Blocking or stamping of covers printed with a rectangle or short thick rule. and interferes with print quality. blanket-to-blanket Printing configuration where ferencing. Used to describe collation. without metallic foil or ink resulting only in an black-step collation Also called back-step indentation for embossing. black letter Also called gothic. blister Paper defect usually occurring during blade coating Paper coating method where a heatset drying of coated papers where clearly surplus of coating is applied to the web and defined bubbles form on both sides of the web.g. reproduction used to give correct neutral tones blind 1. sequence. next. blanket contamination Occurs where undesirable ny supplying fonts and related software. indent. hydrogen peroxide and alka- another form of output.

of 1996. 12pt = a 12pt body.. resistance to picking and delamination when Yellow and magenta inks tend to be less light printing. Sometimes abbreviated purposes especially positioning. Used particularly in children’s books. is the highest for printing inks. Phototypesetting term for the size of the blow-up To enlarge photographically. so made. blocking fee See holding fee. diazo prints. 2. boards. Also called to bf (bold face). BMP files may use run-length encoding. and is non-printing. the binding fold) which is removed in final pally by the US Communications Decency Act trimming. and mat. In order to Boards may be uncoated or coated one or both use block graphics. bonding strength Measurement of a paper’s mum level required for exposure to daylight.sys must be sides. to those made from combining used by an alphanumeric character and there. Bongo is principally a tool for creating B/ND Binding/no date.) included in the config. 3. trasting thin serifs. paperboard. fast than black and cyan. of a piece of type carrying the printing surface. several plys of the same or different furnishes. bmp Microsoft Windows bitmap graphics for. rather than for drop-out blue. blue wool scale Scale of light fastness for inks.g. a form of key in which body text The main text of a book. Bongo A visual interface builder for Java. bonded ink One suited to hard-sized papers. four of the original developers of Java. prompted princi. or a print body of type e. Each grades ranging from those of one finish graphics character takes up the space usually throughout. Similar papers of lighter substance research). 6 is the mini. Adobe Systems.g. ing the impression with metal or pigment foil. the file ansi. bluelines. ribbon worn by those supporting AIDS invoices etc. blueprints Contact dyeline proofs made on bold Heavier version of a typeface. PostScript (PostScript Language Tutorial and body copy or body matter Text pages as distinct Cookbook. of computer graphics held in memory for fre- 2. the image is produced photographically in body type The type used for text. often fill. characterised by thick stems and con- together as the ink dries. bluelines See blueprints. blues See blueprints. 1985). as distinct paper from film. (See also case board. Pencil used for marking corrections. Metal composing term for the solid metal block-pull Proof of a printing block. Bodoni Typeface designed by Giambasttista 2. blue key In film assembly.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 21 is added to blocks in character-oriented proto. index etc. Support is shown on Web pages by a bond Range of heavier substance printing and looped blue ribbon (similar in style to the red writing papers often used for letterheads. the Red Book and the White body size Same as typesetting term body. Marimba has also developed Castanet. cols to indicate that they contain codes. used in a number of Scandinavian languages. B-NET See Berkeley Network. a spine hollow blocking 1. fore detailed effects are not possible. block graphics Use of the graphics characters board General term for paper above 220gsm defined in the IBM extended ASCII character (although sometimes applied to substances set to create graphics on a PC screen running down to 200gsm). a company formed by jacket. blottings Grade of highly absorbent papers. å) ozalid prints. Binding operation to impress a made of the same board as the front and back design or lettering into a book cover.sys file. quent retrieval and use. The other three official guides are known body paper See base paper. 8 drying by oxidation rather than penetration. dyelines and bolle-a Letter ‘a’ with a small circle over it (e. endmatter. headings. body 1. (under about 60gsm) are known as banks. blues.Dic. Castanet channels. boilerplating Sections of wordprocessed text or blue pencil 1. Addison-Wesley. usually for the oped by Marimba Inc. as the Green Book. board hollow In case-making. The term includes numerous under MS-DOS (rather than Windows). Fault where stack of printed sheets stick Bodoni. from prelims. Book. devel- blurb Brief description of a book. body stock See base paper. usually between 8 and 12 point. Inkmaking term describing the viscosity of the Blue Book One of the four standard references on ink. Used for general checking from light or medium. 21 . blue ribbon campaign A campaign run against bolt Folded edge of a printed section (other than censorship on the Internet. To censor by deleting offensive material. BNF See Backus-Naur form.

bounce message (bounce mail) A message brayer Small hand roller for applying ink when returned to the sender of email explaining why proofing. boot or boot-up To load the operating system or BRAD Acronym for British Rate and Data. describe a WWW reference to a document. [ ]. BPIF British Printing Industries Federation. more fibres. by a computer usually to load the operating Braille System of printing for blind people using system. one. ing. Type can be placed or typed or perfect binding but before forwarding oper. e. with an error notification (a bounce message) mechanically. been delivered. characters made up of configurations of raised borax Chemical substance used to accelerate the dots which are read by finger touch. BOT Beginning of tape. bps See bits per second.) where the coverboards are attached to the book breaker (breaking machine) Vat used in the first before applying cover material or affixing end. boxed heading A ranged-left heading. form of the finished book. boxboard Card used in carton-making. book proof Page proofs paperback-bound in the brace Form of bracket { }. bang path. Replaced expensive to produce. bits per inch. mainly used in tables. flourish joined to the main part of a letter. See chemac. boxhead ruling Space at head of a ruled column which may be on the same server or a different where headings are to be inserted. in Acrobat files). Also searching programs on the Internet. Refers to consign- label glued onto the flyleaf of a book to show ments of sheets. used in text. part of a letter as in a p or o. bourgeois Obsolete term for 9pt type. Reasons may include a non-existent break To send an RS-232 break (two character or misspelled user name or a relay site that is widths of line high) over a serial line. branching coupler In optical fibres. a rectangular space on break for colour American term meaning to the page which is defined by dragging the colour separate into printing colours. It is possible with most WWW browsers to bpi Bits per inch. a device for borders Decorative designs usually edging the splitting the signal from one fibre into two or page or type.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 22 book-block Book at the binding stage after sewing mouse diagonally. Much stronger than cased books and crude pulp and dissolve it in water. i. spine brass which is used for blocking bounce The return to the sender of an electronic the spine of a case prior to casing in. not accessible. book printing but also used more generally. usually made of paper. Also known as a book jacket Protective wrap-around to a book. book club Club whose members are offered bowl Typographical descriptive term for enclosed books at discounted prices. bounding box In DTP. together brass is made by engraving the metal.g. The normally used brass is pro- usually explaining why the message has not duced photomechanically on copper or zinc. con- Boolean search A search formalism using opera. A true mail message that is undeliverable. into it. 1600 bpi is typical for standard book paper Paper with characteristics good for magnetic tape. bracketed serif An additional curved line or bookwork Production of books. development of photographic film. as distinct ment (used e. called parentheses. Publication listing all UK publications and their bootstrap An initial set of instructions executed advertising specifications and requirements. who owns it. it has not been possible to deliver the message breadboard A circuit board on which experimen- to the intended recipient or to the next link in a tal circuits are assembled and tested. 22 . stages of papermaking to break down the papers.Dic. (In gen- down.e. bookmark A mark to indicate a position in a docu. trast wedge serif. in modern papermaking by the hydrapulper. See ex libris. Bravo Imaging model developed by Adobe. Also used to from a cross head which is centred. bookplate Printed (and often specially designed) BPOP Bulk packed on pallets. eral computing the term is also used in other bound books Term sometimes used for books ways. The density at which data is save a file of bookmarks and thus allow quick encoded on a magnetic medium is expressed in location of frequently referenced documents.g. Mark showing start brass A die made from metal and used for block- point of computer tape. programs automatically into a computer. Used in most brackets Pairs of marks ( ). tors such as AND and OR. ations have been carried out. brass. bounce mail See bounce message. counter.

its own weight. derive. ing themselves. have been coined to describe more focused Brightype Obsolete machine which converted transmission. causing the storm to grow British Standards Institution (BSI) British exponentially. several narrower bands simultaneously so that ments using datalink layer information. approximately 8pt. Computers ISDN circuits and is not a fully integrated ser- which rely on such packets must have suffi. which is inserted NETwork) transport are used to provide four into a serial communications connection to service classes delineated according to connec- test the signals on each wire. The two main proposed broadband ISDN cient hardware or firmware code to wait for (or rates are 150 Mbps and 600 Mbps. The more correct term is two or more stations at the same time or a luminance.e. broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) A broadband net- break-line Term for the short last line of a para.) On Ethernet.Dic. but brightness is important in transmission to multiple.g. sent out existing phone cabling). brevier Obsolete type size. broadband This can be defined in a number of broadside Traditional ‘standard’ sheet size from ways. so exactly etc. a cable) which can be split into between homogeneous or between network seg. ents. sexto. British Printing Industries Federation broadcast storm A broadcast on a network that (BPIF) Organisation representing the interests causes multiple hosts to respond by broadcast- of British printing companies. segments would have a common network layer video. provider in the UK. mine comparative strengths. paper to form a book which has the paper British Telecom The largest telecommunications grain running from top to bottom of a page. time. work in which ATM (asynchronous transfer graph. tion of about 800 3 640 pixels. and whether the service bit tribute the type. However. a wide range of frequencies. broad fold Method of folding sheets of printed dards in industry. and employing frequency pronounced short. 23 . a broadcast packet letterpress type and engravings to photograph. data – can be transmitted at the same address. timing relation. rate is constant or varying. the need for an end-to-end break-up Pull apart a letterpress forme and dis. mon. A2 when folded. BRI See basic rate ISDN. the length of a uniformly wide strip of paper boundary between broadband and narrow- where the strip held by one end breaks due to band was often considered to be at 2 Mbps. code which will speeds. formerly part of Royal broadsheet Newspaper size approximating to Mail. broadcast A transmission either addressed to ceived by the eye. higher speeds are becoming com- breaking strength Paper measurement to deter.) mode) and SONET (Synchronous Optical break-out box A test device. Now known as BT. This proposed suc- breath-of-life packet An Ethernet packet that cessor to ISDN will operate at broadband contains bootstrap code (i. unspecified recipi- some methods of representing colour in com. broadband transmission In data transmission. (The terms narrowcast and personalcast puter graphics. Should be distin- periodically from a computer on the network guished from primary rate ISDN which works to infuse the breath of life into any computer at 2 Mbps. national co-ordinating body for technical stan. typically from breve Symbol placed above a vowel to show it is audio up to video.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 23 breaking length Measurement of the limiting what it means depends on the date. brilliant Obsolete term for 4pt type. even to the home (but not over the allow a computer to reboot or restart). to request) such a packet during the reboot broadband network A network that can support process. even for wide area networks. brightness Measure of how much light is per. division multiplexing on a coaxial cable. is a special type of multicast packet which all ic images for use in offset lithography or nodes on the network are always willing to gravure printing. widow. These several different kinds of transmission – voice. but is actually made of 64 kbps on the network that has crashed. (See also club-line. It is generally used to describe networks which the subdivisions of quarto. vice. broadcast quality video Flicker-free video (more bristol Good quality paperboard with smooth than about 30 frames per second) at a resolu- finish. tion orientation. receive. the ability to transmit along a communications bridge A device which transfers traffic either channel (e. In 1995. octavo faster than those in common use.

paper will achieve. bubble cassette Removable and portable bubble broke Defective paper discarded during manu. or product. Not widely used. made from woven textile stiffened with size. of paper being proposed and the bulk that this BRS See Bibliographic Retrieval Service. B Series See B. exchanged if necessary. memory available in cassettes of 64kb and facture and usually re-pulped. or HTML.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 24 brochure Promotional booklet about a company BT The current name for British Telecom. (i. buckle folder Machine for sheet folding where wards them based on network layer informa. Similar to blueprint. often produced to a high quality to bubble card See blister pack. create an image of success. starting with the first brouter A device which bridges some packets pair on a list. interprets and or ppi (pages per inch) (US).e. brownline. browse To look through data in a database or bulk Paper term used to describe the degree of online system. bubble memory Form of backing storage which bronzing Process for obtaining a metallic printed uses magnetically charged crystal chips to hold effect. and criteria needed to ensure a product or ser. Multiply requirements for certification for quality assur. bulldog First edition of a daily paper. information) and routes other packets (i.g. printed sizing ink while the ink is still wet giv. bulking number by 2 to give pages per inch ance and quality control within a company. forwards them based on datalink layer BUBL See Bulletin Board for Libraries. Another name for a World Wide book-block without counting the thickness of Web client program. tion). 60lb quad crown (68gsm). The main alternative configuration information. Commonly used the front and back boards. browsers include Netscape Navigator and bulking dummy A blank book to show the type Internet Explorer. documents bulk basis Obsolete paper term describing the available over the World Wide Web (although thickness (32nds of an inch) of 320 pages in it is often also able to use other Internet tools). of the number of sheets that bulk to 1 inch in BS5750 The British Standard setting out the thickness under standard pressure. Complies dominantly from mechanical pulp to a specif- with International Standard ISO 9000. bubble sort In which successive data items are ing a metallic lustre. Also provides tools for navigating and for fol. as distinct from individ- the disciplines and specifies the procedures ual wrapping. BS Number given to a British Standard published bulking number American paper measurement by the BSI (British Standards Institution). typesetting. head onto the paper.e. paperback books. 24 . Usually marked 256kb capacity. volume browser A program that requests. folding method is knife folding on a knife brownline See brownprint. displays hypertext. The bridge/route decision is based on Also called a plate folder. brush coating Method of coating a web of paper bulking index American paper measurement of where the coating mix is distributed by a set of bulk in inches of thickness per pound of basis stationary and oscillating brushes. Measured by caliper. Term (mainly used in America) for bug Computer term for a defect interfering with a photographic print from a negative used to a computer operation. first drawn and filled in after. folder. bulk between boards The total thickness of a lowing links. thickness of paper. check positioning before making printing built-up letter Graphic term for a letter which is plates. xxx. the sheet is bent or buckled by a metal plate. as often used for cheap BSC See binary synchronous communications. bulky mechanical Grades of paper made pre- vice meets customer requirements.Dic. producing a positive image. weight.) bubblejet printer Printer using a technology broken ream Part of a ream of paper left after use. brown mechanical pulp Mechanical paper pulp buckram A heavy and strong binder’s cloth produced from boiled or steamed wood. (See also retree. Metallic or bronze powder is applied to data. developed by Canon in which small bubbles of bromide Photographic light-sensitive paper ink are heated and propelled from the print- used in photographic reproduction or photo. The standard does not prescribe how to bulk wrapping/bulk packing Wrapping several achieve fitness for purpose but rather identifies copies of a periodical. (ppi). brownprint Also known as a Van Dyke or buffer A temporary storage area for data. for. ic and high bulk. e.

one part of a computer to another. so that private bulletin wires) along which information is passed from boards can be set up for group discussions. or cutting. typically on the Internet. so that 128 sheets as well as sections when the sections are characters are defined and of these some are bound. along the spines.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 25 bullet Phototypesetting term for a large dot used burster Machine that separates continuous sta- for ornamentation. The devices bulls eye See hickey. burin A pointed engraver’s steel tool used for butterfly wings See wing effect. butted lines Linecast slugs placed side by side ther processing. represent a character. and areas accessible only by password. which means a sudden burst of buted BBS). area. to indicate a printing plate while the non-image areas are hyperlink. in the official ASCII character set. kilobytes (1kb also notch binding. tionery into single sheets. beginning of the binding process in a special business press Periodicals directed to the busi- bundling press which squashes the sections ness and professional sectors. generally used to ing. typically on a web printing However. They are in many ways similar to news.Dic. bboard) An electron. burst factor A measure of the bursting strength bulletin board See bulletin board system. running at the University of Bath. the reel being too tightly or newspaper story. vice. B/W Black and white. A PC may have a bump exposure Photographic term describing number of buses so that internal communica- method of increasing highlight contrast when tion takes place at a speed similar to that of the producing a half-tone by removing the screen processors themselves. burstiness The ratio of peak to average band- nally a bulletin board service.) = 1024 bytes) and megabytes (1Mb = 1024kbs = 25 . hence the title. bulletin News sheet. PCI and VESA local bus. width required by a telecommunications ser- bulletin board system (BBS. burn-out mask An opaque mask used in This may be to start a program. edge marks or to another document. Used on positive-working plates. short period. font burr A rough edge of metal left after burnishing or screen attribute. takes over the whole bandwidth for a very groups on Usenet (which is essentially a distri. or other bus A communication path (usually a series of form of checking system. Hyperlinks are also etc. designed burn Platemaking term for an exposure. There are publicly available areas activity. often indicated by using a different colour. such as underlining. thus giving extra adhesion between only the first seven bits are used. producing a single line of type. Bytes. bursting strength The strength of a paper to accessed by electronic mail and by dial-up over resist a uniformly distributed pressure under a modem. (See used for control purposes. Recent developments briefly to remove any dots in the highlight have been local bus. tions of the eight 1s and 0s and therefore 256 ing where the sections are ‘burst’ or punched characters can be represented in principle. Also known as punch binding. press. of a paper. as a method of user input. are connected in parallel. button An image or glyph on a screen. e. made to a different part of the same document ing unwanted traces of sellotape. Vannevar Author of the original paper height of various parts. flat and expels the air from them prior to fur. to be clicked on. Bulletin boards (named after real test conditions. byte A combination of eight bits. from the back of a letterpress block to raise the Bush. burst Rupture of a paper web due to one of a byline Writer’s or journalist’s name on an article variety of causes. There are 256 permuta- burst binding A form of unsewn adhesive bind. called memex. wound or air trapped into the reel when wind. from which a link or jump can be exposed for long enough to burn out all remain. change the dis- platemaking to protect the image areas of a play or. in hypertext viewers. cutting. It was origi. Bulletin Board for Libraries (BUBL) A Gopher. notice boards) are usually devoted to specific bursty traffic Where a local area network device topics. ic message centre. burst index A measurement of paper bursting based information service of interest to the strength relative to grammage under standard library and information community (and others) test conditions.g. (1945) which suggested a hypertext-type sys- bundling Compressing the folded sections at the tem. all intended to prevent communications bottle- bumping blocks Use of delicate hammering necks within systems.

but to the owner of that login.and lower-case letters. in a line of poetry. caller ID (CID) A feature of some modems. produced by typesetting or by paste-up. connection and uses an auto-dial modem to call (See also A. If a document or image Cambridge Ring A LAN. tions industry. Used pri- calcium carbonate Chalk pigment used as a filler marily for paperbacks. achieved more quickly. term byte for units that are not eight bits long. is return to the Internet to retrieve it. calligrapher Specialist in the art of handwriting. back to the user’s registered telephone number. almost always used. The use of a com. Calendered paper has a smooth. printing plates. caliper shear burst Web break during winding C 1. local area network. the term is now know that his account is under attack. because some systems use the finish. 2. is not available in the cache. the term octet is usually used in pref. Internet in order that future access can be camber Convex surface of a roll of paper. oped for the Unix operating system on Digital call-back A user authentication scheme used by Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 minicom. output directly on a high-resolution imagesetter caesura A pause. of both computer random access memory and calender A set of rollers on a paper machine disk storage memory. ing. B. C1S Paper coated on one side. rather than callout Text used to point out and identify parts by broadcast signal. unlike the Ethernet configuration. The computer then breaks the accommodate stationery in the A series sizes. and the files have been cached. which puter graphics in design. bind a substantial book in one pass. cable. porarily. esp. CAJUN CD-ROM Acrobat Journals Using Cameron belt press A web book press which. who will then kind of electrical wiring. In net. in some papers and as a white coating mix.Dic. Campus-wide information system (CWIS) 26 . of an illustration. A high-level programming language devel. california case A kind of type case which accom- modates both upper. linked to a binding line. not to him or cable Although in the past cable has meant any her. cable television (CATV) Supply of television calling line identifier The telephone number of signals via cable (originally copper coaxial the device originating a call. usually to allow other information or camera-ready artwork or camera-ready copy programs to be loaded into memory. calf cloth An imitation leather binding material. If an unauthorised person discovers a user’s C2S Paper coated on both sides. Networks. cache has the meaning of storing tem. but now fibre-optic cable). the call-back will go. measured with a micrometer and usual- ly expressed in thousandths-of-a-millimetre (microns). usually CALS See Continuous Acquisition and locally. The C series is an international ISO user dials in to the computer and gives his login range of sizes for envelopes. replaced by sending a PostScript file which is Aided Manufacture.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 26 1 048 576 bytes) are also used to describe the size calcium hypochlorite Used for bleaching paper. or even on a digital printing press. calligraphy Art of handwriting or script draw- microwave or infra-red links in place of cables. In computing gen. the browser has to which. See also supercalender. working. The puters. caliper The thickness of a sheet of paper or C board. erally. password. A series of repeaters strengthens the also used as a noun describing the place where signals as they are sent round the ring. to mean fibre-optic cable. simultaneously check for and report on errors. are given in bits per second. some computers running dial-up services.) See Appendix. can print. (CRC) or camera-ready paste-up (CRPU) Pages CAD Computer-Aided Design. Cache is circular. cableless LAN A local area network using radio. medium gloss erence to byte. designed to ID and password. caused by variations in roller nip. Transmission speeds. passes through by applying pressure. at least in the communica. cameo Relief die stamping process. This method is gradually being CAD/CAM Computer-Aided Design/Computer. are subsequently photographed to produce CAD/CAE Computer-Aided Design/Engineering. after they have been accessed over the Lifecycle Support. calf Leather of high quality used in bookbinding. cache To store documents or images. gather and CAL See computer-assisted learning. which give a smooth finish to the web as it however.

canonical name (CNAME) A hostÕs official name carding Thin spacing of lines of type. Also CARL A document delivery service set up by the known as art canvas. usually com- in small caps the height of the lower-case body prising several layers of paper pasted together. The nodes detect ture will save everything that appears on the this and continue to transmit for a certain screen. modem communications. size. carbro process Photographic technique for correct- c&lc Capitals and lower case. composition. cancelled leaves. Services routinely include directory information. Thin paper coated with carbon calendars. measured by standard test. carrier sheet Sheet of paper inside film wrapping carbon black Intensely black pigment used in which carries the address label. This is the first hostname card punch Keyboard machine which perforates listed for its Internet address in the hostname cards for data storage or input. data-carry- carbon paper Lightweight paper coated on one ing signal.g. carriage paid Refers to a deal where goods are cap height The height of the capital letters in a delivered with the freight element paid by the particular typeface or font. carrier signal (carrier tone. begin with capitals and have the other characters cardboard Any stiff sheet of card. To remove a leaf in a book and replace it used in photogravure. own canonical name (plus any aliases).) pdf file readable with an Acrobat viewer. 2. (See also collision. with another. carrier frequency Frequency speed of a carrier caption Text accompanying and describing an signal. the data is corrupted. Reprinted sheets for replacing carbro Continuous tone colour print.) capillary rise The distance liquid travels vertically carriage return Keyboard command key which up a strip of paper. Sheet of light-sensitive material cancel 1. (See also x-height. two common kinds of modulation: amplitude ducing copies by impression onto an underlying modulation and frequency modulation.) sender. allows goods to cross several European fron- CAP See Columbia AppleTalk Package. canvas Bookbinding cloth of good strength. caret Proofreader’s mark indicating an insertion. network interfaces can have more than one card reader A device that produces signals from Internet address and each address will have its holes sensed in a punched card. at once. If two nodes transmit complete file that already exists. i. powder. This reduces the amount of bandwidth Adobe Systems which allows text to be scanned wasted on collisions compared with simple and then transferred via OCR directly to form a ALOHA broadcasting. bulletin boards and databases. ink manufacture. See also lower case. carbon tissue 1. The transmitting nodes then wait to taking a quick picture of the computer screen. including any length of time to ensure that all nodes detect text typed at the keyboard. to an electric circuit. carbon process Gravure colour correction versity sites via kiosks running interactive com. carrier sense multiple access/collision detect capture To transfer the text accessed from a remote (CSMA/CD) A method of access control used host and appearing on screen or in a window to resolve contention between stations wishing into a disk file. e. B. Unlike downloading a specific. for random times before attempting to transmit Acrobat Capture is a program produced by again. there are side with transferable colouring agent for pro. tiers by road but only incur duty payments at capacitor A device that introduces a capacitance their final destination. card chase Small chase used for small stationery canon Obsolete term for 48pt type. words which card See board. be modulated (varied) by a second. sues. In sheet. Colorado Alliance of Research Laboratories. terminates a line of setting and may enter text caps/capitals Capitals.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 27 Information and services made available at uni. C etc.Dic. A card reader database or the NIS map. See NCR. 2. processes which uses three-colour carbon tis- puting systems. A. Upper-case letters. the capture fea. c&sc Capitals and small capitals. ing colour before the positive stage. In radio communication. tinuous signal of a single frequency which can out a layer of carbon tissue. to transmit on Ethernet. carrier wave) A con- carbonless paper Paper that creates copies with. canvas note A type of embossed stationery carnet International customs document that which simulates canvas. from a computer screen into memory.e. (See also cif. A host with multiple reads the data. illustration. Screen capture refers the collision. wherever it comes from. as opposed to an alias. phase modulation is 27 . possibly via campus networks.

Cataloguing in Publication data A system oper- The term comes from the days when typeset. casein glue Near-acid-free glue used in book. Small reel-to-reel tape hold- and frequency modulation. case. typically Congress (Lib Con) number. shops can be supplied quickly. tron gun. CASE Data Interchange Format (CDIF) An cathode The negative terminal of an electronic emerging standard for interchange of data component. including spacing and headings. 2. but CSS is supported an estimate of typesetting costs. (See also limp. The process of forcing molten metal graphical user interface so that they overlap in into a mould to create a character or slug of a regular fashion. cassie Damaged paper at the top and bottom of a carton Cardboard box for packing. CBDS See connectionless broadband data ser- case material The material. rather than the user. by the latest versions of both Internet Explorer catalogue Book or booklet which presents details and Netscape Navigator. the small letters cataloguing. Light-proof container for photographic International Radio. screen and each overlapping window offset casting box Box used for casting metal printing down and to the right. Caslon Typeface designed by the first major CCI See computer-controlled inking. case-making machine Machine that cuts card. bulk. cathode ray tube Video screen activated by elec- neering) tools. catchword(s) Word or words highlighted in Also described as ‘cased’. were kept in the bottom. catch line A temporary heading on a manuscript Typical caliper/gsm ranges are from 1725 or proof for identification. or upper. 6K per car stock Stock of books held by a rep so book. Castanet A client-server framework developed cartridge Printing or drawing paper with good by Marimba for the broadcast distribution of dimensional stability. microns/1750gsm. cartouche Decorative box framing a piece of text. bibliographical compilation etc. for next-generation Internet protocol. microns/1120gsm at the lower end up to 3000 catch-stitch See kettle-stitch. cascade The arrangement of windows in a casting 1.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 28 also used. or imitation cloth. (20 A4s of text). board for making the cover of a book. a C10 (ten-minute) tape will hold around 60K carrier wave Another term for carrier signal. ated by the British Library offering classified ters used metal type and stored the letters in entries which publishers can print on the wooden typecases: the capitals were usually imprint pages of their books to facilitate library kept in the top. usually with the underneath type. or lower. The equivalent in the US is the Library of case board Board used for case-making. high opacity and good software. The ‘anode’ is the positive terminal. document provider. English typefounder. Dutch grey board or unlined chipboard. ream. of goods or services. often including prices and case Refers to whether letters are capitalised ordering routines.) dictionary pages repeated in the headline. Producing stereotypes in newspaper window in the top left-hand corner of the printing. CCIR See Consultative Committee on cassette 1. for that is CSS-compatible. In storage terms. which covers the case boards to form the case cc Copies. so that the given typeface and size to a given area. William Caslon. CATNIP See common architecture technology binding and in making coated papers. CATV See cable television. minute of running time (around 2 A4s of text). carrier tone Another term for carrier signal. heated cylinder before the in a plastic case. 2. cast coated Paper given a high gloss by pressure cartridge disk Computer storage disk enclosed from a polished. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) A method by casting off Calculating the number of pages a which layout and typographic information can given amount of copy will make when set in a be encoded into HTML documents. case-bound Referring to a book with a hard case. such as first and last words on bound. often in combination with amplitude film or roll paper. some manner. or in other words. CCD See charge-coupled device. vice. catch-up Scumming on a litho printing plate.Dic. has cast up Calculate the amount of setting needed control over the design. er for audio or data recording. 28 . plates (stereos). A casting box is used for this purpose. Requires a browser for a book. (upper-case letters) or not (lower-case letters). case. between CASE (computer-aided software engi. coating dries. of a hardback book. Often used in bookwork.

the efficient delivery of business objectives and cellular telephone A telephone which uses cellu- improved quality of services by the public lar radio. Cellulose acetate is used in making ROM XA). placed in front.) CD-R See compact disc-recordable.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 29 CCIRN See Co-ordinating Committee for easier than drawing a new background for Intercontinental Research Networks. which uses voice activation to CDDI See copper distributed data interface. CDM See Content Data Model. used in asynchronous transfer mode. (See also CDPD See Cellular Digital Packet Data. See communications networks in the UK. CD-I.g. CDA See Compound Document Architecture. CCS See Common Communication Services. celluloid proof Proof on transparent sheet. International cell A fixed length of data for transmission. text interpolation. achromatic separations.) animation. in pulp. centre To position type centrally in a given mea- CDIF See CASE Data Interchange Format. cellulose Complex fibrous substance forming the pact disc read only memory (CD-ROM) and walls of plant cells. sector. 29 . 19. of a signature. CDTV Acronym for Commodore Direct Total centrifugal cleaner Device which removes Vision: a CD multimedia product launched by unwanted material from paper fibres by cen- Commodore. are perceived to move. See cel (or cell) animation. which may be used by stationary or mobile sible for stimulating and promoting the effec. cellophane Thin transparent film. used in other ways. Century American typeface designed by cel (or cell) animation An animation technique Theodore Lowe de Vinne in 1895. Also cations protocols and standards. It is respon. cell relaying See fast packet switching. CELTIC French digital compression equipment Also. every frame and has been incorporated into CCITT Comité Consultatif International some computer animation programs. A form called in which the background is kept constant and ‘Century Schoolbook’ is more commonly used transparent sheets containing images. page. per colour printed. Originally Central Computer standard providing two-way. to describe parts of cc:mail Commercial electronic mail software for tables or spreadsheets. centre-feed Paper tape sprocket holes that line CDMA See code division multiple access. Microsoft Windows from Lotus Corporation. (Centronics was an impor- Corporation (BBC). CEEFAX Trade name for the videotex or teletext Centronics interface An alternative name for a system used by the British Broadcasting parallel interface. trifugal force.2 kbps packet and Telecommunications Agency (the letters data transmission over existing cellular tele- were retained as customers were familiar with phone channels.) (CD-I). sure. central processing unit See CPU. which works to improve system with a cellular network of base stations government services to the public. compact disc interactive (See also plastic proof. Téléphonique et Télégraphique. CCTA is part of the Office of Public cellular radio A low-power radio transmission Service and Science. used for checking register. tant printer manufacturer in the early days of cel (or cell) A single background image within an microcomputing. film. e. as committee that drafts and approves communi. com. assign an active channel only when one of the CD-I (compact disc interactive) A consumer parties is speaking. This is CEPS See colour electronic prepress system. and full-motion video. up with the middle of code holes. CCTA The UK Government Centre for Infor. one CCTV Closed circuit television. them). compact disc-recordable (CD-R). CD See compact disc. CD-ROM XA See compact disc eXtended centre spread The two facing pages at the centre Architecture. centre notes Notes placed between columns of a CD-ROM See compact disc read-only memory. and the prime raw material compact disc eXtended Architecture (CD. for telephony.) and graphics.Dic. users for voice or data communication linking tive use of information systems in support of into the public switched telephone network. advance feed. Cellnet One of the principle providers of mobile CCR Complementary colour removal. which now. (See also digital speech product CD disk which will store sound. Communications Decency Act. CD-i See compact disc interactive. Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) A wireless mation Systems.

with a # sign and can have topic descriptions. although these imply server also calculates the value and if the values that menus cannot be used. CSU is used.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 30 CEPT European Conference of Posts and unit of discussion on IRC. chapel Smallest unit of a print union’s depart- CGM See Computer Graphics Metafile.Dic. CHAP See challenge-handshake authentication CGI-script Language in which scripts can be protocol. Once a link is established.. person. then the connection is usually terminated. where all screen images are made up PPP servers to check the identity of the origina. usu- adjustment to printing pressure. Once one joins a Telecommunications. Someone who CERN (Centre for European Nuclear has privileges on a particular IRC channel. CGI See Common Gateway Interface. ‘challenge’ message is sent from the server to Alternatively. tracts to allow users to interact with external data or ballads hawked by street traders (chapmen) and applications. VGA. channel status table A table indicating the cur- CGA Colour graphics adapter: early IBM PC rent status of all physical and logical channels standard to drive a colour monitor. tions into which the thread cuts. adhered properly to paper.. written using the Common Gateway Interface chapbook Small pamphlet containing. (CSU/DSU) A device that performs both the C format paperback Paperback of trimmed size CSU and DSU functions. named with numbers or with strings that begin cerfs (kerfs) Grooves cut into the backs of sec. match. (See also at the user interface to a network. e. chain lines The wider watermark lines which chapter drop White space between the head of run at right angles to the narrow laid lines on the chapter title and the head of the type area laid papers.g. Research) Now The European Laboratory for channel service unit (CSU) A type of interface Particle Physics in Geneva. menus can be used. See.) chanop See channel op. followed by a carriage return. Switzerland. acter. The command line interface. everything typed is read by others on of PTTs which undertakes in Europe functions that channel. where used to connect a terminal or computer to a the World Wide Web was first developed in digital medium in the same way that a modem order to allow physicists to take advantage of is used to connect to an analogue medium. normal set width values resident in a typesetting channel A path for the transmission of informa. such as Castanet. e. thus creating dynamic in the 17th to 19th centuries. expansion in character fit by adjustment to the chancery Style of italic such as Bembo. a dard text strings. CHAP is one of the more secure authentication character compensation Global reduction or procedures. whereas a digital sation and issues digital certificates. ally using ASCII or ANSI coding. Channels in IRC can be either similar to that of ITU-T. receive logic and timing recov- confirms the identity of a person or an organi. e. ASCII. system’s computer. Commands are input as stan- tor of a connection. if character code Numeric representation of a char- not. a letter or a number. mental or company grouping. GUI. certificate of origin A certificate stating details of channel service unit/data service unit where a commodity has been manufactured. If a hypertext technologies to share information. SVGA. the authentication is acknowledged. Also called track kerning or tion.g. ery in order to use the CSU. The tracking. challenge-handshake authentication protocol character-based interface The traditional user (CHAP) An authentication scheme used by interface. character A representation of a single unit of chalk overlay Letterpress overlay for indicating meaningful data. of text characters. chalking Powdering of ink which has not chapter head Chapter title and/or number. HTML documents. Also the basic spaces in a piece of copy. the European grouping channel. EGA. Used in (or data) service unit (DSU) performs these secure communications. which may be physical or logical. 234 3 156mm. Compare with the originator. channel op Also chanop or chop. Also described as command interface and culated using a one-way hash function. of a book. Father of chapel chad The waste punched out of paper tape or (FOC) or Mother of chapel is the elected chair- cards. functions. which responds with a value cal. the user must supply all of the certificate authority A body that attests to or transmit logic. concept is particularly important in some push character count Total number of characters and technologies.g. 30 .

A real- blocks are locked up for letterpress printing. the contents of a block of data or packet. cheque paper Special paper used for cheques They convert the reflected light signal into and having a surface which betrays attempts at bitmap information. sticks labels to envelopes or wrappers. Also.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 31 character entity A way of describing a character Ethernet that uses coaxial cable instead of the using only ASCII characters which is used in full-specification yellow cable. one for each pixel or unit of resolution. bar charts etc. (See also CCITT. Also generally used (without the china clay White clay used for loading and coat- initial capital) to describe real-time interaction ing paper.11) Chimera A modular. below the quality of woodfree pulp. optical chemical ghosting Ghost images on sheets character recognition. character formatting The application of a format checksum A computed value which depends on or style (including such factors as typeface. area network. character set The full range of characters on a chemically pure paper Acid-free paper used in keyboard in memory or available for output preserving old books or maps. The delimiters can however be check disk A command common to several oper- changed in the SGML declaration. Often capable of reproducing specific type. checksum based upon the data received and Compare with paragraph formatting. If the two values are the on a cathode ray tube. 95. or group of characters in a data. by photochemical methods. unlike a true brass character recognition Reading characters by which is engraved on brass by hand. resulting in a pulp not far charge-coupled device (CCD) An array of light. cheapernet Also known as thinnet. OCR. the receiver can have some confidence character graphics See block graphics. Colloquial term for thin-wire chipboard See unlined chipboard. same.). chemical pulp Pulp obtained from wood or characters per second (cps) A measure of data other plant sources by chemical removal of transmission rate. The very sensitive transistors. 31 . Sensors may be only alteration. bilevel (1-bit) or they may measure grey levels Cheshire Proprietary name of machine which (8-bit). mechanical pulp which undergoes further ture. compares the computed value with the one character generation Projection of type images sent with the data. chinagraph pencil A waxy. so that. the employed as a check for the presence of errors Greek letter alpha (a) might be represented as in a related set of digits. (See also baud. e.’. tus report. time language widely used in European chassis The metal base or structure onto which telecommunications. Made faces. lids.) impurities rather than mechanical processing. ‘& alpha. for writing on or marking film or negative oza- lamine carbonate. chemical bleaching. coloured pencil used CHC paper Paper impregnated with cyclohexy. Ethernet. there was probably an ual characters as distinct from complete lines. The receiving system recomputes the desktop publishing system or wordprocessor. SGML and HTML (see entity).g. See character set. often for digital storage. caused by the chemical reaction of inks.. This typestyle. of the Internet. space before and after) to a value is transmitted or stored along with the single character. arranged across a scanner best quality of mechanical pulp made. indents. sums do not match. drying in a web-offset machine. Chat A Windows for Workgroups (Windows 3. chase Rectangular steel frame in which type and CHILL CCITT High-Level Language. character subset Any group of characters taken chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) Thermo- from a character set which have a common fea.Dic. chemac A copper die used for blocking. X windows system-based interactive talk program operating over a local World Wide Web browser for Unix. head. from a machine. ating systems and used to check the index and character fit Space between letters which can be file space allocation of a disk and return a sta- reduced or expanded.) the electronic components of a computer are chill roll Cooled roller. charting Transforming numbers into graphical Chicago The development name for Windows representations (pie charts. used for setting ink after assembled. machine. used to de-acidify old books. The character check bit or check digit A binary digit (or digits) is usually delimited by & and . that the data was received correctly. thin Chinese white Paint used in re-touching artwork. See Internet Relay Chat. error in the transmission. If the two character printer A printer which prints individ.

Contrast the leading chip manufacturers whose prod. â). Clipper. (See also CIE and number of citations their papers receive in CIELUV. between the sender and receiver along which chop See channel op. values representing the colour axes yellow-cyan CityScape A UK re-seller of Internet connections and yellow-blue. all packets travel.) connectionless and packet switched. circuit board See printed circuit board. ed cif includes all charges up to delivery at the nent containing extensive logic circuits. Woodchip used in CIP data See Cataloguing in Publication data. pulpmaking. A price quot. Two of quayside at the port of destination. Trim (US). processes of chemical pulp. Environmentally circuit A transmission medium linking two or dubious. (See also apochromatic. verse of ciphertext is plaintext.g. there are two down ‘v’ (e. system which controls transmission of traffic at pounds. CIT See computer integrated telephony. uted. are Motorola and Intel. FOB. rotated to obtain proper screen angles for chromo paper Heavily coated one-sided paper colour half-tones. (PSTN and ISDN) is an example of a circuit- chromatic aberration The inability of a lens to switched network. circulating matrix The Linotype matrix from cicero The basic typographical unit of the Didot which type is cast. ciphertext Encrypted information. DES. hydrogen peroxide bleaching processes. (See also chlorine bleaching The bleaching of woodpulp encryption.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 32 chip or microchip 1. late 19th century and conspicuous by its vivid circular screen Half-tone screen which can be and lasting colours.) chromolithograph or chromo Colour print made circular Printed leaflet distributed to prospective by a form of lithographic printing used in the purchasers. The public telephone system chroma Purity of colour. spaces. The may change the pronunciation or distinguish body responsible for standards on colorimetry the letter from others. used for block proofing or printing. methods of graphically representing colour CIS See CompuServe. tus of academic journals is assessed on the cyan and yellow-blue. following a transformation of the CIX (Commercial Internet eXchange) An inter- colour co-ordinates. (See also CIE and CIELAB. which will chipper A machine which chips logs after require a password or key to decrypt. CIELAB A method of graphically representing citation A mention or reference in an academic colour spaces by plotting luminance against paper or journal to a published work. Circuit switching is also bring light of all colours to a common point of referred to as connection-oriented. absorbed by a sample of pulp. point system. called CIELAB and CIELUV. insurance and freight. In particular.) to the Pipex backbone. CIELAB. public key. Now part of Demon CIELUV gives a more uniform distribution than Internet Ltd. used to calculate circuit switching A paradigm in which a dedi- the amount needed for the production of white cated communication path is established paper.) chlorine dioxide A gas used in the bleaching CIR See committed information rate. but provides the same national co-operative grouping of the major information. its origin is transferred commercial IP network providers which have to the reference white. (Contrast focus. CIE The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage circumflex Accent printed over a vowel which (International Commission on Lighting).) other journals. The sta- values representing the colour axes yellow. In addition. 3. circulation Total copies of a publication distrib- CID See caller ID. The mem- cif Carriage. agreed to interwork their networks. private key. 2. See font size. The con- debarking. chlorine-free paper Paper bleached without the circuit-level gateways A gateway in a firewall use of environmentally harmful chlorine com. using chlorine dioxide. ber organisations provide TCP/IP or OSI data 32 . and being steadily superseded by more electronic devices. CIELUV A method of graphically representing CITED See Copyright in Transmitted Electronic colour spaces by plotting luminance against Documents.Dic. A small electronic compo. the TCP port level to prevent unauthorised chlorine number The amount of chlorine that is access to a host. RSA encryption. ucts are used extensively in microcomputers CIM See CompuServe Information Manager. shaped like an upside- and photometry.

on which click Pressing a button on a mouse or other the SkipJack encryption algorithm is imple- pointing device. usually over a network. but still leaves room for growth on nodes in a network. col created to allow structured data such as cles for sale etc. from which the stored material can be pasted. It also provides technical and other sup.g. but there is software which allows more cleat binding A method of binding single leaves items to be stored on a longer-term basis. pointing device) and the mouse then clicked. clean Correct a proof. The Clipper chip. a service of projects among suppliers of internetworking another computer system or process. information and experimental requests.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 33 internetwork services to the general public. This generates an event and mented. tents of a file from a file server is a client of the est.) in the development and future direction of the clicker Archaic term for a foreman compositor. no errors. There are four types of network requests. 33 . addresses etc. send a query to a user. dragging the mouse to the required position providing unrestricted access to other world. e.) port to its members. greater reliability and data integrity. Clipper An integrated circuit. tried to make use of the chip compulsory in the which when pointed at with a mouse (or other US. Class B is for smaller clients and servers to be placed independently organisations. or a list of names and clip art Computerised art. or chip. which is tured to encrypt telephone data. while Class D is currently sources. can also be processed by the window manager or applica. This model allows (over 16 million hosts). according to some protocol. A successor to the ing. often leading to consensus positions server: e. Class A networks are usually action. (See also clipping path Outline or silhouette around an button. The term is simpler upgrades and (for some applications) also used in many other contexts. from which illustrations really clean proof A printer’s proof in which there are were clipped. set in columns and sorted by font information to be exchanged between classification. from (dis- on the Internet and these are distinguished in tributed) client tasks.) using a trusted escrow scheme). oriented programming. (See also drag and wide networks. holding it down and tion. In most systems only one item can be stored at tions system to message RTS (request to send). clear to send (CTS) Response in a communica. decrypted by the US government (although tion program. a time. greater flexibility. book of clip art. clipboard A temporary storage area to which clean tape Computer tape with no data on it or text and/or graphics can be copied or cut and with all unnecessary codes removed. It is also used to clay See china clay. reserved for multicast experiments. allows more effective use of computing re- tions and individuals. initiates some action on the computer. asking for information or the IP addresses. Internet and provides a neutral forum to client A computer system or process that exchange ideas. There may be either one centralised serv- large government or educational organisations er or several distributed ones.) illustration or shape which determines the cut- click-and-drag Pressing a button on a mouse (or out area or printing boundary for that illustra- other pointing device).Dic. ded objects. but created by professional artists and design- clean line An electrical power line dedicated to ers. an application clamshell A type of small platen printing whose documents can accept linked or embed- machine. client application In Windows. a workstation requesting the con- on legislative and policy issues of mutual inter. which can be used in both conventional one machine and therefore not subject to spik. The CIX also takes an interest drop. clasp envelope Envelope held closed by a metal client-server A mode of network computing in clasp. (See also double-click. called a services. Client-server computing (over 65 000 hosts). in object. often copyright-free.. Class C is for small organisa. This has led to a great deal of controversy. depending on its size between one or more server tasks which accept and structure. using a form of side-sewing. and electronic publications. higher performance. (See also client-server. before releasing the button. file server.g. which has clickable image An image displayed on a screen. which a distributed computing system is split class The type of a network. client to client protocol (CTCP) A type of proto- classified Advertisements for job vacancies. users on Internet Relay Chat. arti. with criticism from the civil liberties lobby. which is manufac- specifies the screen position.

therefore by extension to mean any short line at coaxial cable (coax) A cable with a solid or the foot of a page.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 34 clock A regularly occurring signal that provides coated paper Paper coated with china clay or a timing reference for a transmission and is similar to give a smooth surface suitable for used to synchronise reception of a data stream. Coating binder is the part of repeated indefinitely. coating 1. but which sits on the same baseline. very commonly used for which requires the recipient to pay on receipt printing colour books. video. See coated paper. ink recep- cloth-centred paper Paper with a linen centre. graph at the bottom of a page. being replaced by optical fibre or unshielded CMIP See Common Management Information twisted pair. worked environments in order to enrich schol. often used for maps when much re-folding is Binders are obtained from natural sources like anticipated. cockle Puckered finish to a sheet of paper creat- and access to. shield. 2. starch. coating mix or coat mix or coating slip White cloth joint A strip of cloth which strengthens the suspension of china clay or calcium carbonate joints of a bound book (usually attached to the and other pigments. litho plate. While closed looping can the coating mixture which ensures adhesion to be introduced deliberately. stranded central conductor surrounded by clumps Metal strips or leads used to create blank insulator. information resources in net.Dic. nor. es black from blue). Method of despatch mally blade-coated. gsm. boards of a case-bound book. muslin for additional strength. Cobb size test A measurement of the sizing of CMIS See Common Management Information paper by water absorbed under specified con- Services.) can also result from a programming fault. tivity. Protocol. consortium formed to promote the creation of. gloss and blister resistance. used in commercial data processing. of goods. High-level computer programming language magenta. flexibility. and coax See coaxial cable. China clay members of the subgroup. coated cartridge Dull-finish coated paper. the phenomenon the body stock. ed during the drying process to add crispness. (See also coat weight. which is applied to base endpapers). the short last line of a para. cluster controller A device which provides a It is used to carry high-frequency signals such remote communications capability to several as television. which is larger than the characters in the rest of CNI See Coalition for Networked Information. on the four process printing colours: cyan. the line. It is increasingly CMC See computer-mediated communications. communications transmissions. paper by blade or roller and which when dry cloth-lined paper Paper backed with linen or forms the matt or gloss coat. tem to the body stock and to obtain many of cloth binding The use of cloth to cover the the desired properties of the final coated paper. cocked-up initial Initial letter in a new line CNAME See canonical name. who can communicate only with other to printed surface for protection. backs of stationery books for strengthening. ditions. mixture used on paper. casein and soya protein or can be pro- clothings Pieces of leather or cloth fixed at the duced synthetically. in turn surrounded by a cylindrical spaces in type matter. COD Cash On Delivery. frequently as a synonym for orphan too. cockling Wavy edges on paper caused by unsta- arship and enhance intellectual productivity. Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) A Compare drop initial. Clear protective varnish applied work. yellow and black (the K distinguish. usually connected to electrical ground to CLV See constant linear velocity. But also used i. tion whose purpose is to bind the pigment sys- closing date See copy date. radio and other tele- terminals located in a cluster. 3. reduce electrical interference. Coating slip is the closed loop A sequence of computer instructions coating mixture. The shield is CLUT See colour look-up table. half-tone reproduction. such as pick and water resistance. Light-sensitive surface applied to closed user group A subgroup of users on a net. which is solid or woven from fine wires. ble atmospheric conditions. coat weight The amount of coating on a base club line Strictly. 34 .e. close up Reduce spacing between characters of coating binder That part of a coating formula- type or other elements on a proof. CMYK Abbreviation for colour processing based COBOL Common Business-Oriented Language. paper expressed as dry weight on a given area.

lavishly illustrated ly in expectation of language changes for co- book usually left on display for the casual editions etc. the different aspects of networking developed coldset Web printing in which the ink is allowed and used on the UK Joint Academic Network. Covers a that they are in the correct sequence. applied for binding purposes at room temper.Dic. Subtractive CMYK and/or Pantone representa- co-edition Joint publication of a book by two tions of spot colours are used for printing. The ters to that required by a different system. browser. each overlay in a four-colour set (US). images than for still photography images. grams in memory and these have to be loaded coloured tops Dyed tops on a book-block. and revealing other printing characteristics.. picture quality and the size of the file. (See also carrier sense known as spread spectrum and code division multiple access/collision detect.pag1 28/9/00 12:26 am Page 35 code A character string or line of symbolic collate Loosely used to mean ‘gather’. companies. Collating variety of software products that determine marks on the back folds assist in this. or systematic set of blue) or each pixel may encode the colour using codes. er so that it can decode the received signal. out and editing colour pages for printing. The college electro A plastic-backed electrotype choice is intended to create a balance between invented at the London College of Printing. laying collected together as a visual whole. in which either code division multiplexing See code division a colour image may be stored either as three multiple access. should collating marks Black marks on the back folds of be condensed. sets.) before the definition of international standards. A form of multiplexing where collotype A short-run. co-editor Person who has joined with another colour blanks Printed sheets with illustrations person to edit a book. A colophon A printer’s or publisher’s identifying different random sequence corresponds to a symbol. 35 . colour cast An excess of one shade or hue in a cold composition Any typesetting method subject for reproduction or in a printed subject. cold start The act of starting a computer after the Each protocol is usually referred to by the power supply has been switched off before. from backing store or ROM. for open systems communication without heat. such as QuickTime. ing that the sections are in the correct order after A different CODEC would be used for video gathering. but. or compressed. screenless printing the transmitter encodes the signal using a pseu. which does not use hot metal for casting. Coloured Books A set of protocol definitions for ature. ly. Produced in this way typical- coffee-table book Large. ASCII or EBCDIC. this stage the device has no operating pro. strict- instructions to a computer. (See also heatset. packets collide and are corrupted. colour comp print Paper print made from a cold melt An adhesive such as PVA which is transparency. to check the gathered sections to establish CODEC COmpressor/DECompressor. that each host should wait for a random time code division multiple access (CDMA) Also before retransmitting. green and code set Coding system. The originator of the work sells colour bars Coloured strips on four-colour sheets to another or gives them the licence to process proofs showing densities across a sheet reprint the book locally. are typical code separate bit fields for each colour component. using the additive RGB system. e. lan. only but no text. cold colour Colour containing blue tones. image-processing system used in the publish- collage Image comprised of a number of items ing and prepress industry for designing. separate images (one for each of red. to dry by penetration on an absorbent paper JANET. so that their numeric representation of one group of charac. how a video file. Also black-step collation marks. continuous tone reproduction. At colour of the cover of the publication defining it. CSMA/CD protocol used on Ethernet specifies guage or process. printed on spines and title pages. colour electronic prepress system (CEPS) An Collabra See Netscape Collabra. collision The outcome when two hosts transmit code conversion The process of altering the simultaneously on a network. colour breaks The separate colour overlays for COLD See computer output on laser disk. Motorola colour Colours are usually represented on screen uses CDMA for digital cellular telephones. coloured edges Dyed edges on a book-block.) multiplexing. to save space on sections in sequential positions used for check- the hard disk and to make the video run faster. different communication channel.g. process using gelatine-coated plates to produce do-random sequence also known to the receiv.

resulting in four films used to make mittee that drafts and approves communica- printing plates. See CIE. colour-matching system Method of colour speci. colour separation negative One negative out of a command A computer instruction specifying an set of four separated process colour negatives. priate for an image of a face.) copies of a book result from one set of plates. column centimetre See column inch. ments. work. colours. thereby producing separated mentation of Apple Computer’s AppleTalk films for four-colour process work. sions and thus cannot be displayed on a screen. vertical.and right- colour look-up table (CLUT) A software palette hand edges of the columns of text to be creat- or set of 256 colours. however. Used in retouching in order to strengthen or weaken a analysing colour gamuts. Many manufacturers use the described. flesh tones would be appro. Each probably the biggest trade show in the world colour in the swatch has its ink-mix formula on any subject. Vertical area of print comprising lines combining inks of the four process colours of the same measure. colour resolution The number of bits per pixel appearing regularly in a periodical. Note. colour splits Instructions for the allocation of colour fall In multi-unit web-offset printing. particular colour in a particular area and so CIELUV. operation. e. the correct printing colours to individual compo- sequences of pages on which colour will be nents of a piece of integral artwork. non- colour requirements. 8-bit and 24-bit coming and going An imposition in which two colour. colour separation Separating full colour into the ComitŽ Consultatif International TŽlŽphonique four process colours by means of scanning or et TŽlŽgraphique CCITT: International com- of filters. out of the 16. visual evenness. which is in a swatch of colours provided as a set. Also called command line 36 . Regular newspaper (CMYK) or can be displayed on a screen using article. printing lines which mark the left. ruler guides. the some colours which cannot be made up of a automatic adjustment of columns to create a mixture of red. so that. which also palette can be set up for each particular file to form the spine. colour guide Instructions on artwork indicating column guides In DTP.. (See also margin guides.7 million (= 224) colours COM See computer output on microfilm. (See 1-bit. tions protocols and standards. green and blue phosphor emis. which is used on a com.2BSD of colour gamut The range of colours which can be Unix. used. colour overleaf proofs See acetate proofs. combination folder A machine combining a dled.Dic.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 36 colour etching The process of altering dot sizes representing colour distributions in terms of on a four-colour separation film by local combinations of single colours.g. in a colour image.) puter with 8-bit colour (which can only display column inch A newspaper measure of text space: 28 = 256 colours) to determine which 256 one column wide and one inch deep. it comb binding Type of mechanical binding can use at one time. Many applications allow a where separate pages are held together by the choice of the 256 colours to be used and a rounded teeth of a plastic comb. buckle folder and knife folder. combination line and tone A single print or probably green-based. comic strip Cartoon drawings in sequence. An example is the Pantone show as a platform for product announce- Matching System (PMS). a camera lens to filter out all colours except Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP) An imple- that selected. palette would be more piece of film combining half-tone and line appropriate for a landscape. protocols for the Berkeley version 4. produced in subtractive colour printing by column 1. affect the printed result. Comdex The communications and data process- fication by matching the colour required to one ing exposition held in Las Vegas. ed. additive RGB. available as dictated by the press configuration colour swatch A sample of a specified colour. available from a scanned 24-bit colour file. 2. colour transparency A full colour photographic colour filters Sheets which are placed in front of positive on film. suit the subject matter of the image being han. the dotted. while a different. colour sequence The order in which the four command interface A user interface that process colours are printed. CIELAB. requires the user to enter commands at the colour space A graphical or pictorial method of command prompt. that there are column balancing In desktop publishing.

