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Group no.

1
12-NTU-1014 MUHAMMAD BILAL
12-NTU-1037 SHAKEEL AHMAD
12-NTU-1040 TOUSEEF AHMAD
12-NTU-1034 SAQIB MEHMOOD
12-NTU-1043 ZEESHAN SAJID
Topic
Resources of Renewable
Energy
Presenter

Zeeshan Sajid
12-NTU-1043
Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is generally defined as


energy that comes from resources which
are naturally replenished on a human
timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain,
tides, waves and geothermal heat.
History
 Nearly all the sources of energy were
renewable till mid of 19th century
 The oldest renewable source of energy
was biomass to fuel fire
 Second one harnessing the wind to
drive the ship over water
History
In the mid of 19th century
development of coal shifted the
sources of energy
By 1873, concerns of running out
of coal prompted experiments
with using solar energy
History
 Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I.
Introduction
There are many different sources of renewable
energy
These sources are listed below.
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE
WIND POWER
SOLAR ENERGY
GEOTERMAL ENERGY
HYDROELETRIC POWER
BIOMASS
GAS NATURAL*
NUCLEAR ENERGY*
Presenter

Shakeel Ahmad
12-NTU-1037
Wind
Energy
Wind energy

• Moving air = wind

• Energy that got from a


wind is called wind
energy

• Wind turbines are


used for getting
energy
Wind Turbines
• Turbine blades spin from
the wind and make
energy
• Wind rotates the turbine
blades which spins a
shaft connected to a
generator
• The spinning of the shaft
in the generator makes
electricity
Wind energy

 Each wind turbine can produce between 0.25 to 2 MW of electrical


power.

 Wind farm needs to be located where there is a relatively high


average wind speed.

 It requires 15km/hr speed of wind


Wind Turbine Power
P = 1/2 x rho x A x Cp x V3 x Ng x Nb

P = power in watts (746 watts = 1 hp)


rho = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level.
A = rotor swept area, exposed to the wind (m2)
Cp = Coefficient of performance
V = wind speed in meters/sec
Ng = generator efficiency
Nb = gearbox/bearings efficiency.
Capacity of wind power in world
Determining Factors

 WIND SPEED

 TURBINE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

 RATED CAPACITY OF THE TURBINE

 EXACT LOCATION

 IMPROVEMENTS IN TURBINE DESIGN


Potential of wind energy in
Pakistan
 The wind map developed by National Renewable Energy
Laboratory has indicated a potential of 346,000 MW in Pakistan.

 In Sindh and Balochistan there is a potential of more than


50,000MW

 Total Area of Sindh suitable for wind farms = 9749 km2


Average Capacity Factor of this area in Sindh = 25%
Punjab has potential of 1000MW

First wind power generation plant


of 50 MW was inaugurated in
December 2012 and started full
production in 2013.
• Environmental benefits
•No fuel needed
•it is a pollution-free,
•it doesn’t produce toxic or radioactive waste
•Distributed power
• Remote locations
Presenter

Muhammad Bilal
12-NTU-1014
What is geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is thermal
energy generated and stored in
the Earth

Thermal energy is the energy


that determines
the temperature of matter.
Geo thermal energy
Geo thermal energy
 Theheat that used for geo thermal energy can be
derived from deep within earth
 Heat conducts from core to sorrounding rock
 High temp and pressure cause rock to melt which
is called “Magma”
 Magma converts upwards
World Wide Use of Geothermal
Energy
Geo thermal power plant
World wide usage of Geothermal energy
Presenter

Sayed Touseef Ahmad


12-NTU-1040
Solar Energy
 Solar energy is,
simply, energy provided by the
sun. This energy is in the form of
solar radiation, which makes the
production of solar electricity
possible. Electricity can be
produced directly from
photovoltaic, PV, cells.
(Photovoltaic literally means “light”
and “electric.”
Solar energy
The energy utilized from sun light is called
solar energy

There are two methods for harvesting solar


energy

 Concentrating Solar thermal Plant(CSP)

 Photovoltaic plants(PV)
CSP
Solar photovoltaic plants
Earth’s Solar Energy Budget
World Wide Usage of Solar Energy
SOLAR RADIATION IN PAKISTAN
Presenter

Saqib Mehmood
12-NTU-1034
Hydro Power
Hydropower
 Hydropower is the cheapest way to produce
electricity.

 Currently largest source of electricity from renewables.

 Kinetic
energy of water rotates turbines which
generate electricity.
Hydro power installed around
the world
Electricity from Hydropower in Pakistan
Province Wise Installed Hydropower
Capacity
Total Hydropower Resources