‘comms’. mation and the server. The individual components must serve dard interface between HTTP servers and a common purpose. 3. for computers to send and receive information common Cash column on ruled stationery. command line interpreter or charac. Also known as although. Management Protocol (SNMP). prehensive (US): a layout showing everything Common Management Information Protocol in position. transmission systems. which has similarities to Acrobat. text and processes to exchange information and com. analysing wide-area voice or data networks. interoperation. pictures. may use different pro- pressed form of the existing network layer tocols in different situations. committed information rate (CIR) The guaran. COMNET A commercial simulation tool for Common Ground A document exchange system. (CORBA) A standard way of describing the commercial invoice An invoice against which interface between objects in object-oriented payment is to be made. and to check that the information has been common architecture technology for next. audio. There is generation Internet protocol (CATNIP) An more than one set of protocols and a computer. parity. (CMIP) The part of the OSI body of standards compact disc See CD-ROM. communication The electronic transfer of data teed bandwidth over a virtual circuit. although comp 1. To compose. that specifies the protocol elements that may be compact disc eXtended Architecture (CD-ROM used to provide the operation and notification XA) A compact disc format jointly developed services described in the related standard. audio (CMIS). Can as kbps or Mbps. although the latter can ment.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 37 interface. Sony and Microsoft. External programs are and employ common procedures and proto- known as gateways because they provide an cols. whole. and video data. communications speed This is normally speci- common carrier A private company that offers fied in bits per second (bps) or multiples such telecommunications services to the public. communications protocol A set of signals that commodity papers White general-purpose computers can use when they want to papers produced in enormous quantities by exchange data. command line interpreter See command inter. Common Object Request Broker Architecture face. The system can consist of a information. communication system A system or facility pro- cedure in which a special channel.Dic. Architecture (SAA). together with terminal IBM’s Systems Application Architecture equipment capable of interconnection and (SAA). between different hardware. and simultaneous access to. handshaking. by Philips. invoice. relay stations standard program interface to networks in and tributary stations. mands for the purpose of network manage- ter-based interface. See full duplex. Common Management Information Services compact disc interactive (CD-i or CD-I) Format (CMIS) The part of the OSI body of network of compact disc developed by Philips for stor- standards describing the services used by peer ing a combination of video. rently in use. combination of individual communication net- Common Communication Services (CCS) The works. is devoted to signalling and/or equipment. devices can go higher for short bursts. protocols and to integrate the protocols cur. and more complex. A com- fewer features. separate viding information transfer between persons from the user channels. Often described as the bit also be described as a telephone company. Internet-Draft designed to provide a com. Compare pro-forma applications. rate. These signals make it possible the larger paper-mills. common channel signalling A networking pro. but broader command line interface See command interface. A compositor. half duplex. which forms an integrated Common Gateway Interface (CGI) The stan. trol and generally operate together. Common User Access (CUA) The user interface commercial register Colour printing to a register standard of IBM’s Systems Application tolerance of plus or minus one row of dots. It is similar to the Simple Network include menus. if the network has spare bandwidth. or group of computers. be technically compatible external programs. to allow the Common Management Information Services storage of. they must respond to some form of con- interface between an external source of infor. allowing the user limited interaction 37 . 2. transmitted and received correctly.

such as text. the consumer market. compose To make up type into lines and/or computer-assisted learning (CAL) In education pages. storage. composite block A plate comprising more than tions via a special controller. The operator is called a compositor. that compensates for any uneven tension in a compression algorithm Algorithm used to reel of paper. and training a computer displays instructional composing stick A hand-held. comp list List of periodical subscribers receiving computed tomography (CT) A medical-imaging complimentary copies. compound documents. compound document A document file that con- pact disc on which data can be overwritten tains embedded and linked data that was cre- (compare CD-ROM). to be used in systems composite video A way of broadcasting video or using a combination of computer and televi. adjustable tray in material to a student and asks questions about which a compositor sets type by hand. sports and weather. techniques. mitted at a lower bit rate. voltage level etc. companding Compressing/expanding. sentation. which is a program sometimes in ROM that business news. disc. (See also distinct from display sizes. sketch maps computer conferencing Collaboration and dis- etc. several formats used for CD-ROM data. Files reduced in this way need to compensating roller A roller in a web-fed press be decompressed to be opened. compressed video The result of video compres- compatibility The ability of two pieces of elec.) CompuServe Information Manager (CIM) The complementary colour removal See achromatic official offline reader and navigation tool for separations. which may affect the efficiency of a component. interchange and manipulation of Amplitude modulation process for manipulat. See writing process a laser melts the surface of the Object Linking and Embedding. travel and entertainment data. cations.) A commercial code program then becomes the program online service that can be accessed via modem. Particularly netic and optical technology so that during the used with reference to Microsoft Windows. data medium using the same physical format composition site Printing type size (contrast. cussion between people who do not physically 38 . The disc combines mag. television signals with the colours and the hor- sion. computer aided design See CAD. It was aimed at one original. as at a time and changes it into machine-code well as online editions of computer publi- instructions every time the program is run. There are 14pt).pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 38 with films. CompuServe. temperature. ISO composition sizes Types under 14pt in size. (See also assembler. half-tones. taken through to finished effect. tronic hardware to emulate each other and to compression Reduction of file size by software communicate with each other. compiler A computer program which checks and comptometer Automatic counting device. converts programs from a high-level language CompuServe (Formal name CompuServe into machine code. it also provides online conferencing. ing a telephone signal to improve the signal. games and educational applica. financial takes a high-level language program one line transactions.Dic. the information given. As 9660 defines a standard file system. elements. the student’s answers composite artwork Artwork made up of several determine the sequence of subsequent lessons. Up to 600 Mbytes of display size) that can be set by machine (up to data can be stored on one CD-ROM. achieve file compression. thereby allowing the magnetic elements Compound Document Architecture (CDA) of the surface layer to be realigned.) compositor A typesetter who makes up pages. compact disc read only memory (CD-ROM) A Used in the US for television. boards. integrated. Information Services – CIS. accessed by the computer. retrieval. compact disc-recordable (CD-R) Type of com. An alternative format is digital video izontal and vertical registration information interactive (DVI). Gives poorer quality than RGB. comprehensive layout Advertisement design to-noise ratio. DEC’s standard for the creation. Compare interpreter. WORM. sion. Allows voice signals to be trans. resulting in faster Widely used for electronic mail and bulletin processing speeds. The resulting machine. technique in which a sequence of X-ray images component stress Pertaining to factors of usage is used to build up a three-dimensional repre- such as shock. as audio compact discs. ated in other kinds of applications.

erative working including workflow auto- letin boards or email. networking organisation which combined with conditioning 1. inputs may be active simultaneously so the ent programs to exchange graphic files. play and manipulate images and drawings. ment which sets and monitors correct ink-flows computer conferencing. computer output on microfilm (COM) (Or com. access a program or data at the same time.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 39 meet. electronic mail. group scheduling sys- on the press and makes automatic adjustments tems. piece of machinery into which the stock is tive learning. and justification. rather than on microfilm. as well as many other functions such as hyphenation in publishing. Its function is to co-ordinate response to telephone functions such as making and and awareness of security issues. Also described as groupware. videoconferencing. Similar to computer-supported pumped from the hydrapulper in order to cooperative work.) Organisation formed after a particularly intru. in identification. analogue telephone lines to permit higher- computer-supported collaborative learning speed data transmission. Computer graphics are store and display typesetting and to perform used in a wide range of applications.Dic. tems to support this include electronic mail. access concordance Index listing the main words used to remote databases and related applications. computer telephone integration (CTI) The use sive worm virus worried the Internet commu. the total bandwidth of all simultaneously cation for the integration of computers and active inputs. by laser or thermal imaging techniques direct- sized sound. undergo further beating or refining. Computer games typically computer-to-plate System which exposes plates employ fast. computer vision See vision system. ly from data supplied from a computer file computer graphics The use of computers to dis. so that applications such as screen-based of terminals to a mainframe or other multi-user telephone systems. TAPI. for make-ready and during running. output bandwidth must be at least as great as computer-integrated telephony (CIT) A specifi. Most CGM files are vector graphics. condensed type A typeface with narrow charac- Computer + Science NETwork (CSNET) The teristics. from computer onto microfilm or microfiche. the cone-shaped computer conferencing) to facilitate collabora. (See also computer integrated which the computer (usually) opposes the telephony. The standard was created concentrator A kind of multiplexer where many to enable users of different systems and differ. Computer conferencing. Images can be stored as either raster (bitmap) computer typesetting The use of a computer to or vector graphics. receiving calls. can be used. After this computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) stage. (CSCL) The use of computer systems (such as cone refiner In papermaking. (See also computer telephone concertina fold or accordion fold Pages folded integration. concurrent processing The execution of two pro- puter output micrographics. centrifugal cleaners and finally pumped to the 39 . 2. in the CGM format. (See also Lotus Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Notes. May be used to connect a group PBXs. mation and documentation management.) human player. Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) An inter. Abbreviated to CTP. databases and shared desktop systems. as distinct from situation where more than one person tries to COM (computer output on microfilm). reference points and explanations. All discussion is carried on using bul.) so that each parallel fold in a sheet goes in the computer-mediated communications (CMC) opposite direction to the previous one. of computer systems to handle and control nity. call centres and voice mail system. national standard file format for graphic computer word Any group of characters that are images. ment storage technique in which scanned concurrency control The controls built into a images of documents are stored on optical program running over a network to handle the disk. See mature. in a large work in alphabetical order. The provision of filters on leased BITNET to form CREN.) Direct output grams simultaneously. directory services and caller computer game Computer-controlled game. Sys- computer-controlled inking The use of equip. animated graphics and synthe. giving computer output on laser disk (COLD) A docu. capable of being treated as a single unit for the although it is possible to store raster graphics purposes of processing or storage. teleconferencing. (usually PostScript) rather than from film. the stock is cleaned in a series of The use of computer systems to facilitate coop.

contention slot Also described as contention mon example is Transmission Control period. Recommends standards cerned about global conflict. constant mapping A method of describing an Configurable Unified Search Interface (CUSI) A Internet address used by some TCP systems. conferencing A generic term used to cover various constant linear velocity (CLV) A technique used types of system which link people together. host.) other host’s packet has collided with its trans- connector Connectors are the parts on the ends mission. must transmit before it can be sure that no tionless.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 40 headbox for the beginning of the Fourdrinier console The keyboard which controls the opera- process. ARP. switching. i. Examples include LANs. archiv- end of the cable and that on the hardware that ing and retrieval of text and illustration files. stant angular velocity. UDP. indexing. or positive made in contact with. into a computer system. transfer and connection release. See Institute for and procedures for radio and television broad- Global Communications. 40 . and they are contents page Page of a book or magazine described as either male or female. which is used on mag- nously’. the original. of cables that actually make the connection to content management system Software system another piece of hardware. explaining the contents and where they appear. and therefore nation of those packets. data width. network without the need for a connection to contact print A photographic print of a negative have been established previously to the desti. Both the part on the for the ordered structuring. Contrast with circuit switching and The term can also be used in SGML. Also dent of the Ethernet address. with the connection-oriented. allowing a host to compete for access to a shared channel or com- send data in a continuous stream to another puter port. even if not physically together. interactive manuals. connectionless broadband data service container boards Boards used in manufacturing (CBDS) The term used in Europe for SMDS box containers. (Contrast with describes a tool for searching the Web. all data will be delivered to the other end in the contention scheme A method of multiple access same order as sent and without duplicates. contact screen Half-tone screen used in direct vidually. tions of a mainframe computer. Each packet contains the same size as. Consultative Committee on International Radio ConflictNet A network connecting those con. (See also circuit switching. to-end logical channel is established prior to contention A condition in which multiple users the start of communication. collection of indices to various World Wide in which the Internet address is not indepen- Web and other Internet documents.Dic. The transport service will guarantee that contention period See contention slot. of the disk is always the same at the point ferencing and computer conferencing. The minimum time for which a host Protocol (TCP).) configuration The arrangement of peripherals constat Short for continuous stationery. the people are present simultaneous. it plugs into are called connectors. in which Communication proceeds through three well. Internet container An HTML element that contains text. connected dot Half-tone dots joined together. ly. to a shared medium. such as a LAN. This is the opposite of connec. conformability The degree in which a paper sur. The in CD drives to ensure that the linear velocity main types are videoconferencing. access units compete with each other for band- defined phases: connection establishment.e. IP. consumable textbook A book which can be writ- face will change shape to contact ink on the ten in by the student and therefore can be used press. Connectionless operation is also contact with the photographic film for creating known as datagram operation and packet half-tones. All being read. audiocon. This should be compared with con- except the last link people together ‘synchro. only once. (CCIR) Of the ITU. its own destination address and is routed indi. netic disk drives. Content Data Model (CDM) An SGML-based connection-oriented A type of transport layer US Department of Defense specification for data communication service in which an end. casting. The most com. (Switched Multimegabit Data Service). consumer press Periodicals circulating widely connectionless A mode of data communication among the general public (as distinct from in which packets are sent from the user to the trade and technical press). same meaning.

which accessed. and com- 41 . Storage of such information is The term is still used to mean transmission by an automatic process that occurs as the Web is means of a signal at a single frequency. or plates into film for subsequent printing by a continuous stationery Reel stationery used on different method. A common use of cookies is to identify is either on or off (e. which. use of encryption in the control of. ment. There Council (FNC) and its counterparts in North is a lively debate between publishers and print. them to sign in each time they access it. tation aspects. continuous pulping Pulp produced in a con.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 41 contextual searching Searching facility that control bus That part of a computer’s internal applies fuzzy logic.Dic. these include tab. ular attention to coding tables and is widely conventional memory In the MS-DOS environ- used outside CALS applications themselves. to investigate the from a backed sheet. exchange and use of business and technical control tape Computer tape containing control information. frequency or phase. cookie A World Wide Web mechanism through tinuous tone. usually as part of a browser use of circuits containing thermionic valves. conversion systems Systems which convert type stantly running digester. Different operating systems and programs for has changed several times. Control codes are exchange of data with commercial suppliers. re-reeling or changing the reproduced. In the half-tone process the image format of sheets or reels of paper. This gives partic. a global strategy intend. Includes SGML for the documen. computer printers and other automatic converter A computer peripheral which transfers machines. ning among the principal North American and contrast Wide range of tonal gradations. All such images must go one pass. give the illusion of con. chemicals. their function is specified ed to bring about more enterprise integration as part of the ASCII character set. data from one medium to another. also used to control transmission between Now. hosts. enhance a search and extend hits into parallel control code A character which provides a con- definitions and contexts. a CALS Document Type control unit Part of a computer CPU which Definition has been defined. contrast ratio opacity Paper opacity measured CopiCat A project. contract proof Colour proof or set of colour Co-ordinating Committee for Intercontinental proofs which define the expected standard for Research Networks (CCIRN) A committee that the printed job and which are used by the includes the United States Federal Networking printer as the accepted match for quality. through a half-tone process in order to be converting Sheeting. the proofing and wet printing are so far apart.g. implementation. or two-colour on one side of the sheet in directly printed. Co-chaired by the execu- ers on whether digital proofs can be viewed as tive directors of the FNC and the European contract proofs. In some cases. CCIRN provides a forum for cooperative plan- contraries Unwanted material in paper or stock. The person is broken up into a series of discrete dots who carries this out is known as a ‘converter’. carriage return (CALS) Note that what the acronym stands etc. sequences operations. distributed free to selected names or groups of gies for the development. cooking Treating pulp with heat. through the streamlining of business processes controlled circulation Magazine or newspaper and the application of standards and technolo. management. more generally. which has developed from by the TAPPI method of gauging reflectance CITED and other projects. America and Europe. Originally a US have different conventions for what control Department of Defense standard for electronic codes are intended to do. readers. the first 640K of memory. semantic analysis and circuitry which transports signals designed to often the use of an online thesaurus in order to control system operations. as opposed registered users of a Web site without requiring to a carrier which is modulated in amplitude. rather than being part of the Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support text or data. continuous tone An uncountable range of colour convertible press A press that will print either variation or shades of grey such as occurs in a one-colour on each side of the sheet in one photograph or painting. water and contone See continuous tone. information rather than data. European research networking bodies. since the technologies of digital Association of Research Networks (RARE). trol or function. which cannot be pass. Morse code). when printed. which servers can obtain information stored on continuous wave (CW) A term dating from the the client side.

particular country. All FDDI connections. thousands or millions of bytes. co-publication To publish a book in partnership CORBA See Common Object Request Broker with another publisher. where the web is passed to the press section. corona Discharge of electricity used to charge the copy date Scheduled date for delivering copy to toner in a laser printer. or copper. Software Foundation. counting keyboard Keyboard which has logic modify and redistribute the code. 42 . bowl. Also. corrugated Packaging grade of cardboard made ting and publication by. cotton linters Cotton seed-hair fibres used in fine copyholder Person who helps a proofreader paper. (See also cut. copyleft (A play on copyright. is hardly ever used. libel etc. ISDN. us. while leaving the original in core memory Main storage capacity in the cen- place. checking for by sandwiching fluted kraft paper between errors.) tral processing unit of a computer. co-publisher One of a partnership of publishers. program must also include the rights to use. copy editing Preparing manuscripts for typeset. copywriter Person who creates the text for copperplate A polished copper plate for making advertisements. Those who pass on a strokes. counter Centre part of a letter enclosed by duction rights to everyone.) the code for the US.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 42 pensation for. such as the bowl of an ‘o’. the freedoms become legally inseparable. inconsistencies. to the clipboard. Also known FDDI network running over conventional as biblio page. style (both typesetting and house style).. photographed for reproduction. cording Putting cord into stationery as a form of copy To transfer a copy of text and/or graphics loose binding. guage for the Linotron 202 and other machines. copyright page Title page verso of a book con- copper distributed data interface (CDDI) An taining bibliographic information. indicated by copyboard Holding frame for material being the term kb or Mb. Defined in copy block Block of typesetting treated as a unit. country code A two-letter abbreviation used for a copy prep Copy preparation. e. prepare machines. included in the data going in to a CTP or simi. medium. copperprint The developed image on a plate CORA V Linotype’s typesetter-command lan- before etching. in order to fill a given amount of space. check proofs for corrections by reading out the couch End of the wet end of a paper machine original copy. although electronic markup. of a work (or whoever he or she transfers that copier paper Paper used in photocopying right to) to make and distribute copies. and perform and display the copper cable Traditional telephone wire found in work in public. Copper cable carries (CITED) An EC project aimed at addressing ordinary telephony and can carry basic rate the issues of control of and compensation for ISDN but not the more advanced primary rate intellectual property in electronic information. The codes are based on ISO tions on a manuscript to ensure understanding 3166 and used as the top-level domain for of the requirement by the compositor. copper cables. derivative works. sheets of cardboard to absorb any impact. granting reuse and repro. corrigenda List of errors to be corrected in a lar all-digital system. engravings. much of the local connection services of the Copyright in Transmitted Electronic Documents public telephone network. can be either fibre ten originals. intellectual property rights in copyright The exclusive legal right of the author electronic material. printed book. copywriting Scriptwriting for advertisements. See co-publisher. ification to which a manuscript needs to be set cotton content paper See rag paper. during transmission or while held on a backing copyfitting Determining the typographical spec. Putting instruc. a publisher or printer. single. corruption An unsatisfactory alteration of data copy editor One involved in copy editing.Dic.) The copyright coucher Person responsible for placing wet notice applying to the works of the Free paper onto the felt mat. the code and for justification purposes.g. corona wire Thin wire in a laser printer that copy-dot scanner Scanner designed to capture gives a charge to the powdered toner particles pre-screened page films digitally so they can be as they pass across it. copy typing Typing documents from handwrit- attached or dual-attached. Architecture. (See also Internet hostnames in most countries.

computer system. due CRT See cathode ray tube. blocked over it. cpl or CPL Characters per line. 2. crease 1. CRC See 1. 43 . Non-woven materi. Muslin cloth or mull used cross line screen The normal 45° half-tone as a first lining on the spines of the sections in screen used for most half-tone origination. in two directions to form shading to a line CPU Central processing unit. for proofing four-colour subjects without poses. Used to measure the cross hatching Series of close parallel lines going speed of a printer or communications device. effect or achieve better fit. A of the web. not parallel to it (which is preferable). hence crosstalk Unwanted coupling of electrical sig- ‘creasing’. gling (see shingle).pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 43 courtesy discount Special discount that is given Cromalin A proprietary plastic-proofing system by supplier to purchaser but not for resale pur. while events on less critical paths may been reduced as close as possible to absolute be if necessary. See case material. cover Outer section of a periodical. The computing drawing. crawler See spider. cross-reference Where one part of a book makes Camera-ready copy. cps Characters per second. 2. than the back margins of the inner pages. zero. Blanket movement during printing. The fixing of cal page. Images of type are to the thickness of paper across the fold. 2. paper in a book runs at right angles to the cpo In direct mail. crawling Contraction of ink on paper when it has cross-posting Sending a news article to several not penetrated the surface. Impress an indented line across a sheet cross sealer Blade in film wrapping machine of paper or board to assist folding. fault which leaves a crease in the sheet. nals between two adjacent transmission media. A folding which cuts and seals ends of wrapping. als. ing materials in which the grain is at right C print See C type. cost per order. As distinct from a boxed head which is cracked edge Broken edge on a web of paper. usually as a means of reducing electrical crocking Dry ink rubbed off after printing. crop Cut back part of an illustration to give better cover board See case board. cross direction Across the web of paper. crop marks Marks printed on a printed sheet. They can also act as registration a book cover to the spine and endpapers. angles to the spine. elastic in preparation for the title lettering to be sheet. critical path The sequence of events which takes crushing Paper defect affecting a small area and the shortest time. typesetter. crash 1. marks if more than one colour is to be printed. Analysis of the critical path showing as a visible surface fault. pages in a printed section becoming narrower CRPU See camera-ready paste-up. creep 1. resistance. woven materials and leathers comprise the which indicate the edge of the intended physi- most commonly used coverings. Serious hardware or software failure in a cross index To give a cross-reference. 2.Dic. the winding stage. unit in an electronic system. cpp Characters per pica. crossmarks See register marks. cross-machine tension burst A paper break at crash finish Linen-look finish on imitation cloth. a case-bound book. crossbars Metal cross-pieces which divide a ing ink. type in a line. Unit of measurement of into sections. ensures that events on the path are never cryogenic Materials whose temperatures have delayed. cross head A sub-heading ranged centrally over CR Carriage return. spine. See plastic proof. making machine plates. crown Standard size of paper measuring The effect of the back margins of the outer 384 3 504mm (metric system). Copyfitting method Also used to refer to endpapers as book-cover- using average number of characters per pica. 2. different Usenet newsgroups simultaneously. bearing its title. cross fold A fold at right angles to the direction CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers. Cyclic redundancy check. text. covering power The opacity achieved by a print. chase (a metal frame holding composed type) cpi Characters per inch. single-user operating system developed by cross grain Used to denote that the grain of the Digital Research. Needs exposed on a CRT in a third generation photo- to be compensated for in imposition by shin. crusher panel The area on a book cover blocked creping Crinkling paper to create a soft. covering 1. a noted reference to another. ranged left.

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cryptography The study of encryption and cut To copy text or graphics to the clipboard but,
decryption. Usually involves taking plaintext unlike copy, also to delete the original from the
and applying various encryption algorithms to current file.
produce encrypted ciphertext. The security of a cut and paste In wordprocessing and desktop
cryptosystem usually depends on the secrecy of publishing, the on-screen version of the manu-
(some of) the keys rather than on the algorithm al task whereby areas of text or graphics are
itself. See Clipper, RSA encryption, DES. defined and stored for subsequent insertion
crystallisation Condition of an ink layer which into another area, page or file. Otherwise, tra-
will not accept a second ink overprinting. ditional paste-up methods.
CSCL See computer-supported collaborative cut-back binding See adhesive binding.
learning. cut flush Binding style with the cover cut flush
CSCW See computer-supported cooperative with the pages.
work. cut-in index Divisions cut into edge of book to
C series See C. indicate alphabetical steps.
CSLIP Compressed SLIP, producing faster cut-in notes Notes in an outside margin of a page
transfer rates than with uncompressed Serial but which the text runs round in some degree.
Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). cut-line Mark left on negative or printed copy by
CSMA/CD See carrier sense multiple failure to spot out a shadow left by an edge of
access/collision detect. patched-in artwork on CRC.
CSNET See Computer + Science NETwork. cut marks See crop marks.
CSS See Cascading Style Sheets. cut-off The web press measure of length of sheet
CSU See channel service unit. cut, determined by the plate cylinder circum-
CSWO Coldset web offset. ference. Measured in inches or millimetres.
C/T Colour transparency. cut-out Illustration with background painted out
CTCP See client to client protocol. or removed by process work.
CTI See computer telephone integration. cutscore Blade in die-cutting which scores for
CTMP See chemi-thermomechanical pulp. folding.
CTP See computer-to-plate. cut-size paper Small-sized paper sheets for
CTS See clear to send. stationery.
C type Proprietary photographic process for pro- cut-through index See step index.
ducing continuous tone colour prints. Also, cutting Sheeting web paper.
C print. cutting ahead Cutting watermarked paper
CUA See Common User Access. regardless of watermark positions. Compare
cumulative index An index which combines sev- cut-to-register.
eral other indices. cutting marks Marks on copy which indicate
curl Sheet distortion leading to a tendency to roll cutting lines.
up. cut-to-register Paper with a watermark in the
cursives Typefaces which simulate handwriting same position on each cut sheet. Compare cut-
without joined characters. ting ahead.
cursor The screen symbol that indicates where the CW See continuous wave.
action initiated by the next keystrokes or mouse CWIS See campus wide information system.
click will take effect. Cursors in character-based cwt Hundredweight. The short cwt (US) equals
interfaces are either a block or an underline 100lbs, the long cwt (UK) equals 112lbs.
(sometimes flashing), while in a GUI the cursor cyan The blue colour used in process printing.
can consist of any icon chosen by the software CybercafŽ A café where not only coffee but also
developer or the user. Internet access is provided.
curtain coating A paper coating system in which CyberCash An electronic payment method using
the coating is injected horizontally across the RSA encryption. (See also DigiCash, Ecash,
web. Mondex.)
curved electros Electros shaped for use on rotary CyberGlove A data glove sold by Virtual
machines. Sometimes called curved plates. Technologies. The glove houses 18 sensors to
cushion Soft pad on which a leather-bound book track accurately just about every move the
is put for tooling. hand is capable of making. The accompanying
CUSI See Configurable Unified Search Interface. software includes a three-dimensional model
custom Non-standard, or specially commissioned. of the hand that can be added to any virtual
custom software See bespoke software. reality application.


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cyberspace Term to mean all the information DAC Digital-to-analogue converter. See digital-
available on computers worldwide that is to-analogue conversion.
available through networks and the Internet. D/A conversion See digital-to-analogue conver-
cycle time The duration of a computer process sion.
relating to one storage location. Used to mea- dagger Dagger-shaped symbol (†) used as a foot-
sure speed of performance. note reference mark. Usually follows the asterisk
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) A method used in order of use.
to detect errors in transmitted data whereby a dailies National daily newspapers.
polynomial algorithm is used to generate a daisy-chain bus Pertaining to polling circuits
CRC code, which is transmitted with the data where a device will block the signal, indicating
block; this code is compared with a code that is that it requires connection and may, once con-
calculated at the receiver. If there is a discrep- nected, modify the signal before passing it on
ancy, then it will be clear that an error has to the next device.
occurred. A parity bit can be considered a one- daisywheel Flat disc with characters on stalks
bit CRC for a string of bits. A single corrupted used as the removable printing element of a let-
bit in the data will result in a one-bit change in ter-quality printer. Hence ‘daisywheel printer’.
the calculated CRC but multiple corrupted bits damper Roller on a litho press which transfers
may cancel each other out. Ethernet packets moisture to the plate prior to inking.
have a 32-bit CRC. Many disk formats include dancer roller Roller on a web-offset press which
a CRC at some level. (See also checksum.) controls the tension of the web.
cyclohexylamine carbonate (CHC) Chemical dandy roll Cylinder on papermaking machine
which removes acid from paper. which impresses patterns and watermarks on
cylinder 1. In computing, a set of tracks in a disk the surface.
pack which are positioned vertically under- DANTE A European network company set up by
neath each other. 2. In printing, the structure the national research networks.
which carries the printing plate or blanket on DARPA See Defense Advanced Research
the printing press. Projects Agency.
cylinder dressing Sheets of paper around the dash A character, similar to but longer than a
impression cylinder of a letterpress printing hyphen. An en dash is the width of ‘N’ in the
machine which improve the definition of the font being used and an em dash the width of
print by providing a cushioned impression. ‘M’. While the hyphen has clearly established
cylinder machine 1. A paper machine that makes uses, how em and en dashes are used depends
paper on a mould revolving in pulp. 2. A let- on the style of a publication and on the country
terpress printing machine which uses a revolv- in which they are being used.
ing cylinder to make the impression. DAT See digital audio tape. The abbreviation is
cylinder mould machine A paper machine that also used within computing generally to mean
makes high-quality mould-made paper by dynamic address translation.
forming the paper on a cylindrical mould data Information, usually recorded in a quantifi-
which revolves in the stock. able, i.e. digital, manner.
cylinder press Any letterpress printing machine data bank A collection of data pertaining to a
which uses a cylinder to press the paper on the given subject or application.
type. Compare platen press. database A structured container of data of any
cyrillic alphabet The Russian alphabet. type. There are several different types of data-
base, which are more or less appropriate for dif-
ferent applications. Relational databases are
not always appropriate for text-based appli-
cations, while object-oriented databases are
being developed which will handle multimedia
D applications. SGML and HTML can also be
regarded as linear databases. The hierarchy
implicit in SGML is more descriptive than a text
database, although it requires tools to manipu-
D See Didot. late it. Databases which will encompass SGML
D2-MAC A standard for satellite TV signals. It will are at a late stage of development.
probably be superseded by digital technology. database query language A language in which
DAB See digital audio broadcast. users of a database can (interactively) formulate


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requests and generate reports. The best known Data Discman A Sony trademark for a portable
is SQL. Such requests will often be made over a compact disc player with a liquid crystal dis-
network using a clientÐserver approach. play for data disks.
database server A computer in a network that Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) An ANSI
holds and manages a database (the back end), standard identical to the Data Encryption
while the user only manipulates data and Standard (DES).
applications (the front end). True database data encryption key (DEK) Used for the encryp-
servers should be distinguished from simple tion of text and to calculate integrity checks (or
file servers in that with file servers it is neces- digital signatures). See cryptography.
sary to download large parts of the database to D See Didot.
the user or client because the database software D2-MAC A standard for satellite TV signals. It will
has not been designed for a network. It was the probably be superseded by digital technology.
development of later, network-aware software DAB See digital audio broadcast.
which allowed the use of the database server. DAC Digital-to-analogue converter. See digital-
data bus The internal connections in a computer to-analogue conversion.
that carry data, essentially between the proces- D/A conversion See digital-to-analogue conver-
sor, memory and peripherals. Data buses are sion.
able to transfer 8, 16, 32 or even more bits at a dagger Dagger-shaped symbol (†) used as a foot-
time and the width of the data bus is an impor- note reference mark. Usually follows the aster-
tant factor in determining the processing speed isk in order of use.
of a system. dailies National daily newspapers.
data circuit-terminating equipment See data daisy-chain bus Pertaining to polling circuits
communication equipment. where a device will block the signal, indicating
data communication equipment (DCE) (Or data that it requires connection and may, once con-
circuit-terminating equipment.) The devices nected, modify the signal before passing it on
that provide the interface between the data to the next device.
source and the transmitting/receiving equip- daisywheel Flat disc with characters on stalks
ment (the data terminal equipment or DTE), used as the removable printing element of a let-
so that in an RS-232 or serial interface the ter-quality printer. Hence ‘daisywheel printer’.
modem or line interface device is usually damper Roller on a litho press which transfers
regarded as the DCE. In an X.25 system a net- moisture to the plate prior to inking.
work access and packet switching node is dancer roller Roller on a web-offset press which
regarded as the DCE. DCE and DTE need to be controls the tension of the web.
distinguished in order to ensure that they are dandy roll Cylinder on papermaking machine
wired correctly. which impresses patterns and watermarks on
data communications Sending and receiving the surface.
data via any communications medium, tele- DANTE A European network company set up by
phone line, satellite or wide area network. Less the national research networks.
usually, the term refers to local area networks, DARPA See Defense Advanced Research
when the term networking is more commonly Projects Agency.
applied. Data communications are increasingly dash A character, similar to but longer than a
digital, although transfer over the PSTN is still hyphen. An en dash is the width of ‘N’ in the
analogue and modems are required to convert font being used and an em dash the width of
the signals from and to digital signals at the ‘M’. While the hyphen has clearly established
end of the line. (See also analogue-to-digital uses, how em and en dashes are used depends
and digital-to-analogue conversion.) on the style of a publication and on the country
data compression Techniques used to reduce file in which they are being used.
size in order to cut down either the amount of DAT See digital audio tape. The abbreviation is
storage needed for a given amount of data or also used within computing generally to mean
the time taken to transmit it over a communica- dynamic address translation.
tions link. Often (but not always) this data is data Information, usually recorded in a quanti-
text. On a dial-up line, the ITU-T standard data fiable, i.e. digital, manner.
compression technique for low-speed data data bank A collection of data pertaining to a
transmission is V.42 bis, which is gradually given subject or application.
replacing older and more proprietary tech- database A structured container of data of any
niques. V.42 bis will yield up to 4:1 compression. type. There are several different types of data-


Dic.pag1 28/9/00 12:27 am Page 47

base, which are more or less appropriate for digital, although transfer over the PSTN is still
different applications. Relational databases are analogue and modems are required to convert
not always appropriate for text-based applica- the signals from and to digital signals at the
tions, while object-oriented databases are end of the line. (See also analogue-to-digital
being developed which will handle multime- and digital-to-analogue conversion.)
dia applications. SGML and HTML can also be data compression Techniques used to reduce file
regarded as linear databases. The hierarchy size in order to cut down either the amount of
implicit in SGML is more descriptive than a storage needed for a given amount of data or the
text database, although it requires tools to time taken to transmit it over a communications
manipulate it. Databases which will encompass link. Often (but not always) this data is text. On
SGML are at a late stage of development. a dial-up line, the ITU-T standard data com-
database query language A language in which pression technique for low-speed data transmis-
users of a database can (interactively) formu- sion is V.42 bis, which is gradually replacing
late requests and generate reports. The best older and more proprietary techniques. V.42 bis
known is SQL. Such requests will often be will yield up to 4:1 compression.
made over a network using a client-server Data Discman A Sony trademark for a portable
approach. compact disc player with a liquid crystal dis-
database server A computer in a network that play for data disks.
holds and manages a database (the back end), Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) An ANSI
while the user only manipulates data and standard identical to the Data Encryption
applications (the front end). True database Standard (DES).
servers should be distinguished from simple data encryption key (DEK) Used for the encryp-
file servers in that with file servers it is neces- tion of text and to calculate integrity checks (or
sary to download large parts of the database to digital signatures). See cryptography.
the user or client because the database soft- Data Encryption Standard (DES) The encryp-
ware has not been designed for a network. It tion algorithm developed at the US National
was the development of later, network-aware Bureau of Standards. It operates on 64-bit
software which allowed the use of the database blocks of data and is based on a 56-bit key. DES
server. is identical to the Data Encryption Algorithm
data bus The internal connections in a computer (DEA). DES has been implemented in both
that carry data, essentially between the proces- hardware and software. DES is not supposed to
sor, memory and peripherals. Data buses are be used outside the US and US companies are
able to transfer 8, 16, 32 or even more bits at a not allowed to export equipment in which DES
time and the width of the data bus is an impor- is implemented. However, companies outside
tant factor in determining the processing speed the US have implemented DES and there has
of a system. been a suggestion that this puts US industry at
data circuit-terminating equipment See data a disadvantage.
communication equipment. data glove A device used to interact with virtual
data communication equipment (DCE) (Or data reality. The data glove contains sensors, which
circuit-terminating equipment.) The devices measure the movements of the wearer’s fingers
that provide the interface between the data and transmit them to the virtual reality system.
source and the transmitting/receiving equip- Some data gloves also measure movement of
ment (the data terminal equipment or DTE), the wrist and elbow and contain control but-
so that in an RS-232 or serial interface the tons. They can also output signals, such as
modem or line interface device is usually vibration. The related software is set up so that
regarded as the DCE. In an X.25 system a net- the user knows what he or she can do and is
work access and packet switching node is doing with the glove. (See also CyberGlove.)
regarded as the DCE. DCE and DTE need to be datagram An independent data entity that carries
distinguished in order to ensure that they are all the routing information it needs to reach the
wired correctly. destination computer without relying on other
data communications Sending and receiving communications between the source and desti-
data via any communications medium, tele- nation computers and the transporting net-
phone line, satellite or wide area network. Less work. The basic unit of information transferred
usually, the term refers to local area networks, over the Internet using the IP protocol. See
when the term networking is more commonly connectionless and User Datagram Protocol
applied. Data communications are increasingly (UDP).


data terminal ready (DTR) An RS-232-C signal Dataphone Digital Service (DDS) The first pri. ATM and PDH. 48 . collected. acting datalink layer (DLL) The second-lowest layer in as the source and/or destination of data. on T-3 synchronous circuit in a link. in which the information is structured in service rates used to classify the user access rates columns and rows. using relay. DS-1 data link The medium employed to connect to (1. and data link connections between adjacent network multiplexers. rather trusted or assumed correct. link.g. data service level (DS level) A measure of data tions. RS-232 serial line to data communication data pabx A private (telephone) exchange equipment (DCE).pag2 30/1/0 19:01 Page 48 data integrity The degree to which data can be mental data). Generally.. data corresponds to agreed criteria. personal data in digital form and is concerned DBS See direct broadcast satellite. raised by the data terminal equipment to indi- vate-line digital service that was offered by cate that it is ready to receive data. It was originally developed for various point-to-point wide area network by Software Arts. such as both access to and control of data concerning a disk drive. which is respon.31 Mbps. This includes sible for establishing. Subject to legislation in many internal transfer rates. DS-3 guishes a particular frame of a particular virtual (44.736 Mbps – used. applied to personal data. created for the ISDN. Similar to virtual data service unit Another term for digital ser- channel identifier (VCI) in Distributed Queue vice unit. Data Interchange Format (DIF) A standard file data rate See baud and data transfer rate.) countries. in that data transfers within com- tion of access to a file so that only authorised puters using internal buses are very fast. other than that for which the information was DBM See dynamic bandwidth allocation. the restric. is always very slow compared with themselves. lines). In North America. As a frame passes from link to ISDN lines). the company that produced technologies or standards. e. DS-1C (3. The legislation usually covers only dynamic bandwidth management. it is be many orders of magnitude slower. (See also bit rate. DS levels are classified as DS-0 (64 kbps).Dic. AT&T. with data rates up to 56 kbps. format for spreadsheet and database applica. e. Dual Bus and asynchronous transfer mode. Pretty Good Privacy. preventive sonal information in a context or for a purpose action should be taken at 85 dB(A). which the OSI seven-layer model. vary greatly.15 Mbps. 96 pulse code modulation channels). the first spreadsheet. with three general categories: factual data DCA Defense Communications Agency. maintaining and releasing terminals. data processing Receiving and classifying data validation The process of checking that information from data supplied on computer. DS-2 (6. data protection legislation Legislation that day glow Proprietary name for fluorescent inks. while users are able to view and/or edit it. (See data protection legislation. the part of the frame header that distin. dangers: the use of personal information that is dB(A) Decibel (adjusted): a measure to approxi- inaccurate. the Apple computer. In more transfers via modems. Any trans- concerned with the right of individuals to have fer which involves a mechanical device. DTE is connected via an stations. seeks to protect persons from three potential dB See decibel. incomplete or irrelevant. than statements of opinion (intention data).. SMDS. can general terms. users.544 – used. the DLCI may change. See nal is not modified by the communications sys- password. computers. on T-1 synchronous ISDN remote devices such as a telephone line.) data transparency Transmission such that a sig- Privacy can also be ensured by encryption. subjective judgements also Defense Information Systems Agency and expressions about an individual (judge. switch which allows data users to establish DCE and DTE need to be distinguished in order connections to host computers or other data to ensure that they are wired correctly. VisiCalc. level in a working environment. such as X. data terminal equipment (DTE) A device. Other data transfer rate or data rate The speed at which suppliers now offer similar services. data travels from one device to another. using 48 pulse code data link connection identifier (DLCI) In frame modulation channels). tem in any way. over analogue lines. This can data privacy In a local area network. and the use of per. See about an individual. controls a communication channel. most probably a modem.g. and statements of intent. and Document Content Architecture. mate the effect of noise on the human ear. 90 bility of personal information being accessed dB(A) is the maximum permissible continuous by unauthorised persons. protocol converters. the possi.25.

Colour locations DCS An extension to the standard EPS format may appear in different positions according to developed by Quark Inc. debris Used to describe paper dust or edge dust dedicated circuit or line A line reserved for only which finds its way onto the offset printing one user. Used deep-etch plate Litho printing plate made from in communications to measure response. in the absence of alternative input by a user. (D stands for ‘delta’. form a section (typically two 16pp sheets folded Distributed Computing Environment. measures of the powers being compared. decryption To restore information that has been dead white A white with no modelling tint. run- decentralised computer network One in which ning a program which identifies and eliminates certain control functions are distributed among duplicate entries in a database (typically in a several network nodes.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 49 DCC See Direct Client to Client Protocol. but see decoding The computer process of interpreting Data Encryption Standard for information. default In computing. dead metal Non-printing areas on a letterpress decrypt Decodify encrypted material. book to an individual. computing. the purpose of DDS See Dataphone Digital Service. instruction codes. used in process colour the configuration used. and may be ‘killed’. DEC. which will not be used. encryption. the two sheets are folded together to DCE See data communication equipment. decoder A logic component. line. DEA See Data Encryption Algorithm. the parameters defined by deciduous trees Hardwood trees which shed the designer or programmer that will be used their leaves annually. and ‘D’ deck is the DCM See dynamic channel management. to restore plaintext from cipher- de-archive The retrieval of files held on backing text. primary rate ISDN. handmade paper. decibel (dB) A logarithmic unit of measurement deep-etch half-tone A half-tone in which all the used to express the ratio of two amounts of smaller highlight dots have been removed to power = 10log10 P1/P2.Dic. where P1 and P2 are leave plain white. deacidify To remove the acid from paper. binary to hexadecimal. Deckle edge is the untrimmed feathering DDCMP See Digital Data Communications edge of paper. encrypted. Used on DEC DDP See distributed data processing. DDES See Digital Data Exchange Standard. cut-off. lower side of the lower web. not compatible with the Internet. decompression The reverse of compression. Also drop-out half-tone. computing company dedupe or deduplicate In data-processing.) See basic rate deck is the lower side of the top web. dedicated An item of equipment or electronics debarking Stripping bark from logs prior to used for only one type of application and them being pulped. metal printing plate. the top side of the lower web. ‘C’ deck is ISDN. Used for long runs. tem to another. Deckle boards retain the stock on the DD Double density.g. where V1 and recessed below the surface. After Projects Agency (ARPA). DECnet Networking protocols proprietary to DDIF See Digital Document Interchange Format. Deckle frame is the rectangular Message Protocol. i. See colour fall. Also called private line and leased blanket. Carried among the pre- DEC Digital Equipment Corporation: a major lims. digital which is to convert data from one numeric sys- data service. distributed machines such as the VAX. store and placing of them on a system disk. web. debugging The detection and correction of errors dedication Inscription by the author dedicating a in a computer program before it goes into use. D-channel The control/signalling channel in ‘A’ deck is the top side of the top web. work and allowing CMYK separations to be deckle The width of a papermaking machine’s saved in a format readable by other applications. See cryptography. wire. deck Term used in multi-unit web offset imposi. which are used instead of TCP/IP and are DDN See Defense Data Network. maybe only running one program. and ‘B’ ISDN. frame which contains the stock on the wire in DDE See Dynamic Data Exchange. V1 are the voltage levels measured. mailing list). it is positive film in which the printing areas are often expressed as 20log10 V1/V2. 49 . Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency tion. where a section is being formed from run. one inside the other to yield one 32pp section). (DARPA) Former name of Advanced Research ning one web under another into the folder.e. decollate To cut continuous stationery into single dead matter Type which is finished with or sheets. e.

and it is DDN. ability of an object. In the refer. Micrometer for measuring etch- ence concrete syntax (the usual way of encod.3 in the highlights and no more by ink tack or separation of film laminate from than 2. ing depth on plates.) The organisation which provides ser. 50 . depth gauge 1. it is an depth scale Ruler for measuring the space object-oriented rapid application development between lines of type. Finally. artwork or photograph (see density). using computer conferencing. 2.7 in the shadows as the outer parameters. using visual. It is made up of Milnet.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 50 Defense Data Network (DDN) A global commu. A good del Delete. installations. Demon Internet Ltd The first company to provide vices to the DDN. or light-absorbing.Dic. InterNIC. ed or photographic area.0 at the lightest end tions signal characteristics. See Defense Information Systems ric system). means a measuring scale of 0. Agency.8 to 2. package for Microsoft Windows. depth of focus Position of film behind a camera Also used to describe a form of iterative dis. demodulation The extraction of information nications network used to connect US military from a modulated carrier signal. farthest end (0. works. In practice. some other demodulator Device which extracts information portions of the Internet and other classified net. this degradation The deterioration of communica. reproduction should be between 1. the measuring leading. DDN NIC has now been renamed demy Standard size of paper 4443564mm (met- DISA NIC. with delamination Separation of surface from paper no less than 0. graph. printing. Density is the light- ernment agency responsible for managing the stopping. (DISA) Formerly called the Defense density Measurement of the tonal value of a print- Communications Agency (DCA). by transmitted (or reflected) light expressed as a definition The degree of detail and sharpness in logarithmic value (power of 10). the US gov. also used by HTML).4. while the closing delimiter is ‘>‘ between close and distant objects in a photo- for both start and end tags. lens that will produce sharp images regardless cussion and decision-making. values are chosen to reflect the fact that per- deforestation The depletion of natural forest ceived density proceeds in steps of ‘twice as resources by indiscriminate felling.1% transmission/reflection of deinking Removing ink and other unwanted light). NIC’. Delphi A US and UK Internet service provider. although it used to be public low-cost full Internet access in the UK. of a subject measured by a densitometer (100% dehumidification Removal of humidity from the transmission/reflection of light) up to 3. delimiter The character used at the beginning dentelle The gold decoration on book covers. Logarithmic a reproduction. much as last time’. rash caused by some of the chemicals used in component-based design. responsible for coordinating the Internet as a demultiplexer A device which separates multi- whole. Proofreader’s instruction to erase text transmission density range in a transparency for or other matter. written by dermatitis Skin disease with symptoms of itchy Borland in the Pascal language. This has now been taken over by plexed signals. Defense Data Network (DDN) portion of the In mathematical terms it is the reciprocal (oppo- Internet. not linearly. and end of SGML/HTML tags. The DDN is managed by the Defense demographic edition Edition of a publication Information Systems Agency. designed for a specifically targeted sector of the Defense Data Network Network Information readership with advertising limited to that edi- Center (DDN NIC) (Also known as ‘The tion. often caused by impurities densometer Instrument that measures the air trapped between the film and the substrate. resistance of an area of paper. Currently.0 at the air. lightest area and the darkest area of a piece of DEK See data encryption key. Typographical ruler for ing using SGML. measured by the formula incident light divided vices of the DDN NIC (renamed DISA NIC). opening delimiters are ‘‘ for a start-tag and ‘/’ depth of field Area which remains in focus for an end-tag. DISA administers the site) of ‘transmission’ or ‘reflection’. and supports the user-assistance ser. its substrate. chemicals from printed wastepaper to recover density range The range of contrast between the and re-use fibre content. often carried on of the distance beyond. from a modulated carrier signal. densitometer Device for measuring light absorp- Defense Information Systems Agency tion or the size of dots in half-tones.

diamond Obsolete term for 4½pt type. access to a particular device. folders and dialogue boxes. structure. played showing the range of choices available sentation of the working area. manner. connection between machines which is estab- desktop conferencing A conferencing utility. a box that is dis- desktop In a graphical user interface the repre. to ensure that the non-image areas do not dial-in IP Running IP direct from a computer retain ink. tributed technical documentation. (See also blueprints. networks and device control A transmission code that may be applications. Dewey decimal classification Cataloguing sys- (See also ascender. put repro. Mainly used in the context of video. as opposed to dedicated. Based on a device driver The program which provides point of 0. ë. The desiderata List of secondhand books required by computer remains a host for the time it is con- a dealer.g. to online databases. diagnostics Programs designed to trace faults in desensitise Treat an offset plate with chemicals a system or program. test duce an image on photographic paper or a and evaluate a services environment for dis- printing plate. e.e. See font size. via a sequence. uses tags to express the element as accents or the cedilla. desktop publishing (DTP) The production of DIANE See Direct Information Access Network fully made-up pages using a computer with a for Europe. independently of any processing that DHCP See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. as. SGML descriptive diacriticals Marks above and below letters. (See also signature. used to control a hardware device.Dic. services. develop Use chemical or other process to pro.g. e. and is used in conjunction house. 51 . tions to logical rules. in j. products. device independent A program that is designed descender The part of a letter extending below to be able to run with any peripheral hardware. agreements. such markup. designer Person who designs graphic work. whereas the data which contains all words which can be hyphen- link connection identifier and virtual channel ated with their hyphenation points or an identifier apply only to a given link in a network. coating on a litho plate. exception dictionary which lists only excep- destock To reduce stock levels in a shop or ware.) destination address The part of a packet header dictionary A file used by a wordprocessor or that specifies the destination to which the packet front-end system to check spelling or hyphen- is to be sent. throughout the whole network. A dictionary can be a true dictionary. page. process which uses light-sensitive compounds conferencing. realise.) tem for library books which uses a series of descriptive markup Markup that describes the subject categories numbered 000 to 999. e. a printer or a Didot point system A method of measuring sound card. p. in lished over a public switched telephone net- which users on a network are able to share a work. with a hyphenation logic program. typesize used in Europe. may be performed upon it. which can be dial-up A temporary. dialogue box In DTP programs. designation marks Identifying letters at the foot DIALOG An online information service which of each signature of a book which confirm the can be dialled-up directly to gain access.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 51 DES See Data Encryption Standard. using a developer Material used to remove unexposed framework of standards. linked to an access provider using dial-up. to the user. diaresis Two dots over a vowel to indicate stress. cicero.) modem. i. business models. ozalid. Deutsche Industrienorm (DIN) The German Didone Group of typefaces previously known as industrial standards organisation..376mm (0. and a laser printer for generating the out. e. nected.g. DIDOS A RACE project to describe.g. graphics-oriented WYSIWYG page make-up diapositive A positive photographic slide or package for assembling the components of the transparency. Bodoni. desktop video The use of a personal computer diazo A chemical coating in photography or to view and control still or moving video platemaking and the term given to a copying images. accessed using the mouse. whiteboard and transfer files between them. q and y.. Didot The European measure of type. using an address that is unique ation.01480). showing icons. Abbreviated to D. Modern. the character baseline. structure of a document in a non-system-specific DFS See distributed file system. (diazonium).

order to cope with the bandwidth require- tion. differential spacing Spacing which allows each digital carrier A multiplexer and CODEC com- character to takes the space equivalent to its bining several pulse code modulation (PCM) width. Images are often stored sion of phase shift keying (PSK) in which the on standard 3-inch diskettes using a standard difference between the signal and the preced. with a capacity wires. Cybercash. die stamping An intaglio printing process from digital audio tape (DAT) A format for storing a steel die giving a relief surface on the paper.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 52 diecase Monotype matrix case. DAT technology is also used for two wires may be connected at the receiver to storing digital computer data. digital display A display that shows discrete val- See Mondex. a DEC and high. although the separate analogue-to-digital converters and interface is usually different from that used for the subtraction performed digitally. digital sig. In differential line A two-wire electrical connec. posted to a newsgroup or mailing list. image digital cameras. to extract the fibres. If diffuse reflection Scattering of light away from a the path is copper telephone wire.) 422 serial line standard specifies differential digital camera A camera which records images in drivers and receivers. in digital form. digital form rather than on photographic film. The RS. music. audio. audio information. dard for exchanging high-resolution image digester The container in a chemical pulping sys. DAT uses a rotary-head (or helical other an inverted version of the signal. is then posted to an alternative mailing list or Digital Data Exchange Standard (DDES) A stan- alternative newsgroup. which implies continuous DECnet. such as the continuous sweep of a hand on digitised and displayed on a VDU and/or a clock). stored in memory. (CDA) specification for representing com- nifies the use of two states – on and off. often configured as a twisted pair. devel- DIF See Data Interchange Format. Ecash is transmitting digital data as opposed to voice.Dic. and transmit information. whereas the RS-232 stan. There are both video digital cameras and still- differential phase shift keying (DPSK) A ver. Tape speeds are induced in the wires. pre. scan) format. its trial form of software-only electronic money. digital data service (DDS) The class of service DigiCash A company developing products to offered by telecommunications companies for support electronic payment methods. The of 120 minutes. duced from an audio CD. oped in the mid-1980s by Sony and Philips. diffusion transfer See photomechanical transfer. Digital Data Communications Message Protocol pared by a moderator who standardises the (DDCMP) A DEC datalink layer protocol format and produces a contents list. such as TIFF. files between colour electronic prepress sys- tem in which wood is processed with chemicals tems produced by different manufacturers. black and white – to encode. signal is amplified and called T-1. A dif. the digital surface. dard does not. Digital Document Interchange Format digit A character that represents a whole number. assuming that the same much higher than for conventional audio tapes level of noise will have been induced in both and the tapes are single-sided. Should be contrast. where the read/write head spins ferential receiver subtracts one from the other diagonally across the tape in the same way as with the aim of cancelling out any noise in a video cassette recorder. Digital cameras ing signal is transmitted. particularly stereo hi-fi. digital font Electronically stored font in which digital audio broadcast (DAB) The broadcast of the characters are stored as computer instruc- 52 . digital computer Computer which uses numbers digest A selection of messages that have been to represent and manipulate data. bitmap format. low pound documents in revisable format. on magnetic tape. One wire carries the normal signal and the ments. encoded channels on one transmission path. receive standard for document encoding. (DDIF) A Compound Document Architecture digital Meaning ‘coded as numbers’. Digital Equipment Corporation Network See ed with analogue. The digest using character count. charge-coupled devices. (See also Exabyte. needing fewer bits in work in a similar way to scanners using total. die-cutting The cutting of paper or card with using digital transmission at 128-384 kbps to steel rules on a press to give cut-outs or folds in provide audio quality equivalent to that pro- printed material. ues as numbers (as opposed to an analogue sig- digipad Input device on which drawn images are nal. T-3 etc. variation.

over 25 digital service unit (DSU) (Or data service unit. DVD disks will carry more than just video. DVD-Audio. or DocuTech. (See also ana. Indigo etc. digital-to-analogue converter A device that con- ferent. while on receiv- any physical. connect a channel service unit to data terminal digital video disk (DVD) See digital versatile equipment. generated from the data. This means phone lines.) being developed for the Association of digital signature standard (DSS) The NIST stan- American Publishers by R R Bowker and the dard for digital signatures (authenticating Corporation for National Research Initiatives both the message and the signer). DocuTech. digital papers Papers specially formulated to be digital-to-analogue conversion (DAC. See logue form. accessed by means of a hash table. used for storing video images. A device used in digital communications to and equivalent to four full-length feature films. Uses special 53 . and also means verts a digital value to a corresponding ana- that short-run printing becomes economic. as on a laser printer. Compare analogue-to-digital con- Indigo. in is transferred to the drum by electronic meth. Whenever digital signature Data at the end of a message that an input data string matches a string in the both identifies and authenticates the sender of a table.) maximum storage capacity is 17Gb. message. Indigo. If the two hash codes Digital Network Architecture (DNA) The DEC are the same.) version) Conversion of information from a or laser printers. It is based on (CNRI). verter (ADC). which um such as film or bromide. the tal proofs include Iris proofs. DVD-ROM and DVD-R. Performs a similar function to a disk. while use of the technique that improves the efficiency of digi- second part may vary depending on the pub. (See also digital signature and a routing system for electronic documents. Its logue proof. directly from a PostScript file. that. tal voice transmission by using the transmis- lisher and the type of document. Xeikon. in principle. The instructions can ing the DSU both extracts timing information be in bitmap form or vector form. visible form. this confirms that the sender is who communications network architecture.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 53 tions for the typesetting machine rather than in ing signal into bipolar pulses. based on the hash code from the message and then encrypts Digital Lempel-Ziv 1 (DLZ1) compression this with his or her private key. During compression. algorithm used on digital linear tape. which is then (by sampling or digital modulation). digital printing Printing directly from computer digital versatile disk (DVD) The change to the files rather than through the physical media of name digital versatile disk from the original films or plates using machines such as the digital video disk has been made because the Xeikon. parts. The system is designed to provide a an algorithm using discrete logarithms.Dic. sion channel only when someone is talking.) times the capacity of a standard 640Mb CD. modem in analogue communications. standard. Examples of digi. every page printed can be dif. and regenerates the digital information from Digital Lempel-Ziv 1 (DLZ1) The compression the incoming bipolar signal. The receiver algorithm. so that digital video interactive (DVI) A technology on transmission the DSU translates the outgo. a files) that have been converted to digital form dictionary of strings is built up.g. The first part of the number will identify digital speech interpolation (DSI) A sampling the publisher or similar body. which digital signal processing (DSP) Manipulation of maps variable length input strings to variable analogue signals (often in sound or image length output symbols. digital proof Any proof produced directly from Thus there will be DVD-Video. digital form (as information is held in a com- digital press A printing press in which the image puter) to analogue form (such as sound). a modem for transmission over analogue tele- ods. Uses public-key encryption. Unlike the CD. e. is single-sided and contains only one layer. a computer file rather than via a physical medi. D/A con- used with digital presses (Xeikon. EDIFACT. With a digital linear tape (DLT) A magnetic tape drive one-way hash function the sender generates a format developed by DEC. he or she claims to be and that the message has Digital Object Identifier (DOI) An identifier not been corrupted. decrypts the received hash with the sender’s digital modulation Encoding analogue signals public key and compares it with a hash code as a series of discrete or pulsed signals. Its persistent way of identifying and linking to security is comparable to that of RSA and is electronic documents and their constituent based on 1024-bit keys. DVD can be dual-layer and double-sided. it is replaced with the output symbol.

cessing unit. which the image is created by direct impression dilitho (or di litho) See direct litho. access information without the need for direct screening Reproduction process in which sequential searching. providing the X. efficient use of bandwidth as the data does not digitise To convert an analogue signal. in computing to mean dual inline package (see directory An index file containing details of all dipswitch). in programming. Zapf Dingbats between computer memory and external is a font which is provided as standard with devices without going through the central pro- most PostScript printers. accesses the X. or mechanical stress.500 directory service for the user. so that it can be input. such as arrows. page lengths etc. from a type character. displayed and direct-duplicating film See autopositive film. (See also A series. direct broadcast satellite (DBS) A satellite which dirty 1. DISA See Defense Information Systems Agency.) transfer) between users rather than going via digital workflow system Prepress system for IRC servers. graphics or sound. 2. phototypesetter with its own keyboard. stars. which may be a person or more software. distinct from indirect screening where a scan- direct approach platen Press on which the plat. have been adopted as the direct litho Litho press system which transfers European standard. CPU digitiser Any graphic input device such as a and output device. usually sited on the sides of ten amendments. into a digital format direct colour separation See direct screening.) the image direct from the printing plate with- dingbat A term for typographical characters. Directory Access Protocol An X. Copy with many handwrit- satellite dish. DIN Deutsche Industrie Norme. direct input Software that allows text to be input dimension marks Marks on camera copy indi. video. out offsetting it to a blanket first.g. This speeds up transfer rates.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 54 processors for compression and decompres. monochrome flatbed scanner which scans an direct impression Typewriter-type setting in image and stores it in memory for re-use. a disk as compared copy is separated and screened in one step. A series of dipswitches controls the default set. DIN paper sizes. for a single organisation or some smaller unit. DIP See document image processing. The German direction of travel Direction in which web moves standards institute. direct access Use of storage medium which can direct positive Film produced by direct screening. Also used DMA is used for devices such as scanners.g. diphthong Letters placed together as in æ. usually dipswitch Stands for Dual Inline Package switch. It has Internet Relay Chat (IRC) protocol which been formalised for use in the term compact 54 . As with a cassette. such as need to be broadcast. describing computer chips that are other files held on disk. tone screen to produce final hard-dot positives. œ etc. JPEG. Directory User Agent (DUA) The software that tings of many printers. cannot be logged and it means a much more ation through proofing to imposition on plate.500 protocol dip coating Coating method in which the web is used for communication between a Directory passed around a roller immersed in coating User Agent (DUA) and a Directory System solution. stored. and also called ornaments. buildings. Direct Client to Client Protocol (DCC) An disc The traditional British spelling of disk. direct-input keyboard. directly into the computer typesetter using a cating the area of a reduction or enlargement. (See also compact disc interactive. manipulated by a computer or transmitted direct entry phototypesetter Self-contained over a digital communications system. fastened to a printed circuit board. altering character sets. hearts and snowflakes direct memory access (DMA) Transfer of data etc. This means that conversations managing the flow of made-up pages from cre. an IBM Composer. e.. e. renamed ISO. Agent (DSA). Directory System Agent (DSA) The software Contrast ligature. allows private interchanges (including file sion. now through a paper machine or press. ner output unit produces continuous-tone en approaches the forme on a parallel plane films which are then contacted through a half- with it.Dic. Direct Information Access Network for Europe dimensional stability Ability of paper to retain (DIANE) Information search and retrieval ser- its shape despite variations in moisture content vices offered over the EuroNet system.500 directory service. Typesetting with many errors introduced transmits video signals directly to the standard at the keyboard. dimension To define the parameters of an array Also called strike-on composition.

colour. power. coated on both sides with a magnetic material display type Type used for headlines. DDP) The dispersal of computing produce varying resolutions. Data is recorded as magnetised spots while other expert sets have special versions of along each track. head- onto a disk drive. EGA (enhanced graphics adapter) pro- disc refiner Machine which refines pulp by rub. Display into tracks (concentric rings) and each track is typefaces are usually 14pt type or larger. dictionary of a front-end system or introduced EVGA (enhanced video graphics array.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 55 disc. Return letterpress type to the packet as it propagates through a medium. image onscreen (strictly WYSIWYG). also while keyboarding new text. See makes it possible to display a true PostScript disk. play faces. Different adapters cessing. SVGA (super video graphics array) discretionary hyphens Hyphenation points for produces 8003600 pixels with 16. operating system which controls how input/ It is implemented on the NeXT computer. Hence display sizes are sizes of type from disk crash A hardware or software malfunction 14pt upwards. Discretionary colours. is a very low-level form number of computers connected through a net- which supports only monochrome text. supports text and graphics at a resolution of dard. 6403350 pixels. hyphens will overrule any logical hyphenation display ads Advertisements ‘displayed’ to occupy program in use. case after printing. which has become stan. display adapter Also called graphics adapter and distortion A corruption of a signal as a result of video controller. Some divided into sectors (subdivisions of the typefaces are designed specifically for this use.. monitors.) 55 . as dissolving pulp Highly processed and pure each wavelength has a very slightly different chemical pulp. it is much slower than QuickDraw for the disk operating system (DOS) In computing. Each disk is a thin metal rigid platter display tube See cathode ray tube.) sizes rather than for composition sizes. although magnetic disks are almost 6403400 pixels in mono or 3203200 pixels in always spelt with a ‘k’ (see disk). e. CGA. VDU that converts input signals into those that disk The US spelling. VGA (video graphics array) discrete speech In voice recognition technology. spindle.Dic. dard for (magnetic) computer disks. used for point-of-sale or exhibition purposes. speed of propagation. output routines are handled by the computer. storage and applications throughout a chrome display adapter. ry which interprets data so that it can appear on distributed computing (distributed data pro- the screen as text or graphics. that part of a computer circuit. The surface is divided rather than for text (see body type). or work. tracks). either held in the hypenation exception colours. However. MDA. or mono.g. this spelling being part of the CD stan. which is not free space. display sizes Sizes of type larger than 14pt.e. produces 6403480 pixels and 256 colours on speech that contains short pauses between colour monitors or 64 shades of grey on mono words to improve the recognition process. and is suitable for running Windows. (See also display face A typeface designed for display disc. ings. duces medium-resolution colour at a maximum bing fibres between vertical rotating discs. such as optical fibre. and is accessed by read-write particular typefaces intended for use as dis- heads. is a basic adapter which a mainframe. They indicate called XGA or extended graphics array) pro- where a word may be broken if it needs to be duces 10243768 pixels with 16. (See also client-server. i. the Macintosh and various screen drivers for the PC. disc ruling A method of ruling stationery with display character generator A component of a metal discs. resulting in an inability to access the contents display papers and boards Papers and boards of a disk.8 million hyphenated at the end of a line. part or all of a page rather than set in columns. define the character shape on the screen. (typically ferrous oxide). rather than concentrating computing on colour graphics adapter. dispersion The spreading (over time) of a wave diss Distribute. diskette See floppy disk. disk cartridge A portable hard disk contained display matter Typography set and displayed so within a protective casing that may be loaded as to be distinguished from the text. titles etc. changes to the waveform. disk drive A device which writes information to Display PostScript A form of PostScript which or reads information from a magnetic disk. Distiller See under Acrobat.8 million words. disk pack A set of disks mounted on a common used for display rather than text.

while accessible to any user and appear. SGML.e. As a bit can only be space requirements and to provide better cus- on or off. lished articles. standard for the control of access to networks. Many companies are ics to create the appearance of additional using this approach both to reduce storage colours and shades of grey. which are indexed. The software used gen- will be a limit to the number of colours (or grey erally also includes facilities for optical charac- levels) that can be displayed. depending on the colour resolution tomer service in that the documents are much (bits per pixel) or number of grey levels. Dithering is also used in file format used by the US Navy to interchange anti-aliasing. optical character recognition (OCR) DMA See direct memory access. but may be used in conjunction number of computers. but puter file. DLT See digital linear tape. pixel combinations of different colours which Document Interchange Format (DIF) A standard the eye integrates). Multimedia documents. pared forms and documents. ODA. not be confused with Microsoft Rich Text Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) An IEEE Format (RTF). structured uted computing. Language (DSSSL) An ISO standard (ISO 56 . matter’. ics. while in others it may be what can be which is divided among several physical loca. i.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 56 Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) A doctor blade Soft metal blade that removes computer architecture based on open systems excess ink from the surface of a gravure print- and promoted and controlled by the Open ing surface when it is scraped over the top. effec- area networks. distributed database. It should Packard) workstations. Document Style Semantics and Specification DNS See Domain Name System. by def- computing. These are not ing to be local. usually copies of already pub- becomes available. Also used for a tions. tively a download. (See also distributed related topics. viewed or even what is printed. (OMR). are grouped in ways which fool the eye into document instance The actual content. contain more than just text and graph- distributed data processing (DDP) See distrib. DQDB is used in metropolitan the document may be in electronic form. distributed database A logical database that In some circumstances it is equivalent to a com- looks like a single database to the user. (See also distributed with SGML to control the structure and seman- computing. document A term which is not generally defined. documents between different computer pro- ditto Typographic symbol for ‘repeat the above grams. These devices use optical mark recognition DLZ1 See Digital Lempel-Ziv 1. document reader An input device that reads DLCI See data link connection identifier. document delivery The supply of individual so that access units queue until bandwidth documents. Software Foundation.) Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Document Content Architecture/Revisable Network (DOMAIN) A proprietary network Form Text (DCA/RFT) A document format protocol used by Apollo (now Hewlett used by IBM’s DisplayWrite program. is actually distributed over a part of SGML.) tics of a document. documents. (See also document instance. document image processing (DIP) The scanning tribute ink from the duct to the inking rollers. An example is the Internet Domain hypertext node or a collection of nodes on Name System (DNS). distributing rollers Rollers on a press which dis. so that the text of the dots which make up a conventional half-tone documents can be extracted for use in other illustration are much larger than a pixel.) inition.) distributed file system (DFS) A file system document architecture Rules for the formulation which. usually on specially pre- DLL See datalink layer. text thinking that it is seeing more shades of grey and markup. marks or characters. DNA See Digital Network Architecture. following a request which has width to be reserved in advance for voice or been delivered over a network. of (usually large volumes of) documents and distribution See diss. However. of an SGML document corre- (by using pixel groups making up different sponding to a particular Document Type shapes) or additional colours (by combining Definition. and mark sensing. (See also DSSSL. of text processing applications. disks. such as cheques. Dynamic Link Library. DQDB also allows band.Dic. Set as 9. subsequent storage on CD-ROM or WORM dithering A technique used in computer graph. there more easily accessible. as the ter recognition (OCR). The supply of video traffic. pixels applications.

) hunting action game published by id Software. This makes short-run printing economic. together Domain Name System (DNS) (Also Domain with their markup tags and their attributes. there is the sheet information with a document instance. and . the forerunner of the Internet. Dots per inch (dpi) is the standard mea- developed. If there is cooper- DOI See Digital Object Identifier. rather than a vertently folded over during processing.) separations by changing the size of the dots by dodge To block light from selected areas while hand etching to change tonal subdomain for academic sites and the SGML. tion of a document type in (network dot matrix Patterns of dots used to create images operations). the dotless i An ‘i’ available in some photocomposi- domain name. which is defined by a DTD. e. includes subdomains for the 50 states. Domains often indicate a coun. e. ARPANET. or a type of organisation: .) A hierarchical method of nam- the rules for applying the tags and definitions ing Internet addresses. sion port or internal expansion slot. Internet domains. paper (using a printing put forward by Ted Nelson in dot (US government). Although the . The generalised DTD actually forms and subdomains. is rendered unusable. by definition. This is a for. damaged through use. 2. half-tone by photographing it as if it were fine dog-eared Description of a book that has been line. external expan- Xerox. Internet which is part of the hierarchy of Document Type Definition (DTD) The defini. When computer printer). Synonym for embodied in the way the World Wide Web has pixel. which has been revised ware package and without which the package and published as ISO 12083. . one document. ments that make up that hierarchy. Other top- document is to appear. (See also Berkeley Internet Name known and widely used DTDs are the CALS Domain. tion fonts for the purpose of accommodating try. The dongle is inserted DocuTech A high-speed laser printer from into the computer’s serial port.g. sure of domain for commercial ones. associating style rarely used. resulting in ragged and dot gain The increase in size of dots in a half- worn page and cover corners. whose for image output systems.) DTD and the American Association of dongle A hardware component sold with a soft- Publishers (AAP) DTD. (See DOOM A popular three-dimensional monster- also Indigo. Advanced Research Projects Agency set up dot address An Internet address in dot ligatures. The individual element from which a half- connection with Xanadu and one which is tone reproduction is made up. but in many SGML the distributed data query service which is applications is not seen by the user. the paper and the ink. either on paper or on level domains may be divided up in similar screen. (See dot etching Colour correcting on screened colour also CALS. which produces print-quality output. . (commercial). 30/1/0 19:02 Page 57 10179) which defines how to transfer domain tion about the presentation of an SGML docu. network information center. name for Domain Name System. domain name See domain. ation between the originator of the artwork and DOMAIN See Distributed Operating Multi the domain. in used for translating hostnames into IP DNS is also used to describe part of an SGML document. DSSSL is intended to formalise the ways. expressed as dots or (educational). The magnitude of the dot the book is trimmed and the corners corrected gain will depend on the characteristics of the the untrimmed portions protrude. on screen or printer. . Within the . making a photographic print in order to bring dot for dot Reproduction of an already screened out detail. mulation of the hierarchy of the document and Domain Name Server (DNS) An alternative the definitions and relationships of the ele. it may possible to use software to Access Interactive Network. (US military). .Dic. based on the domain of entities. tone illustration when they are printed on dog-eared pages Corners of pages that are inad. adjust the colour curves and even dot size to domain A group of computers on the Internet obtain the image which is desired. . says nothing about how a . DoD The US Department of Defense. Other well addresses. whose hostnames share a common suffix. Name Server. 57 . process of associating appearance information domain address The name of a host on the with the SGML structure.g. Docuverse A concept of the whole world being DOS See MS-DOS. they are ment to formatting software.

double-coated Coated paper which is given two consisting of one to four numbers most often coats either side instead of the normal one. double spread Print going across two facing dot spread Unacceptably enlarged dot size for. and once for the solid. Many com. dot notation The usual notation for IP addresses. Paper with coating on two printer it is the number of dots of toner placed sides. each spot of light is made up of other). Often applies to half-tone films doublures An ornamental lining to a book cover which are held on a separate foil from line that covers up the edges of the leather which films: the two sets of foils are printed down has been turned in. Used in very high-quality impression and transferring back from the work to extend the ranges available. double image. which describe the cuted. 58 . while for a double-sided disks Disks which can store infor- scanner it is the number of charge-coupled mation on both sides. on the paper (in both directions). in double-page spread Facing pages in a book or pixels. given as a decimal (also known as dotted deci. other factors involved. is determined by the electronics of the periodical. double-tone ink A printing ink which creates an refers to printing the black twice: once for the extra tone on drying.28. double-clicking almost forms its printed characters from a pattern of always means that the command associated dots. If the double burn An exposure of two or more images following sheet is out of register it appears as a onto a single film or plate to create one com. due to spreading. In general. a group of three separate dots which glow red. If a file name is double-clicked. given in hexadecimal or octal). doughnut hickey A hickey with a white ‘halo’ double case A type case combining upper and around it. display and a single pixel may be made up of double printing Two exposures in register from 4–16 separate phosphor groups. half-tone. illustrations and heavy black solids together.g. Permits better doubling A second out-of-register image pro- control of ink weight and tracking. er the dot pitch. then this number of pins held on the vertical matrix is equivalent to (single-) clicking on the name which forms the letters. For a tent on each side. double-duty envelope Envelope which can be green and blue (see RGB). dot slurring Elongation of dots at their trailing double roll A second press roll over the printing edges. double-tone half-tone A colour plate printed dotted decimal notation See dot notation. or 24-pin models. dot pitch A measure of the spacing (and by impli. surface when extra inking is required. double density disk A floppy disk which can mands will accept an address in dot notation in store twice as much information as its ‘single place of a hostname. posite image. although there are 2 7 340 inches. lower case. duced during a single impression. 158. the sharper the image below a double elephant Drawing paper measuring certain dot pitch threshold. Gives increased smoothness and consistency to mal notation).152. mation during printing.Dic. dots per inch (dpi) The resolution of a printer or double-sided 1. blanket cylinder to the following sheet. Most dot-matrix printers are either 9-pin. with the icon or with a file name should be exe- 18-pin. onto plate as separate operations.130 (but can be the sheet. e. Caused by double-black duotone A duotone created from the ink on the blanket remaining wet after two black plates. the small. density’ counterpart. slightly out of register to create a duotone double black In printing four-colour process effect.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 58 dot matrix printer A computer printer which selecting an icon. 2. ‘OK’ button. re-used by the recipient. devices per inch. exposed into a combination image on a plate to phorescent material that provide the image on a give greater clarity to the highlights and shad- screen when irradiated by the electron beam. The screen resolution. Floppy disk with readable con- scanner is measured in dots per inch. double dot half-tone Two half-tone negatives cation the size) of the individual dots of phos. separate half-tones. DOVID Diffractive optically variable image double-click To click twice on the button of a device: a hologram is the most common ex- mouse. On ows (on one neg) and the middle-tones (on the a colour monitor. The more dots the to select it and then (single-) clicking on the sharper the letters. pages. While single-clicking usually means ample.

such as looseleaf. and the photosetter.) using a vector (especially a mainframe) to a smaller client sys. Also between downloading and uploading is not known as ‘wrappered’.) driver Computer routine which handles commu- drag To move the mouse cursor while holding nication between CPU and peripherals. which allow the user to draw with preset puter to a local one. then a vector graphic is produced. from disk to printer before it can traced. using anonymous ftp or other technique. Commonly used by term is applied to hosts on the Internet.g. shapes or freehand. bar. dressing 1. fonts used (e. draw down A thin film of ink spread on paper drop in To insert text or artwork into space left in with a spatula to evaluate its shade. machine is being maintained or made ready. If a bitmap is auto- downloaded. always clear. draft quality output Low-quality. which accelerate DPS See double-page spread. approach. or grams. the depth of the rest of the text line. but increas. high-speed driography Litho platemaking process in which printer output from dot-matrix printer. at a new setting. Putting the typefaces in a photo- printing interface. but not to edit them. Used on scroll typesetter (printer driver. Compare cocked-up initial. manganese and resinates. drop guides Guides on a printing machine which drainability The rate at which paper stock parts position the sheet ready for the grippers. to resize drawings. The format. to drop cable The wiring between a computer and select text and for many other tasks. special binding methods. draw-type graphic A graphic created from a ingly applications will download the required series of geometric elements stored in memory. of letterpress plates. also letter quality. PostScript or TrueType). Corporation. (See also downloadable font. In type- down the mouse button and then. sible to import bitmap graphics into draw pro- nently stored) in a printer. Should be con- tem. fonts as part of the printing operation. but has to be sent. (See the non-image areas are silicone rubber. often over the Internet. Drawing eXchange Format (DXF) A graphic file down Not functioning or not accessible. draw-in Binding method in which the section drop initial See drop cap(s). A letter or letters at the ‘pick up’ items on screen and move them else. drying. drawing program Software that enables the user downlink A satellite earth station that receives to draw and design on screen. dpi See dots per inch. drilling Perforating a pile of sheets with holes for DQDB See Distributed Queue Dual Bus.) program. such as Bézier curves. as well CAD systems. dp or DP See data processing. as to computers in general. to release the button. TVRO. 59 . Also called dragon’s blood A red powder used for protecting drop initial(s). driers Additives in printing ink such as cobalt. a program which controls a printer or a position. similar to IGES. typesetter driver). down-time Non-productive time when a printing drier A mechanical device. which be used.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 59 dow etching A powderless etching technique for threads are pulled through cover boards and letterpress plates invented by Dow Chemical glued. squares etc. signals (such as television) from a satellite. which is used to downloadable font (Also called soft font. 2. (See drawing tools Functions in a paint/drawing also uplink. The range of typefaces held on a whether Adobe Type Manager is used. It may be necessary to download fonts can be edited in the draw program. Contrast bitmap graphic. DPSK See differential phase shift keying. side walls from underbiting during the etching drop folio Page number at the foot of a page.Dic. Exactly Also known as an object-oriented graphic or how this is carried out depends on the types of vector graphic. its Ethernet transceiver. drop heads See dropped heads. It is usually pos- font (or typeface) that is not resident (perma. to move icons. drag and drop Technique of using a mouse to drop cap(s) Drop capital. except that downloading often draw program A program used to create and edit refers to transfer from a larger host system objects (lines.) A edit and manipulate bitmaps. normally displayed as icons in a tool- download To transfer data from a distant com. with water when drained. bars. before sending a file to be printed. The drawn-on cover A binding style in which the opposite of upload. although the distinction cover is glued directly onto the spine. a typeset page. such as a gas oven. setter. used to dry ink on heatset web machines. beginning of a paragraph which extend beyond where. circles.) trasted with a paint program.

the latter can tolerate a fault drying section The last part of the papermaking in one of the FDDI rings. wholesaler. drop shipment Direct delivery to customer. DS level See data service level. in which a host computer is simultaneously making machine whereby the wet web of connected to two separate devices in the same paper is dried by passing between hot rollers. light areas have no screen dots and simply DSS See digital signature standard. dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) Otherwise pletes the drying of the web. FDDI ring. Normally. binding or extra printing. gloss. While all connections to the main FDDI rings drum scanner Scanner with cylindrical platen for and some critical devices such as routers and mounting transparencies to be scanned. duct roller Roller that takes inks and passes them dry proof Plastic proof as opposed to a machine to the distributing rollers that ink the forme. dropped heads Chapter headings positioned a DSU See digital service unit. marks on DSA See Directory System Agent. e. or warehouse of large numbers of books by DTMF See dual tone multi frequency. artwork etc. DSP See digital signal processing. dull finish enamel An enamel paper with a low dry transfer lettering Sheets of typographic char. dry creping See creping.e. paper’s water resistance. dry-up See scumming. Ohio) as ing which uses pressure-sensitive backing.Dic. Also known as non-reproducing DSI See digital speech interpolation. 60 . DUA See Directory User Agent. the back- test. machine. drum An obsolescent computer storage medium dual-attached An FDDI interface where a device using a rotating magnetic drum. proof from the metal. The difference between a drying cylinder Heated revolving cylinder dual-homed device and a dual-attached device which dries newly made sheets of paper as is that while the former can tolerate a fault in they pass over it. homed to a router or concentrator. generates two simultaneous tones. i. show the white of the paper. drum printer A line printing device containing a so that uninterrupted operation continues in drum on which each printable character forms the event of a failure of either of the rings. as dis. drop-out blue Light blue. dry point Method of engraving with a needle duct Ink trough on a printing press. one of the connections dry indicator size test Method of measuring becomes active while the other is blocked. (See also Cobb size However. Also known as a DSSSL See Document Style Semantics and deep-etch half-tone. Specification Language. circumventing agent or DTP See desktop publishing. DTR See data terminal ready. a basis for searching for information available dry offset See letterset. over the Internet. dry pulp Pulp in dry sheets. The method employed drying time Time taken for the ink on a printed in telephony throughout the US to define the sheet to dry enough for further work to be done keys pressed when dialling. posed (at a 1995 conference in Dublin. publisher or printer. known as touch-tone. See guillemets. which com.g. Pressing a key on the sheet. dull-coated paper Paper coated with a matt finish. few lines below the top of full text pages. concentrators are dual-attached. blue. host comput- tinct from a flatbed scanner. acid. invisible to mono.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 60 dropout Characters lost in data transmission for acters which can be transferred onto paper by whatever reason. dual-homed A connection to an FDDI network dry end The last function of a Fourdrinier paper. is connected to both FDDI token-passing rings. dry picking resistance The picking resistance of duck-foot quotes Arrow-shaped quotation paper in dry conditions. one of its ‘homes’. marks (« and »). rubbing. Useful for grids. after the press section. drop-out half-tone Half-tone in which the high. dross The surface skin on molten type metal. if the first connection fails. DTD See Document Type Definition. The duct directly onto bare copper plate without using roller regulates the amount of ink released. ers are normally single-attached or dual- dry back The loss of gloss of an ink as it dries.) up link takes over. Dublin core A core of metadata elements pro- dry-mounting A method of photographic mount. shop DTE See data terminal equipment. a complete row across the drum surface. chrome litho film. one for the dry litho Offset plate which does not need to be row and one for the column. dampened for the ink to be distributed.

simplex. ing of goods. 61 . or for other purposes. a dyed-through age. dynamic channel management (DCM) Alloca- duplex half-tone See duotone. face. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) dusting Accumulation of powdered paper on the A protocol in a Windows NT server that pro- non-printing areas of a blanket. trimask. dyeline prints or dyelines See blueprints.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 61 dummy Mock-up of a book or other piece of dye A soluble colouring matter (pigments are printing to indicate specifications. one twelfth the size of the printing sheet. dump Transfer a computer file into or out of stor. DDE is mainly used to include live from the same original.Dic. printing in two sheet data in a wordprocessed report by refer- locations. As distinct from the twin-wire assist with colour correction. See diazo. dynamic band- Tritones and quadtones are also possible. vides dynamic allocation of IP addresses to dust jacket Paper wrapper of a book carrying the PCs running on a Microsoft Windows local title and author’s name. In version 3. Contrast whiteback. dynamic IP address A temporary IP address. Two half-tone images are Dylux Proprietary name for double-sided. Contrast addresses allow a more efficient use of IP azerty. so that whenever the latter is processed the duplicator Small office machine for short-run latest version of the spreadsheet data is included. usually over a dial-up connection. TUBA. sensitive proofing paper. bandwidth as and when it is required by users. giv. The system resources to a program at the time of effect is to give a more striking image. which has two separate webs of paper ing. All duplex cutter A sheeting device which cuts two packet-switched networks provide dynamic different sheet lengths from the web simultane.) which are brought together before pressing. half duplex. Used for printing sev. Windows hotlink protocol that allows applica- duplicate block. dyeline process Copying and proofing method duoformer The duoformer paper machine has an which uses special coated paper contacted to additional wire running on top of the normal film. positioned so as to be most readily accessible to (Compare with static IP address. each side. light- generated.g. vary the proportions of the two images. not just on the sur- dump bin Point-of-sale container for easy stack. ence. depending on the burstiness of their traffic. area network. ously. one of which is slightly underex. duplex See full duplex.) DVD See digital versatile disk. (See also Reverse Address Dutch grey board See grey board. Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) A Microsoft duplex printing Double-sided printing. both near to black. More than one identical item produced server model. dyeline paper Specially treated paper used in the Duodecimo (12mo) Book in which each leaf is dyeline copying process. DVI See digital video interactive. absorbed. tion of the channels available as and when duplex paper Paper with a different colour on required by users. dye transfer Photographic process producing duotone A black-and-white photograph (or other colour prints with dyes which are selectively artwork) that is reproduced using two colours.) Dynamic IP the fingers which most often use them. which draws water from the dye mask Special sort of colour film used when topside of the web. addresses. duplicating from a stencil master. who can gram is loaded. the number of which is finite. DDE was enhanced duplicator paper Special absorbent paper for by Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). dyed through In bookbinding. dynamic bandwidth allocation. qwerty.1 of Windows. posed and the other slightly overexposed. spread- eral copies ‘up’ on a machine. See DXF See Drawing eXchange Format. insoluble). reproduction from a stencil. machine wire. e. width management (DBM) The allocation of dupe See duplicate block. together execution rather than at the point that the pro- with more control to the designer. ing 24 pages. and dynamic allocation Assignment of operating they are printed one on top of the other. cloth is dyed on both sides. bandwidth allocation. film. Resolution Protocol. which is allocated when a user connects to the Dvorak Keyboard layout in which the keys are Internet. producing an evenly colour separating transparencies by camera to formed sheet. (See also mask- process. data from one application in another. transparency plate tion programs to communicate using a client- etc.

paper. 62 . Information Code. ‘clean off’ the edges of the web on the wire.264 Mbps (E-4). (See also about environmental preservation and sustain- E-3. Ebone A European-wide backbone. case-bound binding. part of the signal energy from the remote end manently or frequently applied. her bank account and. production-line. totally chlorine free. Words on edge decoration Coloured dyes. and then unloaded when no longer need. while money can then be spent over the Internet at Windows wordprocessing programs use DLL any shop accepting Ecash. the reflection of degrade in time if a power source is not per. See barcode. pro.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 62 Dynamic Link Library (DLL) An executable pro. ECF pulp is one stage less also use dynamically linked libraries. easer Printing ink additive used to reduce tack. used by System. edition binding Conventional. and assists recognition. (See Institute for Global Communi- E-3. pure than TCF.368 Mbps (E-3) and 139. relating to pulp and and the RISC OS on the Acorn Archimedes – paper manufacture. echoplex A communications procedure in which E a receiving station acknowledges receipt of a message by echoing it back to the transmitting station. echo cancellation A process that isolates and fil- duced by Electronic Book Technologies. dynamic memory Computer memory that will echo In telecommunications. Ecash A trial form of electronic funds transfer gram component for Microsoft Windows that over the Internet (and soon by electronic can be loaded and linked as required at run mail). Windows itself uses DLL files to handle stores it on his or her own computer.) Also a network produced by Acorn 34. E13B Magnetic ink font used on cheques. Econet A network connecting those concerned The equivalent of the US T-1 service. edition All the copies of a printed work from the EBCDIC See Extended Binary Coded Decimal same set of type or plates. edit Check. EDI See electronic data interchange. primary rate ISDN with a bit rate of 2 Mbps. earmark Particular characteristic or feature of a EDIF See Electronic Design Interchange Format. on a telephone line. edge tear Broken edge of web. ability. Mondex. (See also ation checks. For Computers for the BBC Microcomputer and its the US.Dic. Network. to the publication date set by the publisher. edgeboard connector The most common method E164 The worldwide number plan of the ITU-T of connecting add-on printed circuit boards to for identifying network connections via ISDN computer hardware. by a public-key digital signature. resulting from echoes of the main signal. E-4 European PDH services running at cations. typeface which distinguishes it from all others EDIFACT See ISO 9735. and SMDS.) SunOS (the Sun Microsystems version of Unix) ECF Elemental chlorine free. see data service levels. Also a kind of news- Dynatext A viewer for SGML-based documents. E-4). usually reserved for advertisements. Also a technique which permits full duplex transmission over two wires. pulp.. ear Space by the side of the masthead on a news. successors. arrange and correct data or copy EARN See European Academic and Research before final presentation. The such aspects as international keyboards. ed. ECMS See Electronic Copyright Management E-1 A European leased line service. using Ecash software. editing terminal Visual display unit capable of earpieces Small advertisements on either side of retrieving a file and editing the contents prior a newspaper’s masthead. Each user withdraws money from his or time. to processing. group on FidoNET. edge cutters Waterjets on a paper machine which EAN European Article Number. edge gilding Gold-leaf edging on a book. edge tearing resistance Resistance of paper to early selling Bookshop sales of a book made prior the further development of a small edge tear. ters out unwanted signals. back to the transmitter. Other operating systems – such as CyberCash. together with the related graphics etc. e&oe Errors and omissions excepted. marbling trans- an invoice or estimate by which a company fers or gilding on trimmed book edges. Security is provided files for functions such as spelling and hyphen. DigiCash. covers itself against mistakes in the invoice.

efficient way of communicating the results of electronic colour retouching The ability to alter research. e. invoices. by using an ing and then amending them electronically. usually implemented at a often used as a parity bit or to contain a flag. electronic document Any document that is held ation. require a subscription to be paid for access. put scanner to generate half-tone dots directly EGA Enhanced graphics adapter. electronic dissemination of information (See also infotainment. VGA. EFL English as a foreign language. character sets (unlike ASCII). electronic funds transfer The use of telecommu- Egyptian Type style with a squared serif. The journal may Ektachrome Alternative name for transparency. (See also corrupted. The edito. certain business documents – such as orders. America often supplied via a cable network. Publication’s formal views on a sub.g. SVGA. cell scanning the original. or over the World electronic composition Computer-assisted type.e. a publication. or otherwise. rulings and forms. as opposed to print-on-paper. be an electronic version of a print-on-paper jour- electro Electrotype.Dic. etary browser program.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 63 editor A software utility employed to aid the pro. in electronic. ject expressed in a special column. the files will be tomer’s bank account to pay a bill. Electronic Design Interchange Format (EDIF) A cation and entertainment services or software. such as Guidon. areas of the academic community as the most electron gun See gun. dissemination of information. including most wordprocessor files in a supermarket on the basis of information using ANSI coding. format to transfer data between CAD/CAE In Europe usually on CD-ROM. electronic data interchange (EDI) (Or electronic duction and modification of source programs. (See also CGA. of peer 63 . bills of lading – in standard formats rial matter (as distinct from advertisements) in between organisations. EGP See Exterior Gateway Protocol.).) (EDI) See electronic data interchange. but an increasing number of E-journals exist made by coating a mould with copper and only in electronic form and are regarded by some nickel.g. one organisation to another. like that of an egg. Wide Web. EFTPOS See electronic funds transfer at point electronic dot generation The ability of an out- of sale. equivalent of a paper-based journal (or maga- EIS See executive information systems. 2. edutainment The integration of interactive edu. supplied on a debit card. the eighth bit is by electronic means.) uuencode and BinHex can be used to convert electronic journal (E-journal) The electronic such files to ASCII for sending over the Internet. zine). via email. telephone lines are tions link that is not eight-bit clean (and this is used to make an automatic debit from the cus- many communications links). electronic data interchange (EDI). by email or mailing list). a character set from 0 to 127). using extended bank accounts. available either over the Internet or by E-journal See electronic journal. There is much discussion over of registration. Coding approaches such as MIME. Can include electronic funds transfer. which ic submission of copyright registration to the was used by OCLC. ent delivery methods. Over the Internet there are many differ- local areas of a scanned colour subject by defin. usually via their tage of all eight bits of a byte. Most E-journals are free but some setting and page make-up. nications or a network to send payments from eight-bit clean Describes systems that take advan. form.) electronic engraving Letterpress block engrav- eggshell antique Bulky paper with a slightly ing with a stylus controlled by a light-sensitive mottled surface. Mondex. Electronic Copyright Management System Those available by dial-up may have a propri- (ECMS) A system that will allow the electron. Many of the transfers per. are sent over a communica. question of the importance. In programs and electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFT- communications only using the first seven bits POS) Transfer of funds between bank accounts (i. direct dial-up (see OCLC e.) The exchange of editorial 1. Duplicate of block or forme nal. using electronic mail. Category of on the output medium in a variety of screen driver for graphics monitor. ftp archive (with the contents page distributed Available on most EPC systems. If point-of-sale computer terminal (or check-out) binary files. while in North systems. whether electronic journals will eventually formed in the ECMS will use Privacy replace printed journals and over the related Enhanced Mail (PEM). and these are available only US Copyright Office and electronic notification by subscription. EEMA European Electronic Messaging Associ.

64 . electrophoto- through a trader’s card-reading machine. as in photocopiers. document (e. tint laying. Originally this was a device addressing is also in used. imitate italics. e. soft proofing. and page assembly. Electronic Libraries Projects (e-Lib) A series of electronic slanting Creation of a slanted roman projects in the UK concerned with electronic typeface by a photosetter or laser printer to access to information in UK higher education. using cash. by a large electronic page composition system Elements are coded within a document instance comprises the colour scanning of originals. so that graphic printing. Laser printers use this principle for and credited to the trader. or not be part of the operation of an E-journal. masking high schools.. electronic mail Transfer of documents of messages electronic spreadsheet See spreadsheet. is fused to the paper. which identi. electrophotography The use of electrostatic electronic money A method of payment without forces to copy images.g. Ecash provides a sim. coating a mould with metal.400 munications link. This is equivalent to a cash with.g. which sends control readings back to a console nals is also much discussed. meaning. of one-piece imposed page films in four elision Omission of a character from a series of colours. different levels of text etc. (See also bang path. telecommunications or satellites. electrotype Duplicate of block or forme made by electronic page composition system (EPC sys. xerographic the requisite amount is transferred from the card printing. gradation of tone in middle-tones. Machine which scans full- they are published). photography. mail) program. audiographic teleconferencing. or press-ready printing plates. electronic rights Rights to publish and sell ma. but over the Internet. can be converted into typesetting commands by electrophotographic printing See under electro- means of a look-up table at the time of output. Toner. Device on a printing press or paper machine The role of the commercial publisher in E-jour. electronic publishing Any form of publishing in elliptical dot Elongated dot giving a smoother an electronic medium. (See also attribute.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 64 review (the refereeing of academic papers before electronic scanner 1. output. elhi or El-Hi US. resulting changes in stock as they occur. CD-ROM. A card. together with its attributes. by the light lose their charge. Money is then spent by passing the card thereby creating an image. between computers or wordprocessors using electronic transfer of funds See electronic funds direct links. e. ellipsis Three dots (. but the term is now text sent on disk or down the wire. of an element. based on a whiteboard. Mondex. ilar facility. produces separations. credit card and the shop’s computer records the pica has 10 characters per inch. tem) An EPC electronic page composition sys. by ment of conventional printed journals but may reading colour densities. characters which will not affect the overall electronic pen See light pen. element A structural part of an HTML or SGML tem is one which comprises a series of inter. paragraph). See E-journal. are The complete range of processes encompassed defined in a Document Type Definition.Dic. Microelite has 15 characters per inch.g. transfer.) ments at one end of the link could be transmitted electronic markup Generic codes inserted into a to a pen at the other end.. xerography. Publishing for elementary and the scanning-in or direct entry of text. with dates: 1990–99 vs 1990–1999. 2. although X.) A method in tion. See also generic markup and ASPIC. The codes similar functionality. The name and usage linked computers based on colour scanners. eg online.) retouching and colour correction.) indicating an omission. colour copy wrapped around a drum and. which is a significant ele. and final output e-Lib See Electronic Libraries Projects. Elm A full-screen-based Unix mail (or electronic terial on electronic devices. electronic point of sale (EPOS) System where elite Small size of typewriter type: 12 characters sales are charged automatically to a customer’s per inch. account. entity. is inserted into electrostatic printing A copying process involv- a machine (a form of automatic teller machine) ing the reflection of light from an original onto at a bank and an amount of money is transferred an electrically charged drum. often applied to screen-sharing systems with fy headings. Also. so that the pen move- fully qualified domain name. Areas affected onto the card. On the Internet the RFC 822 standard is which users can share a writing area over a com- probably the most widely used. by using tags. or to the machine itself. electronic mail address The address that is used electronic whiteboard (EWB) (Also described as to send electronic mail to a specified destina. retained drawal in that the money is taken from the user’s by the charged areas.

pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 65 elrod Letterpress casting machine for rules and sions of the EPS format for the Macintosh (which leads. 2. Different publishers and different emote icon See emoticon. ent nationalities have different conventions en dash An elongated hyphen (the width of capi- about how the em dash and en dash should be tal ‘N’ in the font in use). a terminal. automatically by the typesetting system. (See also baudy language. width and other factors. endnotes Explanatory text positioned at the end emulator A program that permits a computer to of a book in the form of extra notes. index etc. For example. encrypt Codify material so that it requires decod- email (or e-mail) See electronic mail. only by those who have the information to embossing See blocking. litho plate and degrades the image. and should be acters set in one hour) or ens of setting (= char. scale or by the next start-tag or another end-tag. notes. a mainframe. age type character. encyclopedia Reference book. which is used within used. ter etc. group of characters used to indicate an emotion. The first is to indicate a range. end-of-line decisions Decisions on hyphenation emulsion Photosensitive coating on film or plate. as as a smiley. Different publishers and differ. (See dash. a US). giving information on many subjects in printed (and electronic) documents as a form or on a single subject. in the sense of ens per hour (= char. very high finish. ‘emulsion side’. uses a PICT format for the bitmap image) and ELT English language teaching. while the network or communication equipment in such second is to denote a relationship. ing in order to be read. while the second is a low-reso. specified with the grain direction parallel to acter count in a manuscript). marbled etc. ‘pp 20–30’ (pages 20 to 30). for the PC (which uses a TIFF format). en Half the width of an em. ciphertext. Endpapers may be or keystroke. which will ture of a document may mean that end-tags are allow application programs to view it and not always necessary. One em equals 0. The EPS Whether or not end-tags should be included for file format consists of two parts: the first is the particular elements is defined in the Document PostScript code which will generate the image on Type Definition (DTD). imitate a different system. Width of the body of the lower case ‘m’ in Encarta The Microsoft multimedia encyclopaedia. so that it can be used or understood embossed finish Surface pattern pressed in paper. printed (and electronic) documents as a form of emerald Obsolete type size of about 6½pt. e. Also character body of a book to its case. coloured. end-to-end performance A measure of network lution bitmap image for viewing and editing in performance. The logical struc- format that has special structure. There are different ver.Dic. alphabetical order and indexed. end-tag The tag which indicates the end of an Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) A PostScript file element in SGML or HTML.) There are two almost universal uses al state in electronic mail or news. The width of the aver.) a substitute for the word ‘to’ (or ‘through’ in the emulation Setting up a computer. as a different device. which is used with. ‘speed is a way as to make it appear to another compu. also described of an en dash. often in several ital ‘M’ in the font in use). end of file (EOF) The physical termination point emulsification Dispersing of water into another of an amount of data or the mark used to indi- liquid. em 1. the spine.) An ASCII glyph or how the en dash and em dash should be used. nationalities have different conventions about emoticon (Or emote icon. plain.166044 encode To code groups of characters.g. a time–distance relationship’. an output device. used as the basic unit of endpaper Strong paper used for securing the measurement for casting off copy. e. inches. em dash An elongated hyphen (the width of cap. any typeface. or justification made either by the operator or Hence. but not to change it otherwise. decode or decrypt it. e. volumes. (also called ‘pica’). enamel paper Paper coated on one side with a endsheets See endpapers (US). it is endmatter The final parts of a book after the possible to make a PC appear as a terminal to main text: appendices. email (or e-mail) address See electronic mail encryption Conversion of a plaintext file to address. because they are implied manipulate it in certain ways (crop. punctuation. when water bleeds into the ink on a cate this point. 65 . rotate). See dash. which will be related to band- the other applications.g. usually arranged in of punctuation. Standard unit of measurement enclosure Contents of mail shot.g. end or end leaf See endpaper.

i. measured in ens.Dic. (See also munications traffic. and to ensure maximum oper- used to code non-ASCII characters using ating conditions. WIMP). Has some similarities to detected. EPC system See electronic page composition escrow Deposit of information with a third party system. making. velope. element. but is less widely used. It is now being used for deposit epigraph Quotation in book prelims. tion. ASCII coding. removal of non-printing areas. firmware. Memory. and therefore be correctable. terpress. See colour etching. equilibrium moisture content Moisture content engine sizing Sizing paper in the beating of paper at the same relative humidity as its machine or refiner rather than at a later stage in environment. One erlang of traffic indi- attribute. Ethernet A local area network. originally therefore be corrected to restore the original part of the PerfectOffice package. See ROM. Now greater the chance that multiple errors will be distributed by Corel. with the entity A code used in SGML and HTML. floptical disc. envelope paper Paper made for high-speed erratum slip Slip of paper pasted into a book and envelope die-cutting machines. and discomfort. The practice is used for the ephemera Small printed item. cease to trade. that it will be available should the supplier cific event but which some people collect. the screen errors in transmitted or stored data and the cor- presentation (user interface) of information. English finish Smoothly calendered book paper. play. hamming code. sent out in an en.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 66 engine-sized pulp See beater-sized pulp. The simplest form of detection User-friendly environments concentrate on is to use a single added parity bit. approximately 14pt. There express purpose of reducing operator fatigue are two types: the first is the character entity. Print made from such a plate. esparto Long-fibred grass used in pulp for paper- EPOS See electronic point of sale. 50% loading of two circuits. tects the plate from the etching solution. PROM.e. etching 1. Also a per. error detection and correction Detection of environment In personal computing. 2. while the second use is as a kind erlang The standard unit for measuring telecom- of macro and inclusion facility. May be overwritten with special etch To produce a printing plate by chemical equipment. knowledge of the operating system’s particular Use of multiple parity bits will also indicate conventions (e. See size. a standard set of printer-control EP See electronic publishing. a floppy disk. MS-DOS). of encryption keys by the US government. for the differences in attenuation at coated plate using acid. the context of man/machine interface. (See also Acrobat. different frequencies on a telephone line. envelope-stuffer Mail shot promoting or adver. sulated PostScript File.g. The more extra bits that are added. containing list of author’s post-press corrections. the included the WordPerfect wordprocessor. Etching ink pro- EPS/EPSF See Encapsulated PostScript/Encap. escape sequence Refers to Epson Standard Code EOT End of tape. which bits have been inverted and should Envoy A document exchange format. manufacture. 2. escalator clause Clause in a contract that allows which incorporates two-way wireless commu. able. for safe-keeping. Printing plate etched for use in let. codes widely used in the industry. intended to last just for the spe. cates continuous 100% loading of one circuit or rently implemented in HTML. in high-speed created by cutting the image into a specially modems. erased and reused as required. royalties to increase in line with certain levels nication.) The second use is not cur. of sales. EOL End of line. forward error detection. More traditional environments require which will indicate that an error has occurred. error correction See error detection and correc- tising products or services.) sonal digital assistant produced by Motorola. for Printers. developed by 66 . ergonomics The study of equipment design in ennage Total area of type. erasable storage Storage medium that can be engraving 1. rection of them. erasable optical disc See compact disc-record- English Obsolete type size. which also data. a cyclic the pictorial representation of instructions (see redundancy check (CRC) or a checksum. EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only esquisse Rough layout or design. See epilogue Closing section at the end of a novel or Clipper. such as a theatre deposit of software source material to ensure or match ticket. Form of print equalisation Compensation.

(See also oddment. See under (ASCII value 3). (see also absorption.3 standard. The type area inclusive of head- work backbone services run by DANTE. It of user-specified operations. EUnet The European part of the international using data-quality 8mm video cassette recorder network that links Unix systems running tape. includ- to 1024 personal computers and workstations. the information in a form required by manage- European Conference of Posts and Telecom. ment. ETSI is taking over 10Base2.). 10Base-T. available for a number of Exabyte A tape format (based on the company operating systems.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 67 Xerox. It is specified by the IEEE 802. penetration). to Unix workstations. computer applications and files and presents code used in Europe. Ethernet is not very suitable for the transmission EUTELSAT EUropean TELecommunications of real-time signals such as speech or com. numbers. in which the parts are separated by colons (:) Heatset inks dry mainly by evaporation. How the information is presented munications See CEPT. tions using TCP/IP. originally set up by IBM. line and folio is known as the inclusive type European Academic and Research Network area. graphical informa- CERN. which do not hyphenate in accordance with the EuroNet Company offering Internet connection machine’s rules of logic. Ethernet can connect up carried out by CEPT and other bodies. European PTT. also provides for X. exception dictionary and discretionary Europallet Standardised pallet (1203100cm) hypens.) 1994. pages. Owned by the pressed video. allowing a Macintosh to con. fy the PC as a member of the network. Ethernet address A six-part hexadecimal num. tion tends to be preferred.) Within each main much of the standardisation work previously branch of the network. it runs the main European com- (See also cheapernet. European Telecommunications Standards for connecting computers together with coaxial Institute (ETSI) An organisation set up in 1988 cables or twisted pairs so that the computers by the European PTTs with the support of the can share information. exclusive type area Type area exclusive of head- EuropaNET A combination of pan-European net. or verso.) munications satellites. See also hyphenation from Amsterdam. Euro-ISDN allows full transparent inter. exception dictionary Computer store of words working between many European countries. Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. evaporation One of the ways in which inks dry ber identifying a controller board. 32s ETSI See European Telecommunications etc. everdamp paper Transfer paper for laying down ETX/ACK handshaking A handshaking tech. SATellite organisation. with even board is installed in a PC and is used to identi. This number. nique in which the end-of-text character ETX EVGA Enhanced video graphics array. 67 . Eudora Electronic mail software for mail opera. uses BITNET protocols and connects to BIT. ing the harmonisation of ISDN standards uses CSMA/CD access control and runs at 10 across Europe. eWorld An online system from Apple. which extracts data from an organisation’s European article number (EAN) Form of bar. an Ethernet LAN. images on lithographic plates. EWB See electronic whiteboard. is used to display adapter. Exabyte tapes can store between 5–14 UUCP. oxidation. line and folio.) Standards Institute. even working A total of pages in a publication nect into Ethernet networks. It can be regarded as a European Mbps. name) for computer data back-up and transfer. (See also digital audio Euro-ISDN A standard for ISDN introduced in tape (DAT). (For cabling options see European Commission. used in Europe. pause transmission. (EARN) A network for universities and execute The function that initiates performance research in Europe. version of the ITU-T (formerly CCITT). depends both on management requirements European Laboratory for Particle Physics See and on the software used. Fast Ethernet runs at 100 Mbps. It is the largest European component of gigabytes of data and are most often attached the Internet. EtherTalk. executive information systems (EIS) Software NET in the US. the Macintosh which can be produced entirely by printing must have an Ethernet interface card installed.400 access. also called Ctrl+C.Dic. 10Base5. even small caps Small capitals without full capi- EtherTalk An implementation of AppleTalk on tals. indicates that an Ethernet communications even pages Left-hand. sections of the same numbers of pages (16s.

i. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information extranet The extension of an intranet to allow Code (EBCDIC) An 8-bit character code set access to other. developed under the auspices exotic typefaces Typefaces. has an advantage over SGML is that it is expanded type Typeface with characters wider designed to handle international character sets than the normal font. corresponding to ISO 10646 (which includes expansion board A component added to a com. extension Name used in some applications soft- graphics. which distributes routing information to the ters. face-down feed When the side of the sheet to be together with 16 simultaneous notes on 8 per. ational state from the configuration of the indi- expurgated edition Edition which has had objec. mem.) facing Lining of fibreboard. cussion instruments. version of SGML. The printing surface of a piece of type. to control functions by using push buttons. extract Quoted matter within a text. ters as true small capitals. which is usu- export filter A program which converts text from ally connected to a computer via a serial line. such as Russian or of the W3 Consortium. including such charac. (See also gateway. spread. there are advantages in that light source.e. One area in which XML extended memory (‘XMS memory’). extended type See expanded type.Dic. extenders Ink additives used to increase coverage.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 68 ex libris Bookplate or label pasted inside a book eXtensible Markup Language (XML) A simplified showing the owner’s name. advertisement space. face 1. ware for additional programs whch add func- expert set (or expert collection. XML has been designed for ease of memory (or ‘EMS memory’) is an older standard implementation and to be interoperable with and has been mainly replaced by the use of both SGML and HTML. with the aim of enabling Chinese. non-aligning (or old.) er. colour. users. extent Length of a book in pages. extended graphics array See XGA. Expanded HTML’. Also known as add-on boards. on some modems.) A font with an tionality. mainly used on mainframes. typeface. (See also Musical facility fee See access fee. extensible paper Paper which has tear resistance ties. extended-level synthesizer An extension to the minimum capability required by the Microsoft F Multimedia Personal Computer (MPC) speci- fication for a music synthesizer within Microsoft Windows (see base-level synthesiz. plates or film) are exposed to a piece of equipment. authorised. often set level ASCII. borytes. opposed to an internal modem. glue and ink pages. which do not use Latin characters. housing. the Web in the way that is now possible with ory beyond the conventional 640K. received and processed on expanded memory In MS-DOS applications. puter system in order to enhance its capabili. printed faces downward on the feed board. they may due to stretching properties. cator lights and. facing editorial Appearing opposite editorial extender Substance added to paint. extended character set. While using an exposure The process in which light-sensitive external modem means having an additional materials (e. provide the user with additional memory. extended ASCII An alternative term for high. typically from a page-make-up program to a external modem A modem which has its own wordprocessing program. Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). developed by IBM. facing pages Pages which face each other in an Typical extenders include whiting. export To copy out from one program into anoth. it is possible tionable material removed. simultaneous notes on 9 melodic instruments. er) so that it is capable of playing at least 16 2. SGML to be ‘served. communications features etc. as one format and code structure into another. Within IBM a number of variants of EBCDIC are used but more generally ASCII is the standard.g. blanc open book or magazine. routers which connect autonomous systems. A style of type. 68 . it is possible to obtain an indication of the oper- exposure unit See output scanner. Also double-page fixe. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) A protocol style) numerals and additional accented charac. indented and in a smaller type size. cables and power supply. A special position used when ordering to make it less opaque or increase its bulk. Unicode).

Newspaper or magazine article. can renegotiate to use a lower speed connec. Documents can also be (lighter). In printing. 2. runs at up to 10 Mbps. which ing the money. data corruption. equipment. voice and video. at the receiving end. The document to be transmitted is fastback binding See tightback binding. thermal imaging head or laser writes a facsimile fastness Resistance of colour to fading. using special fax fake duotone Imitation duotone obtained by software. the addi- sheets by alternate folds across the web. nated with new users of email and Usenet mits documents by telecommunications. facsimile transmission or fax Method for the elec. frequency division multiplexing. creating waviness in the sheet. e. some. but this means either leaving the fake process Colour separation achieved by computer switched on continuously or using means of the artist producing separate overlays. Contrast duotone. puter. some special hardware to provide a storage fall back When two modems which experience buffer until the computer is used again. documents produced by any applica- printing the half-tone in one colour (normally tion can be sent as faxes without the need to black) over a flat screen tint of another colour print them out. originally used for children’s books. family A series of fonts related to the basic text FDMA Frequency division multiple access. Exact reproduction of a document or newcomers to a particular topic. ITU-T standards lightfast ink. 2.Dic.g. selected. See 100Base-T. received. (See also of the transmitted message.) FCS See frame check sequence. for food and drugs. FCC See Federal Communications Commission. (See also fall forward. Probably origi- part of it. press. scanned at a resolution of around 200 lines per Fast Ethernet A networking protocol which pro- inch. fair dealing A provision in copyright law which father of chapel See FOC. While Group 3 is for black packets (or cells).) defines digital transmission taking less than 1 A wide area network technology based on the minute per page. See roman face. high-speed transmission of fixed-length short mission over ISDN. FDX See full duplex. 2. Machine which copies and trans. of SCSI-1. fall forward When two modems which fall back FDA regulations Food and Drug Administration’s to a lower speed because of data corruption rules governing the use of packaging materials later return to the higher speed if the connec. Specially promoted item of merchandise or times summarised and specially listed to help characteristic of that item. This means that. tion improves. Hence newsgroups.) define several facsimile reresentations: Group 3 fast packet switching (Also called cell relaying. FBS See flexible bandwidth service. fascicle or fascicule Unbound instalments of a tronic transmission of printed material by book which will be collected by purchasers on means of special transmitting and receiving each publication and bound up into a volume. Fast SCSI A variant on the SCSI-2 bus.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 69 facsimile 1. a 10 Mbps of ordinary Ethernet. facilities. f&g sheets Folded and gathered sheets of a book. feathering 1. review. discount and taking responsibility for collect. Group 4 defines digital trans. FAQ list See FAQ. In typesetting. Group 4 will also handle colour. featherweight antique paper Light. stretching temporarily on the press. permits the copying of an otherwise protected fax See facsimile transmission. tion. ink-spread on inade- fanfold A web of paper folded into connected quately sized paper. tion of fractions of a point of leading between all fanning-in The condensing of the image on the lines in a page to ‘stretch’ the text to a predefined trailing edge of a sheet caused by the sheet depth – a form of vertical justification. Operates at the datalink and white only. feature 1. or fax modem A modem that is designed for send- private study. f&c Folded and collated. blue wool scale. FAQ Frequently asked question(s). and is factoring The business of buying invoices at a capable of handling data. which is twice the speed fair copy A correction-free copy of a document. as a result of line noise. as opposed to the dial-up telephone lines. work for the purposes of criticism. very thick fan-out Moisture-distorted edges of paper on the paper. FDDI See Fibre Distributed Data Interface. uses the same 8-bit bus as the original SCSI but fade-out See ghosting. layer of the OSI seven-layer model. the signals are sent along conventional vides bandwidth of 100 Mbps. 69 . ing and (usually) receiving faxes via the com- fake Imitate or copy material for fraudulent pur. in addition to its usual communications poses. but now appears in many contexts. facsimile transmission.

although it is much more difficult centrated for reception. fibrilla Part of cellulose fibre separated during fenchel tester Device for comparing the stability the refining process. A line illustration referred to in the text fibre The cellulose constituents in wood pulp. file Text. fibre-optic transmission A transmission method Federal Networking Council (FNC) The co-ordi. fibrefelt Another name for imitation cloth. paper to be tensioned during autopasting on FidoNET A worldwide hobbyist network of per- the fly using a flying paster. Each fibre can carry many sig- rates and lifts sheets into the printing position. of a book. nally reflected. ing it over heated pipes in loops. fibre-optics The technique of communicating Federal Information Exchange (FIX) One of the data by the transmission of light through plastic interconnection points between the US govern. FDDI 2 operates at 200 Mbps and incorporates file management An established procedure for voice and video as well as data. 2. field A predefined area of a computer record. lating communications. which feed edge Edge of a sheet presented to the lays of makes fibre-optics appropriate for secure com- a press. low-end machines. fibre-optic cable A protective glass or plastic cable tion. an arrangement roughening the outside of the fibre to increase of long loops at the paper feed which allows bonding capabilities. that uses modulated infra-red or visible coher- nating group of representatives of US federal ent light. area network standard based on a token ring file compression The compression of data in a made up of fibre-optic cable at 100 Mbps file. which is transmitted down dozens (or agencies concerned with federal networking. (See also newsfeed. Fetch A program for the Macintosh.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 70 FEC See forward error correction. file conversion The process of changing either a fic and is replacing Ethernet at many sites. Also called gripper edge. FECN See forward explicit congestion notifica. felt-side Top side of paper formed on a paper fibre puffing Coated paper surface roughening machine wire. Optical the Internet. it is more difficult to feed board The surface over which paper is tamper with the signal (to monitor it or inject passed to the printing mechanism of a press. the creation and maintenance of files. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) used to transmit light from LEDs or lasers in the The US government body responsible for regu. ment networks and the Internet. which FIFO See first in first out. mation transfer rate is also high. A numeral. enables the transfer of files using ftp. hundreds) of strands of glass fibre (or other especially those networks using TCP/IP and transparent material – optical fibres). (VoD) and full real-time videoconferencing. or any collection of related records held fibre distributed data interface (FDDI) A local on a computer in structured form. figure 1. nals (a single fibre can transmit 200 million feed holes Holes in paper tape used by the telephone conversations simultaneously) and. data in the middle of a connection). 70 . leading edge munications. in which transmission time. communication of signals. copper wire. fibre is less vulnerable to external noise than feed The active electronic part of an antenna other transmission media and is cheaper than where the signal is either originated or is con.) to connect. sprocket on the mechanical reader to feed the as the frequency is high (1014–1015Hz). a vital element of the information superhigh- feint ruling Horizontal pale blue lines running way.Dic. or wire side. from the medium because they are totally inter- feeder The mechanism on a press which sepa. fibrillation In papermaking. In addition. The light beams do not escape or pitch edge. either in arabic or fibre cut Damage to the web on a papermaking roman form. the infor- tape in. methods that can provide the bandwidth nec- felt finish A finish to paper created by felts with essary for such services as video on demand special weaves. the process of festoon In web-offset printing. Fibre-optics is feet The base of a piece of metal type. case it is termed CDDI). As distinct from the underside caused by heatset drying on a web press. sonal computers accessible from a range of festoon dryer Method of drying paper by hang. It is suited to data traf. containing a pure fibre of the same material. because fibre-optics is one of the few across stationery. usually to reduce storage requirements or (although copper cabling can be used. or glass fibres. of two papers when wet. machine caused by a bundle of fibres. file medium or its structure.

Proofs generated server means that it is unnecessary to have mul. which can be accessed by users on the net. 71 . separately from those controlling the outline of filter 1. up to a given size. MacPaint feature. A control within a firewall machine fill character A character. Internet to obtain information about a particular film advance The distance by which film in a user. The parameters photosetting system. fixes. over a TCP/IP network (often over the film recorder An output device that captures Internet). fines Small fragments of fibre remaining after fill pattern A choice of patterns and shades used refining. information is transferred back to the host.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 71 file server A computer in a network that holds photosetter advances between lines of type to files. removes unwanted frequencies from a signal. principal way in which World Wide Web sites fine grain Photographic paper with emulsion request information from Web users. Also called film feed or line work. file transfer Copying a file from one computer to film make-up Positioning pieces of film ready another computer over a network or a direct for platemaking. through the medium of. An electronic or optical device which the object. now emulated by other soft. File servers often also act as print servers. Fill is also used in some text process. generally used in the Apple Macintosh. e. posed in film rather than paper. fine etching Dot etching on metal plates to fill-out forms Often abbreviated to forms. in converting from for line as keyed in. ftp is also used to describe the client data and records it onto film. or about all users logged on to a system. filmless proofing Also called filmless hardcopy logging. File Transfer Protocol (ftp) A client-server pro. machine proofs which are made from plates. security and so on.Dic. particularly for which are made by contacting films. film plotter See output scanner. feed. to fill objects created under most WYSIWYG fine screen A screen with ruling over 120 lines to graphics packages. filter factor The extra exposure necessary to filler advertisement Advertisement used to counteract the light-reducing effect of a filter. resolution. indexing. e. This is to allow for editing one wordprocessor format to another or from a programs which do not allow soft carriage wordprocessor format to a desktop publishing returns on-screen. finger A program which can be used over the ware packages. ing programs to indicate whether lines should 2. Finder fillers Pigments added to the furnish of paper to allows only one program to be run at a time.g. off an electronic page composition system tiple copies stored on individual computers. tocol that enables a user on one computer to film processor Machine which automatically transfer files to and from another computer develops. usually at high program that the user executes to transfer files. Storing files on a file proofing or digital proofing.. or software upgrades. Page make-up is used as the connection. File Transfer. gence such as transaction processing. improve the printing or opacity characteristics. The improve tone values. film feed See film advance. Access and Management (FTAM) film master See image master. 3. film mechanical Camera-ready material com- transfer and remote manipulation (ISO 8571). term for pages or assembly for full imposition. occupy redundant space rather than booked Finder The file and memory management system for insertion. As distinct from plastic proofs ling and updating files easier. Users characteristics which are not obtrusive through enter appropriate data within a form (as with the picture. washes and dries exposed film. format. typically a space.g. colour printer. A program which converts one file coding be run on to make a single paragraph or set line structure into another. See imagesetter. while database servers provide database intelli. Originally a MacDraw/ the inch. create leading. An application layer protocol for file access. fill The pattern and the colour inside an object filmsetting Creating type on film by means of a produced in a draw program. a book. that that blocks transmission of certain kinds of is added to a set of characters to make the set traffic. a laser or thermal which both saves disk space and makes control. MultiFinder allows multi-tasking and is built fillet A decorative line on the binding or page of into the System 7 operating system. controlling the fill are almost always handled film wrapping See plastic wrapping. conventional printed forms) or they select fine papers High-quality printing and writing options from amongst a number given and this papers.

tightback binding. See character compensation. through the Internet. a bit (within operating systems) or a byte in the second lining normally kraft. first copy time In page printing. May also display first colour down The first colour printed on a other information. often gains value as a collector’s item. checks for the presence of the signature and first edition The first print run of a book that disables the program if it is found to be absent. by proofreaders. i.) Often a First Virtual A US bank that provides a method of system that prevents external access from the secure payment over the Internet by issuing an Internet to an organisation’s computers.g.Dic. folding. e. however. cation needs. identification number that references back to a Internet access may. used vacuum tubes. Also fastback. often specified by reference firmware Software which is necessary for the to other material.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 72 local or remote. last pages one and three after folding. stitching. level in a series of headings in a book. See outer log-in time. FIX See Federal Information Exchange. char- to keep the user interface friendly. e. Internet access through use of a proxy system. external access. location (where applicable). a strong form some programs. if mail facilities are sheet when more than one colour is being used. e. firewall Any kind of security barrier to prevent first revise The corrected proof made after errors external changes to a system by hackers etc. facing leader page. Usually held in and words which cannot be varied for justifi- ROM. within a periodical. be provided credit card number. Typically shows full name. machine finished or supercalen. cut. first and second linings The two linings applied flag In general. it is a unique bit pattern used to iden- first and third Printed sheet which contains tify the beginning and end of a frame. varnish or lamination on a cover mechanical in operation. finial Decorative curved part of a letter that ends first-generation computers Early computers that in a hook. waiting to be downloaded to the local computer. The first on one of two values (often ‘on’ or ‘off’). used to indicate a cross-reference. firewall machine. firewall code Code put into a system both to fit Space between letters which can be reduced or ensure that users cannot cause any damage and expanded. general routines of a computer and which can. protocols. idle time.g. May be lining is normally mull. noted on the first proof have been re-set. firewall machine or firewall system A system fixative Protective spray used on surface of art- that isolates an organisation’s computers from work. potential tampering via the Internet. (See firewall code. a form of muslin cloth.g. first-level heading First (and most important) ting. ready for despatch. accessed from a mail server over a dial-up link.e. or jacket. machines at the site from potential tampering fixed position Set location for an advertisement by external users. Contrast variable space. FIPP International Federation of the Periodical first proof The earliest proof used for checking Press. modelled after hot metal machines and largely dered. bug could cause if not correctly fixed. e. fixed length record A record that is of the same The firewall is intended to protect other length as others with which it is associated. limit the damage which a known programming FITS See Flexible Image Transport System. Also. the time taken to then it is possible to see what mail messages are produce the first copy in a set of identical copies. a test sequence be produced at this (much slower) speed. When the program is run. inserting etc. avoiding the necessity for using a proxy system. In communications bit-oriented of brown paper.g. kerning. When each page of a which a unique signature is written to a floppy multipage document is different. 72 . terminal line and terminal forme. each page will disk. first in first out (FIFO) Data storage method in finishing Bindery processes taking place after a which the first item recorded is the first to be job is printed and bringing it to its final form retrieved. Also used to acter fit. The firewall is intended the credit card number itself to be transmitted. An fixed back Book back glued directly to the back organisation sometimes provides some of the pages. fixed space The amount of space between letters not be changed by the user. a variable or quantity that can take to the back of the book in case binding. finish The type of surface on a particular grade first-generation photosetters Early photosetters of paper. to protect other machines at the site from fist A printing symbol shaped like a black hand. as distinct from the time taken to produce each fingerprint A method of software protection in subsequent identical copy.

prior to the cover gram or output device. so that the flatbed A press with the printing surface flat pilot feels that he or she is flying a real aircraft. where the printing plate on the bed of the flippy disk Double-sided floppy disk. machine is laid flat so the inking rollers and float Centre a piece of artwork in an area which then the impression cylinder with the paper is too large for it. a popular computer program giving a flatbed press Mechanical printing machine similar on-screen display. Solid areas have a with a scanning drum. A centre portion control characters.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 73 flame An electronic mail or Usenet news mes. structure as a series of single files from which flop Reverse film so that a mirror-image is pro- the structure can be rebuilt. rather than curved as on a rotary press. intended to rebuke or even to flat wrapping Wrapping a magazine with film or insult or provoke. the section near the fold (contrast saddle. ble. Assem. Indicates available used for magnetic storage of information on colour positions. SGML files are flat-ASCII in that all binding method. 2. flat ASCII A text file that contains only ASCII (7. flexstabil binding Binding method used for bit) characters and uses only ASCII-standard heavy books and catalogues. flat artwork Artwork which is drawn on a solid flexichrome Hand-coloured photograph. flexible bandwidth service (FBS) An alternative flash exposure Additional exposure given to a to leased lines and multiplexers. flexiback binding Binding with reinforced spine flange See bevel. flier Promotional leaflet or handbill. flooded embedded codes specific to a particular pro. duced. describe the sending of such a message. with glue. can roll over it. flat etching Etching of a plate in a tray of solu. Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) The bled film on a carrier sheet ready for printing. The standard size is 3. non-ASCII characters are represented by char. fleuron Typographical flower ornament used for voke a flame or even a flame war. floptical disc A removable optical disc which is stitching). Also used as a verb to paper without folding it. floppy disk drive A device into which a floppy flat-stitching Method of sewing sections of a disk may be loaded and from which data may book by passing the thread through the side of be read or written. changes to the bandwidth available to any site. but has 73 . flocculation Ink-mixing fault caused when pig- flatbed scanner A scanner with a flat platen. decorative purposes. and resealed. in stereotyping. ical way. flat tint plate Letterpress block used for printing sage that is the equivalent of an angry retort or a tint. flap Protective cover for piece of artwork. flight simulator A computer-controlled device flat back Bound with a flat back (as distinct from for training pilots. using paper or fabric lining.5 inch floppy disk. colour separation plates in limited numbers. Also. a strong opinion. flax tow Linen fibres used in papermaking. spotty. Known as a dingbat in flame war An acrimonious dispute consisting of DTP. flat 1. flat plan Diagrammatic scheme of the pagination floppy disk Small flexible plastic disk widely of a magazine or book.Dic. the same size as a 3. Also called plain being drawn on. es.5 inch- be positioned for printing in the most econom. so that colour illustrations can small computers. as opposed to one than dispersing smoothly. standard data interchange and archive format Also foil. It consists of an artificial rounded). pimply. allowing half-tone to enhance shadow areas. cockpit mounted on hydraulic legs. square back. Also. floating accents Accents which are not tied to a flatbed proofing press A litho flatbed press given character in type font and can therefore designed for producing machine proofs from be positioned over any letter. base and which cannot always be directly flexography Relief printing process using flexi- scanned. ment floats as particles in the ink vehicle rather rather like a photocopier. flat file A representation of a database or tree flooding Excess of ink on a printing plate. flong The special paper used for making moulds tion. of the astronomy community. Lacking contrast when printed. Extremely durable adhesive ASCII. deformable plates. acter entities. appearance. flame bait A message which is intended to pro. Thus it includes no 8-bit of the back of the book is scooped out. a series of flames.

FOB Free on board. Fluorescent papers have fluorescent pigments leaving the design or lettering engraved on the added. 74 . Carrier for planning films. with the lens flowers Flower and leaf decoration tooled onto focused at infinity. plete signature. FMV See full-motion video. (See also SyQuest disk.) on a web press without stopping the press. skimmed off. coloured metallic layer flush Cut to match the edge with that of the on top of it. gatefold. often curling. flush left/right Type aligned with either the left. May be either soft. text into a pre-formatted page such that it con. or until the text is fog Unintended light penetration of photograph- exhausted. ent settings. rule or image is encountered. point of placing goods on board a vessel at the Typically. flowchart Diagram showing the sequence of FNC See Federal Networking Council. lint. F number Defines the aperture of a lens at differ- flow control The techniques used in serial com. throw-out. and is obtained by dividing the munications to indicate when the sender focal length of the lens by the diameter of the begins and ends sending data and when the aperture. ing. finish at the end FM screening See frequency modulation screen- of a normal character. DTP. board which has good scoring and folding tion. coloured lacquer on top of it detach from the fluorescent ink Ink with extreme brightness plastic carrier under heat and pressure from a qualities which react to ultraviolet light.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 74 a capacity of up to 25Mbs. as in a sub. Print union equivalent of sufficient data has been read from the buffer so shop steward. to the transmitter to stop transmission until FOC Father of Chapel. and ‘imitation silver’. folding endurance Measure of deterioration of or right-hand margins. the entering of forms a sharp image. flyer See flier. Fluorescent whitening is included in block transferred into the surface of the case pulp to add brightness to paper. foil 1. ic materials. When the amount of buffered carriage payment right up to the point of plac- data reaches a certain level. flotation de-inking Removing ink from recycled flyleaf Plain sheet in a book next to the covers. Floptical disk drives flying paster Pasting mechanism which joins a can often also be used for conventional 3. Contrast cif. beyond the page size.) characteristics. paper by creating a ‘froth’ which can be Usually pages 3–4 of the front endpaper. flush cover A cover trimmed flush with the folding chases Chases which join to form a com- pages of the text of the book. Also. that another signal can be sent to start trans. focus Sharpness of definition in photography or tinues to fill out columns and/or pages until a in projection of a product or service. which is used stance added to paper stock to make very white to block covers. ed with clear or coloured lacquer and a thin fluorescent Radiating a white glow. which includes fixed-size buffer. Popular colours are ‘imitation gold’ cover. blocking brass during the blocking process. short for stamping foil: a plastic film coat- ly found on the surface of soft paper. alignment of text to the centre.) centre and the focusing plane. (See also justifica.5 inch new reel of paper to that currently running out disks. steps in a computer program. Also referred to as f-stop. received data will be written to a departure port. In bookbind- fluffing Build-up of loose fibres of fluff especial. material with the thin. flourish Freehand.Dic. in OCR machines. leather binding and used by designers. left or right In wordprocessing or foil papers Papers with metallic surface. Carriage paid only up to the ware flow control or hardware flow control. left or folding boxboard High-quality carton maker’s right of the column or page. fluff Loose surface fibres on paper. 2. flow The spread of ink over press rollers. a signal will be sent ing goods on the quayside at the arrival port. Also. layer of condensed aluminium. The aluminium layer and paper. flush mount A letterpress plate mounted on its fold-out Folded sheet in text which opens out base with adhesive. receiver is able to accept it. flush centre. foliation The numbering of manuscript pages. (See also x-on/x-off. paper along a constantly repeated fold. focal length Distance between an optical lens’ mission again. floriation Tooled decoration on leather binding flying spot Light source used to scan documents in the form of little flowers. FM See frequency modulation. focal plane The plane where light entering a lens flowing In desktop publishing. ing.

font metrics) files. As distinct from a preface. cation for a page or a book. forum A discussion group accessible through a foot Bottom of a book or page. Elsewhere in Europe. group or forum that is a public response to a format 1. fore and aft Method of printing two copies of a FolioViews A content management system. before it can be used to accept data. composition on-screen. the Didot system. both real-time Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and footprint 1.351mm) and 12 intended for print but can equally be applied to points make up a pica. replace a bitmapped screen font. Page number at the head or foot of a page force card Male die used in die-stamping. bulletin board system. corresponding AFM (Adobe font metrics) files. can be made to graphics etc. based on a 12-point cicero.8 British points. the font Document Type Definition (DTD). although links head to head (two-up). font metrics The detailed design specifications of a formation The fibre distribution of a sheet of font. As printer. based markup ready for composition by a font size In the UK and US. Trimmed page size. fore-edge Outer edge of a book. Type 1 fonts usually also have spacing etc. Mastering technology to generate a font if the formula publishing Publishing a series of books font called for in a pdf file is not present on the according to a classification or format estab- system where the Acrobat file is being viewed. The two extremes are described as ‘wild’ characters. distinct from a ribbon folder. mounted ready for printing. for Type 1 PostScript according to SGML. set those authorised) and can be contrasted with in smaller type at the bottom of the page. how tall the capital let. opposite the tured documents. that is required by an item of computer hard. Format Output Specification Instance Different font systems store this information in (FOSI) An SGML-marked-up document that different ways: for QuickDraw on a Macintosh. or a footer In books.) both asynchronous and available to all (or all footnotes Notes explanatory to the main text. Users submit postings for times appears at the bottom of each page. not written by follow-on posting A contribution to a news. In a slightly different a press. When output is former folder Type of web press folder which sent from a Macintosh to an Apple LaserWriter draws paper over a kite to make first fold. FOSIs map SGML documents to appearance- but these are not used by most applications. 3. A forum is also header. which include the widths of individual paper. the running footline that some. Adobe Acrobat will use Multiple forms See fill-out forms. the driver will substitute Times. ters are. This 75 . the author.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 75 folio 1. font size is usually FOSI-capable system. the x-heights. the kerning pairs and many other items. The surface area of a desk or bench point-to-point personal email. constructs as documents but apply them to for- point sizes and measurements are given using mat instead of to structure and content. context. code on a phototypesetter. A FOSI metrics for a TrueType font are stored in the contains formatting information structured TrueType font file itself. of text. binding edge.5317 inches. e. (See all to read and discussion follows. quadding. foreword Introduction to a book. a flat so that 1 Didot point = 0. a mailing list. FOSIs were originally given in points (1 point = 0. 2. Area over which the signal from a tion technique which adds extra bits to a trans- transmitter can be received. Can provide its own database structure. or ‘even’. mission over a communications link.. but not necessarily SGML. FOSI styles define all fea- fonts the metrics are stored in PFM (PostScript tures of composition: font. By extension. forme The printing surface as imposed and which measures the same as 12. Frequently occur- follow style Instruction to compositor to set to ring set of typographical commands stored as a the publisher’s specified style. forward error correction (FEC) An error-correc- ware. Geneva forme rollers Rollers in contact with the plate on and Monaco screen fonts. uses the CALS output specification as its the metrics form part of the screen fonts. Sheet of copy. Requires struc. the basic unit of typo.376mm. Helvetica and Roman for the New York. (about 125 characteristics in all). 2. or physical specifi- previous posting. foolscap Paper size measuring 13.g. of pages imposed for printing one side of a font substitution Printing an outline font to sheet.Dic. leading. Structure imposed font A complete set of characters all of the same on a floppy disk by an operating system utility typeface and point size. FOSIs use the same graphic measurement. book simultaneously with the pages joined mainly for textual information. 2. Usenet newsgroup. lished by the publisher.

It The term was invented by Benoit Mandelbrot in includes error detection but not error correc- 76 . so that each smaller forward explicit congestion notification structure is a reduced version of the larger form. The higher the frame rate. colour separ. brownish marks ofen caused by damp affecting Various kinds of compressed or simplified chemical impurities in the paper. damping solu. an animation. e. more processing power and sys- nents. tion and is sent between datalink layer entities. It can also video (such as QuickTime) often use fewer occur if ink leaks from another page. frame 1. 1975. 2. See frame rate. mountains and stances. such as frame regarded as the fourth power in the land. FECN allows the structures are fractals. Fractals can be generated using foul proof Proof with corrections added. fragmented. nested within each other. network interface standard which caters par- fractal An irregular. stereotypes etc.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 76 allows errors to be detected and corrected with. every second. function system (IFS). areas from accepting ink. geometric shape. ticularly for bursty data communications. Many mathematical network node is congested. Generating Fountain rollers measure out the damping the IFS from the image is the most difficult step solution to the damping rollers.g. fractal compression. a number of easily obtainable programs. by opening and closing flags. (PAL) television signal displays 25 fps and a US foxing or fox marks Discolouration on paper by standard (NTSC) signal displays 30 fps. Fractals are until casing-in. relay. frame relay A connection-oriented wide area FQDN See fully qualified domain name. Fractal objects contain structures that are out any retransmission of data. error-checking information which is added to a fourth estate Newspapers and magazines frame in bit-oriented protocols. frame rate The number of frames of an anima- fourth wave Used to describe typesetting and tion. fps Frames per second. Also. for compatibility with other systems and compo. algorithm on the bit pattern of the image. See foundry chase Chase used in stereo making. in frame relay. A European standard directions. expanded to generate the required number of fountain Damping solution reservoir on a press. by delaying acknowledgement coastlines. Pierre Simon Fournier. which can then be ters used in hand composition. a series that make up either a video or an ani- Fournier A stylish. Fourdrinier Papermaking machine named after The size of the frame will depend upon the pro- the brothers who invented it. A single image that forms part of to convey the wet paper. A rate of four-way entry Reference to a pallet that may be about 30 fps is necessary to give the impression picked up by a fork-lift truck in any of the four of smooth movement.Dic. appear natural. but fractals also describe receiver to reduce the traffic in certain circum. Uses a wire belt tocol used. (FECN) A notification. tem bandwidth will be required. such as clouds. natural objects. foundry lockup A forme locked up for making fractal compression A method of compressing moulds of electrotypes. levels of (synthetic) fractal detail. and involves running a (patented) compression fountain solution Solution of water and chemi. A frame generally contains its ation. video or television picture displayed origination systems based on standard hard. fourth-generation computers Computers using frame grabber A device which allows a single large scale integration (LSI) technology. See video capture card. also not definable in terms of specific numbers FOSI See Format Output Specification Instance. and with a high degree of smoother the movement will be. a serial link. transmitted over four-colour process See CMYK. own addressing and error-checking informa- four-colour separation See colour separation. frame-check sequence (FCS) A field containing fourth cover Outside back cover of a periodical. images by expressing the image as an iterated foundry type Hard-wearing metal type charac. although. of dimensions. especially frames per second but the results may not from an illustration. using lasers to expose the characters. the ware and software. that a although not identical. shapes and generally cannot be described using forwarding Binding stages from after sewing conventional Euclidean geometry. enclosed tion. A sequence of contiguous bits. cals used in litho to prevent the non-printing fraktur German gothic characters. which do not have simple geometric messages. italic typeface designed by mation. frame of a video to be captured and subse- fourth-generation photosetters Photosetters quently used as a still image.

joint. French groove In binding.. and X. Contrast AM screening. only one side of the sheet and leaving the join franco Free. Freenets are funded and operated by called section sewing.) been applied. ranging from a browsers. in package at an airport. freight operation. exposing control and error correction.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 77 tion.g. Also. High frequency (hf) comes between free sheet 1.) quency bands. Freenet A US community-based bulletin board French sewing Plain. the same as public domain software (PDS). through one medium (such as a wire) by mod- vides a good summary of the Foundation’s ulation at the transmitter into separable fre- goals and principles. handling for customers. and is used for devoted to the creation and dissemination of television. 2. one can electronically-generated screening where the search for the occurrence of a group or string of dots produced are all the same or very similar characters within. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) The Software is distributed under the terms of the simultaneous transmission of many signals GNU General Public License. French fold The fold used on greetings cards. which also pro. Also system. customs clearance. ed. Very high frequency (VHF) Free Software Foundation An organisation comes between 30–300MHz. freight forwarder Person or company that friction feed Printer mechanism where the paper arranges the shipping and customs documents is secured and fed by two rollers. often words. time of a periodic waveform. friar Pale printed area where not enough ink has (See also shareware. flow which folds a sheet into four pages. and to the connection of dedicated lines are then sent out as one large shipment. devoted to cycles per second for an electromagnetic wave- making computer communication and network.e. which LANs. say. which the full data link protocol is implement. 77 . technique in which two different tones are used ed with keyword search. communication. Periodical or newspaper distributed 3–30MHz. kHz. Such engines are usually based on frequency shift keying (FSK) A modulation indexing and the approach should be contrast. acting as menus. they are part of the National Public frequency The number of repetitions per unit Telecomputing Network (NPTN). e. 20 words of another minuscule size (microdots) and are spread over group or groups. television and voice communication. to represent the 0 and 1 states of binary data. feature. to a while new information is downloaded into the specialised service offering any part of the main screen area. Woodfree paper (US). often over the Internet. Some search engines offer an area to lesser or greater degrees to give the switchable contextual searching as a further shades of grey required. conventional sewing. and delivery of all his customer’s freight. from the shoulder of the book. frequency modulation (FM) A method for en- bination of characters. form is expressed in hertz (Hz. pick up which may remain static. free-text search Searching text files for any com. an organi. some of documentation.g. including frame acknowledgement. Ohio. Search coding a carrier signal by changing the fre- engines which are able to carry out free-text quency according to the data being transmitted. full be broken into several different areas. which has produced replace. Ultra high frequency (UHF) restrictions on use. MHz or ing services as freely available as public libraries. ments for many Unix utilities and other tools. The author fret Interlaced pattern used in border and cover still retains copyright and thus it is not quite design. at the edges. contrast monk. FM radio broadcasting and voice software that is free from licensing fees or communication.Dic. Its main work is supporting comes between 300MHz–3GHz and is used for the GNU project. SMDS and B-ISDN. and is used mainly for long-distance free to its readers. the groove or channel the degree to which the pulp is free of lignin left by bringing the case board slightly away traces). GHz). and is suited to the interconnection of for shipments from several companies. freight forwarding The organisation of freight frames A facility available in HTML-3 onwards. which allows the browser screen to comprehensive service including packing. customs clearance of a frame switching An extension of frame relay. at no cost. volunteers. e. The number of sation based in Cleveland. freeware Software made available by the author frequently asked questions See FAQ. freeness Measure of purity in woodfree pulp (i. A freight forwarder implemented by current World Wide Web can offer a variety of services. search often include Boolean facilities and frequency modulation (FM) screening Type of proximity searching so that.25 to ATM. (See also copyleft.

FSK See frequency shift keying. furnish The components in a paper. publication at the stage where everything simplex. screens. gap 1. The usual data communications channel processing. Sometimes used after initials front end General term for all the parts of a pho. the recording medium. simultaneously.g. name of a system. whiteness and brightness. engraving house. galley proof Proof of typematter not made up tals as distinct from small capitals.g. fulfilment Supplying a complete order. See network. Gameboy Proprietary hand-held hardware for full duplex (FDX) Communication in which it is running computer games. e. half-bound or galley An oblong metal tray for holding metal three-quarter bound.) should be ready for commercial release. fuzzy FSP A connectionless protocol for moving files logic programs encompass words which look or around networks. full measure Complete width of a column of text. rather like ftp.demon. fuzz Loosely bonded fibres projecting from the tisements. than generating characters. fudge To touch up a photograph by. er protocol. Access and Management. regular capi. galvanised Inconsistent in colour or density of full duplex Data transmission in both directions printed ink. sound very similar to the word required. FWA Fluorescent Whitening Agent. full-out Set flush with no indentations. 78 . type. and its domain name. a tion against server and network overloading. surface of paper. The space between records on disk or tape.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 78 friction glazing Form of glossy finish imparted full run All the editions of a newspaper. e. ftp See File Transfer Protocol. often dedicated to adver. ple without Internet access can obtain copies of files which are available by anonymous ftp. gang printing Running more than one job on the full-motion video (FMV) System used to deliver same sheet. FYI For your information. As distinct from quarter-bound. air- brushing. front of book Part of a periodical before the bulk furniture Letterpress spacing material. related to TCP/IP or the Internet. Contrast simplex. A loading f-stop See F number. Also known as slip proof. (the V. frontlist Publisher’s list of books currently being function codes Codes which control the function published or about to be published. and abbreviations. so that ‘eps-edge’ is a frontispiece Illustration on the page facing the hostname and ‘eps-edge. FQDN. to paper by a special calender. e. 2. of the editorial pages. full-bound Binding style in which the case-cov. fully qualified domain name (FQDN) The full setter.24 interface) between a computer and a gamma version Preview version of an electronic modem is full duplex. frontmatter Prelims of a book. fuzzy logic In the context of word searching. half’ is an title page of a book. full capitals or full caps Full-sized. into page.. Smithe. Smitt etc. which convey general information about topics ftp by mail A service offered by DEC so that peo. with protec. editing ter. fugitive inks Inks which fade or change colour in unstable atmospheric conditions or in bright G light. It search for the name Smith might also pull in is probable that FSP is an acronym for file serv. Smythe. Smyth. contrast of a phototypesetter or output device rather backlist. possible to transmit and receive at the same gamma A measure of contrast in photographic time. input keyboards. A subseries of RFCs ftp archive See archive site. The space between a read/write head and full point See full stop. (See also half duplex. full stop A punctuation mark in the form of a dot frisket Device on a hand-press for holding down on the baseline that shows that a sentence has paper during including its local hostname minals etc. similar to an OBA added to paper to increase FTAM See File Transfer.Dic. tosetting system before the output unit/image.g. gallery The camera department in a process ering material is one piece of cloth or leather. come to an end. moving images and sound on a computer. network address. full colour Four-colour process.

The term ‘router’ Specific instructions for layout of the text on is now used in place of the original definition of the page do not appear in the markup. in which Internet experts PostScript interpreter. an geographical information system (GIS) Software approved prepress supplier who checks and that makes possible the visualisation and standardises files coming into the newspaper manipulation of spatial data. Also gatekeeper. Conductors three inventors. 79 . Bill William Henry Gates III. a gas plasma display consists 1969. the statements ment rather than its typographical con- ‘and’ and ‘or’. the principal precursor of SGML. Charles Goldfarb. indicating the logical components of a converter. gatefold A page in a magazine or book which generic font A font used in screen display or a folds out to double its size. or maintenance records. horizontal on the rear plate) and generation 1. files to be viewed in X windows. speeds. broadcast over Ghostview An interface to the Ghostscript Internet Talk Radio. front plate. and a mail gateway is a layer 7 notes. generic markup A method of adding information tions. Should not be confused with a protocol to text. a router is a layer 3 (network document. output. gear streaks Marks on a printed sheet caused by Ghostscript The GNU PostScript interpreter the gears on a press cylinder. Thus. hinges in binding. such as science (CGI) is a standard for such interfaces. To ensure that line Gates.) 23300 miles above the earth’s surface. caused by problematic ink conditions. thickness or lites may be described as ‘geostationary’. important precursor of SGML. Essentially the same as generic coding. headers or foot- layer) gateway. An also known as Old Face. conductor junctions. fiction. Also an interface between an exter. so allowing smaller waste animal bones and used to make glue and size trim in the printed product and higher running for coating paper. geosynchronous orbit The position where com- gathering Collecting sheets or signatures of a munications satellites remain stationary in orbit printed job into the correct sequence for bind. nal source of information and a World Wide genre publishing Publishing a series of novels Web server.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 79 gapless Refers to the elimination of any gap on gelatine Water-soluble protein obtained from the printing cylinder. Stage of development of a technology. Such satel- gauge Device for measuring length. data with other information such as customer GATF Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. compensate for the variations in set width gateway A communications device or program between the generic font and the ultimate out- that passes data between networks which have put font. such as paragraphs. 2. US. gate Part of a computer circuit which tests a pre. fourth-generation phototypesetters. Chief endings in the generic font match the eventual Executive Officer of Microsoft. Pittsburg. with previewers for a number of systems. gateway supplier In newspaper production. Common Gateway Interface classified in a particular way. similar functions but dissimilar implementa. which allows PostScript are interviewed. GenCode A generic coding project set up by the Garalde Generic term for the group of typefaces US Graphics Communications Association.Dic. proof printer to represent an entire category of gatekeeper See gateway supplier. above the same point on the equator – about ing.g. Generalised Markup Language (GML) The gas plasma display An alternative to the cathode generic markup language developed at IBM in ray tube in a VDU. Stage of reproduction from an orig- images are formed when currents coincide at inal. generic coding Coding the structure of a docu- condition in a program. (application layer) gateway. ly ink starvation. (See also collate. mystery. ghosting An unintended faint printed image Gb Abbreviation for gigabyte. higher-quality output fonts. SGML is an example of such a system. which he co. e. other dimensions. normal- GCR See grey component replacement. Geek of the Week A program. romance etc. inter-character spacing is adjusted to founded in 1975 with Paul Allen. e. Edward are etched onto the glass plates (vertical on the Mosher and Raymond Lorie. geosynchronous satellite A satellite in geosyn- gauze Thin woven fabric used to strengthen chronous orbit.g. stituents. The of a sealed unit made from two sheets of flat acronym originally comprised the initials of the glass filled with a neon/argon gas. and links such from external sources. ‘gateway’. garbage Redundant programs or data.

regarded as two glyphs or two representations of gilt in the square Gilded before rounding. ‘The Whole Internet Catalog’ (based goldenrod paper Opaque orange paper on which on the book by Ed Krol) discusses the most use. alent to 150 million words of text. wide information system (CWIS) at the global search and replace The facility of a com. able spherical head. Gopher protocol. Each golfball Global Network Service (GNS) The service represents one typeface. the GNU C com- face. bonding and its strength. on artwork. so. dard is currently used in the 900 MHz and 1800 Gopher client A program which runs on the local MHz bands. accessible Gopher server. The GSM stan. Graphical Kernel System (GKS). Gopher allows a single group of words in a file and replace them with Gopher client to access information from any an alternative.gif’ is gloss art Shiny artpaper as opposed to matt art or also the filename extension for files in Graphics coated cartridge which have a dull finish. glossy Photographic print with a glossy surface. Interchange Format. Examples are GKS See Graphical Kernel System. The gold foil Paper with a foil coating. providing the user Global System for Mobile Communications with a single ‘Gopher space’ of information. which is in the process of being World Wide Web. gigabyte of computer storage is roughly equiv. University of Minnesota and is now available puter program to find all examples of a word or over the Internet. ence to the character’s shape rather than its iden- gilding Decorating a binding. Festival. Gopher has been largely superseded by the munications. used for protective purposes and for overlays GNU Acronym standing for ‘GNU’s Not Unix!’. GNN See Global Network Navigator. used for decorative documents. which began as a campus SwitchStream (IPSS). ‘. the Free Software Foundation’s project to pro- glazed Paper with a glossy or shiny finish. the sans-serif ‘g’s in cover than gilt in the square: gilded before the typefaces Arial and Helvetica might be rounding. ‘Gold leaf’ Internet ‘Help Desk’ provides help in starting comprises thin sheets of real gold. Programmer’s slang glyph A sculpted character or symbol with refer- to describe bad output caused by faulty data. The ‘GNN Business proportions. GKS-3D The three-dimensional version of the glytch Program error. on a chiselled rather than a calligraphic form. glossary Alphabetically arranged list of terms gigabyte (Gb) One thousand million bytes. Chisel. machine and provides a user interface to the gloss Smooth. which connects national PSS services. Albertus. or the text glueability Measure of speed of paper adhesive content of 2000 average-sized novels. film is assembled for platemaking. Gopher A menu-driven hierarchical document Formerly known as International Packet retrieval system. Associates. tity within a character set. Glyphic BS 2961 classification for typefaces based GIS See geographical information system. shiny finish. usually used in display sizes. for example. including GNU Emacs. gigo Garbage in. 80 . glair Substance which bonds gold leaf to leather. Latin. (GSM) The standard for digital cellular com. based on the ratio of 34:21.Dic. Internet exploration and NetNews is a weekly golfball typewriter Typewriter using a replace- publication that gives news about the Internet. go back N A datalink layer communications pro- Global Network Navigator (GNN) A collection of tocol which allows retransmission of faulty free services provided by publisher O’Reilly & blocks. GML See Generalised Markup Language. GNU software is glitch Unexpected irregularity or malfunction of available from many GNU archive sites. garbage out. Achieves better not agreed. vide a freely distributable replacement for glazed vellum Vellum paper with a glazed sur. a computer. ful Internet resources and services and provides golden section or golden rectangle Perfect page live links to those resources. GIP Glazed imitation parchment. top edge or fore.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 80 GIF See Graphics Interchange Format. the same glyph. Whether two repre- edge of a book with gold leaf. piler. gzip and much more. sentations of the same character in two different gilt in the round Fore-edge of a book gilded after Glyphic fonts constitute one or two glyphs is the book has been rounded. which includes access to adopted by over 60 countries. or ‘golfball’. Gopher documents as one of its protocols. glassine Tough but partially transparent paper GNS See Global Network Service. give-away Free promotional leaflet or gift. One and their meanings. Pages’ list companies on the Internet. Unix.

unlike ‘character-based’ or ‘text- board. and graduated fill A gradual shift from one colour to vector graphics.g. to operate. while PCs and Unix require grain visible usually due to high speed of film. In general. image is stored as a bitmap) and vector or out- Gouraud shading A method of surface shading line graphics (in which the image is stored or rendering used in animation to make the using geometric formulae). A procurement specification for graphic papers Papers for printing or writing. around a graphic which defines the boundary gothic See black letter. tations. ware allows operation in WYSIWYG mode. although the protocols used by graphics The creation. The two gradient fill Another term for a graduated fill. line. graphic boundary In DTP. system. such as X windows. able to access object fill. (See also machine graphics adapter See display adapter. (See also Gouraud shading. direction. Phong shad. WYSIWYG. It was mouse. (See also playing pictures in line or tone in addition to PHIGS. Profile (GOSIP) Used by both US and UK particularly those which handle colour. command line interface.) tems as bitmap graphics files. grain along the shortest side.) A graph- menu and then activating the choice.) specific computers. Provides what is often thought of as a originally developed by CompuServe and is more user-friendly approach than a command widely used for images in online services and line interface. subject to resolution and colour limi- per square metre. operating systems or appli- Government Open Systems Interconnection cations. up to which text can flow. The Macintosh is grainy Photographic film or print with coarse graphics-based. choose commands and other options by point. An ideal graduated fill avoids band. short wide variety of graphic file formats. ing images uses fractals. ing. circle. e. tor graphics are handled using draw programs. (See also standoff. (See also Phong shading. There are many dif- surface of rounded objects look smoother and ferent file formats. tion of (usually static) graphic images. some of which are used by more natural. There are two main gouge Tool used to make a groove or indentation types: raster or bitmap graphics (in which the for decorative lines on a book cover. Graphics are stored in a allel with the longest side of a sheet. Although the Apple graphics program. while vec- ing. 2.) An interface that allows users to one operation. modification and manipula- the two governments are not identical. Microsoft graphics primitive In a vector (object-oriented) Windows or Macintosh. one of the basic graphic Macintosh operating system was the first com. Some formats use file compression. Treatment of paper. basic forms are bitmap or raster graphics. OSI protocols. which can be operated using a effect.) graphics-based software Software which requires graining 1. graphical user interface (GUI) (Pronounced graphics insertion Text and pictures photoset in ‘goo-ey’. are stored and transmitted.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 81 GOSIP See Government Open Systems Inter. Long grain describes fibres running par. which allows in the early 1970s at Xerox PARC with the images on paper to be input into computer sys- Xerox Star.) which allow the manipulation of graphics as grain direction Direction of fibres in a sheet of mathematical objects. A third way of represent- paper. individual pixels or groups of pixels.) Goudy Old face type designed by American graphic file format The format in which graphics typographer Frederic Goudy. so gram Metric unit of weight. Graphical Kernel System (GKS) A standard for graphics display terminal A VDU capable of dis- outline graphical input/output. Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) (Pro- ing to a graphical icon or by pulling down a nounced with a hard ‘G’. 81 . the dotted line set connection Profile. Mechanical roughening of a litho a graphical user interface (GUI) for it to be able plate to retain water. from a dark tone to a light one in an are handled using paint programs. Windows or X windows software to allow them grainy edge Surface roughness on edges of web to be run in graphics mode.Dic. Graphics-based soft- caused in the drying process. either by ic file format in which images are compressed using the keyboard or by clicking with a with the Lempel-Ziv Welch algorithm. the concept originated graphics scanner An input device. bitmapped graphics another. units. as in ‘gift’. theoretically anything can be shown on the grammage Weight of paper expressed as grams screen. rectangle.) text. governments. A GUI runs under a windowing particularly the World Wide Web. mercially available GUI. (See also WIMP. or laminated board to give a textured based’ software.

folios etc. Group 4 fax The standard for facsimile over pri- tion. to represent an image. ulated. each step The computer keeps track of the position of the identified by a different 8-bit number.Dic. e. then 2N . though they can be original and allocated its grey level value as used instead of a mouse with most programs. Recent develop. Some graphics tablets are sensitive to pressure. often with up to 256 different levels. If the pix- line thickness can be recorded. (Note the difference from dither- sound. i. Also known as board or unlined chipboard are the normal the ‘earth wire’. grey scale The use of (discrete) shades of grey. in drop-out blue and used for camera-paste-up gray scale See grey scale.e. between the Green Book See rainbow series. from so that with appropriate graphics software the black to white. ic mail protocol used in the JANET Coloured groundwood American term for mechanical pulp. groundstation (Also known as ‘earth station’. sta. grated colour removal) or achromatic separa.1 ments in handwriting recognition may lead to levels can be represented. groundwood sheet Mechanical paper (US). Compared with Group 3. grey board or Dutch grey board Homogenous ground An electrical connection or common con- case board made from newsprint furnish. Graphics tablets are generally used sampled by an analyse scanner in scanning an with graphics programs. Sheet with ruled lines used to ensure gravure Process in which recesses on a cylinder square makeup of photocomposed material. greeked text Simulated text used to display small gripper edge See pitch edge. of paper for the grippers on the press. making it possible to input drawings or grey-level value of each pixel of an original is diagrams. black and white.) The US spelling of grey is ‘gray’.) A tionery or archive bindings. els of a grey-scale image have N bits. by a grey balance patch on colour bars. If N = 1 the image is wider use of graphics tablets. Grey ductor connected to the earth. Monitored have been subtracted from revenue. monochrome.). elements of any olution. type on a screen. grey component replacement (GCR) Colour sepa. grip Margins needed at the feed edge of a sheet great primer Obsolete term for 18pt type. See grey scale. earth for a satellite relay. graver Engraving tool. are filled with ink and the surplus removed Systematic division of a page into type areas with a blade. cover board and the spine. (See also air bar. A4 page is about 30 seconds. The paper contacts the cylinder and positions for other regularly occurring fea- and ‘lifts’ the ink from the recesses. Line breaks in greeked text grippers Metal fingers that position the paper correspond to the correct breaks in the text sim. more grey levels and from a continuous-tone original. grotesque Form of sans serif typeface. The average transmission time of an colour hue are removed. mary rate ISDN. step of the papermaking process. ing. Also called ICR (inte. Grey-scale grater roller Roller on a web-offset press which monitors represent pixels by using different carries the web. grinder Machine that crushes wood in the first greaseproof Translucent paper with high resis. Grey levels improved error-correction and data-compression 82 . Used for tures (headline. used for specific heavy-duty bindings. Books software suite. steps from pure white to pure black. and pull it through the printing press.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 82 graphics tablet An input device in which a stylus are frequently defined computer terms in 256 or cursor is moved by hand over a flat surface. ‘Gray’ is the US purposes.) intensities. groove Space at the book’s hinge. it grey levels Separate tones of grey reflecting back offers better resolution. tance to grease penetration. Group 3 fax The standard which is currently rations where the black printer carries more widely used for facsimile over PSTN. Also Great Worm See Internet worm. grid 1. grave accent Small sign placed over a vowel to Grey scaling is used to represent continuous alter the pronounciation to a specific phonetic tone images. 2. communications and control installation on Grey Book The document defining the electron. one of these 256 steps. Millboard is grounded Connected to the earth. boards used for case-making. which should grey balance The ability to print a neutral grey enable the book to lie flat when open. or complementary. It oper- detail than with conventional separations and ates at 9600 bps and approximately 200 dpi res- the tertiary.g. from four-colour printing plates with no gross profit Monies remaining after direct costs coloured tinges showing through. The stylus. spelling and is widely used. gripper edge and gripper margin. Sometimes printed long-run magazines and catalogues.

A hair cut Curved cut in a web on a papermaking monochrome display will require a single gun machine.320 A recent ITU-T standard embracing the gum arabic Gum exuded by some acacia trees H. machines or networks. GUI See graphical user interface. cations. used in papermaking as a loading. hacker One who gains unauthorised access to vents oxidation. trimmed signatures. group addressing Addressing a message to a GWHIS A commercial version of NCSA Mosaic group of addresses.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 83 facilities. Such soft. green and blue. Workgroups. ‘Clinical port videophone and videoconferencing appli- Trials’. which is cations. now superseded by guideline Line on artwork indicating the print. All GNU compressed files available ferencing. The process of doing this is known as ‘guarding a section’.320. thus saving space. a computer enthusiast. halation Blurred halo effect in the highlight areas 83 . so that guillotine Machine which cuts paper into sheets. Used in used for the adhesive layer on a stamp. one each for red. hair spaces Very thin letterpress spaces used gusseting Waving occurring at the heads of un. often with malicious gun The component of a cathode ray tube that intent. contrast investigative journalist. provides a continuous stream of electrons. cating a space is required. The standard used in English. while colour displays must be provided with hairline Very fine line or stroke in a letter. or gunzip. most videoconferencing systems. developed by ware usually includes electronic mail facilities the Free Software Foundation.) by anonymous ftp are in gzip format and their GSM See Global System for Mobile Communi.261 set ing area. between letters in a word. released by Quadralay Corp- groupware General applications software intend. rate of 64p kbps. guide Non-printing line in DTP used to align H.261 A video compression standard developed developed for OCLC and used for the world’s by ITU-T to work with ISDN principally to sup- first purely electronic refereed journal.gz’. H.x and Windows for sible. each frame in a video sequence is encoded only Programmatic guillotines can perform a whole as the differences between it and the preceding series of measured cuts without re-setting for frame. It also provides for colour. gumming Applying adhesive to paper. transfer rates of 2 Mbps. Gum arabic protects the image area and pre. Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG). Uses Lempel- and scheduling programs and may also allow Ziv LZ77 compression. of standards. order.Dic. each measurement. activities (workgroup computing). Now no longer used by OCLC.120 A standard for video compression at content. Also. includes a system of frame difference. hack In journalism. oration. (and not compatible with) the newer H. (See also Gutenberg Project See Project Gutenberg. Data can be compressed on the fly at the moving journals to the World Wide Web. be restored to their original form using gzipd audiographic teleconferencing and videocon. three. Now part of H.261 video compression standard. Compressed files can computer conferencing and audioconferencing. Originally. ed to help groups of people working together gypsum Mineral from which plaster of Paris is over a network to co-ordinate and organise their made. Lotus Notes. gsm or g/m2 Grams per square metre: the measure of substance of paper or board. Guidon Viewer software for SGML documents. keyline. a row of dots.) gutter Binding margin of a book. H. someone who writes to gum up To apply gum arabic to a litho plate. See duck-foot quotes. Makes multicasting pos. The first and last sections of a heavy H reference work may be ‘guarded’ in this way. (See also CSCW. where ‘p’ is the number of guillemets Arrow-shaped quotation marks not ISDN channels used (from 1 to 30). pressed with gzip. gzip The GNU compression utility. label etc. guard Linen or paper put on the back of a book section to provide additional strength. gzipd Decompressor for gzip. Hairline register is colour register within ± half gunzip Decompression utility for files com. gummed paper Paper coated on one side with hache Symbol either meaning a number or indi- adhesive. for Microsoft Windows 3. names end in ‘.

restarting the flow as necessary and ensuring half-tone screen 1.e.) mould. part of the front and tem developed by the US Corporation for back. the horizontal lines with loops at the top at a time. upon. horizontally or vertically. half the size of a quad sheet. sometimes shortened. stiffness of a newspaper held by the reader.25 PADs. and the corners. Internet. perimeter to the dot. (See also Digital Object Identifier half sheet work See work and turn. shaking is also used to control the flow of data: halo effect Build-up of ink at edges of printed two devices use a handshaking signal to stay in letters and half-tone dots. mation needed to locate those objects via the half plate Photo measuring 634 inches. The same effect ahieved through municating with each other and establishes the software. justification. straight right-hand edge to a column or page. elliptical. carried by some halide Silver compound used to put a light-sen. caused by reflection back from the H&J Abbreviation used for hyphenation and emulsion substrate. for delivery by hand. ASCII characters. hand. units. communications channels and protocols neces- half-up Instruction to prepare artwork at 150% sary for the devices to send and receive data. creating a darker sync with one another.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 84 of a photo. used to create half-tone dots. ‘half-tone negative’ and ‘half. Hardware handshaking uses voltage levels or HALGOL A simple language developed by pulses on wires to carry the handshaking sig- Hewlett-Packard for communicating with nals.) half-size press Printing press designed for a handling stiffness Rigidity of paper when held. half leather bound Book bound with leather Handle System A distributed and scalable sys- binding on the spine. (280 3 4 00). Therefore. tangles which surround a selected shape: the half duplex Asynchronous communication in two small rectangles at the ends of a selected which data can be relayed in only one direction line. type of material to the cloth or paper covering handles In DTP. resulting in the appearance of continuous consisting of prearranged signals which moni- tone.e. Hamming codes are used with data hanging punctuation Punctuation marks at the sent from space probes. those areas of a selected item of the rest. text or of a graphic which can be clicked and half-bound Book case binding style: covered in held so that the selected subject can be acted one material on the spine and corners and anoth. i. half-tone Illustration created by dots of varying handshake A data communications technique size. or pin. 2. 84 . Two-way transmission is possible but and bottom of a selected text block (called win- the transmissions must be alternate. half-binding Type of bookbinding in which the handle A nickname used online. normally printed on Effect achievable only on sophisticated one side only. handbill Publicity sheet. hanging indent Typesetting style in which the hamming code Extra bits added to transmitted first line of a paragraph is set full out and the data in order to improve error detection and remainder are indented.g. maximum sheet approximately 71031010mm e. National Research Initiatives (CNRI) for stor- half page Advertisement occupying half a peri. Cross-ruled film or glass plate the integrity of the whole. Sometimes called bastard hand setting Making up lines of metal type by title. two devices which confirms that they are com- cushion. dowshade handles) etc. Decorative content can be introduced half stuff Paper pulp that is ready for the beater. Hand- sitive coating on photographic film and paper.Dic. since requesting end of justified lines which are allowed to jut retransmission is not very practical because of out very slightly in order to give a visually the long delays involved. at exhibitions etc. i. handmade paper Paper made by hand in a (See also mini-web. of final size. ing the names of digital objects and the infor- odical page. correction. Examples are the eight small solid rec- er material (paper or cloth) on the remainder. usually in a composing stick. underlying communication medium. The term is spine and corners are bound with a different taken from CB (community broadcast) radio. rectangular. – the half-title page. half title Title of book. into the pulp. handout Publicity leaflet for handing out on the printed on the first right-hand page in the book street. (DOI). hyphenation and justification programs. Dot formations handshaking An electronic exchange between can be round. The edges are deckled. whereas software handshaking uses data devices such as modems and X. tor the transmission of data by halting and tone positive’.

It was originally written for staff at Oxford message was sent. Hayes compatible The term used to indicate that hardness Resistance of paper to indentation by a modem is able to understand the Hayes AT printing plate. error checking and other fields. A listing of the full hard-hyphen Hyphen essential to the spelling of command set will be found in the manual of a word. birch. head 1. human- tored. hardware handshaking A technique for regulat. Used. e. in compres- hard disk A rigid magnetic storage disk capable sion algorithms. e. Each command is preceded by to a limited extent. widely of a message and includes the sender’s name used by most printers and publishers in the and email address and the date and time the UK. otherwise graph. addresses. tinct from programs. hash or hash code An index number.) Harvard University. hardware handshaking. the section displayed in alphabetical order. inserted by the user. actual data. hard-dot positives Film produced either by con. typed or printed as dis. hyphenation and punctuation.e. HCI See human-computer interaction. series of pointers. rapid access to data items which are distin- hardcover See case-bound.) common example is the use of RTS (request to headbox The part of a papermaking machine send) and CTS (clear to send) signals on an which dispenses the stock on the moving wire. hyphen. command set. hash table An array of pointers used to provide tinct from stored in electronic form. Top or top margin of a page. hard-sized Paper with a high degree of sizing. HDLC See high-level data link control.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 85 hardback Book bound in a stiff cover. that is generated from a list or inserted by software. oak. at the end of a para. headcap The ends of leather binding on the spine software handshaking. or cased than a simple number in the Vancouver sys- binding. References in the text are heading 1. cable network. See floppy disk. line appearing at the top of each page. hard-wired Circuit or program as constructed by head end A broadband network component that the manufacturer of a piece of hardware and converts the transmit frequency band to the which cannot be changed. standard according to which almost all cally divided into sectors by means of index modems are now designed. beech. Heading. Hayes AT command set The de facto standard tact or by direct laser scanning where the dot according to which almost all modems are edges are hard and can be retouched by hand designed today. give the effect of tone. of higher data density and speed than floppy hatch Draw closely spaced lines in a drawing to disks. the attention code (AT). computer interface. See headline. Also harlequin Ornamented typographical character. type or pen. In conventional books it is University Press. guished by some key. 85 . making it possible for hardwood Wood from some deciduous trees (not stations to transmit and receive over a single- conifers). hard carriage return A carriage return that is Also called author-date system. used to describe the part of an electronic mail Hart’s Rules A reference book of rules for message or news article that precedes the body spelling.Dic. containing source and destination lyptus. which has become the de facto hard-sectored Pertaining to floppy disks physi. sometimes used to describe the running head- Harvard system System of displaying biblio. rather than the soft carriage return meaningless. Contrast soft hyphen or discretionary any modem which is Hayes compatible. 2. 2.g. As distinct from softwood pulp.g. ing the flow of data across an interface by headband Cotton or silk cord attached to the top means of signals carried on separate wires. Title of a section or chapter in a work. RS-232 serial line.. Compare soft-sec. i. HDTV See high-definition television. and the full references are at the end of hard-bound See case-bound. preceding the (deciduous) trees. (See also tailband. euca. cited as author and year of publication (rather set in displayed type. Winchester disk. HCOM An Apple Macintosh audio format hardware Computer term for equipment as dis.) that are folded in and tucked into the spine. HD-MAC See high-definition multiplexed ana- hardware flow control An alternative term for logue coder. A of the back of a book. holes in the disk surface. receive frequency band. tem). hardwood pulp Pulp made from hardwood header The portion of a packet. (See also graphical references which originated in footer. (See also handshaking. hard copy Copy written.

type and blocks. and the structure of a Document Type helical scan A way of writing data to a video tape Definition (DTD) in SGML. with a height-to-width ratio of 3:4. directories. HGA See Hercules graphics adaptor. giving a Hempel quoins Expandable wedges used to lock very clear picture at about 1200 lines per screen up letterpress formes. providing developed by the Hercules Corporation for personalised delivery of public information. 08. and cut 0D. fabric) by heat and pressure.) head-mounted display (HMD) A stereoscopic heterogeneous network A network running set of goggles. able in solids. 0E. hierarchy An inverted tree structure. 0B. 09. (See also bandwidth. 03. ing display setting. which are printed as one. 1kHz = 1000Hz. Often hypertext-linked to the application standard used in Europe. incorporated into PCL Level 5. JANET addresses are away from a component. where each directory may contain files or other ter copy. each level can be made responsible for heat sensitive Paper which responds to heat in its own routing.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 86 headline A displayed line or lines at the top of a HEPnet An association concerned with network- page or a piece of text. Internet addresses. while web-offset machine. 00. which reflects this hierarchical routing.g. 05. hertz (Hz) A measure of frequency. 0F. decimal 17 is apart at the final stage. HD-MAC is hemp fibre Papermaking fibre made from rope the standard in Europe. used to control headpiece Ornamental design at the head of a HP LaserJet printers. decimals 0–15 become tion schemes for a pair of books or printed cov. (See also MUSE. with a separate display for each more than one network layer protocol. headliner Typesetting machine used for produc. 1 000 000Hz. but not identical. entry in a dictionary or encyclopedia. chapter. ers/jackets. hexadecimal or hex A numeric notation scheme head-to-head. the resolution of normal television. HeadLiner A World Wide Web push technology. have a hierarchical erwise be used for reproductive purposes. MUSE services are run in Japan. often given as little-endian). Examples hectograph Machine that makes copies by using in computing include: a directory hierarchy gelatine plates to take impressions of the mas. Hercules graphics adaptor (HGA) Standard similar to BackWeb and Castanet. Similar. Protocol.Dic. 02. Particularly notice- heat sealing Closing plastic bags by semi-melt. 06 07. One hertz is head margin The white space above the first line one cycle per second. 0C. to displays text or graphics at a resolution of PointCast. works. resist the heat of a heatset press. 0A. Interior Gateway er material (e.) itself and to an index. In hex. Hermes UK teletext and electronic mail system. Usually also includes a high-definition television (HDTV) Has twice search facility. 04. while commercial or from the hemp plant. large type half-tones. eye. high-resolution mono graphics adaptor that such as news. Hence heatset inks. 1MHz = on a page.) ing requirements for high-energy physicists. (See also running head.) Special paper and ink are necessary. 7203348 pixels. form. or digital audio tape (DAT). Varies from country to country. on a Names on the Internet are little-endian. a class hier- height to paper Standard height of letterpress archy in object-oriented programming (OOP). used in virtual reality systems to give the Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HPGL) A user the impression that he or she is actually in vector graphics language originally used by the virtual world created by the virtual reality Hewlett-Packard plotters. protocol. or fully such a way that it can attract an image or oth. hierarchical addressing and routing When a net- heat seal paper Paper coated on one side with work is divided into a hierarchy of smaller net- adhesive activated by heat. tints etc. 11. in heat sink Material employed to conduct heat order to avoid confusion. a hierarchical network. ing techniques. Gateway Protocol. Now HPGL has been application. lint or ink imperfections. Decimal 16 is then 10. heat-resistant splice Join in paper which will hickey Spot on a printed sheet caused by dust. names on JANET are big-endian (although. and so on. head-to-tail Alternative imposi. heatset Drying of ink on paper using heat. (See also Exterior heat transfer Transfer of ink from paper to anoth. 01. qualified domain names. headword Word that forms the heading for an hf See high frequency. with a base of 16. 86 . decimal 27 is 1B. high-definition multiplexed analogue coder (HD- help A method of providing information to the MAC) A high-definition television (HDTV) user.

gauze. holdout Resistance to ink absorption of a paper.) high-yield pulp Synonym for CTMP. high-level language A computer programming hold Retain matter for subsequent use. to reduce the effects of aliasing when out- high-level ASCII or extended ASCII The term line fonts are printed. It is equivalent to ISO image created by lasers. font or applied using set mathematical formu- plain.Dic. The light typing. Holland cloth Smooth. HSV. Functionally equivalent to graphics. The laser beam is split into two and one height of type and used in formes for stereo. high frequency (hf) (Also known as the short. 2.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 87 high-density plastic Thin. ence to a character. strong plastic film where the front or back is joined to the spine. reference. The fee tions. retained by a client beyond the agreed period. the sewn sections in a hardbound book. Oxford hol- or detect a vast number of pixels in a unit area. See also area of a piece of artwork on a page (US). (holograms) using coherent light beams from high spaces Letterpress spaces cast to shoulder lasers. part of the orig- 9600 bits per second. the more information there is in a given extension. Inc. holding lines Design lines which indicate the level language into machine-code. low-level language. which is opening. DOS. part used to illuminate the object. the material used for reinforcing the amount of visual space. used for wrapping magazines where weight is strengthened in cased books by a strip of critical. language which uses English-language instruc. 9660. hinged style Type of paperback binding cut wave band. puter to convert these instructions from high. See ANSI character set. being in excess of speeds inal beam and the interference pattern thus cre- normally attainable via voice-grade circuitry. This may have a URL that consists of just 87 . ented data link control protocol specified by HLS See hue. with a low resolution when the presence or although generally they are used for accented absence of a single dot makes a visible differ- characters and other commonly used symbols. It uses a series of priori- often used to describe characters with code ties. highlights Lightest tonal values in a half-tone. Because there is no uneven stem weight. ated is stored as a hologram on a photographic highspeed skip Rapid movement in a printer plate. used mainly for long-distance communication. lightness and saturation. used to describe the numbers of pixels or dots hollow 1. high key Tonal values lighter than mid-grey. either encoded as extra information in the numbers from 128 to 255. flat) ASCII character set only includes lae. The higher the reso. Windows TrueType fonts are hinted. High Sierra standard A standard defining the file hologram or holograph A three-dimensional system for CD-ROMs. cal rectangles drawn from the baseline. Examples include a high-resolution or high-res Capability to display board hollow. waves scattered by the object are then recom- high speed Data communications speeds above bined with the other. PostScript Type 1 and standard for extra characters. continuous stationery. individual or institution on the World Wide hinge Line which allows a bookcover to bend Web. HMD See head-mounted display. Space between the case and the back of per unit area in an image. as the true (‘basic’. Is often to strengthen hinges. The first page accessed on the Web site of an thermomechanical pulp. (See also RGB. Use of a high-level language then charged by a picture library when a picture is requires a translator program within the com. hinting A method developed by Adobe Systems. where the cover is creased to facilitate spectrum between about 3–30 MHz. Hinting is only and the Macintosh each assign different char. such as the characters from 0 to 127. low. holding fee Also called a blocking fee.) The part of the electromagnetic flush. home page (Sometimes called a ‘welcome page’. The name derives from the name of the holography A method of recording and then hotel where a significant meeting to agree on reconstructing three-dimensional images the standard took place. When the hologram is illuminated a which enables it to skip over the perforations in three-dimensional image is created. A ISO for transmitting variable-length packets method of representing colour in computer over a datalink. required for small characters or for printers acters to the high-level ASCII code numbers. hardwearing linen used high resolution High density of detail. presspahn hollow. inside spine of a case. By lution.) ADCCP. histogram Graph with values depicted as verti- high-level data link control (HDLC) A bit-ori. to correct noticeable distortions. or chemi.

being pressed between heated metal plates. Java is now implemented in governing audio-visual services. an important metric produced by the compositor’s keyboard. tomer’s proofs for his attention. including other viewers such as Netscape Navigator. SoftQuad which enables the user to create and fessional person who has not charged a fee. Also a computer to ments or applications. Some of the most signicant hotlink See link. which one connects using a terminal emulator. The illustration/plate is then secured with ing and editing SGML-conforming documents. changes to the data made by one application A method of representing colour in computer appear instantly in the other’s copy.Dic. a user starts his or her browser. saturation and value (or brightness). hot-pressed paper Paper that is made smooth by ments or routers passed through) in the short. address.g. irrespective of their hot-pressing Using a hot stamp to block letters geographical separation. applications also written in HPGL See Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language. ‘http://www. Also a mechanism for sharing are given’. (See also bang path. so that the pulp sent to the customer. Java. main- by Sun Microsystems and written in the Java tenance and back-up tasks. e. hqx The filename extension for Macintosh form specific tasks. or marked on the cus- becomes hotter. perfect binding. which trigger horizontal format US. house copies Copies of a magazine for use with- host number The host part of an Internet in the publishing house rather than for sale. HotJava A World Wide Web viewer developed housekeeping File initialisation. object-oriented language. creation. whole to get a file from point A to point B on a store. data between two application programs where HSV Hue. widely in hypertext applications and now in host A computer system which provides services World Wide Web viewers to access other docu- to users of a network. movie. er is known on a network. fed to the setting machine by perforated tape UUCPNET and FidoNET. hopper Station on a machine (especially in bind. There Netscape. HLS. its URL) will activate a used to describe the page that is fetched when link to that document and fetch it to the screen.g. such as by following links from the home page. e. (See also bookmark. On such networks.) homogenous A homogenous board is made on a hotmelt Type of synthetic resin adhesive used in Fourdinier machine of one furnish throughout. edit documents coded in HTML and conform- hooked An illustration or plate can be hooked in ing to the HTML Document Type Definition a book by folding the paper along the edge and (DTD). often to activate a link to another and bottom edges are longer than the spine and application or another part of a document. if no MPEG viewer already exists on the H series The series of ITU-T recommendations client system.) hotlist A list of documents which the user wish. house corrections Errors introduced by the type- hot-ground pulp Paper pulp that has been setter and either corrected before proofs are ground using very little water. est path between machines. Also described as a screen region dropped onto a conveyer belt. It is also ment (strictly speaking. Book format where top some action. Used fore-edge. such as viewing an MPEG BinHex format files. down applets. HSWO Heatset web-offset. such as email or ftp. words or lines of type using molten metal are and-forward network. HoTMetaL is a specialised version of the wrapping the edge round the outside of a sec. that section in the binding. 88 . HoTMetaL Editing and parsing software from honorarium Voluntary payment made to a pro. UK: known as landscape format. which are pasted together. All es to access frequently. Can be used alone (one-shot A pasteboard is made up of two or more plys binding) or in conjunction with PVA (two-shot of different papers or homogenous boards binding).) onto a cover. hot metal composition or hot type Typesetting hop One of a series of file transmissions required where instructions for setting characters. is the number of hops (number of network seg.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 88 a hostname. house advertisement Filler advertisement for hostname The unique name by which a comput. hot spot The active location of a cursor on a ing) where printed sections are stacked and bitmap display. graphics. Clicking on the name of the docu- can also be links to other home pages. that is sensitive to mouse clicks.pira. more general Author/Editor software for creat- tion. It is able to pull house style See style of the house. stored as part of the set- other pages on a server are usually accessible up in a World Wide Web viewer. periodical’s own company. (See also RGB. from the server on the fly in order to video compression.

it includes authoring which the length of the encoded symbol varies utilities (Harmony for Unix and Amadeus for in inverse proportion to its information con. Explorer and Netscape. maintaining and serving heterogeneous degrees separating them on the colour wheel. (See also graphic. sound. quick colour. See hypermedia. used to to describe a collection of documents (or measure colour.) as part of his vision ‘Xanadu’ in the mid-1960s. HyperTalk The programming language which humidity Quantity of water vapour in the atmos. hygrometry Measurement of humidity. a representation of how colour is World Wide Web server technology. hygroscopic Absorbing moisture. The relationship between hues is Austria. Hunter Lab values American scales. (See also HyperText Markup virtual reality. with the aid of an interactive browser pro- both digital and analogue computers. can be used to control HyperCard stacks. gram. another document or another place in the same human-computer interaction (HCI) The study of document. underlying hypertext language of the World hydration Pulp state where water does not drain Wide Web. or the extension of hypertext to which allows a user to interact with a comput. link consistency and advanced navigation first described by D A Huffman in 1952. the shorter the binary string used to rep. sound. the dients added. WIMP. developed espe- from violet to red (red and violet then being cially for hypermedia at the University of Graz.) Humanist Generic term for Venetian-style type. tent. browser 89 . the best known of which are Internet instability’. clients. A hyperlink is usually displayed in how humans use computers and of the design some distinguishing way. HTTPS See HyperText Transmissiom Protocol HyperCard Software for information storage and (Secure). based on the artist’s colour wheel an object-oriented database. In addition. include graphics. Although Xanadu is still in existence. HTML-4 The current (1999) version of HTML.) oped at Toronto University. font or style.g. An advanced hue Essentially. command line interface or even of data. including automatic hyper- Huffman coding A data compression technique. Hyper-G Now called HyperWave. hygrometer Instrument used to measure relative HTML-3 The 1997 version of HTML. World Wide Web is now the most widely used ing. World Wide Web. humidification Addition of water vapour to air. (See also absolute humidity and rela. HyperCard is very similar to provide flexibility in logical interconnection of hypertext. Document Type Definition (DTD). Language. although it does not conform to the networks and data equipment. animation etc. HTML is based on an SGML away through the mesh. retrieval on the Macintosh.Dic. used originally by Ted Nelson tive humidity. some point in one hypertext document to resent it in the compressed stream. in the first stages of papermak. rigorous definition of hypertext. Glasgow.) hypermedia A combination of hypertext and human-computer interface Any tool or utility multimedia. humidity. Windows). Thus the more often a symbol or token is hyperlink A hypertext link. in tools. e. the reader can move easily from one doc- hydrapulper Large circular metal tank in which ument to another in a non-sequential manner. nodes) containing cross-references or links so hybrid computer One which has elements of that. The central node of a network. HyperTalk. video and other kinds er. As HyperWave. for refining in a cone refiner system prior to HyperText Markup Language (HTML) The release to the paper machine. dry pulp is mixed with water. (See also Hubnet A 50 Mbps fibre-optic network devel. based on NeWS. HTML can hygro-expansivity Growth or shrinkage of paper be viewed using one of a number of viewers. the Turing Institute. Hyper-G provides tools for structur- thus represented in terms of the number of ing. hypertext A term. graph- devices are connected (like spokes to the hub of ics. HyTime.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 89 HTML See HyperText Markup Language. adjacent). user-friendly. based on perceived.. phere. Consists of a ‘stack’ hub A device or computer to which several other of ‘cards’. such as a different of computer systems to make them easy. HTTP See HyperText Transfer Protocol. HyperNeWS A hypertext system developed at faces. A reference from used. or due to moisture content. and other ingre. or even as a symbol or and productive for people to use. multimedia data. The stock from the hydrapulper passes on implementation of hypertext. Hubs to other cards. each of which can hold text. together with links a wheel). human-computer interface. Hence also ‘hygro.

) SGML. gramme needs to break a word at the end of a IC See Integrated circuit. a directory or an action) in a graphical user logic. connection. ibid or ibidem Abbreviation meaning ‘in the cation) to indicate that a word does not fit com. (See also MIPS. for productive work. ly when justification is also used. hence H&J IBC Inside back cover. larly those where the lines wrap on screen as ICI See Image Compression Interface. hyphenation Literally. Integrated colour removal: see achromatic for a given word. a HTML document. server TCP/IP protocol used on the World HyTime Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Wide Web for the exchange of HTML docu. If the word is idem or id Means ‘the same word or author’. held in computer memory. it is usually employed to mean the stood for Internet Activities Board). IAB See Internet Architecture Board (previously however. In typography. used. page make-up program may break the line. the use of a hyphen to connect two words or numbers. same book. justifica. In electronic documents. the window or type size is changed. When the user clicks on an an unacceptable point. See hertz. which allow icon A small picture representing something (a words to be hyphenated according to a general file. pletely on that line and the remainder is at the IBM-compatible A term applied to personal beginning of the next line. Language: an emerging ANSI/ISO standard ments. 2. Web browser for use with a modem on MS- hyphenation exception dictionary Wordproces. There is much dis. This may cause certain words to break at interface (GUI). logic and allocate discretionary hyphen points ICR 1.) chemical used to fix photographic images after HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The client. commands. a program is run. which does not require a SLIP or PPP sing and typesetting programmes have dictio. usu- not in the dictionary. On narrow measures this cre- Style Sheets. HyperWave See Hyper-G.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 90 extensions or plug-ins provide extra function. particu. when the pro. hyphenation zone The area towards the end of a idler or idling roller Roller on a web press that text line within which a wordprocessing or rotates freely. Subsequently. passage or place’. tion (and thus in most cases hyphenation) is I-Comm A shareware graphical World Wide not used. Algorithm. if so. IANA See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. it will break it according to ally referring to a reference that has just been the rules of logic programmed in it. naries. A hyphenation exception icon. idle time Time on a machine when it is not in use hyphenating the final word if necessary. it will first refer to its hyphenation exception IDEA See International Data Encryption dictionary to see if the word is there and. which runs underneath HTTP. ICMP See Internet Control Message Protocol. separations. Netscape.Dic. hyphenless justification Justification without ality. IBM-PC. Icons are usually stored dictionary allows the user to override the normal as bitmaps. line. computers which will accept hardware add- cussion of the merits of hyphenation in printed ons and run software designed to run on an documents. used by quency. Hyphen The (UK) company which produced the first commercial PostScript clone. use of a hyphen at the end of a text line (usual. which allow typographic and ates widely varying word spaces. A fairly recent development is Cascading breaking words. as an abbreviation for hyphenation and justifi. (See also uniform resource locator which is essentially a hypermedia extension of (URL). DOS. will break it at one of these points. hyphenation logic Programming to break words idiot tape Unformatted tape with no line ending according to logical rules. 90 . This was principally used for high-resolution output on I imagesetters.) HyperText Transmission Protocol (Secure) Hz The standard abbreviation for the unit of fre- (HTTPS) A URL access method. Intelligent character recognition. layout information to be embedded in an hypo Abbreviation for sodium hyposulphite. See secure HTTP. for connecting to HTTP servers using SSL (secure sockets layer). development. (See also XML.

TrueImage. IFF/8SVX is an printing plates. laser output unit. image-editing software See paint program.5 token is selected. (See also image compression. colour pulp and highly finished to give an ‘artpaper’ etc. Contrast litho press blanket in the image area. digital camera or ventional base paper.3 covers CSMA/CD. colours. illustration board One-sided heavy drawing card. See ISMAP.) character strikes the paper through an inked 91 . image map An image in which different comput- works (LANs). usually provides output on photographic I/F Abbreviation for interface. (See also impact printer Any printer in which the required JPEG. IFS See iterated function system. TIFF. IMEI See International Mobile Equipment image A two-dimensional rectangular array of Identity. The software technology is Amiga audio file format. appearance. Also. sary to achieve the output of high-resolution IGP See Interior Gateway Protocol. image compression The reduction of the amount imitation gold foil Aluminium foil with gold lac- of information required to represent an image. fractal. Synonyms include image plotter.) commonly used for binding hardback books image area piling Build-up of lint and ink on instead of cotton cloth.4 token bus and IEEE 802.g. IEE See Institution of Electrical Engineers. manuscript. ated on screen or taken from an image capture which has a china clay surface applied to a con- device. imitation silver foil Aluminium foil with clear fer over networks and communications sys. IETF See Internet Engineering Task Force. ent. imitation cloth Reinforced and embossed paper image file formats.g. representing brightness. ment in which action is taken only if the condi. image master Photographic original for second- IEPG See Internet Engineering and Planning generation photosetting fonts. and storage and that it takes less time to trans. essentially the same as that of the laser printer. pcx and Engineers. which means that covers of books. film recorder illumination Decoration of an initial or letter in etc. interface to compression algorithms. mission. covers of books. See QuickDraw GX. IEEE 802 The IEEE standards for local area net. pixels. sand dots (or spots) per inch. by C-Cube Microsystems. HSV). illuminate To draw decorative illustrations on a image recorder. such as a scanner. Images may be cre. image plotter See imagesetter. image file formats There are many formats used IEEE See Institute of Electrical and Electronics to store images in files: GIF. IEEE 802. Used for blocking the so that the file size is smaller. frame grabber. to enhance con- IETM See Interactive Electronic Technical trast. Is used in fax transmission and in video. JPEG are common. fibrefelt. material (either bromide or film) or directly on IFF See interchange file format. compression. typesetters. usually using algorithms e. IF In high-level programming a conditional state. imagesetter A high-resolution output device that tion is met. er actions are initiated when part of the image IEEE 802. (see RGB. it will require less space in computer memory imitation parchment Tough greaseproof paper. laser plotter. woven material. Image Compression Interface (ICI) A standard IE See Internet Explorer. film master. phone and multimedia systems. HLS. ring. half-tones. As distinct from true art paper. in a GUI. Used for blocking the tems. Also. Imagesetters were previously called Research and Education Network. e. laser setter. silver or bright imaging model How output is represented on colours. image processing The manipulation of images. although the hardware will probably be differ- IGC See Institute for Global Communications. which are neces- cation. IESG See Internet Engineering Steering Group. Most imagesetters today use IINREN See Interagency Interim National PostScript. produced IEC See International Electrotechnical Com. laser recorder. screen. Group. ILMI See Interim Local Management Interface. reduce noise (remove spots) or change Manual.Dic. quer on plastic carrier.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 91 IDN See Integrated Digital Network. each pixel consisting of one or more bits imitation art Paper loaded with china clay in the of information. an old manuscript with gold. image recorder See imagesetter. Resolutions can be as high as several thou- IGES See Initial Graphics Exchange Specifi. lacquer on plastic carrier. fractal.

access to information via the World indent 1. database software. quality or appearance. paper against the printing surface. All the copies of a book from one printing. National Information Infrastructure. when a publication is folded indirect screening Four-colour origination in and bound. but now either computer or Contrast direct screening. ating the plate. imposition The arrangement of pages on a print. (30322 inches). import filter A program which accepts input Indian ink Intensely black drawing ink. ing plate so that. 2. into a current program. proofs is that the effects of tracking can be indirect printing Process where the printing sur- properly considered. as does most program. final page sequence of the job. indexing The creation of ordered lists of entries or import To copy across from an external program terms. such as Perpetual. for structured information. this was done by phys. and information around the world. from an external program and converts it into a india paper Very thin opaque rag paper often format suitable for the user’s current program. structure and query syntax. Traditionally. inclusive type area Type area inclusive of head. The term is 92 . is now a real rounding text. the pages are in the correct which the final output films are in continuous sequence. distributed. how information and data are created. 2. rather than as they are output from the scanner. and are screened afterwards separately. the foot of another character. 2. individual. inferior Small character set below the baseline at Software is available to impose PostScript files. particularly for someone familiar with the data line and folio. e. However. use indexing in processing application into a page make-up order to speed up access to data. Most World Wide Web search engines. impression cylinder Cylinder which holds the A major area of interest is electronic publishing. face is not in direct contact with the paper. common stock by the mill as a standard line. typically from a word. ically arranging the film or bromide before cre. Alphabetical list of subjects contained in first used by US Vice-President Al Gore in the the text of a work. information retrieval A term used in the context imprint Publisher’s and/or printer’s identifying of obtaining information from online databases text printed in a book or other work. offset lithography. stored. for the incunabula Early printing.) A term index 1. access online databases in this way. impregnating Running book binding cloth Infobahn A term (taken from the German through starches or chemicals to enhance its ‘Autobahn’) for the information superhighway. In paper trading. imposed colour proofs Colour proofs produced indicia Formal mailing information or permit from machine formes which are imposed to the printed on envelope or item to be mailed. and is not held in mation highway. early 1990s for high-speed communications bers. Yahoo and Lycos. infostrada. such as AltaVista and Yahoo. The main advantage of imposed colour indirect letterpress See letterset. usually by incised Typeface based on letters engraved in directly dialling into the database provider stone. this is still a ‘glyphic’. paper is one which is available from the mill by information superhighway (Also called infor- special making order only. Contrast exclusive type area. Contrast scatter Indigo One of the leading digital presses. Also known as and. Set type further in from the left-hand Wide Web and indexes and search tools. paper receives letterpress impression. index hole A hole in a floppy disk which is used imperial A former British size of large paper to signal the start of a track or sector. as AltaVista. information highway See information super- impression tolerance The flexibility with which highway. proofs. Infobahn. and used. very efficient way of obtaining information. imperfection Book with printing or binding faults. together with their page num. an indent alternative. concerned with paper or blanket at the moment of printing.Dic. Pressure of the plate in contact with of the European Commission. See daisywheel printer. dot matrix index board Board suitable for index cards and printer.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 92 ribbon. in response to a query formulated in an appro- IMSI See International Mobile Subscriber priate way.g. similar stationery. photographic methods are frequently used. changed or manipulated. The contents of a file with references for networks carrying multimedia applications locating the contents. tone. Information Engineering A research programme impression 1. Large companies and libraries still Identity. such margin than the standard measure of sur. used for high-quality bibles.

Institute for Global Communications (IGC) A inkjet printer A non-impact printing mechanism provider of networks and networking tools for 93 . See cocked-up initial. The implementation it will require high communi. bigger than its normal cap in developing standards for HTML and the text size. Also RIP. For successful deflecting ink droplets electromagnetically.) track of the inking rollers can handle. insertion Inclusion of an advertisement in a peri- ink flotation sizing test Test which measures odical. munications. inserting Placing loose material inside a section ink duct Part of printing machine which holds or book. and controlled INRIA The French National Institute for Research by the publisher. devel- (computer-aided design) files. tial customer (often a school) for inspection ink hickey See hickey. the server. therefore contains the second page of the sec- ingrain paper Rough-surfaced paper for book tion. information and entertainment services or soft. inside of the sheet when folded and which less infra-red link. generally not currently a laser printer at the same resolution. Infosync Software that is used to download ink mist Ink filaments thrown off the rollers dur- updates to information at the bit level. meaning dif. e. database (on the server) at the level of the bits ink rub Smears of ink caused when the surface of stored. but the data. inline Typographic style in which the characters trum with wavelengths between about 0. covers. one printed sheet to another in the delivery infotainment The integration of interactive stack. the outlined shape.261 video initialise Run a program which sets all data val. compression standard. (See also edutainment. tem in use. infra-red The part of the electromagnetic spec. printers provide a relatively cheap way of infostrada A term (taken from the Italian ‘auto. Information is downloaded from a database to inkometer Instrument which measures the tack the client. text section in a book. and downloads any changes since the an abrasive paper. ink before it is released to the cylinders. Often transferred is kept to a minimum. either via the World Wide Web or ink piling Build-up of ink on offset blanket. of acceptable quality.Dic. while in image on one part of the plate cylinder requir- North America often supplied via a cable net. quality of printed text is not as good as that on cations bandwidths. Contrast insetting. over a dial-up connection. which forms the image at high speed by ferent things to different people. Contrast wrap. Contrast outer forme. both of which keep ink set-off Unintentional transfer of wet ink from down communication charges.g. printing both monochrome and colour images strada’) for the information superhighway. insetting Placing and fixing one section inside culating penetration time. oped at INRIA and based on the H. In Europe usually on CD-ROM. whenever the client accesses of ink. base can be accessed locally. In this way the amount of data the ink film before it is completely dry. in Computer Science and Control. paper sizing by floating paper on ink and cal. occurs during the binding process. ing more ink to cover it than that particular work. ing high-speed coldset web offset printing. Initial Graphics Exchange Specification INRIA Videoconferencing System (ivs) A (IGES) A standard for the exchange of CAD videoconferencing tool for the Internet. inside a publisher’s premises. ink starvation Ink starvation is caused by the ware. World Wide Web.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 93 widely used but rarely defined. It is used extensively for fibre-optic com. prior to buying. drop initial. inner forme The imposed forme which forms the infra-red port Port which accepts data via a wire. ink fountain Device which supplies ink to the inspection copy Copy of a book sent to a poten- inking rollers. another. ues at nil and prepares a storage medium such insert Plate section placed into the middle of a as a floppy disk to be compatible with the sys. ink holdout See holdout. Infosync checks the ink receptivity Uniform acceptability of ink on local database (on the client) against the master paper surface.7-100 comprise white inner areas contrasting against µm. in pro In proportion. but inkjet available over the Internet. which is initial First letter in text when set in such a way working with the World Wide Web Consortium that it stands out. rubs against last access. Then. in-house typesetting Typesetting carried out input Data going into a CPU. often matt art.

ISDN has the advantage ing. together throughout (as opposed to pictures in intelligent terminal A computer. fax. including copyright. How such rights can be protected in an age of cerned with local area networks (LANs) electronic publishing and the World Wide including EtherNet and Token-Ring. die stamping etc.g. Intel Company that designs and manufactures tal preservation. which would recognise certain strictly limited integrated book Book with text and pictures typewriter faces only. but also logue service which has been used ever since forms an intrinsic part of CD-I. (IETM) A hypertext standard developed in work that provides end-to-end digital connec. both interactive video See video. Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) UK pro. More simply described as a or moving images) stored on video disk. The IGC networks – PeaceNet. Interactive Electronic Technical Manual integrated services digital network (ISDN) A net. using the Guidon viewer). tivity to support a wide range of services. (IEEE) (Often known as ‘I triple E’. NREN. On a dumb terminal. integrated half-tone density See percentage dot interactive Being able to accept and react to user area. e. IEEE standards are author or creator to the use and re-use of mate- widely used in computing and communica. storage memory. processing is carried out on the system integrated digital network (IDN) A network accessed.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 94 international communications and information integrated services local network (ISLN) A local exchange. sound ating procedures. Also publisher of Electronics specified by the user or to create indexes. programmed to recognise an infinite variety of intaglio Printing from a recessed image. with its own a plate section).) developed by Intel. It is digital telephone service as opposed to the ana. This is generally applied to a program or integrated production system Production sys. to go to. cations Satellite Consortium. In particular. peace and human rights. (See also basic rate ISDN. to a communications medium. Web is the subject of much debate. while automatically. styles. intelligent character recognition (ICR) Optical instruction Order in a program telling a comput. Letters. normal television is not and teletext is only integrated publishing house Publishing house interactive in that the user can choose the page which publishes both in hardback and paper. telephone services were introduced. organisation of conferences and intellectual property rights The rights of an formulation of standards. intelligent agent An automated network infor- fessional society (not to be confused with the mation gathering tool. only networks dedicated solely to environmen. width. as distinct from earlier OCR systems gravure.) which uses digital technology with the switch. input. rial created by him or her. which is involved in academic of the Pentium. widely used for training purposes. back. the first refereed journal to be available Sometimes referred to as a knowbot or spider. which allows PC users to 94 . Microcosm. e. which searches the IEEE). all the separations. part of that lines can be combined to increase band. and control information (including text. publishing. Applications in voice and non-voice. used from about 1980 on. IEEE 802 standards are con. which is used as a terminal to integrated colour removal (ICR) See achromatic another system.g. ConflictNet and LaborNet – are the non-voice services on the same network. Thus almost all tem where all the processes work together computer applications are interactive. Interagency Interim National Research and widths vary from 56 kbps in the US and 64 kbps Education Network (IINREN) A still-evolv- in Europe upwards. Band. memory and processor. in both printed and electronic forms (via OCLC (See also AltaVista. tions. Publisher of Physics Abstracts and the Internet either to locate documents on subjects INSPEC databases. high-bandwidth US network. ITU-T standards which it is possible for the user to interact with have been recommended for interfaces and oper. the microprocessors used in most PCs. primary rate Intercast A hardware and software technology. but not necessarily integrated circuit Silicon chip.Dic. association with the CALS initiative. (See also client-server. INTELSAT See International Telecommuni- ing and transmission functions integrated. has now been extended with various versions sional society. network technology that can handle voice and Econet. ISDN. character recognition equipment which can be er to carry out an operation.) US profes.) and based on SGML. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers range 80086–80486.

founded in placed between a letterpress plate and its 1946. ated by PTTs. Also Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) A called engine sizing or ‘beater sizing’. responsible for creating international stan- mount which increases pressure on the solids dards in many areas. codes etc. Also. text. form). communications. International Data Encryption Algorithm Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) An Internet (IDEA) An encryption algorithm used by protocol which controls the routing of informa.) the computer. (Compare with external modem. in conjunction with variable interword stages of reproduction between the original spacing. International Mobile Subscriber Identity screen refresh is slower and screen flicker may (IMSI) A number which is used by the SIM be increased over that seen on an equivalent card in a digital mobile phone to identify itself non-interlaced screen because any given pixel to a GSM network. based on the Simple the size press on the papermaking machine. film advance. International Electrotechnical Commission tem. stage to prevent ink spread on paper. pro. Pretty Good Privacy. Also a pronounced). As dis- network management specification for B. alum or starch sizing interfacing codes Generic tags used for the elec. line feed. (See also Exterior Gateway Protocol. Some important types of paper interleaved with the text paper standards are listed under their ISO number. etc. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) A system interline spacing Leading: space between lines in that provides special characters (IPA charac- text. combine to give an impression of and final printing films. film feed. See Audio IFF. the Intermedia hypertext system. also International Telecommunications Union. tion to the routers within an autonomous sys. Normally continuous typeset quality. Different Interconnection and SGML. 2. Sheets of paper put between wet model for network architecture. Also. (IEC) An international standards body at the Routing Information Protocol. Open Systems printed sheets to prevent set-off. tinct from surface sizing which is carried out at ISDN/ATM networks. tone.) internal sizing Rosin. 95 . US. as opposed to in external storage (disk tocols. interface The physical boundary between two internal memory Memory of a computer which systems or devices (hardware interface).e. The electron (IMEI) The 15-digit serial number which iden- beam traces alternate lines on each pass. added to the papermaking stock at the refining tronic markup of headings etc. letterspacing. when there were television programme. (See in a book. in RAM or ROM used to describe the specifications for the pro. appear on a non-interlaced screen. Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Also is immediately accessible (i. is only refreshed half as often. in text. (software inter. (See also user of a card or board which is situated within the interface: how the user is able to interact with computer. interlacing A technique for increasing resolution International Mobile Equipment Identity on graphic displays or screens.). face) that enable communication between two internal modem A modem which takes the form dissimilar systems or devices. However.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 95 watch television and simultaneously receive UK company which pioneered disk format broadcast Web pages related to that cable or conversion in the early 1980s. These include the seven-layer interleaves 1.) same level as ISO. including computers and or dark tones.Dic. ters) and ASCII equivalents for phonetics (how Intermedia A hypertext system developed by a characters or combinations of characters are research group at Brown University.) inter-library loan (ILL) Service involving International Packet SwitchStream (IPSS) The libraries borrowing from one another those service which connects national public data titles not held in their own collection which network PSSs to other national networks oper- have been requested by a user. It is now known as Global interlinear Written or printed between lines of Network Service (GNS). procedures. tifies the GSM handset (sometimes found on viding twice the number of lines that would the back of the phone). interchange file format (IFF) Type of audio file Intermedia Interchange Format A standard format. use of variable spaces between characters intermediates Films used in the intermediate which. many more disk formats than there are today. International Organisation for Standardisation interlay (cut or mechanical) Cut-out paper (ISO) A voluntary organisation. hypertext interchange format based on the intercharacter spacing In wordprocessing.

Part of years and new standards are adopted and pub. It currently Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The body that has over 30 communications satellites in orbit. Many utilities International Organisation for Standardisation and services. PII.g. The PII and DOI initiatives have address) and a host number unique to each host been developed to make it possible to identify on the network. Can also Internet (With a capital ‘I’. networks and stub networks. and options. It remains Internet address (Or IP address. NSFNET and Milnet. These are con. mid-level allows for the generation of error messages. (See also Engineering Steering Group) and the ISOC ISSN. the IESG (Internet while the last digit is a check digit. address. ITU-T is responsible for the H series. they are used by both the IAB (Internet Architecture Board). protocols. such as extension to the Internet Protocol (IP). which ARPANET. the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). applications. and Gopher. the bandwidth available to the developmental nature. the librarians and booksellers. recommendations about telephone and data Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (including fax) communications systems. including carry these numbers. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) An chy composed of backbone networks. it does not contain any infor.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 96 International Standard A standard which has individual user will usually depend on the been approved and published by the speed of the local connection. but is an imal notation. made up of a three-level hierar. However. e.130. individual to important way of distributing and accessing each book (and edition) that is published. ly coordinated operational environment of the Microsoft Network. CompuServe. is responsible for making technical Authority (IANA). lished. are available on the Internet.. (IANA) The central registry for various Before 1 March 1993. information.) the same for all issues and volumes of a journal. of standards wide. e. the IEPG is not a al links within the Internet operate at high group which conducts activities of a technical bandwidth. is responsible for the development of Internet See satellite communications. such as JANET or via a point of presence pro. global Internet. 96 . Intelsat 1 (or ‘Early Bird’) in 1965. the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and also telecommunication standardisation sector includes the Internet Assigned Numbers (ITU-T). works interconnected with routers. The Internet address must be trans- Consortium (INTELSAT) Established in 1964. protocol and usually represented in dotted dec- mation that identifies the publisher. test packets and informational messages. Access Internet-Draft Working document of the Internet to the Internet can be either from a network Engineering Task Force. 158. but International Standard Book Number (ISBN) A the World Wide Web has become the most 10-digit identification number. nected using the Internet Protocol (IP). Internet Engineering and Planning Group vided by such companies as Demon. part of which. lated into an Ethernet address by. codes and types. the IEPG (Internet Engineering number is unique to the publisher of the book. V series etc.) (Internet Society).) The largest internet act as a World Wide Web browser. and the (IEPG) A group set up to promote a technical- major online services – AOL.g. Plenary sessions are held every four numbers. such as email. and sometimes also a subnet individual articles within journals. newsgroups. International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) internet (Without a capital ‘I’. The address arbitrary number made up of seven digits plus a can be split into a network number (or network check digit.Dic. ARP it launched its first communications satellite. (Address Resolution Protocol). ed to each journal that is published. T series. There are several bodies associat- While there is no legal requirement for books to ed with the running of the Internet. Although the internation. The way the address is split depends International Telecommunications Satellite on its class.28. ITU-T was known as assigned numbers. in the world. TCP/IP address. and other formats to and from HTML. I Internet Assistant An add-on for Microsoft series.) Any set of net- An 8-digit identification number that is allocat. and Planning Group). ftp (ISO). HTML files and to convert wordprocessing internegative Negative for a colour print. DOI. It has two task forces: the Internet International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the An international body.152. The numbers are IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers allocated on a national basis and part of the Authority). The 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Unlike the ISBN. such as port and protocol CCITT. which allows the user to edit ly used in communications.

are made generally available. uses and Science Foundation. in that the caller connect so that Novell NetWare clients and pays only local telephone charges.e. (See also routing through the datalink layer. and in many ways the people to ‘talk’. calls to be made via the Internet. If a router has IPX through the usual telephone network. not allow actual audio communication. with others forerunner of PostScript. identifiers operated by the Defense Data interpositive Photographic positive which will Network Network Information Center (DDN be subject to further camera work to obtain the NIC) on behalf of the Internet Assigned finished result.) A worm perpe- phone connections. each service is run by a applications of the Internet. information and database services scientific and academic communities. industry to the Internet. world. AT&T provides directory the system. Computer Emergency Response Team. Numbers Authority. each of which is allo- to co-ordinate the operation.) A US-based service that broadcasts companies work closely together. usually local area networks Internet phone A software and hardware solu. tion. providing packet and its vulnerability to hackers.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 97 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) A Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG) The body which provides the first technical review governing body of the Internet Research Task of Internet standards and is responsible for the Force. i. routing. Internet worm (Or Great worm. The best known is probably Geek of centers (NICs) in the US and elsewhere in the the Week. IP is a connectionless. in real time over the Internet. as well as in radio programmes of technical interest over collaboration with other network information MBONE. 97 . It was a signifi- networks. Multicast development of the Internet. who work Force Working Groups. Groups. using some kind of router or gateway. so that con. (NSI) provides registration services. rather than used by Novell NetWare. The Service. devel- Internet Relay Chat (IRC) A facility that allows oped at Xerox PARC.) Internet Registry (IR) The registry of network InterNIC See Internet Network Information address and autonomous system number Center. best-effort cant event in public awareness of the Internet packet-switching protocol. Funded by the US National and the public about the technology. machine similar to a Linotype. more networks. vendors and researchers. trated in 1988 by Robert T Morris. of presence (PoP) on the Internet. A company providing a point the World Wide Web. The IETF meets regularly and proceedings opments which have been initiated in the IRTF. Internet service provider (ISP) Also called Internet Explorer (IE) Microsoft’s browser for access provider. Internet Talk Radio (Internet Multicasting Inc. day-to-day management of the Internet Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) The body Engineering Task Force (IETF). which considers long-term Internet issues Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) An open from a theoretical point of view.Dic. management and cated a different research topic. which allows long-distance telephone so that they appear to be one network. interact directly. Internetwork Packet eXchange (IPX) Protocol nection is via the TCP/IP network. Internet Multicasting Service See Internet Talk Internet Society (ISOC) A non-profit-making. local area networks (LANs) can inter- Although the costs are lower. as well as promot- different company. professional membership organisation con- Internet Network Information Center cerned with the technical evolution of the (InterNIC) The joint name for the providers of Internet and with stimulating interest in the registration. Radio. (LANs). the quality servers can communicate. internetworking The interconnection of two or Internet number See Internet address. This facility does interpreter A program translator. including protocol audio/video conferencing and Privacy and architectural issues in the short to medium Enhanced Mail (PEM) are examples of devel- term. can be much poorer than for standard tele. Interpress A page description language. but see Intertype Proprietary name of a linecasting Internet phone. General Atomics provides ing the development of new applications for information services. and database services and Network Solutions. It has Research international community of network designers. similar to Internet Engineering Task operators. which quick- Internet Protocol (IP) The network layer for the ly used up all available processor time on the TCP/IP protocol suite widely used on Ethernet systems it infected via email.

Iris proofs Full-colour digital proofs generated ISO 10179 The ISO standard for the Document from PostScript files and increasingly used as Style Semantics and Specification Language contract proofs in place of Cromalin proofs or (DSSSL). (See also extranet. ISO 8879 includes some extra characters used ly charged area of paper. See ISO so that the parts which are conventionally 8859. the use of variable interword channels). I/O Input/output. Inverse ISO 8613 The ISO standard defining Open video is often used to indicate that something.Dic. See ISDN-30 See primary rate ISDN. ISO 8879 The ISO standard defining SGML. It light. concerning data transmission over ISDN. spacing to achieve justified columns of text. ISO 9069 The ISO Standard Document IP address See Internet address. as distinct from preface. series of head boxes feed consecutive layers of ISO See International Organisation for wet stock over the main. but only with. differs in a few bracket characters. character encoding.) (inline image) which specifies that if the image introduction Introduction to the subject matter is selected in a World Wide Web browser. IRC See Internet Relay Chat. e. an extension of and replacement for ASCII. ISO 9735 or EDIFACT The ISO standard for IR Infra-red. tem for CD-ROMs. the Internet. 1 is often used as ion deposition Reproduction process which cre. of a book. Originally ISO 10646 (32-bit) and Unicode (16- ISDN See integrated services digital network. electronic data interchange for administration. In addition. clicking on a point will generate a request relat- inventory Complete list of stock or goods held in ing to the coordinates of that point. IPA See International Phonetic Alphabet. Also a prefix to the reference end of the machine to build up a thick final numbers of standards issued by that body. with representation of colour on computer ter- IP-Multicast The multicast system operating over minals. ISO 646 The ISO standard for seven-bit charac- inverse video (Also called reverse video. fol- 98 . ISO 9660 The ISO standard defining a file sys- IPSS See International Packet SwitchStream. deletion etc. often used in maps (as the name might suggest) Inverform machine Type of papermaking to provide information about a feature at the machine used particularly in board making. black appear as white and vice versa. where 30 chan- intercharacter spacing. High Sierra standard. layer of stock on the wire. e. Hebrew and Arabic input and output to and from a computer. ISMAP An attribute of the HTML tag ‘<IMG>’ mation within a company. nels are available to the user. Relating to systems which can covers the Greek. foreword. Subsequently called MBONE. First published in IR coating Coating varnish cured by infra-red 1988. This is a warehouse or shop. iph Impressions per hour. it was amended and reprinted in 1990. bit single-byte coded graphic character sets for invert half-tone Gravure printing which uses the major European languages that can be rep- half-tone dot structures. has been selected for ISO 8859 (ISO Latin. server on an internal network to provide infor. although it the image on the screen appears as a ‘negative’. This is equivalent to the IPX See Internetwork Packet eXchange. moving. ASCII is the US equivalent. in an organisation. ates an image by toner sticking to an electrical. ISBN See International Standard Book Number. IR See Internet Registry. first. ISO 10180 The ISO standard for the Standard irrational screening See stochastic screening. Page Description Language (SPDL). in SGML. IP See Internet Protocol. commerce and transport. a World Wide Web ISLN See integrated services local network. IRSG See Internet Research Steering Group.) When ters. bit) codes were developed separately but. defines appplication layer syntax.g. ISO 10646 The ISO standard for 32-bit and 16-bit IRTF See Internet Research Task Force.g. a portion of text.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 98 interword spacing In wordprocessing and desk. Cyrillic. machine proofs. which includes Unicode.) An ISO standard for eight- copying. ISDN-2 See basic rate ISDN (operating over two top publishing. layer at the wet Standardisation. Latin alphabet No. alphabets. resented using Latin characters. Document Architecture. A coordinates selected. The normal measure ISO 9241 Part 8 of this ISO standard is concerned of printing speed. intranet A network providing similar services to I series The series of ITU-T recommendations those provided by the Internet. Interchange Format (SDIF).

Unicode was taken within the scope tem. network layer. cian Heinz-Otto Peitgen) by comparing them to covering books and academic journals. is just like a normal copier except that: there are pression. transport layer. ital Abbreviation for italics. used in fractal compression (as marketed by ISO 10744 The ISO standard for HyTime. isochronous A form of data transmission in which ITU See International Telecommunications the time between two characters is an integral Union. ISODE ISO Development Environment. ISO Latin See ISO 8859. pre. An implementation of the upper layers of OSI.) ISSN See International Standard Serial JANET See Joint Academic NETwork. An isochronous service is used when ivory paper Thick writing paper that is the time-dependent data. Asynchronous data ivory board Fine board manufactured by lami- can thus be transmitted over a synchronous nating two high-quality sheets together. jacket Dustcover on book. marketed) by Iterated Systems Ltd is a very ISOC See Internet Society. switching ISDN connections both within an jaggies The visual effect caused by aliasing.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 99 lowing the failure of the Draft ISO 10646 to be iterated function system (IFS) The fractal sys- accepted. jacket paper High-quality. Thus. Iterated function sys- ISO 12083 A revised version of the American tems have been described (by the mathemati- Association of Publishers (AAP) SGML DTD. datalink layer and physical although these principles are widely known. each lens arrange- which standardises levels of services and types ment reduces the size of the original (the con- of interaction for exchanging data through a traction aspect). whereas in asynchronous ITU-T See International Telecommunications transmission. Janus See Joint Academic Network Using IT Information technology. a multiple-reduction copying machine. characters may be separated by Union. with the output of one stage as computer-to-computer communications into the input to the next (the iterative aspect). ward. session layer. well kept secret.Dic. However. so organisation and from that organisation to the that curves look like a series of steps. isolated Advertisement with no other advertise- ments surrounding it. exchange. and C series. Number. B series. such as video or voice. Satellite. many smaller. International range of paper and envelope sizes. that is of ISO. JANET IP Service (JIPS) Joint Academic issue All copies of a publication with the same NETwork Internet Protocol Service. (See also outside world. Note that TCP/IP does not con. JANET used the Coloured Book protocols issue life Average reading life of a periodical before establishing JIPS. random-length intervals. J ISO sizes Formerly DIN sizes. anti-aliasing. and the copier operates in a communications network. self-similar images. each image is treated as a combination of sentation layer. before it is no longer topical. Java An object-oriented progamming language. number of bit times. data link. is colour of creamy white ivory. Iterated Systems Ltd). multiple lens arrangements to create multiple ISO/OSI seven-layer model The ISO Open overlapping copies of the original (which is Systems Interconnect seven-layer model. to be transmitted. designed for programming the Internet. While 99 . seven layers: the application layer (top). one-sided coated ISPBX Integrated services private branch paper used for book jackets. A telephone switchboard oriented to jacketwrap US term for jacket paper. Asynchronous Transfer ivs See INRIA Videoconferencing System. discovered by Michael Barnsley. what makes IFS a system). Japanese vellum Paper made in Japan from the italic Specially designed letters that slope for. the exact compression algorithm used (and form to the OSI model. bark of the mulberry tree. Note that content. The model separates feedback loop. italicise To print a word or text in italics. layer (bottom). ISP See Internet service provider. Mode (ATM) can provide isochronous service. which ISO 13818 The ISO standard for MPEG-2 com. comprising A series. Contrast sloped roman.

The links between sites the user and the host system such as validating operate at a bandwidth of around 64 kpbs and entries in a form. tivity within the academic community as well Applets are not stand-alone applications in as gateways to external services. at most of which Java beans A platform-independent application local area networks (LANs) are connected. In addition. trading under the name performing a particular task. e. but is thus easier to learn. business cards and other small jobs. such as reading a UKERNA. the first of which folder system.. dedicated to JNT Association. French special browser called HotJava. (For compression of still and the British Standards Institution in the UK. moving images.) research institutes. Compression is done using a Q-coder.. but increasing.Dic. hub is a private X. Joint Academic Network Using Satellite based applets and objects to interoperate with (Janus) A joint EC-funded research and devel- other object technologies such as OpenDoc. IEC and ITU-T with the same jaw folder A type of folder in which a partly fold. name. It is an internet providing connec- particular type of file. one of its strengths is that Java applets can jobbing General printing. In addition. fax. which joint Recessed part of a book case between the lacks some of the features but can be included inside edge of the front and back boards and within an HTML page. in which a prototype satellite- JavaScript A version of the Java language that based network has been built linking several can be included directly within an HTML page European academic sites. it is pos. also be written. JANET is operated by the Java applet A form of Java program. leading to errors or loss of synchronisation. in a reel of paper. opment project. Also known as back- a signal transmitted over a network. and if appropriate jog Align edges of a pile of papers by vibrating viewing software is not available on the client them. The such as a World Wide Web browser to be run. with courses deliv- in order. JavaScript lacks some of the the system uses VSAT. groove. these jockey roller First roller on a web-fed machine applets can be linked to specific documents or whose function is to corrent the uneven tension files so that if. Now operation of JANET. Formerly the Joint Network Team. such as Netscape Navigator area network linking UK academic and and Internet Explorer. group of ISO. ed section is thrust into a jaw to complete its JBIG is lossless and can be regarded as a com- fold. storage cost. (See also Java beans. an MPEG video. Joint Network Team The body responsible for JNT Association The body responsible for the the operation of JANET prior to 1994. see JPEG and MPEG. connecting over 100 sites. e. The 50% better on text and line art and even better Japanese equivalent to the ANSI in the US or on half-tones. UKERNA. Typically one of the units in a web offset bination of two algorithms. level images. Java. possibly ing. JBIG is claimed to be approximately 10- JIS Japanese Institute for Standards. e. an applet will automatically be down. jointing The process of forming the joint or jitter Small changes in the timing or the phase of groove in bookbinding. developed by a joint sible to produce the equivalent of CGI-scripts. an MPEG video is down. loaded over the Internet. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) A 100 . Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG) A Using applications such as LiveWire. of which JANET is a component. Also. provid. trading under the name called UKERNA. system. there is a the shoulder. forming a hinge. Compared with ITU-T Group 4 JIPS See JANET IP Service.25 packet-switched network ning in order to function. jogger Device that shakes sheets of paper in loaded so that the video can be viewed.g. program interface (API) that will enable Java.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 100 it is possible to write complete programs in jobber A wholesaler (US). which can be run within job press or jobbing press Platen press used for browsers such as Netscape Navigator. also a version of Java called JavaScript. bilevel coding standard. mainly for use with bi- used for protecting items sent by post. to provide interaction between ered over the network.g. functionality of Java. There is order to align them.) JIT See just-in-time. ly Java functionality is being included as part of Joint Academic NETwork (JANET) The wide standard browsers. Sometimes called a ‘nip and tuck sends or stores multiple representations of folder’. images at different resolutions with no extra JBIG See Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.g. while the second is a very efficient jiffy bag Name of a type of padded envelope compression algorithm. ing additional functionality. including the that they need a Java-compliant application Internet.

particularly if the text wraps realistic images. the use of intercharacter and/or interword bit-per-pixel) images or moving pictures. viewed on screen. Joint Picture Encoding Group Another name for just-in-time (JIT) Production technique based on the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG). This text has lines of the same length that are per. jpg The usual filename extension for JPEG files. only searches directory names. K Simple games joysticks are often only capable of moving an object in one of eight different directions. or with both. in which authorised users share a or right margin. kenaf Type of plant fibre used in papermaking. JPEG does justify In wordprocessing and desktop publish- not handle compression of black-and-white (1. ing of the image and loss of detail. Usually used to con- trol games. Kalamazoo Proprietary system of scheduling ates within Gopher. French mathematician Gaston Julia. Hyphenation is often used in con- Joint Picture Encoding Group) that designed junction with full justification. but and listing documents. such as cartoons or line draw. Fully justified secret key with the key distribution centre. Named (wordspacing) or between letters (letterspac- after the committee (sometimes also called the ing) or both.) the ability of paper to be bleached. jute Indian plant used to produce pulp for espe- journeyman A print worker who has completed cially hard papers.pag2 30/1/0 19:02 Page 101 standard from the ISO and ITU-T for coding decreasing) the space either between words and compression of colour images. whose state can also be read by the computer. about their actual physical environment. Jordan Type of paper machine refiner. justification The arrangement of text on a page Kerberos An authentication and key distribution or screen so that it is aligned with either the left system. ink absorbency of different papers. ganate. K56 flex A modem technology which provides JTC See Joint Technical Committee. kerfs Shallow indents in the back of a book sec- cation is produced by increasing (or sometimes tion which the sewing threads lie in. (See also kappa number Grading number which indicates Mandelbrot set. hence the use of the image compression algorithm. because the technique involves smooth. 101 . as a child. named after kaolin Fine clay used as a filler in papermaking. his apprenticeship. the position being transmitted to a computer. the concept of acquiring materials and compo- Joint Technical Committee (JTC) A standards nents at the very last moment which still allows body reporting to both ISO and IEC. K Measure of computer storage. speeds of up to 56 kbps on the download side. See bps and Mbps. jughead An Internet search utility which oper. Used mainly in doc. with one or more push-buttons on the top. puter bytes but often used loosely as 1000. JPEG works the expression H&J. key acts as a master. Similar to Veronica. K = 1024 com- JPEG See Joint Photographic Experts Group. like an aircraft pilot’s joystick. Needs a joystick (game control) port. Transfer rate of 1000 (MUD) role-playing environments to include a bits per second. margins. which effectively gives fectly aligned with both the left and the right them access to the system. production and selling to schedule. Both margins are even. full justifi. Jupiter project A project at Xerox PARC based on Kb See kilobyte. spacing to achieve even left and right margins. kamyr digester Digester used in production of jukebox A way of storing and accessing large chemical pulp. juvenilia Works produced by an author or artist joystick A device. Julia set A type of fractal image. Full justification tends not best on full-colour or grey-scale digital images to be used in electronic publications that are of real world scenes and not so well on non. virtual reality implementation of the real keep standing Instruction to keep type made up world.Dic. ing. K and N absorbency Test for comparing rate of ument image processing applications. the development of Multi-User Dungeon kbps Kilobit(s) per second. so that participants can communicate for possible reprinting. numbers of compact discs. changed. consisting of a hand-held device that can be moved in a horizontal plane. The test jumbo reel The large reel of paper formed and involves treating the paper pulp with perman- wound up at the end of a paper-machine. when the window size or the type size is ings.

a barcode or structed directly by the user rather than gener. removable part of the tag often also carries an As documents become more integrated with electronic trigger. keystrokes per hour (approximately 1500 words) KIS See Knowbot Information Service. either to kiosk A booth set up in a place where the public reduce transfer time over a communications link can obtain information. cent letters to create a better visual fit. visual neatness. ter position for the other plates. kiosk-mode browser A World Wide Web brows- keystroke One key depression. This equates to around colours that touch each other. keyword A word which is indexed to improve nous file-transfer protocol.) Also part of the keyboard. and include the title or kerning Adjusting the spacing between two adja. keyword and context (KWAC) Library indexing tribution is at the University of Lancaster. encryption and decryption. key A sequence of characters which is used in kilobit 1024 bits of data. that this is not the same as letterspacing. keyword in context (KWIC) Library system kern Part of a typographic character projecting whose index entries use keywords from the beyond the body. Hence also ‘key negative’. by tweening. shops. is becoming less frequent. text it relates to. so that an alarm is set off if the illustrations included as part of the file. the concept kinetic friction Resistance to sliding of one ma- still survives in software packages which allow terial over another. employed to validate the user. where the user can key numbers Numbers on advertisements which access an interactive display to obtain informa- identify the source in which they appeared. Distribute type. Note phone. 150 words. price etc. (See also blind stitch. operating systems. (See also public kilobyte (kb) One thousand computer bytes. often used as a er configured to allow the user access to only a measure of productivity of an operator. (or part of it) is removed at the till and kept as a keyline A line drawn on artwork to show where computer-readable record of the sale. Kiss-fitting is not always suitable for all 102 . growing rapidly. this use tag is taken past detectors near the shop door. Traditionally meant decreasing the amount of KI A secret key or algorithm (or formula) embed- space. this works out at around system. but has come to mean either increasing or ded within the SIM card in a digital GSM tele- decreasing the space between the letters. is key plate The printing plate which sets the regis.Dic. Kermit is available as part of SGML to indicate a property of an element or most communications packages and on most a marked section.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 102 Kermit A widely used public domain asynchro. Kermit system with index entries selected from signifi- uses intensive encoding and error detection. need spacing adjustments made to them for kill Delete unwanted matter.g. characters. which explains the rationale. that indexes book titles under relevant keywords. is a fairly typical output rate for a trained oper. Kilostream A private leased-line 64 kbps service tion keys in escrow. The illustrations or other material should be placed. as a pattern of small holes. The UK centre for Kermit dis. frames which was drawn or otherwise con. The number of com- or to cut down the refresh time of the screen. The tag ated automatically. in keyboard The array of keys used to input into a disk storage terms. 10000 restricted range of documents. key forme The forme or plate positioned first in Kimball tag A stock-control device used in clothes colour work. but using no 10000 words per working day/shift.) available from BT. key escrow encryption The deposit of encryp. Autokerning performs this killfile A list of subjects or names which a user function automatically. more loosely. does not want to appear in the list of messages kettle-stitch Stitch joining one signature of a hand. (See also Clipper. kicker Short line above a headline. or key.) The term has a special meaning in without charge. As continuous text. (Contrast with free-text at Columbia University and made available searching. puter multimedia kiosks. sewn book to the next. tion conventionally provided by a human. hence is fairly slow but very robust. a magnetic strip (and probably as text). display of pages without illustrations. e. title or text of a book. It consists of a small punched card key frame A frame in an animated sequence of attached to each item. However. set in smaller kerning pairs Pairs of letters which invariably type. kiss-fit Printing on an offset press different ator on average work. containing serial number. traps.) kilo/kilogram Measure of weight. and cant words in the text and a book’s title. originally developed the speed of searching. private key. also called keyword out of context (KWOC) Library system ‘aesthetic kerning’. sent to him or her from a newsgroup.

about industrial relations. paper with glossy finish. for white pages information from the NIC whois landscape The orientation of a picture. oped from Maser. i. black appearance. language In computing. by most graphics display programs. laminated Thin plastic film applied by heat and Knowbot Information Service (KIS) A white pressure to a printed sheet for protection pages ‘meta-service’ that provides a uniform and/or appearance. a single query can be formed. plays. laser An acronym of Light Amplification from KWAC See keyword and context. which will search LAN See local area network. LAPM See Link Access Protocol for Modems. but now displayable ing environment. The second property is used in laser printers. knocking up To line up the edges of a pile of paper. Disks are typically 12 inches in diameter. intended for display. a structured communi- ly used for formatting mathematical equations. label paper Paper gummed on one side and usu. so that high-powered lasers can be used for appli- cations such as surgery and welding. with a single frequency and phase. kite ‘V’-shaped plate over which the web of laced-on-boards Signatures of a case-bound paper is drawn to create first fold. specific information. screen or service. where the initial ‘M’ stands KWOC See keyword out of context. to typeset which he because when a full page is viewed the text is wrote the TEX document formatting system and generally unreadable. LAPD See Link Access Protocol on the D channel. as opposed to the wider lines at right- Contrast buckle folder. ing. LAPB See Link Access Protocol (Balanced). fibre-optics and holography. and the L coherence means that the beam can carry infor- mation. angles to these called the chain lines.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 103 printing jobs but when it is. laser disc An optical disc (also known as a video L/C See letter of credit. Most screens are landscape. (See also aspect ratio. are portrait. Kromecote Proprietary name of a cast-coated large post Standard size of paper 4193533mm. 103 . Lasers create coherent light. With the Knowbot Information Service. book ‘laced on’ to the case boards. LAP See Link Access Protocol. laser output unit See imagesetter. the Stimulated Emission of Radiation (devel- KWIC See keyword in context. Uses analogue storage drawing. KIS can be accessed books. 2. ally coated on the other. piece for protection or gloss. knife folder A type of folding machine which laid lines The narrow parallel lines in a laid uses a knife between inwardly rotating rollers. the result should be LaborNet A network connecting those concerned clearer than when traps are used. A record which identifies the items stored Generally used to store long recordings of on a disk or tape. and plays back via a television or monitor. via a television. label 1. while most in a single. from a LAN Manager The Microsoft local area network- special photo CD player.Dic. Also known as a spider. This via telnet. opera etc. Computer Programming.e. laid paper Paper with watermark lines parallel to knowbot A tool which searches a network for each other formed by a dandy roll. for labels. paper. whois or email.) interface to various white pages services on the lampblack Carbon pigment ink with dull. Global Communications. kraft pulp See sulphate pulp. See high-level lan- from 35mm slide or negative film. for ‘microwave’). Caption on a technical line films.) its font-design program Metafont. Kodak Photo CD A format developed by Kodak which can be translated into the machine code and Philips for the storage of images originated which runs the computer. low-level language. Kleenstick Proprietary name of pressure-sensitive lacquer Synthetic coating applied to a printed adhesive-backed paper. uniform format. Originally guage. cations vocabulary using codes and words. and in many forms of packing application. disc) that holds both audio and visual images. TEX is wide. and the responses will be displayed height. Donald E The author of The Art of when reproducing printed pages on-screen. and certainly journals. is a limitation on using Acrobat technology Knuth. kraft Strong brown paper used as a second lin. (See also OPP lamination. very Internet. the RIPE European white pages service page such that its width is greater than its and others. This has two effects: the energy is concentrated. See Institute for kiss impression Very light printing impression.

OSI has seven. film advance.) LATEX A document preparation system based on LCD See liquid crystal display. 2. layer-on Machine-minder who feeds sheets to the erated by a photocopier and which powder machine. concerned with a specialised application programs. Also. relate to the structure of the document. right-reading or vice versa. LATEX uses commands which type. non-impact device facilities for the layer above. which printing begins. also use layering and it is Latency and bandwidth are two of the most used in other types of program. also forms part of the protocol suite. to improve presentation and access munications channel.Dic. of a belt or drum coated with a photosensitive TCP/IP has five layers of protocols (also called a material. to information. comprising two pages. such as AMS-TEX. lead-in The introduction in a piece of setting. layboy A stacking device on a paper sheeter. film feed. Each layer uses the layer below it and provides laser printer A high-speed. this arrangement can be changed last colour down The final colour to be printed in with the draw program. LATEX is probably the most widely used ver. Each of leaf sites to backbone sites can affect the effi- layer is concerned with a different aspect of the ciency of the network. does not relay traffic. laser recorder See imagesetter. such as device on a network before it is forwarded. In addition. For each layer. The use of graphic technology to sensitise selected areas layers simplifies communications protocols. up toner which is transferred to the paper via layering A technique used within draw programs heated rollers. communication. the TEX typesetting system and developed by lead Thin metal strip used for separating lines of Leslie showing the plan to work to. lateral reversal Change of image from wrong. 3.) Lower case. so that the lowest layer controls learned journal A scholarly journal published on communication between the hardware of differ. most draw colour work. Also Mathematical Society. nently connecting two points. side lay of the machine. (See also u/l or u/lc. a machine layer An aspect of communications architectures. how this is done which employs laser technology and xero. leaflet Folded printed sheet comprising only a lay edge Edge of a sheet laid against the front or few pages. latex-treated paper Paper impregnated with leading edge The edge of a sheet or plate at latex for toughness. See editorial. This gives great flexibility to the period of time that a frame is held by a the expert user. lay edges. such as Apple’s significant factors in the performance of a com. pitch edge. objects can be placed ‘in front of’ or ‘behind’ any laser xerography See laser printer. programs academic subject. As the belt or drum revolves it picks TCP/IP stack). The ratio of the number dent protocols. so that laser setter See imagesetter. lay down Impose a job. lc (or l. The LATEX formatting paper or magnetic tape used for loading pur- software then converts these to native TEX. turns into a visible image. on mathematical material. Hence. line feed. each in a different layer. latent image The latent electrostatic image gen. Image editing programs. HyperCard. an occasional basis by a university or academic ent hosts. rather leader 1. leaf site On a network or the Internet. lay Guide on a printing machine which positions lead time The time it takes for a requirement to a sheet before printing. as this. while the highest is concerned with research body. be satisfied. or that group layer). latin alphabet Western European alphabet. a page. Row of dots used to lead the eye across than to how it should appear. gripper edge. that merely originates and reads email and which are organised using relatively indepen. c&lc. Most wide area 104 . developed by the American leading The spacing between lines of type. with particular emphasis interline spacing. layout Sketch of a book or other publication. A length of blank larities with SGML. Adobe PhotoShop. and thus has simi. other object.c.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 104 laser plotter See imagesetter. for handling vector or object-oriented graphics. programs allow objects to be grouped on layers latency The time it takes for a packet to travel (each object still occupies its own layer within from sender to receiver across a network. leaf Single sheet. poses. at different hosts use protocols appropriate to a leased line A private telephone circuit perma- particular layer to communicate with each other. Each object is drawn on its own layer. sion of TEX. although there are similar systems often in a bold or different face.

and cannot be revoked leatherette Paper that has been made to imitate unless agreed by all parties. dyed-through and calendered. design or between words. just as betical order. that are of a similar the machine last as it goes through the printing quality to office typewriters. reduce the interword spacing in justification. and news (NEXIS). as in a dictionary. letter quality (LQ) Output from printers. Lempel-Ziv compression Also known as substitu. LHA A shareware DOS program for compress- polymer plate. used for reconstituted leather coverings. press’ and ‘indirect letterpress’. A ‘Confirmed Irrevocable leathercloth Bookbinding grade of cloth: a plas. pliable goatskin for bookbinding LEO satellite See low earth orbiting satellite.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 105 networks are built out of leased lines. between individual characters. providing full-text legal information (LEXIS) letter-fit Spacing between characters in a typeface. pigskins. information service. forels. forming in an importing country to its agent bank in the part of networks. Although the Abraham Lempel in 1977 and 1978. onto the paper. with real letter bombs. ‘Short’ only be used as a design tool. of Latin. ‘offset letter- ledger paper A strong paper for clerical use. from which they take lexicon A term for dictionary. leased lines can be analogue or digital. used correctly. can act rather like a virus. Letraset Proprietary name of sheets of transfer lexical analyser A tool. However. but also useful in text appli- letterbomb A piece of email containing code that cations for string comparison and conversion. release a specified sum of money to the account skins. When typeface can be read. Letterflex plate Proprietary letterpress photo. rather than a single laser beam. exporting country. to goathides. sheep. mail-bomb. Compare near let- rollers into the delivery. Arabic or Greek. sion schemes were proposed by Jakob Ziv and the effect can often be the reverse. LZ77 and default of some DTP programs. Letter of Credit’ carries the absolute guarantee ticated cotton. typical- leave edge The edge of the sheet which leaves ly daisywheel printers. While letterform The shape of a letter. as opposed to legibility The ease with which a page. the bandwidth is organisation printed at the top of a piece of from 64kbps upwards. dial-up communications. Typically. leather by embossing. similar to a laser printer. today letterhead The name and address of a person or most are digital. sation. similar to an APR plate. ink does not flow as easily as ‘long’ ink. vellum. graphic designers would agree that it should Lempel-Ziv Welch (LZW) Variant of a form of only be used as a last resort in justified text. levant Soft. Two lossless data compres. the terminal. in a formatted document. most typo- pression is a variant). headed stationery. ing and archiving files in a similar way to 105 . is to use letterspacing. In lossless data compression. (Does not mean quite the same as Hebrew. letterspace Space between letters. owned by Reed-Elsevier. of the issuing bank. QuarkXPress. the effect should be pleasing. e. Often not particularly serious but lexicographical order Listing of words in alpha- the potential for serious damage is there. letterset Also called ‘dry offset’. LED See light emitting diode. electronic publishing.g. transfers the image to a blanket and thence which uses a bank of LEDs as the image source. locking up used. letterpress Printing from images with a raised leather pulp Pulp made from leather scraps and surface which impresses on the paper. such as LZ78 (of which Lempel-Ziv Welch (LZW) com. authorising the latter. which can be lettering Hand-drawn typography or a typeface regarded as an extension of digital leased lines to designed to look hand-drawn. This equivalence letter of credit (L/C) A letter addressed by a bank should make it easier for leased lines. when done automatically in order to tional compression. The Unix tool Lex is one of the most commonly tion of the recipient’s computer. affecting the opera. pro- leather Leathers used in bookbinding include viding an agreed set of conditions is met.) Lexis/Nexis An online legal. calfskins. ter quality. designed for use in pro- lettering. gram compilation.Dic. A relief plate LED printer A printer. of the exporter. esp. letterspacing Adding or reducing the space legend Caption. leg Short column of type. The bandwidths are fre. news and business letter-by-letter alphabetisation See alphabeti. to be integrated with ISDN. letterspacing should length The ‘flowability’ of a printing ink. covers. their name. quently the same as those of ISDN.

line conversion Conversion of continuous-tone they have been replaced by LCDs which require copy to line copy by photographing it without less power. Also normal ink on prolonged exposure to strong ‘line drawing’. With an surface. light secondaries The complementary. Equivalent to leading. Also called type gauge creation of an image. otherwise light box Box with glass top illuminated from known as sans serif type. lhz The filename extension for a file produced by light pipe A fibre-optic cable in contrast to cop- the LHA program. light pen A device which looks like an ordinary line mechanical Paste-up of line copy ready for pen. puter to modify part of a screen image. less common as computer typesetting has lineage Calculation of number of lines taken up developed. although they may for advertisement space based on the number be specified in HTML documents as part of a of columns used. where to reuse. drawing. In some applications. light primaries See additive primaries. lightfast ink Ink which will fade less readily than i. a half-tone screen. the character 1. by combining the line elements of an original. (designed) text block transmitted as a graphic. They are commonly employed as a line block A relief plate produced from a line light source in multimode fibre-optic systems. light-coated paper. LEDs are also used in printers. or ‘oppo- library binding Durable type of case binding site’ colours to the additive primaries. fibres together. lift Take typeset material or pictures from else. 2. system of charging screen presentation of text. Copy which consists of solid black were used for typesetting. ligature A glyph (or character) that is a combi. light. 106 . green or amber when energised by low outlines are retained as line. voltage. ber. computer graphics. the computer is Compressed files have extensions lha and lhz.e. subsequent use. appropriate interface program. but which can be used to instruct the com. LHA used to be called LHARC. line feed Advancement of paper in a photosetter light gate array An array of cells which can be or printer by one line. liographical data. the basis of a grid stored in memory. programmed to allow or prevent light passing line gauge Measuring ruler used for copyfitting through to expose photographic material in the and measuring type. limp-bound Referring to a book with a limp or nation of two or more single characters. line length Column width. and depth gauge. similarly. Used line high The upper level. a whole range of lines or dots only. able to calculate the position of the light pen on LHARC The previous name of LHA. ‘line engraving’ etc. per wire. See break. comprising solid black lines or shapes. and has no intermediate grey ligatures was used.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 106 PKZIP. At its tip. Hard. Contrast tone. sharp red. Rule. i. the camera (US). shot for line. such as digital watches.Dic.e. by a piece of text. (often part-mechanical) below 60gsm. line copy Copy which has no gradation of tones. light-sensitive Paper which changes its condi- library material Text or pictures held on file for tion when exposed to light. (See also case-bound. with the tone elements of the same light emitting diode (LED) A diode which glows original which are shot for tone. limp Paper that is pliant.) past. They are virtually never used in on. The number is printed on the lightweight paper Normally taken to mean title-page verso. lightweight coated paper (lwc) Coated paper Library of Congress number US system for bib. used on books in libraries. particularly when hot metal or cold type line 1. within so that transparent artwork can be line and tone combination An origination made viewed on its surface. lick-coated paper Paper with a very light coating. in in the HLS method of representing colour in serial communications. Lineale Typeface without serifs. the pen has a photoreceptor that emits signals linen finish Imitation linen texture on paper when it receives light from the screen. In the paper binding. process. paper less than 60gsm in substance. lightness A measure of relative brightness. Removed during the pulping size-press coated paper. but their use has become tones. light-coated paper See size-press coated paper. See blue wool scale. Lib Con number See Library of Congress num. limp binding Paperback binding. line negative Negative of line illustration or text. Used in some photosetters. lightface Lighter version of a roman typeface. lignin The substance in wood which binds the Also pigmented paper.

the world they are situated. printing. link (Also called hotlink. Can have many causes. anced version of the Link Access Protocol. e. clear to send (CTS) signals. so that it is displayed by selecting a link. some V. phone line and adjust itself for maximum See Webcosm. Linofilm Proprietary name of a once-famous but line turnaround time In a communications link. grams the link is almost always automatic. depending on the coding of the linespacing Space between lines of photoset hypertext page. 2.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 107 line noise Spurious characters (electrical noise) in avoid storing files twice and ensure consistent a communications link.e. Linking is also list broker Someone who sells lists of names and used within programs and applications in addresses in specific market-oriented cate- order either to save space by not duplicating gories.g.25 pack- linen screen Half-tone screen giving a linen et-switched interface standard. in that the link is triggered automati. A print made from a (See also dots per inch.) linocut. The use of links liquid darkens when a voltage is applied. Link Access Protocol (Balanced) (LAPB) A bal- electrical storms. (See also Link effect. Linotype. data. in that links can be followed varnish applied to book covers or jackets (US). also known as aligning numerals. or ings. or telephone wires rubbing Link Access Protocol (LAP) A protocol specified against tree branches. World Wide Web links for specific text strings. matically. lint Surface fibres released from paper during lining Part of the spine strengthening in a case. irrespective of where in list Often used for mailing list. i.Dic. listserv An automated mailing list manager. bound book. liquid crystal display (LCD) Consisting of a ments.) line overlay Line work on overlay separate from Link Access Protocol for Modems (LAPM) The half-tone. different file names. Line probing is available on different file from the current hypertext page. izontal stripes and punched with sprocket cally (see linked image). thus within HTML documents can be regarded as creating an image. For RS-232-C interfaces line turnaround time is Linotype Linecasting machine manufactured by the delay between request to send (RTS) and Linotype. particularly an RS-232 updating. Links within hypertext documents may be listing paper The paper used for computer list- explicit.) In hypertext docu. type. throughput using the highest possible data linked image A graphic image that is stored in a transmission rate. liner Paper used to cover another paper or board although the image may also be included auto- for extra strength. although the user sees two or more serial connection. listing Computer print-out of data or a file. In application pro. See first and second linings. line probing A feature that will allow a modem linkbase A database that contains a series of to identify the capacity and quality of the tele. Pipex’s London point of presence. capitals. lines per minute A measure of line printer speed. phone wires. between documents. holes at the sides. The another (see also anchor). cosmic rays. linocut 1. linting The build-up of lint on an offset blanket lining figures Arabic numerals the same height as causing hickies in the printed result. perhaps the most appealing aspect of the liquid lamination A high-gloss nitrocellulose World Wide Web. automatic repeat request system used in the line printer Output device which prints one line V. As LINX A UK neutral interconnect. for the datalink layer in the ITU-T X. interference or crosstalk. or to ensure that data is always up to date. the transmission delay between the end of one Linotron Name for high-speed cathode ray tube block of data and the beginning of the next. at a time usually with non-letter-quality reso. Access Protocol (Balanced). traditionally printed with light green hor- implicit. Links are also used in the Unix file system to originally designed for the BITNET/EARN 107 . birds on tele.34 modems. block of linoleum. It is photosetting machines manufactured by particularly significant in half-duplex links. poor connections. thickness or finish. Link Access Protocol on the D channel (LAPD) lution. a connection from one document to sandwich of two glass plates and a fluid. based at distinct from non-lining or old-style figures. now obsolete photosetter.42 protocol. An ISDN datalink layer protocol. Design made by carving in relief on a lines per inch (lpi) Measure of image resolution. they need to be clicked on.

service. indicating the termination of a session. This benefits video ferent subjects. available in the AppleTalk system. loft-dried High-grade papers dried in a drying developed by Netscape and based on the Java shed to allow natural evaporation. include entry of a password. local loop The telephone circuits between a sub- lithographic plate Printing plate used in the scriber’s installation and the switching equip- litho process. LANs use software to man. which extends the central pro. probably using execution. often allowing a wider choice of video boards. and it typically consists log-on An instruction. which logo See logotype. Token-Ring. lithography Planographic printing process in local loopback address The special Internet which ink is applied selectively to the plate by address. usually the network layer. The term comes from the need to dis- litho See lithography. file servers. used on ted data communications network (typically to Unix systems. lock up 1.) citato’ meaning ‘in the passage already quoted’ live matter Copy which will go to press rather used in a footnote to refer to another note.2 for data link level transmission con- loading Substance (clay or gypsum) added to trol. It forms the upper portion of the OSI paper furnish during beating to make the datalink layer. archives. FDDI and LocalTalk are examples log on. IEEE 802. VESA and Intel’s PCI. uniform interface to the user of the datalink loadings Minerals and fillers added to the fur. log-off A computer instruction issued by a user puters to have access to common data. which processes email requests for cessing unit (CPU) bus in order to speed up addition to or deletion from mailing lists. duplex. 108 . which is defined by the chemically treating the image areas to accept Internet Protocol for a host to send messages to ink and the non-image areas to accept water. Shortened to litho. allows resource sharing. a 1 km radius or within a building). into digital sig- LAN Manager. There are two com- other facilities such as retrieving files from mon specifications. printers ing access. local echo A term recently used instead of half lith film A high-contrast film. than be deleted.) VDU. of data transfer between the CPU. lithography. only affecting one or two characters. 127. computer system. logging on The process of con- of standard LANs and data rates up to 100 necting a user to a network or to a multi-user Mbps are possible.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 108 network. request- of PCs with adapter cards.0. login An alternative term for log on. (MAC) sublayer. for the next stage of production.0. boards and other devices. loc cit Abbreviation from the Latin phrase ‘loco live link Also known as a hotlink. age the components and the two best known logo scanner A flatbed scanner which converts a programs are Novell NetWare and Microsoft logo. PCs can little-endian The ordering of the components of also be connected to a LocalTalk network with a hierarchical name in which the domain name the right adapter board. (See also link. A log-on sequence will usually and gateways to other networks. or other special symbol. A LAN allows com. language. grams and peripherals. is specified last. designed to match the speed of changed in some way before output to a laser the processor. play (or echo) input at a terminal connected to lithograph A print made from a stone or plate by a mainframe computer by a half-duplex link. printer. literal Mistake introduced in keyboarding. 2. ment at the local exchange. (See also wide area network. issued by a user. LiveWire A visual development environment. logical link control (LLC) A protocol specified in LLC See logical link control. In program vides access to live material. local area network (LAN) A geographically limi.1. The image may then be manipulated or local bus A bus. a state from which the system can- video cameras. To secure metal type in a forme ready live net Any World Wide Web server which pro. LLC sublayer is the medium access control loan A rag writing paper. on many dif. pro. Some listservs also provide applications in particular. disks. logon. itself. Ethernet. graphics which there are now thousands.Dic. although PCI is likely to become the standard. The LLC sublayer presents a paper more opaque and solid. not escape. LocalTalk One of the types of network hardware litho prep Litho film assembly and platemaking. so that client-server computing nals for computer input and displays it on a can be supported. Below the nish of paper.

Notes supports replication on way icons are used. examples of lossy compression techniques. claiming that the look-and-feel of Microsoft Abbreviated as lc.) long-grain press Web-fed magazine or paper.Dic. Macintosh. Shortened to tion in a file is retained. lossy compression A term describing a data com- back printing press which prints all the pages pression algorithm in which the amount of with the long edge of the page in the direction information in the data. JPEG and fractal compression are long run A high printing number for a job. MPEG. (See also resolution. but now owned look-and-feel The general appearance and func. The term is derived from the days viewed when held up against the light. The case lower-case letters Uncapitalised letters.0161 metric tonnes. Subsequently. when the capitals were kept in the look-up table A table of conditions written as an top typecase and the small letters in the bottom instruction program.) ly by decompression. translation table. Windows infringed Apple’s copyright. in order to save disk loose proof Proof of one colour separation out of space and/or to shorten screen display times. In typesetting. low-level language In computer programming. its main look. long ton Imperial ton (2240lb). programs developed by Lotus. such as was mainly decided in Microsoft’s favour. write. font-width information. While some pared with the transmitted data. the opposite of lossless. The lost information is usually press. cedure. ered perfectly by decompression. but this low earth orbiting satellite (LEO satellite) A was not a commercial success. which allows organisations to share and tion of a user interface (usually a graphical user co-ordinate documents and exchange electronic interface or GUI) including such things as the mail messages. Contrast short-grain reduced.e. Examples of long grain Sheet of paper in which the grain lossless compression are the Unix compress and direction (or machine direction) runs parallel PKZIP. However. graphics are just low-resolution to begin with. loose leaf Binding which uses steel rings passing other graphics are created or scanned as com- through drilled holes in the paper to hold the plex. (See also computer-supported appearance and operation of menus. produces of bits used to represent that information. referred to as upper-case letters. and code con. Open PrePress Interface. in which the transmitted data stream is low resolution (Often shortened to low-res. assumed to be less important to the quality of long ink An ink that flows easily. look-up (or lower) case. The first cooperative work. sions. is long-grain publications. conventions for the mean.) The looped back to its source.) GUI was developed on the Xerox Star. More efficient than the loop. opposite of high resolution. (See also lossy compression. lossless compression A term describing a data LPM Lines per minute. as well as the number of travel of the printing cylinder. polar-orbiting satellite in a low orbit used for and-feel concepts being exploited in the Apple communication with hand portable terminals. those that make up all this sentence (except the lookthrough The finish or opacity of paper as first letter). or 1. allowing it to be recov- logo. which is with the longest side. high-level languages but more difficult to loopback A communications diagnostic pro. Apple sued Microsoft lower case Small letters as distinct from capitals. low-res versions are produced for use in page lossless Term describing a data compression make-up and placement of the image.12 short Lotus Notes A group of workflow application (US) tons. 109 . Also. so that it can be com. lpi See lines per inch. set printing). allowing it to be recovered perfect. multiple servers and between the server and the ing of different buttons on a mouse and the desktop client. the four (US). high-resolution images (probably for off- sheets together. 10pt. by IBM. of cold type. i.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 109 logotype Company name or product device used compression algorithm in which all the informa- in a special design as a trademark. a version when text is being transferred from one language closely related to the machine-code of system to another. approximately can be recovered reasonably by interpolation. A low-level language is convert- loop Series of computer instructions repeated ed by an assembler program into the final until a condition is reached which diverts from machine-code instructions. equal to 1. the computer. Usually algorithm in which all the information in a file the high-resolution version is merged using the is retained. the data (usually an image or audio) because it long primer Obsolete type size. Capitals are thus sometimes tables are used mainly for hyphenation deci.

Referring to fourth M generation computers which contain high- performance chips. Also known as a wet proof. the term was not meant translator for routine tasks. when that particular type paper machine. lurker Someone who participates in a mailing list MacBinary A data format used on the Macintosh. differ in how they manage the dictionary. Although occasional. magnetic tape. Yahoo. LZFG A Lempel-Ziv compression scheme. by reading but not machine-aided translation The use of a comput- contributing (or posting). e. machine readable Data that is in a form that can LZW compression See Lempel-Ziv Welch com. techniques. Lycos A World Wide Web index and search machine code Primary code used by the com- engine served by Carnegie Mellon University.) sheet when placed against one dimension. ing machine. (See also language or low-level language which is then AltaVista. machine fill A making of paper which uses the ber of variants of. to be pejorative and. In LZ77 compression. LZFG. Of the several algo. each incorporating from M 1. MAC Medium access control. normally with a part-mechanical base. phrase is found again. lie on the wire of a paper machine. (See also VLSI. casting machine which uses hand-assembled Mac Common abbreviation for the Apple matrices. along the giving the position of the phrase in the buffer web. ditions. Used to indicate several thousand to a quarter of a million com. LZ77 compression The first algorithm (proposed machine composition General term for composi- in 1977) to use the Lempel-Ziv substitutional tion of metal type using typecasting equipment. papers. a machine deckle Width of the wet web on a fixed-size ‘sliding window’ is moved over the papermaking machine. See medium access filmsetter.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 110 LQ Letter quality (applying to a daisywheel or laser printer). or Usenet newsgroup etc.e. indeed. but in a high-level content for a list of keywords. As distinct containing the data that has already been seen from the cross direction. main rival in the personal computing arena. There are a num. outputs the dictionary machine language See machine code.) translated by a separate translator program LZ compression See Lempel-Ziv compression. (See also LZ78. into machine code. and the length of the phrase. and improvements to. index instead of the phrase. i. including lha machine finished (MF) Smooth paper calen- and zip. Ludlow Proprietary name of a display-size type. Few programs are written It allows users to search on document title and directly in machine code. Macintosh computer.) machine glazed (MG) Glossy finish to one side LZ78 compression A Lempel-Ziv substitutional of paper obtained by drying against the pol- compression scheme which enters phrases in a ished surface of a heated cylinder of a yankee- dictionary and then. be read directly by a machine via floppy disk or pression. data and when a phrase is encountered that has machine direction The direction in which fibres already been seen. the machine proof Proof made by printing from best known scheme is the Lempel-Ziv Welch plates. a pair of values is output. 2. control. machine clothing The various felts and wire lwc Lightweight coated (paper). puter’s processor. Huffman coding. the full width of the machine deckle. which mainly ning of a printing machine. Also called grain direction.g. the machine direction (grain direction) of a ponents. machine minder Printer who supervises the run- rithms based on this principle. MAC address The hardware address of a device Lumitype Proprietary name of a now obsolete connected to a network. beginners are machine binding Binding by machine rather encouraged to ‘lurk’ so as to become familiar than manually. as opposed to using plastic proofing (LZW) variant of LZ78. 890(M)3 1130 is a short-grain sheet. All popular archivers. dered on the paper machine. method. LSI Large-scale integration. compression schemes. Abbreviation for 1000. luminous Inks or paints which glow in dark con.Dic. As distinct from PC. with a given community or group. Refers to coated materials on a paper machine. machine coated Paper coated on the papermak- which are 60gsm or lighter in substance. its luminance See brightness. are variations on LZ77. er to aid translation by relieving the human ly used in such a way. 110 .

) offended against the rules of netiquette. Used in educational pack. mag 1. If the area is to be overwritten. macros can be written essentially as small com. processors. can take parameters such as a text string or a mail-bomb To send. sender uses a single address and the mail magnetic card A wordprocessing recording exploder distributes the message to the indi- medium. ters were involved. mail Often used to mean sending a message via puter programs. 2. showing four-colour process printing. aiming to crash the recipient’s Macromedia Director One of the multimedia system. email systems. but also to made ends See joints. tion systems) to read characters printed in This was particularly true if non-ASCII charac- magnetic ink for rapid input to a computer. One of the colours used in used in a Domain Name Server. magneto-optical A hybrid technology that is used Macintosh See Mac. magnesium bisulphite rather than calcium mail exploder The part of an email system which bisulphite in the cooking process. Also a program ditional expressions. with appropriate programs. The magnetic head See read-write head. marking and identifying cheques. MICR is used extensively in banking for against the press proof. mail gateway A gateway between two or more face coating onto which data may be recorded. The magne. where neces- See floppy disk. a directory or a mes- magazine 1. email to a specific recipient. a series of commands can be change as the equivalent area on a standard mag- ‘recorded’ and then can be ‘played’ to create netic disk. transferring and. used in var.Dic. e. hard disk. by using either a function key. ages. When typesetting programs such as TEX. i. perhaps together with others. In an inter. Data stor- macro A combination of commands.g. including functions and con. mail exchange record (MX record) A record type magenta Process red. as well as in text formatting or re-orients the relevant magnetic domains. but in macron Mark (-) printed above a long or stressed turn is itself a breech of netiquette. the disk. machining Printing.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 111 machine revise Printed sheet for checking forge. many other people and systems. which host can handle email for a specific magnefite pulp A sulphite pulp made using domain. Magazine. then it is a menu command or a button. Mail- Macromedia. 111 . sary translating. age is magnetic. The actual way in which this will hap- applications development packages from pen will vary from system to system. messages between them. in compact disc-recordable (CD-R). Used on cheques. (See also mail gate- magazine supplement Magazine inserted in a way. Regularly appearing publication sage queue on a specific system in which (typically weekly or monthly) covering a subject incoming email messages are stored for a par- area with less topicality than a newspaper but ticular user or for distribution to a mailing list with current events and fashions considered. Macintosh that. magnetic disk A disk with a magnetisable sur. the laser beam heats ious kinds of interactive programs. Authorware from the same com. interline a huge number of email messages to one person spacing or typesize. The use of MIME has virtu- Because magnetic-ink characters are difficult to ally solved that problem. (See used against someone who has apparently also Shockwave. translation can sometimes be quite complex and magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) The in early mail gateways there were often prob- ability of suitable devices (character recogni. inconvenience not only to the target. word. again heated by the ‘writing’ laser. enables multiple mailing and mailing lists. magnetic inks Inks with magnetic content that can MacinTalk The speech synthesis utility on the be read by electronic sensing. or to a system. or via a mail server. magnetic tape Narrow tape magnetically coated makes things talk. The sium waste liquor can be chemically recovered. causing vowel. lems with characters being lost or mistranslated. Container for storing matrices of a linecasting mail bridge A gateway that forwards email mes- machine. it becomes twice as resistant to active program. the very small area involved before it ‘writes’. sages between networks. vidual addresses in the list. in that it is pany provides an alternative approach. 2. mailbox (or mail box) A file. value for such items as page number.e.) newspaper. However. The more complex macros running under the Berkeley version of Unix. A lower-power laser is used to ‘read’ the same effect. for the storage in serial form of computer data. Alternatively. this area cools. bombing is rather like ‘road rage’. Magnetic (as in tape). Winchester disk.

used for endpapers of books. Majordomo A widely used freeware mailing list MAP See Manufacturers Automation Protocol.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 112 mailing list List of names and addresses to one kind of fractal image. (See also TOP. using electronic money. who discovered the fractal mailing piece Promotional material mailed out. the message passes. Imitation marbled paper is normal paper specifications needing to be made specially printed with this pattern by litho: this is the rather than withdrawn from stock. floating on a viscous gum solution. mail forwarding function. Interface. servers were used before Internet access was so Manufacturers Automation Protocol (MAP) An wide. printers and pub- mation in response to email requests. marked section A section of an SGML document nique in which a negative-to-positive voltage that is to be treated in a special. It is named after which mailing pieces can be sent. Another fractal set is the mail merge A wordprocessing utility enabling Julia set. reader has marked corrections. matter on a page. when informa. where the developed by ITU-T for telecommunications route is determined at each host through which applications. written copy for setting. Benoit Mandelbrot. mall A set of linked URLs on the World Wide marginalia Marginal notes. spelling. Mail lishers. (See also bank. pub- times to protect the identity of the recipient. Web. copy. design. type displayed sequentially as keyboarded. management information base (MIB) The col. which give information about commer. developed by or File Transfer Protocol (ftp). Typed or hand- mainframe Large computer. the title of a book on a con- Mandelbrot set A mathematical set representing signment of paper sent to a printer to show the 112 . such as a router. name and address files to be merged with a text manifold paper A lightweight paper used for file containing a letter. used by American editors. applications-layer application for office tion is easily available via the World Wide Web automation over networks. sort more commonly used. They are less used today. Manchester encoding A digital encoding tech. margin guides The non-printing dotted lines in cial products and services for sale that can DTP programs which mark the basic margins often be purchased using credit cards or special of the page within which the text is fitted. as part of SNMP active condition of the receiving device. margins Areas of white space left around printed MAN See metropolitan area network.) mail path (Or source route. manner. into a bath containing liquid pigment colours make-up Making-up typeset material into pages. such as First Virtual.g. making-up Assembly of printed sections prior to marching display Visual display of one line of sewing. True mar- make-ready Setting up a printing machine ready bled paper is made by hand: paper is dipped to run a specific job. e. lished by the University of Chicago Press. MAPI See Microsoft Mail Application Program majuscule Capital or upper-case letter. copies or for airmail. Also typescript.) rial to a list of names and addresses. principle and this set. One banking services. This is Man-Machine Language (MML) A language infrequently used on the Internet. or by of three sorts of page layout guide. manual Book giving instructions about a tech- mail reflector An email address that provides a nique or details of operation of a device. by Compare space. makegood Periodical advertisement re-run marbled paper Paper covered with a marbled because the original was faulty.) An email address manila A tough paper made from hemp and which gives the route of a message. listing the often used for envelopes. usually condi- transition within a fixed period indicates a tional. General Motors on the basis of the OSI model mail shot A single sending of promotional mate. either if the recipient Manual of Style Instruction manual covering has moved (or just changed address) or some. mark A data circuit impulse corresponding to the lection of objects managed. based on token bus. hyphenation and punctuation. and mail server A program that sends files or infor. marked proof The proof on which the printer’s work component. binary 0 and a positive-to-negative voltage markings or marks Identifying description writ- transition indicates a binary 1.Dic. hostnames through which it must pass. an agent or piece of software running in a net. processor that runs under Unix. ten onto a label. manuscript Abbreviated to MS. and then making order An order for paper to particular dried. (Simple Network Management Protocol).

(See also marked proof. kbps. reversed out illustra.) markup language A language (or metalanguage) matt or matte Dull finish. In colour film make-up. masking meant the use of colour com. in a draw program. touches a mark.) metal or plastic coils. from which copies thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Original tape. design and kept independently from the text mechanical tint Patterned sheet which can pro- itself. the basic page layout. Compare baseline. on specific objects. McCain sewing See side-sewing. (See also unsharp mechanical binding Binding held together by masking. mean line Imaginary line which runs along the ic colours).) grams). when the Matchprint Proprietary dry proof. A plate for a duplication machine.g. either electronically or mechanically. x-line. audio and video. tion. mechanical paper Paper made from mechanical lishing. to undergo tint-laying. which conducts electricity. As dis- applying a trimask or other specially made tinct from CD (cross direction). usually than a small part of it. The mouse is held down MBONE See Multicast Backbone. masking is top of the lower-case letters in a line of text. designed to formalise the markup process for mature Acclimatise paper to pressroom humidi- text. as distinct from glossy. by magnetic disk or magnetic drum which is capa. Also called conditioning. each character is represented by a dot pattern. an electrical contact is matrix Also ‘matrice’. markup Instructions on a layout or copy for the matrix printer or dot matrix printer One in which compositor to follow when typesetting or mak. machine direction.) mark sensing A technique for reading into a masthead Graphic device which displays a computer pencil marks on specially prepared newspaper’s name on the front page. mass storage device Backing storage such as mechanical pulp Pulp produced mechanically. disk. chemi-thermo- will be made. grinding. resizes a window to fill the full screen rather marquee A method of selecting objects.) masking paper See goldenrod paper. a series of small metal Cromalin. original and less liable to colour correction (e. 2. million bits per second. similar to a mark sense reader. sent. mechanical separations Separate colour overlays held in memory as a job template for the in register with each other. ing up pages. There are sev- ble of holding large amounts of data. general-interest paperbacks. See stone groundwood mechanical master 1. master page grid In DTP.) (See also daisywheel printer. Transfer rate of one (indicated in different ways in different pro. (See also spiral binding. MD In papermaking. MCI Mail A large commercial email service. duce tonal effects on line work. and moved. 113 . as an alternative to clicking Mb Abbreviation for megabyte. eral sorts. masking out unwanted areas on film. mechanical composition See machine composi- masking tape A translucent adhesive tape for tion. (See also electronic markup. Interface. Because the pencil marks contain mat See matrix. face is cast or photographic master of type font. mask Opaque overlay which masks out the un. mechanical Camera-ready paste-up (US). pulp (SGW). film etc. including links to multimedia items. brushes. but named after the US company pensation techniques during the separation MCI which operates the service. masking In process colour origination using a Note that this is not related to Media Control camera. refiner mechanical pulp (RMP). which are measure Length of line of type. process to achieve results more faithful to the MCR Magnetic character reading. MCI See Media Control Interface. ket irregularities. Mould from which type- made and thus the mark is detected. forms. graphics. Everything that is completely within MCA See Micro Channel Architecture.Dic. mask to an original to reduce contrast or MDI See Multiple Document Interface. mechanical pulp (CTMP). laser printer. wanted portion of a photograph. such as maximise button In Windows applications. graphite.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 113 printer the use for which the paper has been master proof Printer’s proof or reader’s proof. (See also bps. Also. the rectangle is selected. in book pub. Markup languages also give facilities for ty. reversed lettering etc. forming a rectangle on the screen Mbps Megabit(s) per second. mass market Broadly based market. pulp. the process of marking out specified areas. enhance detail in separate areas and for specif. rather than chemically. mechanical ghosting Ghosting caused by blan- massaging Manipulation of copy on a VDU.

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media The materials onto which data can be bar across the top of the screen or a window,
recorded, i.e. floppy disk, magnetic tape etc. containing the names of pull-down menus.
Media Control Interface (MCI) A standard con- menu-driven Software program laid out in the
trol interface for multimedia devices and files, initial form of a number of questions to which
used under Windows. the user replies in order to action the program.
media converter Device which reads from one merge Combine two or more files into one.
medium (normally a disk) and translates its message handling system (MHS) The services
content in order to output to another medium and protocols that provide OSI email, speci-
(often a disk). (See also multi-disk reader.) fied in the ITU-T X.400 series of recommenda-
media data form Method of presenting informa- tions and also defined as the Message-
tion about a publication for use by advertisers Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS)
for comparison with other publications. by ISO. It is used by CompuServe.
Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard
Technology One of the leading research organ- (MOTIS) The ISO version of MHS.
isations concerned with developments in mul- message switching A method of transmission in
timedia and communications. Headed by which messages are stored at an intermediate
Nicholas Negroponte. switching centre until a channel is available for
Media Player A Windows utility which allows them to be transmitted to their final destina-
both audio and video files to be replayed. tion. (See also packet switching.)
medium The means of conveying something; an meta An HTML tag, defining metadata, which is
intermediate. used by many of the World Wide Web search
medium access control (MAC) A protocol for con- engines, either as part of the indexing or as
trolling access to a specific network. Part of the part of a keyword search.
IEEE 802 network standards. The lower portion metadata Often called information about informa-
of the datalink layer, OSI layer 2. Essentially the tion. Structured data which describes types of
interface between a computer and a network, information. Often used for searching, e.g. using
determining which unit transmits at any par- the Z39.50 protocol, although the data may not
ticular time. (See also MAC address, logical actually form part of the viewable document.
link control.) metafile See Windows Metafile Format.
megabyte (Mb) One million computer bytes or, Metafont A font design and generation package
more loosely, one million characters. As contin- which is a companion to the TEX typesetting
uous text in disk storage terms, this works out language.
at around 150000 words or two average-length metalanguage A (computer) language in which
novels. See also kilobyte. the logic and statements of another language
Megafloppy A text compression technique, devel- are discussed and specified. SGML, e.g., is a
oped by Eurofield Systems, Australia, designed metalanguage in that it specifies how to do
to enable the publication of large amounts of things, rather than what to do.
data on floppy disk. The technique also provides metallic inks Inks containing metallic powders
encryption, so that the files may be transferred to to give a gold or silver printed effect. Best
hard disk and accessed, without decompression, printed in conjunction with a primer.
but so that the data cannot be copied or accessed metamerism In colour printing, used to describe
without a PIN number. the phenomenon whereby certain colours shift
melinex Thick, polyester-based film. in hue under different lighting conditions.
memory Internal storage of a computer. The metric system The decimal system of measure-
memory of a computer is where it finds its ment. See Appendix.
instructions and the data it is to work with, as metropolitan area network (MAN) A network
well as where it stores its results. It is organised linking users that usually covers an area the size
as a series of locations or cells each of which of a city. Often implemented using optical fibre.
can hold one computer word. The locations are (See also SMDS, SONET, local area network,
given numbers which enable the computer to wide area network.)
identify their positions. See RAM, ROM. mezzotint Form of print created by removing a
menu A type of user interface in which the user roughened surface to a greater or lesser degree
is presented with a series of options, from from a specially burred metal plate, thus creat-
which he or she can select, either with a mouse ing areas of continuous tone; used to simulate
or by entering a text string, often just a number. the effect of painting. By extension, a form of
menu bar In a graphical user interface (GUI), the half-tone screen which imitates this effect.


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MF See machine finished. micrometre One-thousandth of a millimetre.
MG See machine glazed. micron Alternative term for micrometre.
mg Milligram. One-thousandth of a gram. micropayments See microbilling.
MHEG See Multimedia/Hypermedia Information microprocessor See microcomputer.
Coding Experts Group. microsecond One-millionth part of a second.
MHS See Message Handling System. Measurement used in computing. Compare
MHz One million hertz. nanosecond, millisecond.
MIB See management information base. Microsoft Corporation The world’s largest soft-
MICR See magnetic ink character recognition. ware company. Was first successful in writing
microbilling A billing technique, gradually PC-DOS (which became MS-DOS), the opera-
being introduced on the Internet, which allows ting system used by PCs, under contract to IBM.
small amounts due (micropayments, e.g. for Later products include MS Windows, Windows
download of an item of information or soft- NT and LAN Manager, as well as many appli-
ware) to be accumulated and invoiced together cations software products.
at the end of an agreed period. Microsoft Mail Application Program Interface
Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) (Or just (MAPI) Microsoft’s email system developed
‘micro channel’.) An expansion bus used in for local area networks (LANs). (See also VIM.)
PCs, now superseded by later technologies, Microsoft Network (MSN) An online service pro-
such as local bus. viding information, weather reports, database
microchip See chip. links to the Internet and email for Windows 95
Microcom Networking Protocol (MNP) A series users.
of widely used modem protocols, which Microsoft Windows See Windows.
include compression and error correction. (See MICR paper Magnetic ink character recogni-
also V series.) tion paper.
microcomputer Small computer, usually without middle space or mid space A letterpress spacing
multi-user capabilities except when forming piece equal to one-quarter of a ‘mutton’ or em
part of a network. space.
Microcosm Software developed at the University middleware Software that is used between an
of Southampton for automatically inserting application program and a network or between
cross-references into electronic and multimedia a client and a server in order to allow appli-
documents. The Open Journal Project is using cations to have standard user interfaces and yet
an extension of this software, now released be usable across heterogeneous platforms and
commercially as Webcosm, to develop auto- networks.
matic cross-referencing for electronic journals. MIDI See Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
microdot A very small dot. Microdots generated mid-level network (Also called regional net-
during stochastic screening, e.g., vary from work.) The networks of the Internet that con-
10–20 microns in size (a 20 micron dot would nect the stub networks to the backbone net-
be around the smallest generated in conven- works.
tional AM screening using a 150 screen ruling). mid tones or middle tones Tonal ranges between
microelite Small size of typewriter type: 15 char- highlights and shadows.
acters per inch. millboard True millboard is a very dense, hard
microfiche A sheet of film onto which text and board used in stationery binding and for archival
images are photographically reduced. Usually use. The term millboard is sometimes used to
1053148mm, holding 420 A4 sheets. (See also describe normal caseboards, which are more
microfilm, microform.) properly grey board or unlined chipboard.
microfilm A roll of film, usually 35mm, onto mill conditioned Paper conditioned for normal
which text and images are photographically atmospheric humidity. See conditioning.
reduced. Computer output on microfilm mill finished See machine finished.
(COM) is a common form of archival storage, mill glazed See machine glazed.
although it is being superseded by computer milligram One-thousandth of a gram.
output onto laser disk (COLD) and document millimetre One-thousandth of a metre.
image processing (DIP). (See also microform.) millisecond One-thousandth part of a second.
microform Generic name for media onto which Measurement used in computing. Abbreviated
text or images are photographically reduced. to ms. Compare nanosecond, microsecond.
The main examples are microfiche and micro- mill waste Broke and other by-products of a
film. paper mill’s normal making processes which


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can be recycled within the mill. Paper made misprint Typographical error.
using mill waste as a majority furnish should misregister One colour or more printed out of
not really be termed recycled even though it alignment with other colours.
sometimes is. mitre 45° angle join at corners of metal rules.
Milnet Military Network. Part of the US Defense mixed furnish Referring to papers which have
Data Network. Also part of the Internet. mechanical and woodfree pulps in their fur-
MIME See Multipurpose Internet Mail nish. See part-mechanical paper.
Extensions. mixing Usually applied to typefaces of different
mimencode (Originally ‘mmencode’.) An im- fonts in one line of text.
provement on uuencode for use in email. mm Millimetre.
Uuencode uses some characters that become mmencode The original name for mimencode.
corrupted across certain mail gateways (partic- MML See Man-Machine Language.
ularly those converting to and from EBCDIC). MMX An extra set of instructions built into later
Uuencode also has a number of variants. (1997) versions of Intel’s Pentium microproces-
Mimencode is more robust. sors to support operations on multimedia and
mini See minicomputer. communications data types. They can handle
miniature A small-scale, minutely finished portrait many common multimedia operations, such as
or similar illustration in a medieval manuscript. digital signal processing, normally handled by
mini-cassette Used as a backing storage device, a separate sound card or video card. Intel states
usually in smaller portable computers. These that this is not an acronym for MultiMedia
cassettes are similar in design to those used in eXtension, but an Intel brand name.
pocket dictation machines. mnemonic codes Easily remembered codes:
minicomputer Small but powerful computer, abbreviations or tags which suggest their
usually dedicated to one job rather than gener- meanings (e.g. bd1 = bold style 1).
al data processing. MNP See Microcom Networking Protocol.
minifloppy disk A name given to 5¼0 floppy Mobile Station International ISDN Number
disks to identify them as different from (MSISDN) The telephone number (0902
80 floppy disks. As 5¼0 disks became the type XXXXXX) dialled to contact a mobile user.
in widest use the term fell into misuse. Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) A telephone
minimise button In Windows applications, exchange for a cellular network.
turns a window into an icon at the foot of the mock-up A layout or rough of artwork. Also
screen. called a visual.
minion Obsolete term for 7pt type. mod A filename extension for a sampled music
Minitel The French viewdata system provided file format, which is made up of digitised
free by the French telephone system as a way of sound samples (unlike MIDI files), arranged in
obtaining directory information. However, patterns to create a song.
Minitel is now widely used to provide infor- modelling tint A tint added to pure white to
mation on a range of services. make it brighter, usually blue or red.
mini-web Small web offset machine typically modem or modulator/demodulator Device
producing 16pp A4 colour sections (8p A4 to which converts analogue communication (e.g.
view). Also known as narrow-web, or half-size telephone transmission) into digital form and
press. vice versa. Modem transmission speeds are
minuscule or miniscule Lower case letter. rated in kbps. Common ratings are 14.4 and
mips Millions of instructions per second. 28.8. By comparison, the data rate of ISDN
Measurement of computer processing speed. transmission goes from 64 upwards.
mirror An Internet archive site holding a copy of moderated The term describing mailing lists and
files from another site, so as to allow users to newsgroups which are edited and managed by
access them more quickly, as well as reducing a moderator.
the load on the source site. Usually whole direc- moderator A person or persons editing and man-
tories are mirrored in a structured way, e.g. to aging a moderated mailing list or Usenet
provide access in Europe or the UK to a US newsgroup. The moderator will read all incom-
source. This is different from a cache or proxy ing submissions and decide which ones will be
server, which just stores everything which is sent out to the mailing list or newsgroup.
requested through it, to speed up subsequent Modern Late 18th century typestyle, also called
access. The term is also used to describe dupli- Didone.
cation of storage on disk, e.g. in RAID systems. modern figures See lining figures.


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modular Hardware system capable of being monospaced Letters which have all the same
expanded by adding on compatible devices. set widths, as in typewriter faces or non-
modulated Subject to modulation. WYSIWYG VDU screen displays.
modulation The modification of the amplitude, monotone Illustrative material in one colour.
frequency or phase of an analogue carrier wave Monotype Proprietary name of a hot metal type-
so that information can be transmitted. See casting machine which assembles characters
amplitude modulation. individually rather than line-by-line.
modulator Device which modifies the aplitude, montage Several images assembled into one
frequency or phase of an analogue carrier wave piece of artwork.
so that information can be transmitted. MOO See under Multi-User Dimension.
moiré An undesirable pattern that can appear in moral right Right of editors or illustrators to
graphic images; a result of the superimposition have some influence on the publication of a
of one regular pattern or screen on another, so work they have contributed to, even when they
that interference takes place, causing a period- do not own the copyright.
ic variation of intensity. It is similar to the phe- morgue Newspaper reference library.
nomenon of ‘beats’, which occurs with sound. morocco Goatskin with fine grain for bookbinding.
(See also aliasing.) morphing The gradual distortion of one image
moisture content Amount of moisture in paper, into another by moving points on the original
expressed as a percentage of weight. A mois- image to certain corresponding points in the
ture content of around 7–8% is recommended second image. Used in animation software.
for printing papers in optimum press room (Compare with tweening.)
conditions (20°C, 55–65% RH). Mosaic An early World Wide Web browser or
moisture welts Wrinkles in a paper roll caused client from NCSA, which runs on a number of
by moisture absorption after drying. different platforms. Has been largely super-
molleton Cotton material used on damping seded by Netscape Navigator (developed by
rollers. the same team) and by Internet Explorer.
Mondex Electronic money scheme first trialled in motherboard The printed circuit board contain-
Swindon. ing the main components of a computer. See
monitor Screen which displays the operations of add-on board, expansion board.
a machine in real time. Mother of Chapel See under FOC.
monk Dark printed area resulting from too much Motif The standard graphical user interface
ink being added, contrast friar. (GUI) for Unix systems, based on X windows.
mono See monochrome. Motion Picture Encoding Group Another name
monochrome Literally means one colour, often for the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG).
black on white (although see bilevel bitmap), MOTIS See Message-Oriented Text Interchange
but used for grey scales. Used to describe black Standard.
and white printers and displays, which will mottle Uneven printing in solid areas caused by
usually be white, green or orange on black, or poor ink or uneven absorption characteristics
black on white. A grey-scale monitor displays a in the paper.
range of grey values, not just black or white, mould See matrix.
even though there is still no colour. mould-made paper Paper either made by hand,
monogram Device made from the linking together or made on a cylinder mould machine.
of two or more letters, usually someone’s initials. mount Base of wood or metal which supports a
monograph Academic book concerned with a letterpress printing plate.
single specialised subject or aspect of it. mouse Small electronic puck which may be
monoline Typeface with all strokes appearing to moved laterally and vertically on a plain flat
have the same thickness, e.g. Univers. surface to control the movement of a cursor on
monomode fibre A type of optical fibre that has a VDU screen. (See also puck, trackball.)
a very fine core, the diameter of which is mouse mat A mat on which a mouse can be moved
approximately the wavelength of light. There is around. For a mechanical mouse, this is usually
very low dispersion of the optical signal and a plastic surface on a foam-rubber backing, while
therefore monomode fibres are used for high for an optical mouse, the surface is usually a
bandwidths over long distances. (Compare firmer plastic carrying a grid ruled in two
with multimode fibre.) dimensions.
Monophoto Proprietary name of an early British moveable type Type cast as individual metal
phototypesetting system. units, contrast slug.


See Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Experts Group (MHEG) An ISO group work- MUD See Multi-User Dimension. MPEG-1 syntax worked satisfactorily for HDTV. Multimedia became wide- PC and its clones. MPEG format. although MS-DOS commands can still more over the World Wide Web. Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) (Also multicast addressing An addressing scheme called Motion Picture Encoding Group. Note that Windows 95 and ly available with the development of the CD- Windows NT run as operating systems them. multicast and multimedia transmission. the interactive use of these various ms See millisecond. media converter. but this keeps MPEG See Moving Pictures Experts Group. The quality is sion of Mosaic. after it had been multi-layer headbox A headbox which distrib- developed. This may involve the use of MSC See Mobile Switching Centre. Implemented over the Internet as MBONE. which was optimised for CD-ROM. although the audio quality multidrop A network configuration which has is not as high. such as MS-DOS The operating system used on the IBM SGML and HTML. based on sam. vision resolutions and frame rates. hypertext and generic coding schemes. See first using JPEG still compression. the colours.) An used to send packets over Ethernet to all ISO standard for coding full-motion video devices of a certain type or as a broadcast to all information in a compressed form. it was later discovered that with utes up to three different layers of stock onto some (compatible) fine tuning. when it was first designed as a ver. but is now being exploited more and selves. multi-tasking to be incorporated into the MPEG-3 A development of MPEG-2 to handle System 7 operating system.) MPEG which runs on top of the Internet and supports can also be used for audio files. HDTV applications. multicast IP See IP-Multicast. HDTV is now handled under MPEG-2. of disks in different formats and translates their MPEG-1 will give quality which is at least as content to output disks. graphics. ROM. ing on the development of standards for bit- mu-law A companding scheme. Also. multiple stations. (See MPEG-1. MSISDN See Mobile Station International Multimedia/Hypermedia Information Coding ISDN Number. audio and video. However. Multilith Proprietary name of a small offset Because of this and pressures for standardi. shared whiteboard Navigator. not very good. (See also multipoint. mull Muslin fabric fixed to the back of a case- ing images in which each frame is compressed bound book under the spine covering. MPEG-2. telecommunications data rates low. press once in wide use. is no agreed standard for moving JPEG. using such be accessed in a window. Audio is multi-disk reader Machine which reads a variety also compressed using sub-band encoding. essentially keeping only infor. MPEG-1 The first version of the MPEG format. MS See manuscript. In general terms. done offline while retrieval is performed in real multicast backbone (MBONE) A virtual network time. 118 . but ensures that only one can MPEG-2 An improved version of MPEG-1 transmit at any one time. media together. Encoding is nodes. there multicast A form of broadcast in which packets are chips available that are appropriate for tele. facilities as MBONE and MPEG compression. for analogue-to-digital conversion of hypermedia. and shared editing of documents. sation. It works in multicode One keystroke which generates sever- a similar way to JPEG to compress data within al commands. television is about 10 times that). inclu- Mozilla An alternative name for Netscape ding videoconferencing. Now also includes HDTV. speech. Although there and second linings.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 118 moving JPEG A compression technique for mov. at about 3–5 fps (commercial MPC See Multimedia Personal Computer.) intended for broadcasting compressed video MultiFinder The Macintosh utility which allows over satellites.Dic. MPEG-2 and the wire simultaneously. multimedia Initially a human-computer inter- mpg The usual filename extension for a file in face term describing interactions with text. stream specifications for multimedia and pling. are delivered only to specified destinations. It is used in PCM CODECs (COder/ Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) DECoder) in the US telephone network. a frame and then uses block-based motion multicolour keyline artwork Baseboard art- compensated prediction (MCP) to remove data work with overlays to show the divisions of between frames. however. good as VHS video. mation that changes between frames. MPEG-3.

e. In the latter case the multiplexer is also setting house and another.g. MIME works automatical- monomode fibre and is cheaper to manufac. tasks simultaneously. set of ASCII. Munsell system A colour gradation system multipoint A network configuration in which a which uses numbers for identification. accessible via the Internet or a telephone line. Used in tele. image files. In fact. Dungeon. computer uses time-slicing to switch between Multiple Mastering A font technology developed applications.Dic. software and that they can be transmitted via a common data files. The signals are combined at the a modem. If the inputs MUD. MUD. ty published by the Multimedia PC Marketing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Council. This means that any pdf file can be before implementing a second. which enables individual actions within an played and the specified font is neither installed application to run simultaneously. multiprocessing Computer operation of several fication covering hardware and interoperabili.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 119 Multimedia Personal Computer (MPC) A speci. 119 . then line Multi-User Domain See Multi-User Dimension. An example displayed with an Acrobat viewer. multiplexer or multiplexor (mux) A device that multi-user Computer system allowing multiple combines (see multiplexing) several signals so users access to the same machine. (pdf). Multiple Document Interface (MDI) Describes multi-tasking The ability of a computer to work applications in Windows that allow more than with more than one program at a time without one document (file) to be used at the same time. change. and so on) in an email mes- than one wavelength. sessions). bandwidth of any input. known as a concentrator. Also used as an abbreviation for to ensure that only one station transmits at any Multi-User Shared Environment. although all the applications Acrobat and the portable document format slow down to a greater or lesser extent. frequency division multiplex. might be a draw program. then the bandwidth must umes. be at least the total bandwidth of all those active mump To move/copy fonts between one type- inputs. where it is unneces- multiple subNyquist sampling encoding sary to wait for the screen to redraw after each (MUSE) A Japanese coding system for HDTV. the name originally being based on transmitter by a multiplexer and split up again ‘Dungeons and Dragons’. bandwidth needs only to be the maximum Multi-User Dungeon See Multi-User Dimension.) A type of multi-player interactive nals for transmission over a shared medium. A MOO is an object-oriented and code division multiplexing. a kind of one time. physical transmission medium. in different or carbonless. if inputs are multivolume A work consisting of several vol- active simultaneously. However. since first being launched in 1979. also been used as conferencing tools and edu- ing (FDM). wavelength division multiplexing cational aids. until it is full. the See active document. implies that the CD can be writ- simultaneous copying.) Multi-User Domain and originally Multi-User multiplexing The combination of a number of sig. Uses and is therefore used for lower bandwidths mimencode to encode binary data using a sub- over shorter distances. Multi-User Dimension (MUD) (Also called phone systems. However. any further action from the user. multi-part stationery Continuous stationery multisession When applied to a WORM CD or with each piece made of two or more sheets for similar device. so that it is on the viewing system nor included as part of not necessary to wait for the result of one action the pdf file. with carbons between ten to on different occasions (i. e. (See also demultiplexer. Common gone various developments and modifications forms of multiplexing are time division multi. communications channel is connected to more MUSE See multiple subNyquist sampling than two stations. but this happens so fast that users by Adobe Systems for use in conjunction with are unaware of it. use the output channel in turn (TDM). ly only if both sending and receiving mail-han- ture. Multidrop operation is used encoding. adventure game. MUDs have plexing (TDM). (MIME) An email standard that permits the multimode fibre Optical fibre with a core that is inclusion of non-text files (programs in binary capable of propagating light signals of more form. it introduces more dispersion dling programs are MIME-compliant. The game has under- at the receiver by a demultiplexer. Multiple Mastering allows the generation multi-threading An addition to multi-tasking of a substitute font when a pdf document is dis. It has a larger core than sage as attachments.

technical. communications and to cover all aspects of infor- mylar Polyester film made by Du Pont and used mation. NAT See network address translator. name resolution Mapping an Internet name into National Science Foundation (NSF) A US gov- its corresponding address. National Information Services and Systems (NISS) An information archive service. engi- narrowband The opposite of broadband. Compare microsec. neering and business-related information.) National Institute of Standards and Technology N (NIST) US government body that is involved in the development of standards. (See also Domain Name System. national characters An expression used for char- sizers interact. but other information can be added. e. in contrast to broadcast. National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) nanosecond One-thousand-millionth part of a A high-speed hierarchical ‘network of networks’ second. A MIDI interface is required and is standard on National Information Infrastructure (NII) (Or the some Macintoshes.) narrow-web See mini-web. material finish. synthesizer or computer. navigate Generally. (See also BIDS. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards. NAK See negative acknowledgement. together with the pitch and vol. each channel being based on a nationwide network of broadband separately editable. ume. SECAM. Gener. public and private networks.) to refer to the format itself (30 fps with 525 lines Transmission of information to a defined group per frame). natural Description of a kind of case-covering NAS See Network Application Support. based at the University of Bath. millisecond. structure and trans.) NSFNET is funded by NSF. communication and entertainment. name server See Domain Name Server. sored and worldwide scientific. which is intended to give all is ‘note on/off’.g. to find one’s way around. communication and computing resources. The UK equivalent is PAL. listed in ISO 8859. National Center for Supercomputing Applications However. Americans access to the country’s information. depending on the user’s experience. nap The raised pile on the surface of fabrics or National Technical Information Service (NTIS) rough paper. a fully quali. ally applied to networks with bandwidths less National Television Standards Committee than either 2 Mbps or 34 Mbps. Similar to SuperJANET in academic community. 120 . fund- speed. and fund the advancement of science. NII is planned to include all current and future mux See multiplexer. as well as satellite MX record See mail exchange record. which written languages. signal format used in the US. national press Newspapers with a countrywide circulation. NTSC is also used narrowcast (Also described as ‘personalcast’.) The planned inte- a standard piano-type keyboard or synthesizer grated communications structure of the US. the UK. The definition is (NTSC) The body defining the television video fuzzy.Dic.) A standard covering how of Mosaic was developed. It is then possible to input at information superhighway. MIDI covers both the hardware acters of the Roman alphabet with accents and and the protocols for how music is encoded and other diacritical marks that are used in certain transferred between different devices. computers and musical instruments or synthe. for stripping positives. They are may be an instrument. but not in English. National Research and Education Network Name Registration Scheme (NRS) A scheme (NREN) A high-bandwidth network in the US. and edit the music on-screen. The basic unit of information networks. devoted to high-performance computing and lation of names of network services in the UK communications. defining the organisation. The ond. (See also of recipients. NSFNET forms part of the Internet. intended primarily for UK educational institutions. Abbreviated to ns. The official resource for US government-spon- nap roller Leather-covered ink roller. often used of hypertext systems and. ed by the National Science Foundation. Measurement of computer processing in the US (maximum bandwidth 45 Mbps).pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 120 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) (NCSA) The organisation where the first version (Pronounced ‘middy’. The mutton An em quad. ernment agency whose purpose is to promote fied domain name into its network address.

network commands issued by an application ND No date. and events related to Usenet and the Internet. Andreessen. negative assembly Combining negatives on a Netscape See Netscape Communications Corp- flat ready for platemaking. Netscape negative-positive print The standard colour ‘en’ Navigator. nested indent A left or right indent applied to a Netscape Navigator A World Wide Web browser 121 . sub- station to a transmitting station. Mainly refers to neg Abbreviation for negative. among others. main body text.Dic. meaning no fixed date mentioned program and interpreted by a network operat- in publishers’ reports as to when a book will be ing system. The network transport layer protocol relating NE New edition. face (API) which controls network operations NC varnish Nitrocellulose varnish: a high-gloss on PCs running under MS-DOS. previous transmission(s) has not been received NetNews A weekly publication that gives news correctly. the sheet below when written or typed on. Netscape Netcaster. the conventions recognised on Usenet and in negative Reverse photographic image on film. (See also offside lay. intended to be used either publicly or privately. mailing lists. published. works. Also used as a prefix to describe people NBA Net Book Agreement. Netscape Collabra An information exchange negative-working plates Litho plates which are forum that is part of Netscape Communicator. and email information. by printing a line and then reprinting it to Netcaster See Netscape Netcaster. retail price dictated by the publisher. Netscape Communicator A suite of software NEP New edition in preparation. which in the World Wide to highlight a piece of extract setting within Web are implemented using HTML and HTTP. Marc author of ‘Being Digital’. Net Book Agreement Agreement in the publish- near letter quality (NLQ) The top level of quali. negative acknowledgement (NAK) A mnemonic netmask A 32-bit mask that shows how an for ASCII character 21. Netscape Navigator the Internet itself. now Netscape the Docuverse. at others to specific net- is a World Wide Web browser. transfers an image onto Information Service. Nicholas Director of the Media Netscape Communications Corporation Origin- Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of ally Mosaic Communications Corporation. indicating that a net and host parts. a founder of Wired magazine and company set up in 1994 by. Sent from a receiving Internet address is divided into network. which was hypertext in his 1967 proposal for Xanadu and called Netscape (also Mozilla). Negroponte. Netscape Communicator. the World Wide Web. sometimes applied to the most of CompuServe. which will try to find telephone neckline White space under a headline. NCSA See National Center for Supercomputing NetBIOS An applications programming inter- Applications. Used in publishers’ reports to to the NetBIOS applications programming confirm that a new edition of a book will be interface. NE/ND New edition/no date. ing and bookselling trades to sell books at the ty that can be obtained by dot matrix printers. as well as Netscape Netcaster and routine. netCDF See Network Common Data Form. Typically used documents via links. Ted The originator of the concept of market a new version of Mosaic. being netaddress Another name for the Knowbot impregnated with dye. Navigator A program that helps the user to make Net A rather loose term. about the Internet. NCR Proprietary name of a paper which. Netscape Collabra. needle printer Term for matrix printer. a Technology. nearside lay The sidelay on the operating side of Netfind A white pages directory. enhance the characters by the addition of serifs. print.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 121 in particular. including the latest version of Netscape nest To place a program routine within a larger Navigator. It is a set of varnish applied to book covers. NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) NDIS See network device interface specification. based on peo- the press. who created NCSA Mosaic. lay. Navigator. oration.) ple’s names. NetBEUI See NetBIOS Extended User Interface. in stock. A browser paragraph or more which insets the text affect- provides navigation facilities for hypertext ed inside the previous margin. to Nelson. An exam- They attempt to emulate higher-quality output ple of retail price maintenance. exposed using negatives. netiquette Network etiquette.

that performs a task over network interface card (NIC) The card or board a network. Which bytes network information services based on pro- of the address are which depends on the class grams such as Sun Microsystems’ Network of the network: for a class A network. functionality to a computer. MPEG and JPEG Network extensible Window System (NeWS) A viewers. machine-independent file format for scientific cator). Originally called (LAN). but satel. for a class B network. connect to a network. they were on its local disk. Not necessarily the same work address is the first byte of the IP address. It was the first windowing sys- Two approaches are being made: adding a ‘set. network computers are cheaper Netscape Netcaster A push technology from than standard PCs. include an Acrobat reader. network layer The third-lowest layer of the ISO tributed multivendor environment.Dic. which determines the network architecture A specification of how a switching and routing of packets from the network is to be organised. Also used to as user and host names.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 122 produced by Netscape Communications Network Common Data Form (netCDF) A Corporation (now part of Netscape Communi. network layer protocol. first made available free on the Internet in 1994. such as (LAN) or connected to a network via an Acrobat. or combination exchange data and programs. which makes files TV is generally considered in the context of on a network appear to a local computer as if push technologies. Internet addresses. IP is a sible to carry out a specific task. as a network operations center. May provide tele- Internet address or as part of that address. network information center (NIC) An advisory network address Can be considered as the centre for network users. Net TV The combination of the Internet and con. such three bytes of the IP address.) ing considerable local processing capabilities. seven-layer model. which allow other programs. Network File System (NFS) A protocol devel- lite delivery is being developed in Europe. Because of the Navigator. phone and email help desk services. as well as excluding the address of the host. ‘Yellow Pages’ but the name was changed network address translator (NAT) A hardware because BT (in the UK) has copyright on that device which has been proposed for extending name. Runs under Unix. and a QuickTime viewer. It is in turn used by the transport layer. software components which will make it pos. These hardware. This protocol is now NetWare See Novell NetWare. (See also HyperNeWS. all US OpenWindows. PostScript-based windowing environment. NFS network An arrangement of linked computers uses the connectionless User Datagram which typically draw on a common database of Protocol (UDP) in order to make it stateless. approach to integrating applications in a dis. such as Ethernet or Network Application Support (NAS) DEC’s Token-Ring. the network address is the first for distributing system configuration data. usually involving more than one which it is necessary to have in a PC in order to computer. (See also PC/NFS. between computers on describe the nodes on a local area network a network. i. of program and data. such as printers. the network address is Network Information Service (NIS) A client- the first two bytes of the IP address. tem which allowed PostScript documents to be top computer’ to a television and adding TV viewed on screen. networking Linking computers so that they can network application A program. for X windows. the net. for a class server protocol developed by Sun Microsystems C network. Net oped by Sun Microsystems. with no disks. with similarities to Castanet and network device interface specification BackWeb. information resident on a fileserver while retain. It evolved from NCSA Mosaic and was data. Information Service. invented by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems ventional television on the same hardware. Currently. Netscape. which is and one feature is the development of Netscape designed to be used on a local area network plug-ins. lack of storage.e.) developments rely on using cable TV. a de facto standard and is widely used. network computer A cut-down computer with- Its functionality is continually being expanded out local storage. the hardware and sender to the receiver using the datalink layer. (NDIS) A programming interface for different Netscape plug-ins Applications which can be network protocols sharing the same network integrated with Netscape Navigator. Part of Netscape Communicator. to be integrated with Netscape intranet or even the Internet. 122 .

acid-free. through retail newsagents as distinct from the This will include the monitoring and resolution mail. performance ated groups are distributed as moderated management. newspaper lines per minute (nlpm) An early Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) A pro. network to network interface (NNI) An inter. of any problems. digests. measure of photosetter speeds. Ebone or European backbone and LINX. see network layer. NEXIS See LEXIS/NEXIS. Usenet newsgroups can be obtained. takes place after the book-blocks are sewn and neutral sized paper Paper which is sized with before they are rounded and backed. newsfeed A source from which a regular ‘feed’ of NLQ See near letter quality. those without news access. (SNMP). while some moder- agement. and sent neutral pH7. usually between 45 network number Part of the network address. NIST See National Institute of Standards and news chase Special chase of newspaper-page size Technology. face between two networks operating the same next to editorial Instruction to position adver- protocol. or on the user’s Architecture (SNA). Also known as siderable qualities of longevity. a UK nipping Pressing a book to flatten the signatures neutral interconnect based at Pipex’s London and remove air from between the sheets. interface card. is usually built into a news reader program. NNI See network to network interface. it newsprint Paper made from mechanical pulp for can also be used via telnet. Systems.Dic. NLP Network layer protocol. 123 . NIC See network information center. network operating system The system software news-reader A program which makes it straight- used to integrate the computers on a network. tisement adjacent to editorial text. ring and tree. the printing of newspapers. nick Groove in metal type which appears upper- neutral interconnect A network infrastructure in most during assembly. on for further processing. of Usenet news articles over the Internet. NFS See Network File System. NeWS See Network extensible Window System. which provides users with direct net- Network Time Protocol (NTP) A protocol that work access. This gives it con. tionship between the elements (nodes) of a net. with an index. It is news posting Item sent to put up on a news- basically a client-server system. configuration man. network topology The physical and logical rela. This point of presence. Common topologies include a star. Groups can be the required level of service to its users at a rea. retrieval and posting put measured in 8pt lines to an 11em measure. bus. and 58gsm. out- tocol for the distribution. but less than crushing or smashing. machine if there is full IP access. (Compare with network NEWT A TCP/IP communication stack for information center. exchange traffic without any policy restric. While NNTP group. synchronises clocks located on the Internet. which network service providers can freely nickletype An electrotype plated with nickel. It may Examples include Novell NetWare. Ethernet in the Washington area). either moderated or unmoderated. those required for the standard of permanent NIS See Network Information Service. Newton The Apple personal digital assistant. security management. and accounting management.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 123 network management The set of tasks that are newsgroup An electronic Usenet interest group necessary to ensure that a network provides devoted to a particular topic. network operations center (NOC) The location news stall circulation Periodical distribution at which a network or internet is managed. network work. forward to read Usenet news articles. groups also have parallel mailing lists for gories: fault management. Specifically. NII See National Information Infrastructure. and the nip Pressure point between two rollers. The ISO model defines five cate. which incorporates its own locking mechanism. Some news- sonable cost. size. paper which must be acid-free in furnish as NISS See National Information Services and well as surface. tions. Microsoft run either on the access provider’s machine if LAN Manager and IBM System Network there is only terminal access. Many network management systems are based newspaper Publication containing topical on the Simple Network Management Protocol reportage. Examples are the GIX (Global Internet Nintendo A Japanese company that produces Exchange) at MAE-East (a Metropolitan Area hardware and software for games.) Windows.

NREN See National Research and Education non-printing codes Codes that are directions for Network. no flash Photosetting command which prevents Nordsen binder Device which applies a line of exposure of characters. notches to hold the leaves together. non-volatile memory Memory (e. NRZ See non-return to zero. or it may be which notches are punched in the backs of the metaphorical in the sense that a communica. non-returnable Cannot be returned. the printer. Also non-woven material See imitation cloth. nslookup A Unix program for querying an sented by high and low voltages with no return Internet Domain Name Server to find the to the zero reference voltage between bits. be re-used constantly rather than written in. Macintosh and non-interlaced Not using interlacing. notes Explanations at the bottom of page or end non-consumable textbook Textbook which will of book expanding on material in the text. not access justification logic and whose output Not Yet Published (NYP) Answer in book distri- therefore must be further processed by a CPU.) basis weight of paper. the destroying displayed characters. This normal ‘Upright’ letters as distinct from italic. non-reproducing blue See drop-out blue. most widely used operating system software non-image area Area on a lithographic plate that for local area networks (LANs). may be literal noise in telecommunications. where notch binding A form of unsewn binding in there are. ns A nanosecond. ation is disallowed for grammatical or contex. laser printer. print machine-readable characters. Also called nominal weight American system of specifying slotted binding. (See also burst binding. technique in which symbols 1 and 0 are repre. bution indicating that a book is not yet avail- non-destructive cursor A VDU cursor that can be able for sale. interferes with the required information. It supports various operating systems: inkjet printer. NRS See Name Registration Scheme. non-WYSIWYG Standard typewriter-style dis- ment. and NetBIOS or TCP/IP network pro- image transfer without striking paper. of words or characters within which hyphen. reinforce the casing-in process. bubble more strictly. See tocols. non-scratch inks Inks resistant to marking. Internet address corresponding to a given host non-return to zero inverted (NRZI) A binary name or vice versa. OS/2. play. Unix. may be visual in computer graphics. it Also called roman or plain. Useful for noise Unwanted signals or information which heavy books. used to describe a hypertext or HTML docu. Endnotes are at the end of the book. 124 . non-tarnish paper Paper free from chemicals tual reasons. does not take ink and will therefore not be Novell NetWare Operating system for local area printed. encoding technique in which a signal is inverted NT See Windows NT.Dic. Used to create space of glue beneath the shoulder of a book-block to specific length. and glue applied in through the obscures the real message. node A host or device attached to a network or.g. network from Novell running on Ethernet. Non-ranging figures See non-lining figures. Uses non-impact printing Electronic methods of IPX/SPX. footnotes non-counting keyboards Keyboards which can. a defined sequence ary means 0. sections as they are folded on the folding tion contains irrelevant information which machine. not a printed character. with it. non-lining figures See old-style figures. at the bottom of the page. NSFNET See National Science Foundation non-return to zero (NRZ) A binary encoding Network. memory) that retains information when the munications lines terminate or where a device power supply is removed. so that a voltage NTIS See National Technical Information Service. It is also called transition coding.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 124 NNTP See Network News Transfer Protocol. which will tarnish metal surfaces in contact NOC See network operations center. Windows. spots on an image. non-reflective ink Light-absorbing ink used to NRZI See non-return to zero inverted. NSF See National Science Foundation. np New paragraph nonpareil Obsolete term for 6pt type. a point in a network where com. for 1 and not inverted for 0. is connected to the communications lines. moved about the screen without altering or Novell The company that sells NetWare. MS-DOS. say. change means 1 and no change at the bit bound- no break area In text setting.

object-oriented database (OODB) A system nut An en quad. or even an entire spread. numbers.) Note also that the null character does have within a wordprocessor to sum.g. e. a trian. a column of significance in some programming languages. Operations that can be per- translated from a source program. be used to pad fields to a required length or to allowing access to parts of applications without fill in gaps between data blocks. underlies this. e. a spreadsheet’s is not the character zero. cation in which the data has been included. (See also object-ori. Added to the fur. objects and objects are treated as belonging to OBC Outside back cover. oriented graphics and object-oriented program- nect the serial interfaces of two computers.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 125 NTP See Network Time Protocol. Similarly.) There are an increasing 125 . object-oriented (OO) To do with objects. (It embedded object. null characters Characters that have no effect on OLE-2 is an improved version of OLE-1 and is the meaning of a sequence of characters. with the type of multimedia object being part of the object’s O definition. It also has a male connec. at a certain level. a class within a hierarchy of classes. C++. Java. Modula-2. but also to edit the data in the orig- Committee. sheet or a video clip. Multimedia applica- tions can be handled as objects. Note that a loading the full application associated with the null character usually has the ASCII value 0. while the use the other computer.Dic. SIMULA-67. a line. This has great advantages in (Pronounced ‘olé’) A distributed object system terms of the user interface in that. Essentially it con. Draw programs treat Smalltalk. offering database management facilities in an NYP Not yet published. a circle. a group of database fields (see ties are ‘inherited’ from classes further up the object-oriented database). having properties and relationships with other defined. or col- ented design. graphics as objects.or off-press device parent to the user.) lections of discrete data structures (see object- object code or object language Machine code. Also used to describe the US tele. May a full implementation of object orientation.g. as oriented design). A general en. as long as the and protocol from Microsoft. object-oriented programming which numbers printed sheets consecutively. (See middleware.g. Data is stored as objects and relationships are defined between objects. Such objects are handled object-oriented graphic See draw-type graphic. formed on particular objects form part of those object graphics See object-oriented graphic. object-oriented nects pin 2 (transmit) of the RS-232-C port of graphics are a particular application of object- each computer to pin 3 (receive) of the port on oriented programming.. so that it can be handled correctly (in a similar way to associating specific appli- cations with specific file types). in another NTSC See National Television Standards application. Examples are and Embedding (OLE). Object-oriented design is one aspect sheet. in which a system is modelled as a collection of nish of bright white papers. C. interface to an object remains consistent. so. hierarchy. distinct existence. ways but. in object-oriented programming and used by object-oriented language A language for object- such systems and protocols as Object Linking oriented programming. (See also OpenDoc. This may be a classes. so ming appear to use the term in slightly different that they can exchange data. as an object. e. an irregular shape etc.) e. programming which operates on objects. which has ASCII value @function engine could be called up from 48. a range of cells. of objects in Object Linking and Embedding tor at both ends. of object-oriented programming. inal application without leaving the appli- vision format defined by the Committee. in which proper- graphic object. objects. from one application. for tickets. and will be common to all objects in a Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) particular class. a cell in a spread. including inheritance. other hancement to Dynamic Data Exchange. object-oriented design (OOD) A design method OBA Optical bleaching agent. (OLE) seems at the application level to be trans- numbering machine On. which aspects of the program can be varied as neces- makes it possible not only to include live data sary. object-oriented programming environment.g. object-oriented programming (OOP) A type of gle. each class object A combination of data that has a well. Object- null-modem A special cable that is used to con.

This term is used in networking. OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer. a font that has been offline reader Software which allows email to be designed as italic. Used to describe Old English A black letter typeface. a private (email) discussion. e. which has to be printed separately. offline The opposite of online. ODP See Open Distributed Processing. Old Face Early 17th century typestyle.g. facility in Windows which allows the user to Numerals which do not align on the baseline open and query a structured database file. Demy Octavo. offcut Superfluous pieces of paper left over when one-letter index Index with divisions by letter the paper is cut down to the correct size. oblong Bound at the shorter dimension. ing for stock. typesetter to make corrections and then pro- octavo Abbreviated as 8vo. Compare OCR-B. if a sans serif type is read and written offline (generally to save tele- used. the World Wide Web. when users connect to a point of difference. rately. ber blanket wrapped around a cylinder as in OCR-A A typeface designed to aid machine read. hexadecimal. is not than inclusion in a public newsgroup.e. serifs. which has oblique. a rub- memory. and which sells under its rebadged books one at a time from computer store ‘on name. often for subsequent typesetting. digits are 0–7 so that. (but often including x. go online to send the new messages (see offline oblique Slanted. Also. ed. but have ascenders and descenders. essentially because it is based on offside lay The lay opposite the operating side of powers of two (see binary system). The octal a press. coating. enhanced version of an original manufactured on-demand publishing The concept of printing product. A roman type- rather than byte. rather than tying up capital by print- OFC Outside front cover. As distinct oddment A book signature. rather upright type slanted with the computer. while octal 10 is equivalent to OKWC OK with corrections. Also octet Eight bits. no great differentiation ODA See Open Document Architecture (origi. Many people object program Program in machine code trans. The Office Document Architecture (ODA) The orig- release of Java has brought object orientation to inal name for Open Document Architecture. i. as a separate operation. The eighth part of the ceed to next stage. called ‘Old Style’ and Garalde. Instruction to a decimal 8. designed to be more legible to humans than offset paper Any paper suitable for offset litho OCR-A. 12 is 14 octal. An OEM OMR See optical mark reader/optical mark product is one which is a rebadged and possibly recognition. The inter. OLE See Object Linking and Embedding. i. demand’. y and z together). than vertical. Compare binary.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 126 number of object-oriented languages. rather bytes that are not eight bits long. 126 . e. an article from a journal. OCR-B A machine-readable typeface that is offset lithography See offset. shading. pretation of typewritten characters by a offset Printing which uses an intermediate medi- machine which scans the text and stores it in um to transfer the image onto paper. i. it may only be the expert who can tell the phone costs. usually used of type. because some systems have face such as Bembo. Offline is also used on Usenet to mean times graphics.e.. presence via a modem). the same as italic type. printing. offset letterpress See letterset. book sizes.g. the decimal number OK Press Approved for press. or some. ODBC Open Database Connectivity interface: a old-style figures Also called non-lining figures. Inc.e. read and write email messages offline and then lated from a source program. and with bracket- nally Office Document Architecture). offset press Lithographic press which offsets the cal character recognition equipment. OLE-2 See Object Linking and Embedding.g. However.Dic. Contrast on-machine OCLC See Online Computer Library Center. widely used paper. e. OLTP See online transaction processing. reader). offprint Part of a book or journal printed sepa- OCR Optical character recognition. offset litho. Note that oblique type. with fewer pages than from modern or lining figures. between fat and thin strokes. e. ODIF See Open Document Interchange Format.g. off-machine coating Coating applied to a paper landscape. traditional broadside sheet. not hairline. the others. ability. OCR paper High-quality bond suitable for opti. in computing. image onto a blanket before transferring it to octal A counting system based on 8. As distinct from nearside lay. private.

Provides ware. such as DIALOG. confusing in that OpenDoc is quite different tion. although it is described as from off-machine coating. 8613 for describing structured documents. inal message from the hash code. nection to the Internet. called Office Document Architecture. layer communications architecture to the online system Originally used to describe any behaviour of the end system in order to make system that allowed user interactivity with the possible distributed multi-vendor systems. interface (GUI). with around 90% one-up One copy of a book printed at a time. this can be paper is coated as a completely separate opera. As distinct systems. The paint used in opaquing. Note that.) ISO OO See object-oriented. onionskin Lightweight cockle-finish blank found in notes and bibliographies. also called photopaque. one-shot periodical rights One-off right to OP Out of print: information from a publisher reprint part of a text in a single edition of a that a book is no longer available. and used to mean ‘in the work already quoted’. vertically. not. gramming environment or via a graphical user ferred. used to describe any type of computerised Open Distributed Processing (ODP) A standard library catalogue. where the base an open document architecture. which OLE-2 is online transaction processing (OLTP) The pro. on-machine coating Coating applied to the base but will work over a wider range of operating paper on the paper machine itself. giving a superior result. ing of half-tones simultaneously with output to Open Document Architecture (ODA) (Originally an image recorder. high opacity. It is impossible to determine the orig. ing vendors. Used widely in banking and financial ferent application programs into a single institutions. working document in the same way as OLE-2.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 127 one-shot binding Perfect binding with one OOD See object-oriented design. one-way hash function A function that produces opaque 1. open If applied to a file. opaque printing An MF printing paper with tal signatures. OpenDoc is based on CORBA. being an average for 80gsm printing paper. developed by Component Integration refers to almost any system accessed via a Laboratories (CILabs) and supported by lead- modem or network. from ODA and is not concerned with struc- on-the-fly Refers to any process which occurs as tured documents in the sense that ODA and output is being performed. so that a file must be opened offering computer-based services and research to before it is accessible by the user or by soft- libraries and educational organisations. order to expand the system at any time in the online public access catalogue (OPAC) A term future. The largest in the UK is that describing the extension of the OSI application put up by the British Library. to a printer or a network. message. computer. with large database. applicaton of hot-melt glue only. over a dial-up link. SGML are. As distinct OODB See object-oriented database. It 127 . To paint out areas on film with an a fixed-length hash code from a variable-length opaque paint. meaning. but has also hosted which provide good connectivity. one-way screen Half-tone screen with the lines op cit Abbreviation from the Latin ‘opere citato’ one-way only. more often than not a con. open systems. It cessing of transactions by computers in real aims to enable embedding of features from dif- time. magazine or newspaper. printing etc.) nal ‘Clinical Trials’.Dic. 2. OPAC See online public access catalogue. say. Open is also used to refer to systems online library services. Now ble). Previously used Guidon as open architecture In computer system design. so that data can be trans. such as the screen. from two-shot binding. one-sided art Paper coated on one side only opacity The quality of opaqueness in a paper. (See also ‘Electronic Journals’ online. either within a pro- online Connected. as well as A US not-for-profit membership organisation for writing to. paper often used for airmail stationery. Used in digi. Subsequently used to describe a OpenDoc An object linking architecture. including Apple and IBM. where the term has a special including the world’s first purely electronic jour. Opacity is measured in %. Inc. (OCLC) manipulation (editing. and is therefore a more open product. OOP See object-oriented programming. its principal viewing software. open means available for Online Computer Library Center. which similarities to OLE-2 (with which it is compati- allowed searching and other interactivity. but has now the ability to allow for extra peripherals in moved journals to the World Wide Web. (such as jacket art).).

played and stored on computer. but also two main PostScript and TrueType technologies. about nals. based on blocks. OS/2 and the Format. Unix. defines levels A1 (most secure) through to D OpenType A font specification combining (least secure). Open Pre-Press Interface (OPI) Proprietary sys. The part of the ODA standard concerned with OPI See Open Pre-Press Interface. code. forms. it does not use simple ASCII dorsed by all the major font developers. O/R address See originator/recipient address. The layers each have a sep. such as microfiche. which tied designed documents. optical brightener Dye which emits visible radi- Lib) project concerned with automatic cross. the aim of which was were spelt thus. be analogue (audio CDs) or digital (all discs open systems Systems that conform to Open used in computer applications). ally hardware – only prototype systems have OpenWindows A GUI server for Sun Micro- so far been constructed). sion layer. OPP lamination Oriented polypropylene lamina- opening Facing pages of a book. optical density Light-absorbing capacity of an tion images with high resolution images so that image area. network layer. secondly. Open Journal Project An Electronic Libraries (e. technology is used to write to and read from Open Software Foundation (OSF) A consortium the disk. laser discs and WORM. matted documents. optical wand Device that reads data from a bar- datalink layer. optical mark recognition (OMR) The use of an ised network model built in seven layers in optical mark reader in mark sensing. such that can read pencil marks on specially as large mainframe computers. document interchange. optical disc etc. such a way that different operating systems can optical scanner Device that copies an image by work together. Its first operating system release was ic disk is spelt with a final ‘k’. native term for Open Systems Interconnect. En- differences: firstly. transport layer. operating system The underlying computer soft- It can therefore be used to exchange formatted ware that controls the operation of a computer. optical character recognition See OCR. characterises secure computing architectures and the time an ink stays fluid on the press. vides not only generic coding structures based operand Item of data being operated on by pro- on content. (similar to OCR) or use mark sensing. because certain standards of computer companies. ation. particularly by vendors who gives the appearance of even space. ment. Orange One of the principal providers of mobile (See also ISO/OSI seven-layer model. referencing and hyperlinking electronic jour. in either revisable or non-revisable Operating systems include MS-DOS. Used to ‘brighten’ paper. wish to emphasise the connectivity of their sys. CD-R. while. also known as the ISO/OSI using electronic signals so that it can be dis- seven-layer model. the normal convention is to to develop a Unix-based open systems stan. pages etc.) Optical discs can called OSF/1.Dic. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) An alter. design work can be handled using relatively optical disc A storage medium in which laser small files. gram.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 128 has similarities with SGML. Types include Systems Interconnect or POSIX standards. optical centre The ‘visual’ centre of a page. any system that can communicate optical letterspacing Space between letters with other systems is often described as an which accommodates their varying shapes and open system. Windows NT. (Note that. optical fibre See fibre-optic transmission. optical mark reader (OMR) A scanning device tem in contrast to the proprietary systems. However. tem which automatically replaces low resolu. 10% higher than the mathematical centre. tion. It is coding and requires special software (and ide. Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) ISO standard. physical layer (bottom). spell optical disc with a final ‘c’. almost all based on the Unix operating system. open time In binding. intended to remove font compatibility problems. arate group of tasks and are known as: the optical storage Data stored on viewing equip- application layer (top). presentation layer. See Open Document Interchange Windows 95. Orange Book The US government’s document that sive being applied and when it sets. documents. it pro. but also a coding system for for. ses. the time between an adhe. CD-ROM. Open Document Interchange Format (ODIF) operation Result of a computer command. In printing. Macintosh operating system. systems workstations. The standard book-jacket lamination film.) communications networks in the UK. 128 . while magnet- dard. Can either be optical users to a single manufacturer.

error-detection infor- the characters have white inner areas against a mation and any repeated data. Underexposure margin. or film plotter. in partic- OSI seven-layer model See Open Systems ular the first and last sections. fonts are PostScript and TrueType. outdent To move part of a line of text into the causing a thin. the po. therefore contains the first page of the section. leads to a dense. outline. object-oriented graphics. The term is also bolder outline shape. is used). Occasionally used to mean the last line of a out of stock (OS) Computer response to an order paragraph at the top of a page (more common. Sample sheets of plain paper taken from a its development to produce Windows NT. OSF See Open Software Foundation. while Microsoft extended 2. up to plate-making stages. dark. Interconnection (OSI). used in other contexts. contrast indent. out of register One or more colours out of align- ornaments Another term for dingbats. tive flourishes. shipment for the purchaser to approve. orthochromatic film Photographic material output scanner The output half of a colour scan- insensitive to red. exposure unit. Specimen printed sheets of a companies ended. planned to be a successor to MS-DOS. out of print (OP) See OP. that is transmitted in addition to the user data. as OS/2 Warp. once the cooperation between the out-turn sheet 1. output scanner. supply. overhead In communications. by sloping or just using the options being described as landscape or portrait. the photo-mechanical etching as distinct from fonts are stored in association with the printer stereotyping. the transformed. make-up. ‘chipped’. image.400 mail. Because it is a type of object-oriented graphic. out of square Corners not cut at right angles. original plate Letterpress plate produced by PCL 5 uses outline fonts to print. ornamented Typeface embellished with decora. The most common types of outline original Photograph or drawing to be reproduced. OS/2 An operating system. all the information Contrast inner forme. Widows and orphans output Data or any form of communication com- are generally not a problem with electronic ing out of a computer after processing. a pack or periodical. IBM continued to develop book dispatched to the publisher for approval. camera. including screen) resolution. Also known as output recorder. orphan The first line of a paragraph alone at the out-of-round Distorted paper reel. for a book title which is no longer in stock. ner which records the image onto film. outer forme The imposed forme which forms the overhang cover Cover larger than the text pages. an outline font can be scaled to any size and sitioning of a page or illustration on a page. rather than inside. typical- totypesetting film and origination film. routing information. murky image. outline font (Also described as a vector font or order form Form on which a buyer can fill in the scalable font. outside of the sheet when folded and which Also yapp cover. al).pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 129 orange peel Multi-indentation effect on paper. 129 . Contrast also inline. Normally. outset See outsert. overexposure Too lengthy an exposure of film.) A font that is stored in terms of detail of his intended purchase as an order to its outline shape rather than as a bitmap. e. OS/2. publishing (on-screen) as the text can easily be output recorder The output half of a colour scan- scrolled to show subsequent lines (unless a ner which records the image onto film. ly described as a widow). In addition.g. ment with the others in a piece of printing. and also outline graphics Another term for vector or including typesetting. The standard grade of pho. or OS See out of stock. overcasting Method of attaching leaves together OSI See Open Systems Interconnect. originally developed outsert Item of promotional material on the out- jointly by IBM and Microsoft Corporation and side of. in which tion. with a similar meaning. bottom of a column or page (in printed materi.Dic. or software RIP and the output bitmaps gener- origination All the processes involved in the ated on the fly at the appropriate printer (or reproduction of original material. ly by laser. However. to make a section that can be bound. for reasons of specialism or capacity. outline Typeface comprising only an outline with This may include control and status informa- no ‘solid’ area. originator/recipient address (O/R address) A out of focus Blurred. not properly focussed by a structured address used in X. oscillator rollers Rollers that control the amount outwork Operations put out to another company of ink that is fed to the impression cylinder. such as Acrobat. orientation In wordprocessing or DTP. See also page-based program.

which contains both control information and page description language (PDL) In desktop data. It also reassembles the overrun Copies printed in excess of the specified packets of incoming data so that application printing number. or the plate of blanket in rather than specifically written for a purpose. ment. as if arriving at a serial port. Paper be transmitted over the specified medium and used on machine cylinder to increase pressure then the packets recombined at the receiver. Some examples. software necessary for the compo- switching) or connection-oriented communi. 130 . so that ‘pinging’ means which consists of a tube of brown paper running the program and sending the signal. attached to the back of the folded sections and The acronym was probably devised in analogy the inside of the case hollow. package insert Promotional material contained packing density Amount of information which in a product’s packaging. litho. stream. 2. process and often used for proofing film. Most often used in connection with X. packager Organisation which provides complete PAD See packet assembler/disassembler. Transparent cover to artwork contain. (LANs) that divides data into packets for trans- viously printed sheet. PABX See private (automatic) branch exchange. together with various statistics. and waits for a reply. ure. are device-independent. encom- cations. Must be used only by licensed radio ozalid Print made by a form of diazo copying amateurs (HAMs). packing Paper placed next to the impression package Set of software bought ‘off-the-shelf’ cylinder in letterpress. puters using amateur (HAM) radio. packet switch node (PSN) A computer used in a P packet-switched network to accept. such as (can be hardware or software) for splitting a Adobe’s PostScript. Can be sent by connectionless (packet publishing. (See packet-switched See packet switching network. attacking the non-image area. or specified number of bytes. Packet InterNet Groper (PING) A program A Yen symbol. font rotation. can be stored on a magnetic medium. PING sends an ICMP echo request own ends Endpapers. Can be connected through plates. could be produced by print. packet driver Software for local area networks overprinting An additional printing over a pre. publications ready to be marketed. passing factors such as scaling. oxidation Chemical action with the oxygen in the packet radio (PR) Communication between com- air: one of the principal ways in which sheet. Used for heavy with the sound produced by ASDIC equip- books where reinforcement is necessary. allow applications to make more or less use of overstrike A method by which a wordprocessor network facilities.25 sys- overmatter Typeset matter which was not used tems. route and forward packets. packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) Device graphics and angles. page One side of a leaf. page count Synonym for extent (US). packet drivers allows multiple applications to oversewing Attaching single leaves to a sewn share the same network interface at the book with thread sewing. Different types of packet driver overstock Hold more stock than is required. might produce a character not in its character set. in the final printing. reporting success or fail- ning and end of the text. datalink layer. data stream into discrete packets so that it can ing instructions or additional detail. packet A block. Can be fed offset ink dries.g.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 130 overlay 1.. The term is Oxford hollow A hollow on the back of a book also used as a verb. space. mission over a network. e. the Internet and has a special domain in IP Gumming up a plate helps prevent this.) packet switching network Computer-controlled communications network in which data is divided into ‘packets’ transmitted at high speed. The use of overset See overmatter. when looking for submarines. sition of combined text and graphics. which is used to check whether hosts can be ing a ‘Y’ and overstriking an ‘equals’ symbol. also blueprints. Packet SwitchStream (PSS) BT’s packet-switch- ing system.Dic. See colour blanks. on solid areas of blocks. to adjust printing pressure. reached. programs can read the data as a continuous overs See spoilage. blank leaves at the begin. Oxidation also affects litho used for email etc.

Models are also available colour-matching system. ally use a page description language. series of punched holes arranged in ‘channels’ paginate To display the page munbers. additives which can be used for moulding. Also known as skid and stillage. including panchromatic film Photographic material sensi- imagesetters as well as laser printers. US measurement of bulk.) A small personal line drawing. lication calculated as a percentage of total read. the automatic kerning becomes the accepted ‘way of doing things’. Virtually pamphlet Booklet comprising only a few pages. or ‘tracks’ across the width. card manufacture. used for editing vector form of paper was made. page scrolling The movement. paper surface efficiency (PSE) Printability of ership. PARC. ‘European standard’ pallet size is 10003 page make-up The use of a page layout or DTP 1200mm. pantograph Mechanical apparatus for copying a pager (Also called a bleeper. of selected pairs of letters for better aesthetic paragraph formatting The application of a format effect. typestyle. 200gsm–300gsm. four-way entry. weight of 1000kg and maximum height of page make-up terminal A specialised desktop 1219mm (49) is commonly specified. The term tive to all colours. Also called image-editing software. quad demy (one tonne in 80gsm). papier maché Repulped paper with stiffening vides the ability to create and edit bitmaps. page printer or page-oriented printer A printer palletise To load goods on pallets. all printers used in graphic arts and the print. of an paperback Book bound with stiff paper. Its main rival is QuarkXPress. colour. paper. radio (receive-only) which is used to alert the Pantone Proprietary name of a widely used person using it. Typical publishing workstation used to assemble type pallet loads might come to 1000–1250 books of and graphics in finished page form for output average octavo size. RGB. (Contrast with character 131 . in which the complete image of a page is Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) See Xerox formed and then printed. (DTP). with an operation or environment which pair-kerning In typography. was originally developed to distinguish these panel Display board. entire page (or screen) of data. on the screen resolution (and thus the number page layout program See desktop publishing of colours) chosen. pages per inch Number of pages per inch of paperboard Lightweight board in the range thickness. Abbreviated ppi. PAL See phase alternate/alternating line. pagination Page numbering. available for use in a paint or draw program. still a stored. to view SGML documents page pull test Test to determine the strength of over the World Wide Web.. Pantone Matching System (PMS) See Pantone. on a VDU. The leading product. DDL from Imagen Corporation and Interleaf’s The colours available in the palette will depend RIP print. indents. paint program A software application that pro. A maximum pallet program to arrange text and pictures on a page. paper master Paper plate used on small offset page traffic Readership of a given page of a pub. graphics. ing industry are page printers. Inkjet printers can duced by SoftQuad. pro- and daisywheel printers. which will receive short messages. or style (including such factors as typeface. See board. such as dot matrix Panorama A browser for SGML documents. or around 12500 sheets of as a piece.) paradigm Set of norms and values associated paint-type graphic See bitmap graphic. this is a window showing the colours tem or wordprocessor. Inc. pallet Wooden base on which paper or books are PageMaker The original DTP program. conjunction with an HTML browser. such as page proof Proof of a page before printing. binding of an adhesive-bound book. printers from line printers. machine. paper basis weight See basis weight. (Contrast papyrus Egyptian reed from which the earliest with a draw program. which can be used in use either method. See CMYK. stiff paper used in greeting paging Scanning text on a VDU page by page. Netscape Navigator. page view terminal VDU which can display a paper tape Strip of paper which records data as a page in its made-up form.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 131 Other PDLs include Interpress from Xerox. Page printers gener.Dic. papeterie Smooth. pamphlet binding See saddle-stitching. space before and after) to a palette An analogy to the paint palette used by whole paragraph in a desktop publishing sys- artists.

PARC See Xerox PARC. One run through a printing press. parser An algorithm or program which is used to parallel Two parallel lines used as a symbol for check the syntactic structure of a file or struc- footnotes.g. tions of thinner sheets. Also. parity error An error discovered by checking the graph anywhere on a page. parity bit A check bit added to a series of binary ing. so that documents can mainly because data integrity is lost over be parsed as they are created or edited. see also half-title. Compare mechanical paper. thick. the area which surrounds the page computing and communications parity usually display in a publication window. means the number of 1s. free paper. Widely used for transmission to printers. with editing programs. Centronics interface. longer distances. played on the screen. See widow.) the start of a paragraph which needs emphasis. possible. parchmentise To treat paper to make it trans. (Contrast serial transmission. Parity bits are a basic form of paste-up Dummy or artwork comprising all the error detection. e. tured document. parser checks parallel communication Data transfer in which that a document instance (i. Also called a recto page.) lication for printing. which can be purchased separately and which Usually. e. unlike more complex error detec- are affected. An used for connecting printers. Board made from several lamina- lucent and waterproof.) tion and correction systems. connection on a computer. To be avoided if parity. Contrast homogenous board. (for odd parity). In DTP parity The general meaning is equivalence. most frequently pass 1. ●. Parallel communica. ‘parallel port’ describes the physical then combine to make up the whole. so that it remains private. a document each bit is transferred along its own line. board. like parchment. board into an open document.. (See also checksum.g.e.Dic. parallel interface An interface over which parallel part-title The title of a section of a book on the communication is carried out. Contrast right-angle ical pulp. publication per copy sold. as opposed to 0s. Also refers to a high-grade. In programs. 2. A redundant parity bit is added pasted unlined chipboard See unlined chipboard. byte or word. 2. wood- folding. password A secret (or private) arbitrary string of parchment The skin of a sheep or goat which was characters which has to be typed into a com- soaked in lime and scraped to make it smooth puter in order to allow access to a system or a for use as a writing or painting surface in the particular program. cream-coloured paper.) play. part-mechanical paper Paper containing up to parallel folding Folding a sheet with all the folds 50% of mechanical pulp with the balance chem- parallel to each other. then the parity bit will not show the writing. SGML parsers are often integrated tion is generally used only over short distances. (See passive matrix A design of liquid crystal dis- also Centronics interface. Normally it is not dis- Middle Ages. errors because. in a paste drier Type of drier used in inks.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 132 formatting. where only the selected characters error. to each byte and this is set to make the number paster Rotary printing press device that changes of 1 bits in the byte even (for even parity) or odd the reel of paper automatically as required. it is impossible to paragraph opener Typographic device marking tell which bit is wrong. words) appearing as the last line of a para. but will detect only single bit elements pasted into position. in coded in SGML) corresponds to the specified contrast to serial connection. parameter A variable set to a constant value for a pass-on rate Estimated number of readers of a specific operation. pasteboard 1. digits to make the total odd or even according paragraph widow A very short line (one or two to the logic of the system. any errors. Also known as pasted parenthesis A round bracket. made to resemble old paste To insert text or graphics from the clip- parchment. in which bits are Document Type Definition and will report transferred one at a time. partwork Publication issued in a number of parts parallel port See parallel communication. travels in parallel with its fellows and bytes pass for press Authorise the final form of a pub- arrive intact. operation that realises the completion of a job parallel transmission Data communications from input through processing to output. 132 . method where each bit in the computer byte pass date See copy date. An SGML. if an even number of the bits are patch Sub routine inserted into a program after incorrect.

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patch corrections Small patches of corrected peer A communications unit (hardware or soft-
typesetting which are intended for pasting over ware) on the same protocol layer of a network
the original (wrong) text. as another.
patching Pasting corrections into film or artwork. peer-to-peer Network arrangement in which each
patching-up Letterpress packing during make- computer has equal power: any can hold appli-
ready. cations and data and control network traffic, as
patent base Base on which electrotypes are distinct from the more common client-server
mounted. architecture.
path The explicitly routed, node-by-node, Internet peer-to-peer network A group of computers,
address or the link between two machines. (See usually PCs, connected with network cards
also bang path.) Path is also used in computer and cable. Each workstation is as important as
operating systems to specify the order in which its peers, acting both as client and server. With
directories should be accessed when a program appropriate software, it is possible for each
(or executable file) is called. computer to see the disk drives of every com-
PBA Periodicals Barcoding Association. puter as a local drive. There is no separate file
PBEM See play by electronic mail. server.
PBM See play by electronic mail. PEIPA See Pilot European Image Processing
PBX See private (automatic) branch exchange. Archive.
PC Personal computer. Microcomputer for home pel See pixel.
or office use. PEM See Privacy Enhanced Mail.
PC/NFS A version of NFS that will allow PCs to penetration One of the ways in which inks dry.
connect over an Ethernet to a Unix system (See also absorption.)
PC-DOS Version of Microsoft’s Disk Operating pen name Name adopted by authors other than
system specific to the IBM PC. Slight, mainly their own.
insignificant, variations from MS-DOS. pen ruling Method of printing ruled sheets with
PCI See Peripheral Component Interconnect. a set of pens, under which the sheet travels.
PCL See Printer Command Language. Pentium A series of chips developed by Intel,
PCM See pulse code modulation. widely used in PCs, especially those handling
PCMCIA See Personal Computer Memory Card multimedia.
International Association. Pentium II Processor chip launched by Intel pro-
PCN See personal communication network. viding processing speeds of 233MHz and
PCS See personal communication services. 266MHz and using RISC technology.
pcx A widely used bitmap graphics format, origi- percentage dot area The percentage of a half-
nally developed for the program PC Paintbrush tone that is black as opposed to white.
by Z-Soft. The filename extension is ‘.pcx’. perfect binding Adhesive binding widely used
PD See public domain. on paperbacks. Glue is applied to the rough-
PDA See personal digital assistant. ened back edges of sections to hold them to the
pdf See portable document format. cover and each other. Also called adhesive
PDH See plesiochronous digital hierarchy. binding, cut-back binding, thermoplastic
PDL See page description language. binding, threadless binding.
PDS Public domain software. See public perfect bound Book that has perfect binding, in
domain. which leaves are attached to the spine with
PDU See protocol data unit. glue that does not dry out completely, rather
PE Printer’s error. Normally a literal in type- than by sewing.
setting. perfecting Printing both sides of a sheet at one
PeaceNet A network concerned with issues of pass. Such a press is called a perfector.
peace and social justice, including human rights, perfector Printing machine that prints both sides
disarmament and international relations. (See of a sheet of paper concurrently.
also Institute for Global Communications.) perforate To make a row of small holes in, e.g.,
pearl Old type size, similar to 5pt. paper so that a section may be torn off easily.
pebble finish Textured surface on paper, added perforated tape See paper tape.
after making or sometimes after printing. perforating Punching a series of holes in paper,
pebbling Embossing paper after printing with a either as a coding process or to facilitate tearing
pebbled pattern. off a section.
peculiars Special characters outside a normal perforating rules Letterpress steel rules which
font range. indent the sheet.


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perforations The row of small holes in a sheet of Newton, will now take handwriting input. The
paper which allows a designated section to be original idea was that eventually PDAs would
torn off easily. become multi-functional, acting as telephones,
perforator Keyboard which produces punched faxes and remote terminals to other systems, as
paper tape. well as providing local services, such as a diary,
peripheral Computer input or output device scheduler etc. BT has already produced a pro-
which is not part of the main CPU, e.g. a printer. totype which straps to the wrist.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) A personal identification device (PID) A device,
local bus designed by Intel. It is more efficient such as a magnetic card, which carries
than the VESA local bus, running at 33MHz. It machine-readable identification, so as to pro-
is used on Pentium-based computers but is vide authorisation for access to a computer sys-
processor-independent. tem. PIDs are often used in conjunction with
PERL (Practical Extraction and Report Language) PIN numbers in, e.g., automatic teller
An interpreted computer language mainly machines. (See also smartcard.)
used for processing and converting text and personal identification number (PIN) A pass-
text strings. It is widely used in developing word which is used for access, either physical
World Wide Web tools and applications. via a digital door lock, or to a computer system.
permanence Paper’s resistance to ageing. Often used in conjunction with a PID.
permanent inks Inks which do not fade. Also, personal information manager (PIM) Software
lightfast inks. that includes a diary, address book etc., as well
permanent paper Paper which is acid-free and as various other programs, which may include
made to stringent conditions for archival pur- small databases and basic spreadsheets (for
poses. The accepted standard for manufacture expenses). May well be used on a personal dig-
is laid out in American standard ANSI Z39 1984 ital assistant and potentially can be extended
and specifies neutral pH, alkaline reserve, to include personal communications.
chemical furnish, and specified tear resistance PET Polyethylene terephthalate: the most com-
and fold endurance. mon plastic used for bottles, replacing glass.
permissions 1. Permission given to a publisher petal printer See daisywheel printer.
for him to reproduce material which is some- PGP See Pretty Good Privacy.
one else’s copyright. Normally the subject of a pH Measurement of acidity or alkalinity.
fee. 2. Authorisation to read or write a file or to phase alternate/alternating line (PAL) The tele-
execute a program. Forms an integral part of vision standard used in most European coun-
the Unix operating system but, as Unix is the tries including the UK. France, which uses
operating system used by most servers on the SECAM, is the principal exception. (See also
Internet, will be encountered by anyone using NTSC.)
utilities such as ftp and telnet. phase modulation An alternative term for phase
peroxide bleaching The bleaching of woodpulp shift keying.
using hydrogen peroxide. More environment phase shift keying (PSK) A modulation tech-
friendly than chlorine bleaching which it is nique used to transmit digital information. The
steadily supplanting. phase angle of the carrier wave is changed to
personalcast See narrowcast. represent the values of different bits (or groups
personal communication network (PCN) The of bits).
communications network based on cellular and PHIGS Programmers’ Hierarchical Interactive
fixed telephone networks. (Called PCS, per- Graphics System. A three-dimensional graph-
sonal communication services, in the US.) ics standard including language-independent
personal communication services (PCS) The US functions for applications that produce com-
term for personal communication network. puter-generated images on either raster- or
Personal Computer Memory Card International vector-graphic output devices.
Association (PCMCIA) A group of manufac- Philips Dutch electronics company. Has had great
turers which developed the cards used for influence, with Sony, on the development and
peripherals in (mainly) portable/notebook com- standardisation of the CD. In particular, devel-
puters. These cards are described as PCMCIA oped compact disc interactive (CD-i) and,
cards and include memory circuits, modems, jointly with Kodak, the Kodak Photo CD.
network adapters and even disk drives. phloroglucinol Chemical used on paper to test for
personal digital assistant (PDA) A small, hand- woodfree or mechanical furnish. Phloroglucinol
held computer. Many, including the Apple is applied to a paper: if the stain remains yellow


Dic.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 135

it is woodfree; if the stain turns red it contains photonics The optical equivalent of electronics,
mechanical pulp. The depth of colour of the red i.e. transmission of information using photons
stain indicates the percentage of mechanical fibre rather than electrons, or light instead of electri-
present. city. Often used as an equivalent for fibre optics.
phoneme In speech recognition systems, a unit of photopaque Opaquing fluid used to spot nega-
sound. Spoken words are divided into tives.
phonemes in much the same way as written photopolymer Plate coating which polymerises
words are divided into characters. (solidifies) on exposure to strong light. Used
PhoneNet A networking system connecting for long runs.
devices that are AppleTalk-compatible. It uses photopolymer plate Letterpress printing plate
ordinary telephone cabling. made with photopolymer material and once
phonetic alphabet Alphabet with special pho- used extensively for paperback printing.
netic characters which instruct the reader how photoprint Photographic print.
to pronounce the words or phrases referenced. photoproof Phototypeset proof.
phonetics Symbols designed to have a direct cor- photo retouching The modification of bitmap
respondence with sounds and used to indicate images, using image-editing software or paint
correct pronunciation. programs.
Phong shading A method of shading or rendering photosensitive Paper or film that reacts to light.
used in animation. It is similar to Gouraud sur- photosetting See phototypesetting.
face shading but instead of the colour being lin- Photoshop An image manipulation (paint) pro-
early interpolated between normals to adjacent gram from Adobe. Probably the most widely
polygons, the normals themselves are interpo- used program of its type in the graphic arts
lated, so that there is one normal per pixel in the industry.
rendering window, from which the colour photostat Trade name for a photocopy.
shades are calculated. The results are similar to phototypesetter Device for producing high-reso-
Gouraud shading, except that any reflections on lution text on photosensitive paper or film.
the surface of an object are sharper. Phong shad- phototypesetting Setting type onto photograph-
ing also allows detailed editing of the rendering. ic paper or film. Phototypesetters employ vari-
Photo CD See Kodak Photo CD. ous techniques to create the image, with com-
photocomposition Typesetting performed by a puters assisting in the operation logic.
photosetter. photounit The part of a phototypesetter in which
photocopy 1. Duplicate of a photograph. 2. Dupli- the photographic image is created and
cate of a document etc. produced on a copying exposed.
machine. pH value Measure of acidity or alkalinity of a
photoengraving Letterpress printing plate. substance. 7 = neutral; less than 7 = progressive
photogram Print made by exposure of object acidity; more than 7 = progressive alkalinity.
directly on photographic paper. physical addressing The Ethernet low-level
photogravure Gravure printing in which the addressing scheme. Uses a 48-bit address in a
cylinder image is photographically produced. single packet. (See also Internet address.)
photolettering Method of setting display-sized physical layer The lowest layer in the OSI seven-
type from photographic fonts. layer model. It is concerned with the electrical
photolithography Lithographic process with and mechanical connections and MAC. It is
photographically produced plate image. used by the datalink layer. Typical physical
photomechanical Assembled type and/or illus- layer protocols are CSMA/CD and token ring.
trations as film ready for platemaking or fur- pic Abbreviation for picture. Plural: pix.
ther processing. pica A typographical unit of measurement. Each
photomechanical composition Filmsetting, see pica is divided into 12 points. Although origi-
photocomposition. nally 6 picas equalled 0.996 of an inch, in the
photomechanical transfer Abbreviated to PMT. development of PostScript the point has been
Paper negative which produces a positive print standardised so that there are 72 points per inch
by a process of chemical transfer. Extensively (thus on a screen with 72 pixels per inch, one
used for line artwork and screened prints. pixel equals one point). Although most desktop
photomontage Print comprising several other publishing, wordprocessor and graphics pro-
photographs. grams allow size specification in inches or cen-
Photon Proprietary name for a photosetter once timetres, typographic units are almost always
widely used. another option. Typesize is always specified in


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points. Pica was also used for typewriters with pigment foil Foil which is of coloured pigment
10 characters per inch, as opposed to elite, rather than imitation gold or silver.
which had 12 characters per inch. Pica and elite PII See Publisher Item Identifier.
are sometimes used to describe typefaces, but Pilot European Image Processing Archive
really refer to pitch. (See also font size.) (PEIPA) Archive at the University of Essex,
pi characters Special characters outside the nor- UK, devoted to image processing, computer
mal alphabetic range and not normally con- vision and computer graphics.
tained in a standard font, e.g. special maths PIM See personal information manager.
symbols. PIN See personal identification number, posi-
pick Fibres that have been pulled from the paper tive intrinsic negative.
surface by smudges of ink on the printing Pine (Program for Internet News & Email.) A
plate. menu-driven program, running under Unix,
pick-away See pull-away. for reading, editing, sending, and managing
picking The lifting of areas of paper surface dur- electronic messages.
ing printing which happens when ink tack is pin feed The method of feeding continuous sta-
stronger than the surface strength. tionery by lining up pins on the machines with
PICS See Platform for Internet Content a series of small holes in the paper.
Selection. pin feed platen A printer cylinder that feeds
PICT A graphic file format used on the Apple paper through the machine via sprocket holes.
Macintosh for draw-type (vector) graphics PING See Packet InterNet Groper.
files. The format uses QuickDraw to display ping Alternative name for the Portable Network
images on-screen. PICT is not PostScript-com- Graphics format.
patible and the incompatibilities can lead to pinholes 1. Small holes in paper surface. 2. Small
unpredictable results. holes in the dense black image area of a nega-
pictogram Pictorial symbol for a word, phrase or tive which let through the light, and need to be
chart statistics. spotted out using an opaquing fluid.
picture element See pixel. Pink operating system An object-oriented oper-
picture list List of illustrations intended for a ating system developed jointly by IBM and
book drawn up by a picture researcher. Apple. Also called Taligent.
Picture Quality Scale (PQS) A system in which pinless Refers to the elimination of the standard
image quality is rated on the basis of image fea- pin mechanisms which control paper webs
tures that are perceived by the human eye, going through folders.
rather than on the signal-to-noise ratio, in pin register system The use of holes and pins to
which quality is assessed pixel by pixel. provide a system of aligning copy, film and
picture research The process of locating illustra- plates in register. The Protocol system is one of
tions for a book from picture libraries, museums, the best known. Also punch register system.
galleries etc. pipelining Breaking information up into packets
PID See personal identification device. which traverse networks successively. This
pie Jumbled type. Sometimes spelt pi. leads to fewer network delays.
piece fractions Fractions built up typographical- pipe roller The roller on a web press that rotates
ly out of more than one piece of type. freely.
pie chart A graphic diagram representing a pie, Pipex A UK Internet provider to other commer-
the portions of which vary to indicate values or cial companies and public-sector organisations.
percentages. Services include a commercial internetworking
pierced block Letterpress block with a hole cut service and a backbone with multiple interna-
through it to leave a large area of white on tional links. Pipex uses re-sellers connected to
impression. its backbone to provide services to end-users.
PIF Print image file: the printing format generat- piping Small ridges on the paper surface.
ed by the pdf RIP in Agfa’s Apogee system. PIRA Printing Industries Research Association:
piggyback form A continuous-stationery tractor- British organisation that does research into
fed carrier designed to feed headed stationery printing techniques and offers advice and staff
and envelopes into a printer. training to member companies.
pigment The constituent of a printing ink that pitch The horizontal spacing of printer charac-
gives it its colour. ters. Common pitches are 10, 12, and 15 (10, 12
pigmented paper Size-press coated or light- or 15 characters to the linear inch).
coated paper. pitch edge The edge of the sheet which is fed into


ties or attributes can be associated with specific plate cylinder The press cylinder which carries pixels.Dic. In a monochrome image the pixel may characters. pix Pictures. pixels per inch Measurement of graphic resolu. under a signature and sewing it in. 2. plate 1. exposes the plate either by laser or by thermal placeholder In DTP. colour images. Single dimensional array of bits that corresponds to a leaf printed on separate paper and attached to two-dimensional array of pixels. ready for platemaking. Used to print 80 3 60. if grey scales are used. contained in each pixel of information scanned Plantin Widely used typeface designed by or displayed. mation. related to the screen resolution. paper.) an 8-bit pixel) for white. plaintext A message before encryption or after then each pixel will have its own brightness. usually by machine. A pixmap can be used only on the screen plate folder See buckle folder. calendered finish given to GX. 137 . plate size A size of negative or photographic sequent replacement by the real text. On a colour monitor. This will affect the palette and will be tion sequence etc. be just black or white but.7 million plastic. laying pages down onto foils in imposi- colour). can be used to set the printing machine ink WinZip. resolving 256 shades of grey overall plastic plate Letterpress printing plate made of in the case of grey-scale images or 16. (See also PKUNZIP. plate hooked and guarded Printed plate fixed PKUNZIP A program for decompressing files into a book by extending the back margin compressed with PKZIP. thene. Also which the paper is pressed up against the ver- used for transferring files over the Internet. and the text matter and often on different paper. particularly photographs. In the case of colour images. made by exposing colour sepa- all the shades may be capable of display on rations to a special material which images in many monitors – see CLUT. (Compare with ciphertext. per pixel. made by printing from plates. e. typically around the outside from a machine proof (wet proof) which is of images.) distinct from indented or relief) image. It tically-held type-bed. Also known as establish the correct positioning for the real text the gripper edge or leading edge. (See also CCI. devised in the mid-1960s by IBM. blue phosphors (see RGB) and each is controlled planning All the processes involved in imposi- by a number of bits (see 8-bit colour. planer Block of wood used to tap letterpress type each pixel is made up of a triple of red. plastic wrapping Wrapping magazines in poly- tion.. and the correct typography for it.) A three. PKZIP Probably the most widely used file com. Can be thought of as a stack of N the plate. shades of colour overall in the case of full. the process colours corresponding to each sep- pixel editing The ability to examine and delete aration. platesetter Imaging unit on a CTP device which ALGOL and COBOL. so that proper. pixmap (A contraction of ‘pixel map’. a piece of specimen text imaging techniques. See flat ASCII. Is used in X windows and QuickDraw plate finish High.) PL/1 An early structured programming lan. plain ‘Upright’ letters as distinct from italic.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 137 a printing or folding machine. called roman or normal. plate section Printed illustrations separated from guage. placed in position on a page template for sub. A one-piece printing surface. in order to tidy up outlines. Also pixel An abbreviation for ‘picture element’ (or ‘pic. not Matchprint etc. platen Small letterpress printing machine on pression and archiving utility on PCs.g. 24-bit tion. Also called a dry proof.) There is also a related Windows version. ready plate generating a magnetic file which gzip. Scanners will typically run 8 bits Christopher Plantin. Improves handling of icon images and ani. rather than its from 0 for black to the maximum value (255 for encrypted form. plastic proof Proof such as Cromalin. green and into place on the surface of the stone. keys for make-ready. decryption. on which it was created. containing many of the features of FORTRAN. uses a variation on the sliding window plate scanning Electronic scanning of a press- compression algorithm. bitmaps. pixel depth The number of bits of information litho. a book. As distinct individual pixels. (Compare planographic printing Printing from a flat (as voxel. The smallest resolvable rectangular plain ASCII Means just the real ASCII charac- area that can be displayed on-screen or stored in ters including none of the extended ASCII memory. See pixel. in its readable form. ture cell’).

but is also BackWeb. used in DTP SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) schemes. However. plating Fitting the plates to the plate cylinder. Netscape Netcaster. data) with Internet content. (See nology for networks. it is a some- tal rate. PointCast A free service. A form of connection commonly employed usually have banks of modems and other in IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. including ISDN. 3-ply etc. term is now used more widely). accessed from within Netscape Navigator. plug compatibility Pertaining to the manufacture point of presence (PoP) A site. QuickDraw movies. POE See PowerOpen Environment. such as news. plough Hand cutter used for cutting the edges of pointlining Beard on typefounders’ type. A typographical unit of measure. PMS See Pantone Matching System. such as game in which the players use email to com. associated with a particular Internet entity plucking See picking. weather.g. as plesiochronous if significant events occur at while occasionally it really means point and nominally the same rate. it can also developed from. point-and-click To point at something on the Playstation A games console produced by Sony. tion using plesiochronous synchronisation.) are affixed to the cylinder.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 138 plates joined on the guard Two printed plates plug-in A term describing applications associat- joined by adhesive at the back margin to form ed with Netscape Navigator (although the a four-page section. cased books. pointing device A device used to control the puter instructions using either laser techniques movement of a pointer or cursor on the screen. Plug-ins are platesunk Area of paper compressed (for display rather like applets. one- The plating sequence is the order in which they twelfth of a pica. more use than. rate constrained within specified limits. domain. in a graphical user inter- municate. user interface (GUI). Within certain Plexus A World Wide Web server. based on push technol- plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) A trans. or mechanical techniques. A natural extension of ‘play by mail’ face (GUI). telecommunications. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) PMT See photomechanical transfer. menu or icon. Arrow-shaped cursor. Such a site will plug. point of contact (POC) An individual who is PLR See Public Lending Right. term. which users can access via duced by other manufacturers via cable and modem or ISDN connections. operating system. signed to help parents and teachers control pocket portable A portable microcomputer what children access on the Internet. systems. e.) gradually being replaced by SONET and other pointer 1. such as an describing a communication system where icon. a menu item or a word in a graphical transmitted signals have the same nominal digi. ogy and providing personalised delivery of mission system for voice and data communica.) plotter Device which draws graphics from com. saver. POC See point of contact. The plotter font See outline font. accuracy and stability. 2. not to say ambiguous. (network. screen and then click a mouse button. point 1. Castanet. pointers plot To draw an image or graph from variables or are used to describe the location of data. to be forcing plate. computer programming languages. but are what generic. (See pica for more details. An infrastructure for associating labels (meta. play by electronic mail (PBEM. usually in a graphical user interface (GUI). ping. See imagesetter. together with access to an 138 . including pri. run by an Internet of equipment that can be connected to that pro. Displays the information in a screen PDH is the conventional multiplexing tech. See point-and-click. Signals can be regarded sometimes it means point and double-click. (See information supplied as a series of coordinates. ASN etc. PNG See Portable Network Graphics. games in which the players use snailmail. sport etc. To locate a pointing device (usually the cursor. thus: 2-ply. also hash table. and in general terms little be used to cover other aspects. a word. PBM) A kind of controlled by a mouse) on a screen item. See pointing device. platform A rather loose term. Originally de. described as bit-synchronous. in synchronised on different clocks of comparable that sometimes it means point-and-click (once). mouse is the most common pointing device. A term common way of selecting an item. in that they enable certain purposes) below the surrounding surface by a types of file. which means a ply Layer of paper or board joined to another for combination of a particular computer and strength. pocket calculators. 2.Dic. vacy and intellectual property rights. service provider.). A later rival service is HeadLiner. public information. This is a plesiochronous Nearly synchronised. with any variation in then hold the mouse button down.

a supermarket checkout. ation needs to be carried out. positive-working plates Litho plates which are polythene wrapping See plastic wrapping. if there is positive An image on film or paper in which the email to be transferred from a server. Introduced to replace GIF. This was native to SMTP. POSIX An acronym loosely based on ‘portable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Synthetic cold-melt operating system interface for computing en- glue used in binding. exposed using positives. business operation) where a sale is transacted. Note that pdf from the POS terminal. guarantee of portability. asynchronous connections and bit-oriented Many portals aim to provide ‘one-stop shops’ synchronous systems. page. they provide an open systems interface and are 139 . e. are then retrieved from a central com. porous papers give difficulties phone costs down. as distinct from negative. (See also landscape. has many ment. portable document Any document – for The transaction may also provide input to a instance. Details of boards. and output data at the point of sale. information about items sold is input. the ‘X’ indicating the association POP See Post Office Protocol. PPP was designed to be an portal Web site ‘gateway’ for a generically improvement on SLIP. See EFTPOS. enclosure and weighs less than 30lbs. Virtual PoPs may also be with feeding.Dic. positive intrinsic negative (PIN) A type of detec- polymerisation Drying of ink by ultraviolet tor used in fibre-optic data links. polyviny chloride See PVC. POS See point of sale. poke A high-level language instruction designed portrait The orientation of a picture. or even in some appli. vironments’. one computer system. At a POS portable computer A computer which has all its terminal. disk drives. operating both over grouped range of subjects. of POSIX but subsequently other vendors have where on the screen. lossless bitmapped also Didot. constituent parts (processor.) polling Checking every so often to see if an oper. partly point-to-point A circuit connecting two nodes because of GIF’s shortcomings. nal. because Unisys is claiming copyright to LZW Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) The protocol compression. Unix was the basis by clicking on a word or icon. rying out the operation itself. or cash register) used in shops to input dialects. In addition. puter and a fully itemised receipt is printed. with Unix. such that its height is greater than its Polite Agent A patented agent that is part of width. in pdf format. changed their (proprietary) operating systems to cations just by clicking the right mouse button. A set of IEEE standards that describes POP3 Version 3 of the Post Office Protocol. which provides the Internet standard method Portable Pixmap (PPM) A colour image file for transmitting IP packets over serial point. grams that allows them to be run on more than point-of-sale terminal (POS terminal) A comput. which can be any. few of which are truly portable.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 139 Internet backbone. run unchanged on different systems. which means that pop-ups Cardboard cut-outs which stand erect. pica. the design of pro- e. display and power source) in a single price etc. The term dark and light values are the same as the origi- is sometimes also used to include actually car. Very open. screen or to place a value into a specific memory location. to-point links. PoPs may be geographically porosity The degree to which a paper is porous to distributed to improve access and keep tele. Most books and journals are portrait.351mm (0. SGML or HTML – stock-control system and be used for aspects of which can be transferred between systems.g. An identical name is no er terminal (often part of the checkout equip. key- often using a barcode or Kimball tag. become POSIX-compliant. for their communities of users. e. files are not the only portable documents. aspect ratio. BASIC.0138370) (See format for compressed. See graphic file format. 1pt = 0. products or services.) image files.g. one approach to making interfaces to operating pop-up menu A menu that is brought to the screen systems vendor-independent. format. how applications can be written so that they can Email software often provides this as an alter.g. BackWeb and monitors online activity. port An input and/or output connection to or point of sale (POS) The place in a shop (or other from a computer. curing. it may be possible portable document format (pdf) The format for electronic funds transfer to be carried out used by Adobe Acrobat files. air. point system The main system of typographic Portable Network Graphics (PNG) A graphics measurement. portability In software terms. market research. but also directly. which is the basis of GIF. accessible through third parties..

It domain software or – even if they are commer.) preter. A new font post-binding Type of binding that uses metal specification. often of questionable merit. Achieved prominence Macintosh. ing. should be sent.g. Similar font technologies and policy on telecommunications issues. May Type Manager (ATM) for display on-screen. There are two types of font. problem.) tronic mail at a particular site on the Internet PostScript Level 3 The latest version of PostScript. 140 . is similar to POSIX.) poster A single sheet in a large size printed on PostScript interpreter A piece of software spe- one side only for public display. ly the same person all the time). Type 1 fonts use hinting and Adobe’s post. operating systems can also be used. of the world. Not all PostScript printers will poster type See woodtype. the World Wide Web and ‘PlanetReady’ printing This allows messages to be aliased to the per. pot The container for molten metal on a type- Post Office Protocol (POP) A protocol designed to casting machine.g. Open Systems Interconnect ment to Adobe) or provide features not avail- (OSI) is a related approach to solving the same able in PostScript itself. See public and the latter two are not backwards compatible. cheaper (partly because there is no royalty pay- pliant systems. which is PostScript that such fonts were first widely generally used to mean sending a message to used. tocol available to a wider range of hosts.g. PostScript Adobe System’s proprietary page Power Macintosh See Apple Computer ’s description language. POTS Plain old telephone system. powdering Build-up of paper dust on a blanket. while for Type 3 fonts there (PTT) A provider of a public telecommuni. com- editing option. (Contrast with mail. closer integration with site. has recently been posts that pass through holes punched in the developed with the aim of removing font com- loose leaves. guage fonts. other ware or software) that will interpret PostScript. most of the features. but goes further as it cial products. and a special email address set up to which any intended to provide enhanced image technology. PowerOpen Environment. with the effect that there is no longer PostScript Level 2 An improved version of a continuous variation in the shades. Type 1 fonts can be interpreted by Adobe and the Bell operating companies in the US. which form post To send an email message to a mailing list part of the PostScript language. pression for large files. are TrueType and QuickDraw GX. (See also but is not using the true Adobe PostScript inter. (See also Supra.) Type 3. problems or queries. also be involved with setting national standards while Type 3 cannot. press line plates in one step. allow single-user hosts to access mail from a potboiler Work written to make the author a liv- server. It was in or a newsgroup. (See also Supra. These versions were developed to make the pro. and more facilities for poster paper One-sided glazed paper with rough handling Japanese Kanji and other Asian-lan- underside suitable for pasting. Paint PostScript featuring better handling of colour (image editing) programs often have this as an half-tone screening and colour matching. PostScript fonts See outline fonts. may either be available as public on the architecture of the PowerPC processor. switched telephone network.Dic. A sig- through its adoption by Apple. OpenType. to handle local language needs in different parts son who is acting as postmaster (not necessari. although it is designed to be used with the PostScript clone A raster image processor (hard. System 7. Macintosh operating system. British Telecom in the UK able. based on the PowerPC chip. messages regarding the email service at that faster page processing.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 140 able to communicate with all other POSIX-com. containing API and ABI specifications based Ghostscript. either over a network or a modem link. Type 1 and specific recipients. reduced. patibility problems. e. e. POP2 and POP3. Such interpreters. There are three versions: POP. cially written to convert PostScript files to a dif- posterisation A technique in which the number ferent code command set supported by a non- of colours or grey levels in a bitmap image is PostScript output device. that. and by far the nificant difference from earlier Macintoshes is most widely used PDL. such as Hyphen – they may be includes binary compatibility. These processors are also described as PowerOpen Environment (POE) A definition PostScript compatible. is no hinting and the format is publicly avail- cations service. handle Level 2 and many users will not require postmaster Both the person who supervises elec. POP3 is powderless etching Method of etching letter- often used as an alternative to SMTP. telephone and telegraph administration proprietary format.5. e.

based public-key encryption application for 141 . printing after final corrections. press after correction Instruction to proceed to ex-. prelims Abbreviation of preliminary matter. pre-print Previously printed matter which is PowerPC A RISC microprocessor jointly designed then re-wound ready for running in with by Motorola. more durable than paper. applied. American method of specify. Less rigid than a early. precision cutting Sheeting paper to very fine tol. final files or films ready for platemaking. non-. presensitised plate Offset litho plate supplied by suring system is the micron or volume. premium book Book offered to purchasers of press section In papermaking. Used in another printed job. trapping characteristics. IBM and Apple Computer. multimedia features and can be presented elec- PR See packet radio. components. Premiere Desktop video editing software from press release News of an event sent to the press Adobe. preface Formal statement before the text of a Provides service to the application layer and book by the author. Often colour advertising the Power Macintosh and various IBM models. run through the press. in prepress costs All the costs associated with which information is presented on a television bringing a job ready for press up to but not screen but accessed via the telephone network. presentation graphics A program which can be monly used laser printers. 2. and typically finish at the stage of ing press.g. presentation layer The second-highest layer (layer erances to avoid further guillotining. the manufacturer with a light-sensitive coating. including printing the first copy. As distinct from foreword. As distinct Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) A high-security RSA- from press costs. preferred position Advertisement location Presentation Manager The graphical user inter- which an advertiser would prefer for his copy face (GUI) in IBM’s OS/2 operating system. resulting in a double impression. rates vary from 8–20 ppm for most of the com.Dic. 6) in the ISO seven-layer model. The press proof Proof taken from the press after matter in a book which precedes the text. preflighting or preflight checking The process press costs The costs associated with printing of checking files using a software program in and manufacturing a job from plates onwards. the section of the another book or series. order to pre-empt problems at production As distinct from prepress costs. brown reinforced card applied to the inside of prekissing Paper and blanket making contact too the spine of a cased book. fonts. The European mea. accesses the features of the session layer. if it is available.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 141 power pack The component which supplies (and prepress proofs Proofs made by techniques other controls) electrical current to other computer than printing.g. PPA Periodical Publishers Association. also called ‘machining’. ing the thickness of paper. stages further down the line. Prestel Viewdata service provided by BT. Often shortened to ppm Pages per minute (laser printing). Typical checks pressing Flattening folded sections before bind- and diagnostics include validating graphics file ing. e. typesetting. tions can now usually incorporate a range of PQS See Picture Quality Scale. an offset litho plate. board hollow. make-ready but before the full run. preprinted Part of a job printed before the main ppi Pages per inch. ing machine. origination and presswork The work or management of a print- make-up. (encryption) and code or format conversion. come before the press or printing stages in a pressure-sensitive Adhesive when pressure is publishing project. pressed before it is passed on to the drying prepress The entire range of operations which cylinders. newspaper work. Standard ‘presen plate’. press 1. tronically. e. er word to adjust or qualify its meaning. or at a specially reduced paper machine where the web of paper is first price to attract people to subscribe to a book club. This layer is precision register quoins Quoins on which the concerned with aspects such as text compression degree of adjustment can be set precisely. Print- prefix Word attached to the beginning of anoth. Generic term for all periodicals. used for slide presentations. page presspahn hollow A hollow made of a strip of geometry. formats embedded in applications. PPM See Portable Pixmap. Such presenta- PPP See Point-to-Point Protocol. blends. intended for running in with black and white pp Pages. illustration costs. for publication. They include author costs.

has many of the channel (D – ‘delta’ – channel) used for sig. A photograph.g. allows a piece of composed work to be viewed Printer Command Language (PCL) A page exactly as it will appear in print. printed circuit board A plastic base with a cop.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 142 secure email communication. PRI is printer driver Dedicated software that converts typically used for commercial connections. laser printer). printer’s imprint Publisher’s name and other rele- repair and replacement routine designed to vant details usually printed inside a publication. the printer access and buffering for a network. providing privacy printer’s error See PE.Dic. paper. usually listed on the system command to print a specified file list. made up from a series of dots (see dot matrix Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) Internet email printer. print engine In a laser printer. nection. inkjet printer. bibliographic page after the title page. Unwanted areas of copper are printmaking Making fine art reproductions of removed by acid etching. integrated total of nearly two Mbps).. printing history Details of a book’s previous print 1. characters. part that performs the physical printing func. guage that is compatible with the printer. originals. A common operating printings and editions. Elsewhere. PCL Level 5. based on the T-1 require less memory than PostScript printers interface (an integrated total of 1. printing ink Ink used in printing that is made print drum A rotating drum containing printable from a mix of carbon and oil. (See also Privacy Enhanced printer’s flowers Ornaments in metal type or Mail (PEM). which in North America and Japan needing bitmap fonts for each size specified. Hill as a form of document delivery.) instructions. description language developed by Hewlett- setter. PRI usually has 30 B channels and 1 printer control characters Command characters D channel. and is based on the E-1 interface (an in a text that send instructions to a printer. PCL printers nalling and control purposes. characters (see daisywheel. and formats the user’s commands into a lan- primary rate ISDN See primary rate interface. were unable to handle scalable fonts. primary subtractive colours Yellow.552 Mbps). such that printing cylinder See plate cylinder. consists of 24364 kbps channels (B – ‘bearer’ The latest version. preventive maintenance A regular inspection. drum printer) or print wheel See daisywheel. indicating what to put where and. and are therefore cheaper. primary rate interface (PRI) A type of ISDN con. available paper for a job. e. reduce the risk of system failure. plus a 16 kbps appeared in the LaserJet III. process colours. Generally. printing sequence The order in which the four per coating onto which electronic components process colours are applied.) transfer lettering for use in printing. 2. and authentication. features of PostScript. that mechanical printout Copy printed out by a computer printer.g. duces print as it passes between printhead and PRIMIS A service set up by publisher McGraw. undercoat for a colour which will otherwise lack printer ribbon Roll of inked material that pro- covering power. printing down Laying film over a light-sensitive books from parts of books published by plate or paper to produce an image. PRI See ISDN primary rate interface. (See also Early versions simply included a string of basic rate ISDN (BRI). with black. authentication and printer’s devil Apprentice in a printing shop. are attached. See soft type. rather than printing to Characters may be printed as fully-formed a specific quantity of copies. printer A peripheral designed to produce a hard print to paper Instruction to the printer to use all copy of text or simple graphics characters. print control character A non-printing character printing house A company that produces print- designed to perform an action such as line feed ed material. academics could make up customised text. which provides privacy. e. Packard for its LaserJet and DeskJet printers. printer quality Quality rating of printed text pro- primer Print working which acts as a base or duced by a particular printer. message integrity using various combinations 142 . See drum printer. magenta printer-plotter High-resolution printer that is and cyan which. print server A server (or computer) that handles tion. a metallic silver or gold ink. printings Papers suitable for printing. or carriage return. which first – channels) for speech or data. McGraw-Hill and collaborating publishers. printer’s pie Type that has become jumbled up preview screen A desktop publishing VDU which and meaningless. As distinct from the RIP. make up the four capable of operating as a low-resolution plotter.

LOGic languages. Prodigy An online service developed in the US Stores programs which cannot be altered by the by IBM and Sears (an advertising company). or progressive proofs. for use in artificial intelligence applications and Procomm A PC-based communications program has been adopted by the Japanese as the main used for accessing bulletin boards. projection platemaking equipment Equipment process engraving Letterpress engraving. yellow Used to indicate the in combination with the others as a guide to cyan. machine is programmed to locate and expose process set The four process inks. using four-colour plates. High- within an organisation to connect users both level languages are often suitable for amateur or internally and to the public telephone network. each page in imposition order onto the plate. as PROM burner See PROM programmer. user. program library A suite of general purpose com. PROLOG has been developed process work Four-colour printing. hobby use while low-level languages would private circuit Circuit limited to preselected users. so that the contents. develop or maintain computer programs.) Provides electronic mail and information. US. (See also colour process inks. store proofing Process of producing proofs of a book and act on a computer program. machines. proofreader’s marks Symbols used by a proof- 143 . RIPEM. such as the Rachwal or DaiNippon SAPP sys- process inks Cyan. programmers. checked for errors.Dic. The first text online was the (See also four-colour process. control a computer in the performance of a task. text. magenta. times audible. the step-and-project colour process printing. red. photographic processes involved in printing. private (automatic) branch exchange (PABX/ Programs may be written in one of many high- PBX) A switching telephone exchange located level languages or a low-level language. made before program counter The register that contains the the production run. address of the next program instruction to be proof copy Page proofs of a book bound in a paper executed. promiscuous mode A communications mode in Includes commercials. PROM progammer A device designed to write pro-forma invoice Invoice drawn up to show the data to a PROM chip. used Champaign. irrespective of World Wide Web pages. layout or illustrations on proofs. (and downloaded) in the usual way. private line Another term for a dedicated circuit progressive proofs or progs Proofs of each plate or line. magenta and yellow colours of the four. in a colour set showing each colour alone and process blue. and needed either for docu. which can be accessed their actual destination addresses. There are language for their fifth-generation computers. over the Internet. Also acts as a host for which all packets are accepted. Project Gutenberg A collection of electronic texts as distinct from original photography. prompt A message. cover and distributed for publicity purposes. proof A trial printed sheet or copy. yellow and black tems which make plates by exposing from formulated as a set of four to print colour. puter programs held on backing store. (See also programming A sequential list of instructions by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). various versions for both DOS and Windows.) process camera Camera designed for the various progs Progressives. can be programmer The person employed to write. process white Special white paint used to cover PROLOG An acronym for PROgramming in over unwanted block lines on artwork. colour matching. (See also firmware. at the University of Illinois at Urbana- process colour(s) The four colours CMYK. the job shot sequentially.) Declaration of Independence and it is hoped to process colour printing Printing of colour plates have 10000 texts by the year 2001.) which a computer performs its designated tasks. The microfilm contains the pages of process plates Half-tone colour plates for four. bastard progressives. almost certainly only be used by professional private key See public-key encryption. usually displayed but some- mentation purposes or to obtain pre-payment. PROM Programmable Read Only Memory. for the purpose of checking. at the printing stage. well as shopping and travel arrangements. proof corrections Corrections made to the text. requesting an action from a com- program The complete set of instructions which puter user. design etc.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 143 of DES and RSA encryption methods. available for wide distribution in printing and the colour separation process. value of goods. programmable Any device that can receive. 35mm or 70mm roll microfilms mounted in the process lens Photographic lens designed for head of computer-controlled step-and-repeat graphic arts work.

to describe a server that shelf software packages holds a cache of files or documents. so that external sys- a transient development. in order that Prospero A distributed file system containing vir. monospaced fonts can now be seen as access to an Internet server. For example. WAIS. See protocol stack A set of protocols which work Appendix. an agreed set of rules on how PSTN See public switched telephone network. A listserv is a space and ‘i’ a narrow one. propagation delay The time taken for a signal to provincial press Newspapers circulating in travel from one end of a transmission channel to regional areas. Any tual files on a central host. PS. prove To pull a proof. Different PTR Acronym for paper tape reader. author and proof. menu bar etc. proportional fonts See proportional spacing. each one representing documents requested which it does not hold it an Internet resource. reader.Dic. they can be accessed more quickly or easily. damage to either. protocol In general. signals travel at proximity search A searching technique in the speed of light. access and PT Precision trimmed (paper). for public readership. 20 that. stration. (Compare with latency. these govern areas such relative humidity (RH). returned to a pub. It comprises one or two pages. error control and syntax of messages. whether for printing or display on the screen. a file may will obtain from the remote server and save a represent a telnet session to a particular host or copy so that when the user next requests that a file which is available using ftp. protocol. concerned with the same function. provided in an RS-232-C interface via pin 1. In proxy server A server which controls indirect one sense. Protective ground is typically PSK See phase shift keying. device to translate between different protocols newspaper etc. can communicate (also described as a proxy handwriting is. as data format. something should be carried out. a service to the layer above. Virtually all material kind of proxy. requests intended for another host and rerouting Thus ‘m’ and ‘w’ take up a comparatively wide packets to the actual destination. say.. the the OSI seven-layer model using a specific pasteboard..pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 144 reader for marking corrections on proofs. page icons. e. PostScript files. forced on users by the tems excluded for security reasons by a firewall limitations of the mechanical typewriter. proxy gateway See proxy server. the basic window protocol data unit (PDU) A packet of data which which appears when a document is being is passed across a network at a specific layer of worked on.g. is now set in proportionally spaced fonts. after all. protective ground Electrical connection between PSDN See public switched data network. together on a layered model to provide a set of proofreading Post-typesetting stage in the pro. 144 . including Gopher. model provides a standard framework within lisher for correction by. Archie. protocol converter A program or hardware publication The printing and issuing of a book. gateway). omissions etc. Compare signal ground. proxy Using one Internet address name to mean proportional spacing Spacing letters in text so that another. scroll bars. the pointer. PTT See post. PSS See Packet SwitchStream. rather than all ing Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) taking the same width (see monospaced fonts). The OSI seven-layer proofs Pages of typeset text. one is able to search for the occur- in electrical cables is half to three-quarters of rence of a group of characters within. two electronic devices designed to prevent PSE Paper surface efficiency. so that each layer duction process where the author and a reader uses the protocols of the layer below it to provide check the proofs for errors. and the World Wide Web. particularly on proprietary software Manufacturers’ off-the. telephone and telegraph admini- ent protocols. PS/2 IBM’s Personal System /2 line of computers. This is usually done by a host answer- each takes up its own width. which such a protocol stack can be defined. ps Both an abbreviation for PostScript and Prospero can thus be used to integrate Internet the file extension which is often used for information services. together with document it will be available more quickly.) words of another group or groups. sequencing. Within optical fibres. the World Wide Web. communications functions. In communi. The term is also used. e. proportionally spaced. PSN See packet switch node. title bar. while the propagation speed which. publication window In DTP. timing. psychrometer Instrument used for determining cations and networks.g. the information needed to obtain that file. layers of the OSI seven-layer model use differ. the other.

usually by a pointing ly used public-key encryption system. this can then be pull 1.Dic. kept secret). pick-away. public-key cryptography See public-key publishing The business of preparing. publish To prepare. operated by PTTs. public library system System of public libraries pull-out Part of a publication which can be open to the public throughout the country. Generally operated by a PTT. pulpwood Wood for the manufacture of wood magazine etc. treated digital network (and of a higher bandwidth either chemically or mechanically. reported in a publisher’s list. including new titles and punched card Card punched with a pattern of backlist. selling them to the public. publisher’s list price The price of a book as nications service. called the public key (which cursor keys or a mouse. See PTT. publisher’s list List of books that a publisher is punch binding See burst binding. print and distribute a book. It also provides a unified identifi- public key See public-key encryption. which is usually soft. It does not generally can be generally known) and the private key have the same degree of freedom of movement (that is.) is in er to read and report on submitted manuscripts. for general distribution which an analogue signal is represented as and sale. public switched data network (PSDN) Usually a pulp The raw suspension of woodfibre. than the PSTN). have been withdrawn from the market. menu type is accessed. aka a repro pull. magazines etc. public domain (PD) If intellectual property publisher’s reader Person employed by a publish- (books.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 145 public carrier A provider of a public telecommu. public switched telephone network (PSTN) A pulp board A homogenous board manufactured to public telephone network or the collection of its full thickness on the papermaking machine. introduced by a group ment and which by law has to be available in of leading US academic (scientific) journal pub- this way. photo-litho reproduction. holes encoding data for subsequent reading. that Sometimes called POTS in contrast to PSDN. and public-key encryption (Or public-key cryptogra. It is important to distinguish such lishers so as to provide a way of identifying indi- software from shareware. computer programs. cation system for books and journals. digital data. A proof. particularly suitable for data Chemical pulp contains many fewer impuri- communications. Most commonly. and the edition of a book is cased with a plain cloth sampled values converted into binary codes for binding. removed from the binding and used separately. images etc. A single print for subsequent decrypted only using the recipient’s private key. 145 . in water. and journals. or vidual items. within both books at least free only for evaluation. such as articles. software etc. it is available to anyone publisher’s statement Publisher’s authorised without charge. this applies to notice of circulation and distribution statistics. which are to be removed the public key is ever communicated. and distributing books. menus. cryptography is used both for encryption and pull down menus Also referred to as pop-up for authentication.) An encryption scheme in which each user puck A pointing device with functions similar to has a pair of keys. them around the world. the public domain. phy. as only or at front and back. The analogue data is sampled at publisher’s binding A binding style where an regular intervals (a fixed frequency). transmission using a digital link. printing encryption. currently selling. which is not free. A message is as a mouse but rather works within a tray-like encrypted using the public key of the person to enclosure. publisher Company that prepares and publishes pulse code modulation (PCM) A method by books. pulp. pulping Recycling or destroying books etc. Options are revealed only when a RSA is probably the best known and most wide. and dragging action with a mouse. 2. Once the Public Lending Right PLR: an author’s right to option has been selected the menu disappears receive a fee from a library commensurate with leaving the screen free. Publisher Item Identifier (PII) An extension of the ware developed on behalf of the US govern. ISBN and ISSN system. whom the message is to be sent. Also. often of digital signatures. ties than mechanical pulp. This means that secret information never has to pull-away A section which contains a number of be transmitted over publicly accessible net. public domain software. of course. the rate of borrowing of a book written by that pulling Resistance between paper and printing author by library members. Public-key prior to binding. blank pages (typically 4pp) either in the middle works or other communications media. surface.

QA See quality assurance. 2. push technology The download of information quadrille Grid paper. May be used to produce a Wide Web. products during or after manufacture. which the Huffman coder cannot. at least in the graphic arts output code bit to more than one input symbol. quadrant balance or scale Device for measuring QuickDraw The object-based graphics display grammage of paper.e. ial (e. its internal and external operations. Originally written for the Macintosh. right or centre To set lines flush left.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 146 punched card reader Device that reads data from quadrat A piece of blank metal type for creating a punched card and translates it into a form space between characters. company-wide Q-coder The coding scheme. a water-based cold-melt to receive free subscription of periodical. in which information is down. The less probable a symbol.g. bandwidth is 9600 bps or higher. pin register system. In paper. quad 1. ing tool based on QuarkXPress. coarse-screen half-tone print to emphasise the quad left. finer grey-scale effect. system used by the Apple Macintosh. a quad sheet. spacing material used to fill out lines of type.) loaded by users when they specify a URL. that can be recognised by a computer. cased books and in perfect binding. the impregnated into base paper for durability. Also.g. leather) and sides in another (e. patented by IBM. Q quality circles Otherwise called ‘quality control circles’. brand or type of paper. quality control System for checking quality of QAM See quadrature amplitude modulation. Small groups of company workers called to meet regularly to examine working practices. form of transmission in which digital data is punch register system Device which punches encoded in an analogue signal by a combi- registered holes in sets of films or plates for nation of amplitude modulation and phase positioning purposes. quality system Comprehensive. half-bound. bring forward suggestions for improvement. Research subject which meets the criteria and is used particularly in glueing the spines of being tested by the project. either over the quad royal Sheet of paper measuring 503 4 00. shadows by making them solid and the high- right or centre. i. emulsion adhesive which is flexible when dry 2. Umbrella term for all activities associated with the cre- ation and maintenance of a quality system within a company. quality of its products and the effectiveness of els are coded as symbols depending on the prob. set of practices adopted in a firm to monitor the which is used in JBIG compression. e. Has similarities with Huffman coding. the illustration is reshot as fine line. Paper terminology for a sheet four times quarter-bound Binding with spine in one mater- the size of the traditional broadside sheet. on the quadtone The use of four (possibly Pantone) basis of information profiles supplied by users. Letterpress cloth). 146 . The whole set of features of a product two-shot binding. qualified 1. quadding Addition of spaces to fill out a line of quarter tone Illustration made by retouching a text. (See also duotone. 2. QC See quality control. and discuss solutions to quality problems. quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) A punched tape See paper tape. but now also runs under Microsoft Windows. e. modulation. The Q-coder can also assign one layout program. 8903 1130mm. ability of occurrence of these symbols in different QuarkImmedia Multimedia authoring and view- contexts. Compare full-bound. mum sheet approximately 101031400mm quarto A page one-quarter of the traditional (403 5 60).Dic. industry. broadside sheet size. (See also quality 1. three-quarter bound. following which quad press Printing press designed for a maxi. Bi-level pix. Quad Demy. lights by making them white. quality assurance Abbreviated QA. This is used when the modem pure woodfree See woodfree. by information providers.g.g. Internet or using broadcast techniques. Reader who meets criteria necessary PVA Polyvinyl alcohol. Applied as a coating or isfy the needs of the end-user.) or service which relates to its being able to sat- PVC Polyvinyl chloride. colours in combination to produce a particular in contrast to the pull technology of the World effect in printing. the more bits will be QuarkXPress Probably the leading DTP or page assigned to it. Crown Quarto.

QuickTime includes its own video compres. At the end of a session the contents of a RAM disk are rewrit- ten back to floppy or hard disk. (See also PICT images. RAID Redundant arrays of inexpensive/inde- QuickTime A general multimedia-handling util. It operates as rail Part of a linecasting machine. duced accurately.e. in section or signature. i. this way. A fies a document in terms of its appearance.e. ally used to describe the US government’s secu- q. area of memory in a rack board Display board or device designed to computer in which programs work and manip- be mounted on a rack. ‘Cookbooks’ (Red Book. extension to denote shift and unshift. of expensive paper. One-twentieth of a ream (25 sheets). Abbreviation for the Latin quod vide. Terms ‘upper a software extension (or plug-in). QuickDraw GX An imaging model that works ragged Text layout that is not justified. top left-hand row of the keyboard.) and infra-red radiation. Ragged left and ragged centre (ragged on The former is enhanced by a font technology. some respects similarly to HTML. Windows. raised printing See thermographic printing. oriented. processor documents to SGML. e. the Orange Book. the left-hand mar- video and print output directly. but only TrueType GX. at which from that on a PostScript printer if Adobe electromagnetic waves can be transmitted. both margins) are also used in books. QuickTime makes it possible to dis. so that mul. enabling far faster read—write operations. pendent disks. including colour. objects. used for indicating a cross.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 147 QuickDraw controls how text and images are radiation drying The drying ink by ultraviolet drawn on the screen. Origin- and finish of dialogue or other quoted passage. White Book) have also been described in qwerty Standard typewriter keyboard layout. RAM disk Not a disk at all. initially for the amounts of data in a secure fashion. not. treated to set rapidly. Descriptions quirewise binding See saddle-stitching. RACE (Research into Advanced Communication random-access memory (RAM) Random access Technologies in Europe. synchronised high-quality sound. rail’ and ‘lower rail’ were sometimes used by timedia can be embedded in other documents. Type Manager or TrueType is used. The graphics module is object. Document Type Definition (DTD) that speci- quire 1. images rag Material sometimes used in the manufacture may be of lower quality. Most text alongside QuickDraw but controls the Mac’s on-screen is ragged right. rainbow series A series of technical manuals. the temporary. graphics and printing.v. is mission R&D programme. There are three gin is aligned while the right-hand margin is modules: typography. quotation marks (or quotes) Either single or dou. Rainbow Document Type Definition An SGML sion technology. Blue reference. but a large area of random-access memory (RAM) in a computer which has been allocated to hold some or all of R the contents of a floppy or hard disk. each ble inverted commas. The PostScript ‘which see’. so what is meant depends on the appli- qwerty being the arrangement of keys on the cations with which the user is familiar. although text will be indistinguishable netic radiation) above about 300Hz. RAM Abbreviation for random-access memory. margin. Green Book. QuickDraw can also be used to control printers radio frequency (rf) Frequencies (of electromag- and. i. Book. An approach to storing large ity developed by Apple. ulate the data.) A European Com. of documents in terms of this DTD can be used quoin A wedge or expanding device used to lock as an intermediate stage in converting word- up letterpress chases. Data in RAM is lost when the 147 . 2. meaning rity series. interactive. running either under Unix or on a network play ‘movies’ and animated sequences with with the NetWare network operating system.Dic. but now also available for increasingly used in multimedia installations. most frequently described as RAM.g. providing full control over graphic ragged right Text with irregular line lengths. rag paper Paper made from stock containing a quick-setting ink Ink that has been specially substantial percentage of rag. while the printing with an even left margin but an uneven right module ensures that the colours are repro. usually as a design feature. memory. RAID is Macintosh. used to mark the start of which has a different coloured cover.

from an observer’s eye. RARE See Réseaux Associés pour la Recherche in which the paths taken by rays of light are Européenne. Each line is made up read/write head Device in a disk drive that reads of a series of dots or pixels.). the underlying pattern r&b or r&j See rounding and backing and or ‘net’ of lines which represents the structure rounding and jointing. Compare random access raster or bitmap image for output on a page memory (RAM). printer’s reader. rapid access processing Method of quick film which indicates the degree of stiffness. Adobe ready state An indication in a DTE/DCE inter- Type Manager rasterises PostScript fonts so face that the DTE device is ready to receive that they can be displayed or printed on non.24 serial interface (with a probable maximum then output using the sound facilities of the of 28 800 bps) and the 64 kbps of ISDN. 2. which is the dynamic part of printer or imagesetter or on screen. in the image plane to an object. sions of ISDN. Similar to ftp. colour. in the case of OCR. ly (as the equivalent of bitmap) to describe a reader 1. 148 .) ray tracing A method of creating realistic images. each with properties such as sizes (see Appendix for paper sizes. file can be resolution independent. through a point RARP See Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. data on a disk or transfers additional data to it. Each object can RA sizes Sizes of stock sheets of printing paper then be considered as a collection of differently that are slightly larger than the equivalent A shaped surfaces. a Web browser pattern or grid. in a files by an encoder which is part of the series of horizontal sweeps following a raster Realaudio server. in as distinct from the number of copies sold. Person who checks proofs for accuracy. Rapid access paper is the photographic materi. Sound is compressed into Realaudio the selective exposure of dots. (Compare with vector graphics. as in raster graphics and raster 2. Also used general. will create a bitmap at the correct resolution for read–write head The component which reads the output device. so that the page description from and writes to a magnetic disk or tape. Which is meant will depend on random access Method of directly accessing a the context. media or. See which an image is made up of an array of bits pass-on rate. (See also stabilisation paper. In laser setting.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 148 computer is switched off unless it is first saved kbps) and the North American (56 kbps) ver- to disk. usually PostScript ically contains the basic system programs. ROM typ- page description language. Contrast reader’s proof First typeset proof used by the vector data. decompresses the a terminal adaptor between the data rate at a stream of data sent from the server. over which a typeset image is formed by the rcp Remote copy. raster data Data held in raster form. traced. readership Number of readers of a publication. from typescript. implemented as a client- scanning or digitally processing. and paper processing using heated chemicals. The horizontal R&D Abbreviation for research and develop- pattern of lines on a video display or television ment. al used. Compare ROM. (or pixels). raster 1. A 28. raw stock Base paper before coating. accept a request to send data. incoming data and the DCE device is ready to PostScript devices. zontal. over the Ethernet. line by line. or computer. The client. that makes up the picture. tisement space in a publication. The RIP the computer’s memory. Device which can ‘read’ from magnetic fonts. raster font See bitmap font. server architecture. A Unix utility for copying files selective exposure of dots in a series of hori. line-by-line. resi- and possibly containing vector graphics. for playing audio over the raster scan The technique of plotting an image by Internet. raster graphics The same as bitmap graphics.) read-only memory (ROM) Computer memory raster image processor (RIP) Either a program or supplied as a chip inside the computer and a piece of hardware that converts a file held in a which cannot be altered by the user. specific address on a computer file without the rate card Leaflet or kit showing costs of adver- need for a sequential process. range Align (type etc. rasterise Turn into a raster (bitmap) version by Realaudio A program. plug-in or add-on (and the latest browsers rate adaptation Can either refer to conversion in have the facility built in). raw data Data before processing or preparation. similar pattern. reflectance. transmittance and texture.Dic. which is V. sweeps.8 kbps modem is required for mean conversion between the European (64 music-quality sound. rattle Noise made by paper when it is handled. to a dent in the computer.

Red Sage A joint project between the University e. form of coding that the standard recommends. Midway file is deleted. the pulp (TMP). than one network user editing a database reference mark Star-shaped symbol (*) that indi- record at the same time. after cleaning. i. suitability etc. Provided the user has not anical pulp (SGW) and thermomechanical attempted to write new data to the disk. so register pins Pins which locate in holes made by that an additional check digit or bit is included. biomedical journals. Also known as beating. Also known as ‘reflective copy’. and are folded together. When a passing wood chips through a refiner.e. to three reel-stands feeding paper simultaneous- ream 500 sheets of paper. Also. recto A right-hand page.) register punch See punch register system. recording unit See imagesetter. In other words. aptitude. in an optical character reader holding the pat. reconstituted leather Leather made from pulp of reference concrete syntax The syntax. and rather misleadingly termed recycled too. pulper is further refined in a cone refiner and. Storage location in AT&T Bell Laboratories. The printed webs are brought together in the ream-wrapped Sheets wrapped in lots of 500. e. scanned images of biomedical journals via the register 1. set aside reel-up The reeling section of a paper machine. is ready for pumping to the recycled paper Paper for which the majority fur. Provides online access to regional network See mid-level network. computer memory. a photograph. Recover An operating system command used to refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) Pulp made by recover damaged or deleted disk files. notation etc. See where information may be found. after the first binding. reel Roll of paper. nish is consumer waste paper of one sort or reflection copy Copy viewed by its reflected another. Recover command may be used to resurrect refining The second main stage of papermaking such files. folder. wordprocessing packages which shows where refresh rate Rate at which an apparently contin- alterations have been made to a document. the different leather scraps. after dry pulp has been mixed in a hydrapulper recovered fibres Fibres from waste paper as at the first stage. Often con- optical character recognition. web-offset machines may have up with input and output. feed end of a web-offset press. which is viewed by transmitted under this definition although it is sometimes light. 60 times a second etc. Multi-colour. register marks Marks in the same relative posi- redundancy Inclusion of duplicate information.Dic. only its reference in the disk in quality between stone groundwood mech- index is removed..g. although it can be changed in the SGML record locking Software which prevents more declaration. a punch in a punch register system. SGML standard. 2. another’s character. San Francisco. reducers Printing ink additives. (See also validation. registration The alignment of the different reel-stand The unit housing a reel of paper at the colours in the printing of coloured material. see 149 . recall Calling a computer file from backing store referee Person requested to give a report on into memory. ly. reference Direction to a page or a publication tern characteristics of a particular font. cates that the reader should refer to a footnote. of California. Positioning of colours accurately to RightPages server software developed by form a composite image. web. The stock from the hydra- opposed to virgin pulp. Paper light. paper machine. reformatting Setting new typographical parame- redlining Facility available to use with some ters for a previously set piece of copy. this is the cally consisting of a number of fields. re-etch To deepen the image on a plate. as distinct from trans- made mainly from mill waste does not fall mission copy. that is defined in the record A discrete block of computer data.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 149 real time Method of computing in which opera. for recognition memory Read Only Memory (ROM) a job. ‘reflex copy’. uously displayed image is flashed on a VDT. Red Book See rainbow series. tion on films or plates to enable correct posi- This is often used as a check. delimiters. particularly in tioning to be achieved.g. rebind Binding a set of stored sheets. transferring information between systems. typi. either printed or unprinted. tions are performed on data simultaneously multi-effect. AT&T Bell refusal When one ink film will not print on Laboratories and a number of publishers of another. tained in separate list in set style.

By using tables which relate to been developed to convert the protocols and one another by having a field in common. sale on preferential terms. Informix and Ingres. repaginate Change the page numbers.g. information need only be stored once. usually books. edited and archived in price. so that decompression. in which a program reinforced binding Binding that is strengthened (the client) sends a message. e.g. letterpress. which enables the user to change appropriate for applications including large the name of a file. generally to mean duplication. to used relational databases used on open systems make it appear realistic. Uses compressed images with real-time check as part of each message or packet. Replication is also used more the Internet. cific arguments. a check) that cover the cost of replacing a lost or spoiled pic- messages will reach their destinations both ture. number or a differ. (See also media converter. which are discounted for alignment purposes outside the area of the fin. usually because the title has not sold suc. a database may include a table containing hard disks. complete and in the correct order. Ray tracing is a com- include Oracle. Standard testing condi. ished publication. This is done Replay A video system used on Acorn comput- by including a checksum or cyclic redundancy ers. (vb) To sell books at a reduced allows text to be stored. as though locally attached. both these tables. press conditions are 20°C and 55–65%RH. repeater Equipment used to allow transmission Contrast absolute humidity.g. structured form. particularly if shading and shadows to a computer-generated they are SGML compatible. repeat Repeated insertion or showing of an tions for paper are 23°C and 50%RH. Also used in Ethernets to connect seg- calculations. most thus allow more general communication. ments. Can use various protocols including reliable protocol used on both the Ethernet and X. (See also mon method. 150 .) reliable communication Communication in replacement fee Fee paid to a picture library to which there is a guarantee (i. middleware has of a fixed length. on the basis of a mathematical model. together with spe- at the joints to allow for hard use or for a par. Text databases render. contained within protective car- spare parts and another containing customer tridges. retimed or reconstructed before retrans- measurement for spacing or character-width mission. Most DTP and page layout remote Located away from main plant or. electronic link with the main processing plant. present in the atmosphere expressed as a per. tion due to changes in size. having no direct as an option on their print menus. using the arguments supplied. and return relational database A type of database in which the result to the client. e. Relational databases are Rename A command common to several operat- increasing in their flexibility but are still not ing systems. over long distances. if the check fails. Registration marks are printed for tions. to a remote system (the server) ticularly heavy book. removable cartridge disk A disk system in which e. cessfully. Ordering a part will entail referencing suitable disk drives. remote procedure call (RPC) A protocol used in ent folding machine. repp Writing paper with a patterned surface. via a protocol over a computer net- reimposition Changing the layout of an imposi.e. centage of saturation. usually incompatible RPC protocols. are more appropriate for this.25 and TCP/IP. may be removed from and replaced in details. Optimum advertisement. software replication’.Dic. work. amounts of unstructured text. in the programs have inclusion of registration marks case of technical equipment. Because there are many entries are structured in defined fields. dure. reglet Narrow strip of wood or metal used to remote log-in Connecting to and using a remote make spaces between lines of type. Thus. indicating that the message is replication A function of Lotus Notes in which incomplete or corrupt. computer. 2.) relative humidity (RH) Amount of water vapour renewal Repeat of subscription to a periodical. client-server computing. The most widely image.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 150 CMYK. requesting it to execute a designated proce- rekey To re-enter data by means of a keyboard. object-oriented database. (See also Gouraud shading. in which signals are ampli- relative units Divisions of one em used as a fine fied. (n) remainders are unsold publica. as in ‘illegal relief Printing method using a raised image.) Phong shading.. rendering The process of applying colour. document databases can be distributed across Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the networks. repository Textbase or database software which remainder 1. the sender is notified.

reproduction See repro. (See also soft hyphen. a printed photograph) and shoot retouch To paint over film or artwork by hand or it again with a new half-tone screen. retouching Correcting a photographic print or Réseaux Associés pour la Recherche Européenne transparency before reproduction. in lines per inch (lpi). cation for promotional or editorial use. after others have been transferred. Also. 2. reprographics or reprography General term for or laser printer. As applied (RARE) An association of national and interna. reproduction fee Fee paid for the right to repro. cational and professional history.) vitae. medium-resolution other form of short-run duplicating and printing. retailer is not permitted to sell it at a discount. or any output typically at 300 dpi. screened (e.g. result of a command on a VDU. US: a person’s edu- always found in a word. new shape. origination. See reversed out. a line break. resist A protective chemical or coating. orders generated compared to the number of dards. Low-resolution laser printers electrostatic printing. black background. 1600H3800V). including standards (all hostname-to-Internet address conversion. Also called baryta paper. black is after printing. even if it is not split by. which direct-duplicating film. It is electronic means in order to improve or repair important in doing this to avoid moiré pattern. the number of mal development of ITU-T and ANSI stan. Unlike the for. 72–100 pixels (dots) per inch.) most RFCs are not standards). VDU screen resolutions typically vary from repro pull See reproduction proof. Printing of part of a publi. Summary of a text. i. imagesetter. resin Sticky substance. Also. 151 . reproduced as black. disk a file or group of files that have been Before transmission can take place CTS (clear stored on back-up disk/s by the MS DOS back- to send) must be received. diazo printing. at 400 dpi. they have not been sold. dots per inch (dpi).g. posals put forward by the Internet research and response time The time taken to display the development community (hence the name). resolution Measurement of image fineness stated duce an illustration. 2. restore MS DOS command to restore to a fixed cations system before a message can be sent. up operation. Sometimes referred to as residual rights Rights still held by an author WOB (white on black). retree Slightly damaged paper sold at a reduced Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) A collaboration price and often marked xx. high-resolution at 600 dpi.e. RFCs are developed on the basis of pro. expressed as a percentage. resin-coated paper Abbreviated to ‘RC paper’. or reproduction proof A proof taken from type for pixels per inch as created by an output device subsequent reproduction. but also address resolution. see colour etching. image used in photosetting. insoluble in water. laser typesetter. scanning and film Photographic paper with good longevity of make-up. ing. autopositive film. (medium) up to 2400 dpi (high). required hyphen or hard hyphen Hyphen that is résumé 1. to colour separation films.. used in papermaking and ink production. resident font Permanent font data in a printer or reversal Creation of white text or images on a device that does not have to be downloaded.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 151 reprint 1.Dic. (See also broke. photosetters output typically at around 1200 dpi era-ready artwork. Request For Comments (RFC) The series of resolver The TCP/IP software that formats numbered Internet information documents requests sent to the Domain Name Server for (begun in 1969). repro Prepress camerawork. Subsequent printing of the first edition is secreted by some plants and conifers and of a publication. reversal film Contact film with the same positive resiliency Measure of paper surface condition and negative values as the original. Laser repro paper Coated paper suitable for use in cam.) between European networks to provide returns Books sent back to the supplier because Internet services using TCP/IP. Some image- reproportion Change the relative dimensions of setters output at lower resolutions vertically artwork (usually photographically) to create a rather than horizontally (e. request to send (RTS) Signal sent in a communi. UK: curriculum e. response rate In direct mail.g. such as a scanner. (See Internet standards are recorded in RFCs. the image. mailshots sent out. tional European research networks. resale price maintenance (RPM) Where the price retarders Printing ink solvents which extend the of a book is fixed by the publisher and the ink’s open time. reticulation Spotting caused by wet ink not dry- rescreen To take a subject which is already ing properly on a previously inked surface.

As distinct from a protocol that provides the reverse function of former folder. signals which locate on metal rings. displayed as black characters on a white (or right-angle folds Folds at 90° angles to each green or amber) background. RFC See Request For Comments. particularly when it returns to the orig.g. in a way that contrasts them with others in the Rich Text Format (RTF) An ASCII format for same piece of text with the purpose of high. so that care reverse indent See hanging indent. to a backbone site) offering high-speed link reverse characters Characters that are displayed between a backbone site and leaf sites.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 152 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) A into ribbons for folding. RH See relative humidity. RIP 1. tem used in televisions and computer monitors. liquid crystal an electrical ring main). ARP. RIPE See Réseaux IP Européens. blue. revise A revised proof for subsequent reading. i. RightPages A server and browser for scanned reversionary Property. the all the other pieces in a batch of artwork to subtractive colour system used to produce undergo the same enlargement or reduction as colour data for printing. go through holes punched in the paper. creating a colour image. green. that images. such as a copyright. As distinct from wrong-reading. right side In papermaking.e. Compare this with CMYK. It reverse left to right To turn a picture round so is sometimes used as an intermediate step in that the right side becomes the left and vice converting wordprocessor documents to versa. over the years. loop (or closed path) is formed. one piece marked. inal author or their heirs. It provides a step reverse leading Ability of a photosetter to move towards structured documents and SGML in film or paper ‘backwards’ to achieve exposure that styles are explicitly coded and can be sep- of complicated text or columnar matter. (See also token ring. dising et el. arated from their typographic representation. needs to be taken with its use. from three different electron guns (each carry. pub- Revisable Form Text (RFT) See Document lication. serialisation. broadcasting. Definition. It should be noted that. mapping a hardware address (MAC rib site An intermediate Internet site (analogous address) to an Internet address. ument or series of documents as they are Rinco process Process which creates gravure amended. positives by photographing a proof of white rf See radio frequency. ring binding Binding by means of holes in paper In a cathode ray tube (CRT) display. so that each priately coloured phosphor coating on the node is connected to two adjacent nodes (like screen. and ring-shaped clasps that can be opened to RGB Red. right-reading Film which reads ‘correctly’. rights Legal rights connected to a work: e. Mail. wordprocessing and related files. sor. See raster image proces- colour gamut. An instruction to allow ent technology. The additive colour sys. rigid disk See hard disk. developed by lighting or emphasising the content. SGML. colour. 2. merchan- Content Architecture/Revisable Form Text. when viewed from the emul- the author when the publisher fails to keep the sion side. ribbon cable Flat plastic-coated cable in which RIPEM Riordan’s Internet Privacy Enhanced the lines lie parallel to each other. An implementation of Privacy Enhanced ribbon folder Web press folder which cuts web Mail (PEM). reversion of copyright Return of copyright to from left to right. See colour space. and keep track of successive versions of a doc.) reverse video An ability provided by some sys. ring binder Loose-leaf binder with stiff covers RFT See Revisable Form Text. Microsoft has modified the format. Routing Information Protocol. the top side or felt- revision control system Programs which store side of the web. Microsoft for exchange of files between sys- reversed out Type printing white out of another tems.Dic. (See also Rainbow Document Type reverse-reading See wrong-reading.) displays (LCD) work similarly but use a differ. book in print. Rest In Proportion. developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories passes to another on the death of the present and used in the Red Sage and SuperJournal owner. projects. 152 . Also known as other. inverse video. ring network A network topology in which a ing a different colour signal) activate the appro. right-angle folding Folding a sheet with one or tems to reverse the VDU image so that data is more folds at right-angles to each other. letters on a black background.

roller Round metal bar used to guide the paper Can be obtained with ‘ping’ (the Portable through a printing press. xviii. rather rough proof Proof for identification rather than than as part of the hardware.) A simple RLE See run-length encoding. line. root directory The top directory in an (inverted) except in that they are intended to increase pro. As a verb. which may offend. gateway. As much chlorine can be absorbed by a sample of distinct from flat back binding. route for each destination. carried out by a router.Dic. zines or newspapers: material printed as part May be found on the back of US-manufactured of the main text. roman type ‘Upright’ letters as distinct from italic. The process. As a noun. (See also telnet. although a common protocol roll wrapping Rolling a magazine to wrap paper is required. packet to a particular host and receive it back. selecting a suitable path through a network. brouter. ating system and do not affect applications. it describes the actions for sampling purposes. 2. tree-and-branch filing system. a vertical ‘river’ of white in the text. Romanisation Transliterating a non-Western routing 1. A type ROMP (regionally organised modem pool) The of computer processor architecture. Network Graphics format). Maximum speed reading. the taken by a router (or in routing). plate. rot13 (Rotate alphabet 13 places. modems. A router will calculate the shortest around it for mailing (as distinct from folding). (See also Exterior Gateway Protocol.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 153 RISC Reduced instruction set computer. Interior Gateway Protocol. Cutting away non-printing areas of a script into Roman characters. thereby showing how easily it can rounding and jointing See rounding and back- be bleached. correction are provided as software. rout To trim away the blank parts of a plate so rolling headers Moving titles or headers of pages they are not printed by accident. layer information and routing tables. based on network ROM See read-only memory. paper pulp. that are being displayed electronically as they route Either a noun or a verb. rounding and backing Also ‘rounding and joint- roe chlorination number Measurement of how ing’. round-trip time (RTT) The time taken to send a roll coating Coating applied to paper by rollers. projection of orders which should come from a router A device which allows connection full mailing based on the response to a test between dissimilar networks (such as Ethernet mailing.) reading and posting programs to hide items RMP See refiner mechanical pulp. the other directories. In direct mail. Using a roller to spread ink on paper tination. machine which seals centre join. it is the are received. encryption routine in which each English letter rlogin Remote login. rosin An important component in papermaking RJ-45 A telephone cable connector for an ISDN size. interface in which data compression and error rough A sketch or layout. Unix and DOS use this river Undesirable formation of word spaces into system. Rockwell Protocol Interface (RPI) A modem rotogravure Gravure printing on rotary press. Interior Known as plain or normal in DTP systems. In maga- RJ-11 An American-style telephone connector. giving a measure of the current network delay.) 153 . Gateway Protocol. task. rolled Paper glazed by rolling. is 14 400 bits per second. nary script. of Romanise The act of transliterating. routine A computer program with a selective xxv etc. path taken over a network from source to des- roll-out 1. ROP Abbreviation for ‘Run of Paper’. Exterior Gateway Protocol. 2.) roman figures Roman numerals such as iii. the same program can be used to encrypt and rocker sealer Heated element in film-wrapping decrypt. roll Reel (US). ing. rotary Printing from plates on cylinders. Used in Usenet news Internet. instructions are to the processor from the oper. A Unix utility which allows is replaced with the one 13 places forward or a user to log in to a remote computer via the back along the alphabet. in that ROB Run of book. (See also Roman Plain. upright style of type used in ordi. and Token-Ring). bridge. It contains all cessing speed. Shaping a book so the back is convex. Rot13 is self-inverse. rolling ball See trackball. root See root directory. The service providing virtual points of presence.

equipment. RS-232 A standard type of computer interface used rubric Heading of a book chapter or passage to connect serial devices. the C ruling Making lines on paper by pen or disk indicating that this is the third version of RS-232. from black to white. RTT See round-trip time.) route because it does not take account of the RTF See Rich Text Format. equivalent to ITU-T V. Also known as ‘running headline’. the has been broken.35. V. (Compare with parallel interface. fashion. direction). peripheral devices. bandwidth of the connections.) RS-232 specifies the physical con. rub-proof Ink with good abrasion resistance. run-length encoding (RLE) A compression algo- specially designed for integrated technology. 154 . See guide. mainly used for storing bitmaps. of a page layout program. RRP Recommended retail price. rubilith Red masking film which is opaque to RPC See remote procedure call. measured in points. the amount of computing number of hops required to the destination. The rules Printing lines. Huffman coding works in a similar RS-485 An enhanced version of standard RS-422. RS-422 A more robust version of the RS-232-C. ric system). while RS-423 specifies shaped graphic. tint-laying etc. on to off. product of two large prime numbers and the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) A protocol difficulty of factoring these. RSA encryption A public-key encryption and running head A title repeated at the top of each authentication system (the acronym is based page. It is part of RS-449. light and used in making photographic masks RPI See Rockwell Protocol Interface. royal Standard size of paper 4803636mm (met. communication equipment. will include such a providing a higher data transfer rate than the feature. rub-down lettering See transfer type. RPM See resale price maintenance. such as Acrobat files. rub-out Computer code which deletes. (See also data run 1. The ability to do this is a feature the electrical signals. R type Colour print made from a transparency royalty Fee paid to an author which is calculated without any intermediate negative. forms RS-449. although page-based electronic docu- US Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Electronic Industries Association – EIA). A routing information within an administrative Shamir and L Adleman). equivalent to ITU-T which is printed in red or special lettering.35. RTS See request to send. interface is also described as RS-232-C. or from which is equivalent to ITU-T V. always give the fastest security of the approach. ments. type. Together gle character and the length of the run. R Rivest. data terminal 2. RS-232 protocol. mances of a work. RS-422 is the top of one page to the bottom of the previ- used by the Apple Macintosh. run back To take back text from the beginning of ty to electrical interference. that is. power and the time required underlined the This does not. run-around The flow of text around an irregularly nections of the interface. and the for interconnection of DTE and DCE using RS.28.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 154 routing domain A set of routers that exchange on the initials of the authors. the two electronic rulers used ‘RS’ stands for Recognised Standard (of the US for the accurate alignment of text. ous one. Note that it is not gen- RS-232-C The standard serial communications erally a feature of electronic documents. those coded with HTML (because they are RS-422 A data transfer protocol developed by the dynamic). out problems. Contrast C from the number of sales of a book or perfor. The activation of a computer program. 0 to 1. rithm which replaces sequences of repeated RS-423 A specification for the electrical signals characters (or groups of characters) with a sin- on a serial (RS-232 or RS-422) line. It is used for modems and other ruby See agate.24 and V. one line to the end of the previous one. ruling. distance since the last switch (in the opposite 422/RS-423 signals. interface. RP Reprinting. (See also DSS. permitting up to 32 stations to be attached to a runnability Ability of paper to be printed with- common bus. reverses. It is based on the domain. Number of printed copies of a publication. however. which is that commonly used. such as socket used in data transfer. It is with RS-422. for drop-outs.) The ruler guides In DTP. since it RS-449 A physical interface standard specified by encodes the points at which there is a change the US Electronic Industries Association (EIA). but is more complex.Dic. While the system which uses distance vector routing. as well as improved immuni. Also described as a serial rule A line (of specified thickness).

anywhere in the publi. Also SBN See ISBN. (See also saddle-stitching. ling is used in making digital audio recordings. this is not generally possible at ground level. Small capitals. satellite communications The use of geosynchro- nous satellites to reflect digital communications signals back to earth. an area of an image resolution. i. To eliminate which there are no serifs. safelight Darkroom lamp which does not affect scalable font A font that can be used at any size photographic materials. line breaks. serif type is most often used for display pur- typesetting machine. for on-screen material. pulp to remove any particles of grit before it cation. used by experts) is present at a particular saddle Device on which an unbound booklet is brightness. print size might be too small for the screen’s sample In colour scanning.e. Save The operation of storing data on disk or tape. run-of-paper Advertisement location allocated at sand trap Set of bars in a trough used for sieving the publisher’s choice. of a printed work to guide the printer in his samples per inch See dpi. there must be a direct line of sight between the source and the S receiver and. provide specific and limited functions. Supercalendered saddle thread-sewing See Singer sewing. sampling A technique used in converting signals running sheet Printed sheet taken from the start from analogue to digital. placed to be stitched. 2. To reproduce the analogue signal distinct from displayed material). in printed matter sans run out Output film or bromide from a photo. rarely for contin- run through Ruled lines stretching from one uous text. Satellites are required because. S100 A parallel bus standard developed for com. from a laser printer or imagesetter. and any resolution. Also dot. staples through the middle fold of sheets. quite apart from the effects of the earth’s curvature. There is some debate as to whether it edge of the paper to the other with no breaks. i. Scalable same size (s/s) Instruction to keep artwork the fonts are outline or vector fonts. bundled with another application in order to SAR See segmentation and reassembly. (paper). intervals and the measured values converted to running text Columnar main text on a page (as digital values. of events in a production. poses: in magazine and bookwork it therefore run round See run-around. 2. a samizdat Clandestine copying and distribution of point size that approximates a specified point literature by individuals or groups in a country size for use on the screen (when the specified where publishing is strictly censored by the state. List of the contents pixel.) sawn-in-sewing Sewing with cuts in the backs of saddle-stitching Binding inset books with wire sections to take cords. Analysing Networks. same size as presented. ‘saddle wire-stitching’. sc (or s/c) 1. in which the values of of a print run to check if it is being printed cor. from text. goes into the papermaking process. Set of notes indicating the order undergoing scanning and analysis.e. saddle-stitcher Machine for sewing thread or sawing Cutting notches in the sewn sections of stapling wire through a magazine or booklet. Considered to be less breaks. for obvious reasons. books for binding cords. SATAN See Security Administrator Tool for RW Ream wrapped. the measure puters employing 8080 microprocessors. on a screen or in output SAID See Security Association ID.Dic. tends to be used for headings. imposition. Satstream A digital satellite communications ser- vice operated by British Telecom. run on 1. scaled point size In Windows applications. To continue printing after the first num. saturation In colour measurement. at the frequencies used. 155 . of how much colour (‘colourfulness’ is the term SAA See Systems Application Architecture. formal than serif type. an analogue signal are measured at fixed time rectly.pag3 30/1/0 19:04 Page 155 running order 1. RWOP Ream wrapped on pallets. 2. is better than serif type for use in electronic runtime Cut-down version of a program that is publishing. Samp- run-of-book See run-of-paper. for example). sans serif (or sanserif) A category of type in ber of sheets have been printed. a digital-to-analogue converter is used.

subjects are arranged in random order. screen dump Copying the image or reduction of an original for reproduction. fonts (often bitmap fonts) are used to present jects. and scan Use a scanner to digitise images or text. rough. scholarly publishing The publishing of academ. or a printer. one-way screen. with ates processes according to assigned priorities Adobe Type Manager and TrueType. ings in common use for bookwork are 100. scissors and paste job Part of the design process such as the World Wide Web. mezzotint screen etc. See screen editor Software that allows the user to analyse scanner. However. Clicking a mouse crossline screen at 45°. shade of a colour rather than its full strength. screen resolution In the context of computer scoring Making indents or grooves in paper or monitors. electronic publishing applications. in practice. Schedule of bookings tone to determine the screen ruling. 2. (See also TIFF. Often used in manuals etc. ters have a resolution of 800 3 600 (SVGA). screen font A font that is designed specifically scheduler An operating system utility that initi. stored.pag4 28/9/00 12:49 am Page 156 scale-out System of ordering different numbers The conventional screen angles are: black 45°. scaling Calculating or marking the enlargement screen capture. patterns. linen image. make up the image on the screen. burn-in effects and protects what was on the mation in half-tones. screened print A print with a half-tone screen. screen information (e. some of which are games. See visual display unit (terminal). screen. or occurring when previous- which reads the relative colour densities of ly printed. menus. It is used on the covers of paperbound books. yellow 90°. expressed as the number of pixels across and Scotchprint Proprietary translucent proofing down: small portable screens are typically material. Pattern of lines that creates the dot for. Sequence of events and deadlines screen finder A plastic viewer placed over a half- agreed for production. with a moving image. screen clash MoirŽ patterning caused by incor- scanner Computer-controlled sampling device rect screen angles. magenta 75°. score To impress paper with a rule to ease folding. Computer lan. 150 lines per inch (40. cyan 105°. coated plates that can hold very fine continu- guage governing the format in which images are ous-tone detail. screen tint Film with dots in one of a grade of screen angles Varied angles of each screen used percentages (10%–90%) used for printing a in colour half-tones to avoid moiré. output scanner. 60 lines per surface which can be scraped off with a knife to centimetre). in general use where parts of artwork or film are rearranged scalable fonts. any font and available system resources. scraperboard Card or board with a blackened 133. EPC system. 2. In principle. for viewing on-screen. 156 . scrapbook An AppleMac accessory in which text screen ruling The number of lines or dots per and graphics which are used frequently can be inch on a screen. file names. collected. screen labels) at a constant size in GUIs. edit a complete page of text displayed on scatter proofs Proofs of illustrations where the screen. As dis.Dic. ic books. the number and layout of pixels that board so that it will bend or fold more easily. 120. and prepared for paste-up and camera-ready screen format The screen layout design. There is a wide variety of screen savers. the screen of a computer left temporarily scratch pad memory A small area of memory unused or replaces whatever was on the screen used as a temporary working area. typically a PMT. books about computer applications to illustrate scan-a-web Method of scanning the image on a what the screen looks like. schedule 1. 54. copy before reproduction. The conventional screen rul- stored for access and insertion into documents. other screens include button or pressing a key restores the original the vertical screen at 90°. Also. tinct from imposed colour proofs. and output. produce white line drawings which resemble screen saver An application which either blanks engravings (the colours can be reversed). As well as the normal screen from casual oversight. of copies for individual stores in a chain.) screen process printing See silk screen printing. certain scholarly books Books devoted to academic sub. This both avoids any screen 1. copy and produces colour separations. textured screen. can be used in this way but. moving web by means of a rotating mirror.g. half-tones are rescreened. screened. whereas high-end compu- SCPC See single channel per carrier. on the computer screen (or part thereof) to a file scamp Rough layout. for an advertising campaign. 640 3 480 (VGA). 48. screenless litho Printing by litho with specially SCL Scanner command language.

SCSI device Any device. contextual search. although in other envi. 2. including ‘Fast SCSI’ mode (up to 10Mbs countries). such as disk fied areas in a database search. seconds See retree. e. data stream to avoid signal delay problems and secondary fibres See recovered fibres. Unix includes whole program. arrows are used to move within the display searching Trying to locate required character area of the publication window. ‘shellscripts’. while search engine Software which makes it possible JavaScript is a version of Java that can be used to search files and/or databases for specific within HTML documents. and variables. (See also proximity Standard Interface: An 8-bit parallel interface search. e.g. Because of the problems of parallel in the opposite direction. image area of an offset plate. of two primary subtractive colours. layered protocol definitions similar to those second cover Inside front cover. Topic. Similarly CGI-scripts are used search and replace See global search and replace. up to interface when used with modems providing 40Mbs per second). sender and recipient usually have the same 157 . downwards or side. usually involves using indexing. This is necessary because second-generation photosetters Photosetters there is usually only one SCSI port on the back using electromechanical means (negative of the computer. such as a scanner. CD. yellow facing with clock information included in the + red = orange. The boxes and files on a client’s behalf. cuted as a single unit. using transistors in place of vacuum tubes. depending on the func- data.pag4 28/9/00 12:49 am Page 157 scribed lines Lines scratched on the emulsion of scum or scumming Build-up of ink on the non- film for subsequent printing. A television coding standard used in Europe SCSI-2 A version of the SCSI interface specifica. so devices must be linked one strips. supporting Système Electronique Couleur avec Mémoire.. the SCSI-3 An interface standard to provide faster primary line providing a high data rate with data transfer and increased functionality than the secondary line providing a lower data rate SCSI-2. and tape drives. tionality of the search engine. or occasionally 32-bit. is SDIF See Standard Document Interchange a kind of script. Examples are keyword search- SCSI (pronounced ‘scuzzy’) Small Computer ing and free-text searching. Search engines vated with the mouse. A DOS batch file. scroll bars In DTP systems. scrolling Upwards. as structured the data/files.) per second) and ‘Wide SCSI’ (16 bit. another popular search engine is the ‘arrow’ keys on the keyboard. strings or words. second-generation computers Early computers SCSI chain Several SCSI devices linked togeth. SDH See synchronous digital hierarchy. er with SCSI cables. importance) of a series of headings in a book.) higher transfer rates. and CD-ROM drives. In a GUI environment. ming languages of this kind described as SDLC See Synchronous Data Link Control. which can include parameters SEA See self-extracting archive. to create dynamic HTML applications. (mainly France and some Eastern European tion. communication at higher transfer rates and secondary colour The colour made by a mixture longer distances. which forms part of the Acrobat suite. The two principal approaches are simulates handwriting. the bars at the right search fee Fee charged by a picture service to and bottom of the publication window which cover the cost of conducting research in its own contain boxes and arrows.Dic. that is con. script 1. used on the World Wide Web include AltaVista ronments it may be activated by holding down and Yahoo. Format. search routine Computer routine for finding SCSI can support data transfer rates of up to specified words or groups of words in text. up to secondary clear to send A signal in an RS-232-C 20Mbs per second. ROM drive or external hard disk.g. it is usually acti. engraved discs) to expose type fonts. SCSI-3 proposes serial inter. (See also PAL.) used by the Apple Macintosh and the PC for search key An item to be compared with speci- connecting peripheral devices. NTSC. The more ways smooth motion of data across a screen. Boolean search and free-text search. used in networking. with the first and last second-level heading Second in number (and devices terminated. SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 are later SECAM (Sequential Colour and Memory or versions with wider data buses. which scroll. A series of commands that can be exe. secret-key cryptography Encryption when both nected to the computer by a SCSI port. primary and secondary transmission lines. See clear to send. to another in a chain. A typeface which terms. 4Mbs per second. the more precisely a if a window were being dragged across the search can be defined. printers.

operating system time to process each before self-copy paper Carbonless copy paper.) The adaptation layer which is concerned with seg- opposite of public-key cryptography.) storage space on back-up disks or tapes by sector mapping A method of speeding up disk copying data blocks sequentially. lope. The full specifi. ticity/integrity and non-repudiability of origin. via a network. originated which double-clicking on a file icon would by Netscape Communications Corporation. HTML browser such as Netscape. authen.. ATM cells of the correct length for transmission section sewing Conventional sewing. especially secu. the term is now order to provide secure communications on the also applied to executable files which run under Internet. to the inside of the cover. origination.Dic. mation into shorter packets for transmission separation negative See colour separation nega- over a communications system. the next reaches the read-write head. ftp. self-endpapers or self-ends Endpapers that are providing independently applicable security part of the printed book but affixed separately services for transaction confidentiality. Running the telnet. or marks the end of a line to provide encryption and authentication. SEA file once it has been received unpacks and Security Administrator Tool for Analysing often expands the files contained within it. tive. but above TCP/IP. paperback or hardback books. selected file back-up A means of improving vision of a track. actions over the Internet. so as to sewing or Smyth sewing (US). Debugging. in secure sockets layer (SSL) A protocol. that can be addressed by a computer. segmentation The division of a packet of infor. (See symmetric-key cryptography.pag4 28/9/00 12:49 am Page 158 key. Networks (SATAN) A tool for gathering infor. used as endpapers. diodes and photoelectric cells.g. menting the application layer information into section A folded sheet forming part of a book. in computer programming.g. semiconductor Material used in the construction security paper Paper incorporating features of transistors. rity aspects. Integration and Test. (See also HyperText self-extracting archive (SEA) An archive format Transmission Protocol (Secure). self-mailer Printed piece mailed without enve- mation about remote systems. allow information to be transferred without the sector The smallest portion of a magnetic disk need for input using very small keys. If sector addresses are recorded unused or redundant blocks are not copied. sequentially the operating system will have to Selectric Composition Golfball typewriter manu- wait for the disk to complete a revolution factured by IBM. of a period under certain conditions. SMTP. The spreading self-adhesive paper Gummed pressure-sensitive of sector addresses around the disk gives the paper. see-through See show-through. as in most and reassembling them on receipt. self-ends First and last pages of a book-block The protocol will allow. credit card trans. Gopher and loading software over the Internet. before the next can be accessed. semi-chemical pulp Combination of chemical Security Association ID (SAID) A 32-bit field and mechanical pulp. in extract the contents. 158 . sendmail A Unix email system. A subdi.) which can break proposed Internet Protocol Version 6 in order up a sentence or list. (See also disk pack. or French watch containing a serial interface. separation See colour separation. which make counterfeiting difficult. security firewall See firewall. frequently used as a way of down- below HTTP. e. SEGA One of the leading manufacturers of video sensitivity guide Piece of film with graded den- games. The results can be semi-bold Typeface that is not heavily embold- stored in a database and viewed with an ened. secure HTTP (S-HTTP) An extension of HTTP. segmentation and reassembly (SAR) A sublayer sepia A brown tint used in photography to give of the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) the impression of age. However. In this way access time. NNTP. sity used to monitor exposure. It is used by HTTPS and as a layer MS-DOS. e.) originally used on the Apple Macintosh. self cover Cover of the same paper as text pages. which will be added to packet headers in the semicolon Punctuation mark (. Seiko RC-4000 An information-storage wrist- cation is ‘section-sewn continuous’. orders SENDIT See Systems Engineering for Network for other titles from the publisher’s list. semi-display Advertisements displayed in boxes see-safe Agreement where the publisher will or laid out as a full or part page within classi- credit a bookseller for unsold books at the end fied advertisement pages.

in 1996. reducing the load on Sequenced Packet Xchange (SPX) A guaranteed the other machines. i. e. face. Compare line printer. 159 . currently. referred to as layer 3 and sometimes as layer 5) ed to a computer through a serial interface. finishing strokes at the SGML See Standard Generalised Markup end of a letter form. service provider See Internet service provider. which makes it possible for informa- serial Transfer of one bit at a time in sequential tion to be included in HTML documents when order. Internet publishing. See client-server. serial inter.g. or otherwise record an is transmitted one bit at a time. of the OSI seven-layer model. they have developed to cover desktop serif The terminal stroke at the end of a line mak. network of servers. sequencer Software used to control serigraphy See silk screen printing. sequently. connection on a computer. Also the editing of which provides a service. Frequently used syn- lel interface. image on paper or film. the input of music and sounds either from a server A computer which either holds informa- piano-type keyboard or other instrument con. verts the sequential input from a serial trans. 2. a series of conferences is held each year in serif typefaces carry serifs. output.g. delivery end of the printing press. To typeset. in which a number of bits are transferred con. connect. serial transmission Data transmission in which Seybold The Seybold Reports were originally pro- one bit in transferred at a time. session A period of connection to a server. in sans serif (or sanserif) typefaces do not. essentially using macros. page printer. tion accessed by other computers over a net- nected through a MIDI interface or on screen work. (vb) In printing the transfer- two serial ports. a file server or database server. Language. The Internet is based on a delivery protocol used by NetWare. e. those sounds. ence of the ink from a plate to a rubber surface Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) A version of and then from rubber surface onto paper is the Internet Protocol (IP) which is used over a known as setting off (hence offset lithography). and output of the sounds. serial printer One which prints a single character set width See set. SFL Sheetfed litho. width of a character. or a telephone line.) session layer The third-highest layer (sometimes serial device A peripheral device that is connect. In ing up part of a character. seven-layer model See Open Systems Inter- serial to parallel converter A device that con. although a mouse and processes on different hosts and handles the other devices can be connected in this way. in contrast. publishing and. onyms include plot. replacing HTML tags in one file with the con- Data transfer in which one bit is transferred at tents of another file. serial line. RS-422. See. via the Internet or World Wide Web. serial interface An interface through which data set 1. Also a program providing a sequential access Reading items in computer service to a ‘client program’. serial line Wires. computers on a network. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) was 2.g. the presentation layer. It is used by Keyboards are also examples of serial devices. e.Dic. size sheet. par. Thus the characters addition. mission device and passes it on via the sexto Obsolete term for one-sixth of a standard required number of parallel lines. This works by serial communication Also ‘serial transmission’. Sub- typeface. while characters to report on developments. RS-232. memory in sequence rather than by random server side include A World Wide Web server access. feature.pag4 28/9/00 12:49 am Page 159 sequence. seriffed With serifs. output. at a time. setting rule Brass rule used for measurement in a allel port. (See also serial device. composing stick.e. See RS-232. duced by John Seybold to cover technical devel- series A complete range of sizes in the same opments in the publishing industry. in contrast to parallel communication. unlike a paral. another sheet which typically occurs at the serial port Another term for a serial interface. Precautions although often used to refer to the physical can include the use of an anti set-off spray. a print server. connecting set off (or set-off) 1. they are called up by a browser. record. (n) The unwanted transfer of undried ink to designed as an improvement upon SLIP. The face. It uses the trans- Modems are probably the most commonly port layer to establish a connection between used serial devices. a time. or using a computer keyboard. sew To fasten the sections of a book with thread. again which carries out the printing processes for all via a MIDI interface. Also described as an RS-232 inter. security and creation of a session.

Hence.9072 metric tonnes. Shockwave Macromedia’s delivery platform for tems and which may be used to provide a creating and packaging multimedia for the means of communication. shingle The allowance made in imposition for shadowmask A perforated sheet at the rear of a creep. short-grain paper Paper where the grain runs sheepskin White material made from the skin of parallel to the shorter side of an oblong sheet.) The grounded (or earthed) short-term subscription Periodical subscription conducting material that surrounds the trans. of travel of the printing cylinder.e. shareware Software that may be obtained and shoot Photograph. shooting stick Short piece of wood used to tight- od. the fractional space by which the colour CRT screen that is used to separate beams back margins of the outer pages of a section from red. rather than transparent appearance. oblique stroke. Note that. i. midtones. transfers or on floppy disk. The the printer for binding up later. After the trial peri.g.893 coaxial cable. from other electromagnetic radiation and noise.. produces sheet fed Printing by separate sheets as distinct short-grain publications. sheet stock Publisher’s printed sections held at short ink An ink that does not flow easily. the turns a lower-case letter into an upper-case let- SGML declaration may well be part of the ter. need to be increased in order to make all the shadows Dark parts in a photograph or half-tone back margins appear to be equal when the sec- print represented by 70%–100% dot sizes. although shift A key which. As even when the telephone is being used for distinct from work and turn. mission medium. World Wide Web. shive Coarse fibre in paper or pulp. delimiters. tion is folded. sion mixed in with sheets of the correct size.e. shared file One that can be accessed by two sys. number of addressable characters. or 0. i. ferent designation to all the other keys. shingling.pag4 28/9/00 12:49 am Page 160 SGML declaration The first part of an SGML shielded cable A data transmission communica- document. separate forme. SGML application software and therefore not shift codes Codes employed to increase the visible to the user.Dic. Each sheet yields one copy. green and blue electron beam guns. usually for a limited time peri. unshift functions the number of available char- SGW See stone groundwood mechanical pulp. Contrast long-grain from reels. as shilling stroke or shilling mark Solidus or distinct from its hue. sheetwise Printing one side of a sheet at a time. tional facilities or documentation. shaded watermark Watermark with opaque shiner Light spot in paper. than other columns in the same book. short-grain press Web fed magazine or paper- sheet The full-size piece of paper for printing. speech. this operation.g. back printing press which prints all the pages before folding or cutting. e. short column Column that contains fewer lines od is complete. when depressed.g. shield (Or screen. short sheet Sheet with too small a width dimen- a plate). short message service (SMS) A service which As distinct from perfecting. acters will be increased. the coding structure. shelflife The usable storage life of a material (e. sheep used in binding. shank The body of a piece of type. By reserving SGMLS A public domain SGML parser devel. the central conductor of a short ton American ton (2000lbs) equal to 0. i. e. Payment of the fee often brings addi.e. users are asked to pay a regis. tested for free. interference by a grounded metallic outer the character set etc. less than one year in duration. shade The lightness or darkness of a colour. It is often distributed through Internet file en space in the lock-up of formes. tration fee to the author or distributor of the short descenders Descenders that are shorter in package. two characters to perform each of shift and oped by James Clarke. to carry out Contrast highlights. allows messages of up to 160 characters to be sheetwork To print each side of the sheet from a received and displayed on a GSM telephone. opposite is a long ink.