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A PROJECT REPORT

ON
STRESS MANAGEMENT

WITH REFERENCE TO

RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD.


VIJAYAWADA.

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF


MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED

DECLARATION

I,J PAVAN KUMAR hereby declare that the project report entitled
“STRESS MANAGEMENT ” is original of mine, done from “RAJ
GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT Ltd.” submitted in partial
fulfillment of Masters Degree in Business Administration of HINDU
COLLEGE MACHILIPATNAM.

(J.Pavan Kumar )
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At the outset, I wish to thank the management of RAJ GRUPS


TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD. For their kind gesture of
following me to undertake this project, and its various employees
who lent their helping hand towards the completion of this study.

The very high degree of informal co-operation received during my


discussion on the topic has been one of the greatest pleasures of
working in the organizations.

The co-operation I received from the wide cross-section of


employees of RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD
VIJAYAWADA Makes it difficult to single out individuals for
acknowledgement. However, I am particularly indebted to MR
SUNNY for allowing me to carryout my project work in the
organization, explain current situation with necessary background
and helping me to complete this project work. I am also thankful to
the staff of RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD.

I would like to thank B.V.S.K PRASAD, Principal of HINDU


COLLEGE and also HOD of our department for giving me the
opportunity to carry out this project, I am thankful to
ADMINISTRATIVE faculty of our college for co-operation and
their encouragement during the course of project work.
I am thankful to my parents and all my friends who are co-operated
to complete this project.

J.PAVAN KUMAR
Page
CHAPTER SUBJECTS
no.

Introduction
Scope of the Study
I
objective of the study
Limitations of the Study

Company Profile
II
Company Products

Research Methodology
Source of Data
III
Primary Data
Secondary Data

INTRODUCTION OF STRESS
IV
MANAGEMENT

V Data Analysis And Tabulation

VI Conclusion and Suggestions


Summary of findings
VII BIBILIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER - I
INTRODUCTION
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd RajGrups Techno Solutions (P)
Ltd is at present among the top consultants in India to give various
services through a unique combination of skills, competencies, knowledge
and favorable experience. Raj Grups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd is
professional to its core and understand the need to not only match
individual aspiration, and business goals of an organization but also
provide software solutions development & training, value added HR and
other services in pan India for executive search, Campus Recruitment, job
outsourcing, soft skills training, Financial security services, with the full
spectrum of management expertise dealing with surveillance Products. etc.,
Raj Grups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd started in 2009 Our services is
managed through following divisions:

HR services : Ujval Bharat Placements and Manpower


IT Solutions (Software development, Web designing& Hardware,
Networking)
BPO cum Telecom services
Logo designing and Interior designing
AAS (Academic Advisory Services)
Financial Products (Loans, Insurance, Mutual Funds, Equities, FD, etc.,)
Furniture Products: Future Furniture
V2 Security Solutions (CC tv cams, Solar systems, Fire Extinguishers,
etc.,)
Health care
Real estate (Properties & constructions)
Water & waste water management
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Ujval Bharat Placements &
Manpower Raj Grups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd is able to offer
Manpower services ranging from consultancy to turn-key project
implementation and operation. The company recognizes and caters for the
special personal needs of clients in the various industries Committed to
establish and maintain a positive difference to your staffing needs, we at
Raj Grups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd, are a headhunting and manpower
recruitment firm of high repute and acknowledgment. We have gained this
recognition by providing exemplary customer service and competent
employees to diverse corporate, of all sizes; in India. We are in the business
of effectively understanding your manpower requirements, procuring the
candidate with the desired profile and building trusting relationships. With
our industry expertise, we understand that firm’s today require more than a
skilled candidate; they reach for employees who are productive, exhibit a
positive attitude and have the ability to become a member of their team.
We make sure that our clients receive the most suitable candidates for their
organization &RajGrups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd is the best choice for
all your manpower needs.
• Executive Search
• Job Outsourcing
• Campus placements
• Pay roles
• Job portals &Advertisements

We are into
• IT : Software / Hardware / Networking / Development
• Non IT :BPO / Telecommunications/FMCG/Banking/Finance/Insurance/
Accounting/Automobiles/Sales / Marketing/Consumer
Goods/Manufacturing etc.
• General : Administration / Production / Maintenance/
Hotel/Courier/Hospital
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This particular study about Stress Management is restricted within

the organization. The study is conducted on the employees of the

organization.It studies the Importance of health and safety among the

employees in the organization and identifies the factors which are effecting

the health of employee (If any). It also provides the various steps adopted

by the organization for managing the health and safety of the employees,

which can be used as future reference for decision-making and policy

making with regard to the employees. This study reveals the morale of the

employees.
OBJECTIVES

 The objective of the study is to Analyze the stress management in


the organization.

 If YES, then to study the factors effecting stress among the


employees

 To study the impact of stress Management and also to suggest


measures to balance them.
LIMITATIONS

 Due to constraints of tie and many other resources this study is

confines to labours and staff of RAJ GROUPS TECHNO

SOLUTIONS PVT LTD,VIJAYAWADA.

 The opinions, behavior and attitudes of the respondents reflected in

this study are restricted to the duration of the research and are

subject to change with the passage of time.


CHAPTER - II
COMPANY PROFILE
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd IT SOLUTIONS Raj Grups
Techno Solutions (P) Ltd is a leading provider of advanced technology
consulting and software development services, specializing in JAVA, .NET
Applications. We high quality and cost effective strategic solutions through
Arete IT Services (P) Ltd an ISO 9001:2008 & ITDCI certified company.
(www.areteservices.org) We offer a wide range of services in the area of
analysis, design, development and maintenance of various information
systems.Its Registered office is as Follows.

Regd. Office:

GF 1 Mohan Bhag Appartments,


Besides SBI,
Dornakal Road,
Suryaraopet,
Vijayawada
AP:520003,INDIA
We excel in providing talented, dedicated, and knowledgeable
professionals with proven industry experience to our clients. We are
committed to building long term relationships with our clients through
quality services and concrete results, so that our clients are able to achieve
excellence
We launched new web site www.infovijayawada.com
INFOVIJAYAWADA.COM Infovijayawada.com is one stop online
information (about our city companies,jobs , offers etc) for our city. A
vision- driven organization with a pool of highly motivated and energized
team, NVK Technologies was able to grab orders from corporate
organizations in the first month itself. For us, service means a measure of
quality that strives for perfection.

Features:
1. Better visibility: Within single page, user can check everything what
user needed.
2. Greater branding, no space constraints: You can include your
company logo, Moreover there are no character limitations and you can
talk at length about your organization and its recruitment needs.
3. Maximum reach through the Job alerts: You get a database interface
through mail alerts
4. Advertisements: You can post unlimited ads and job alerts.
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Business Process Outsourcing
(BPO) With good infrastructure and sufficient man power providing high
quality Business Process Outsourcing services to its clients and customers
in short span of time. As experts in BPO Services, RAJGRUPS TECHNO
SOLUTIONS (P) LTD is involved in every stage upon client selection of
Non Voice Projects as a main field. Our extensive skills encompass all
aspects of implementation and operation of all BPO Projects. We have
been providing services in the areas of BPO & TPO Services. Every
requirement of the client is analyzed carefully and with the use of
technology, we provide cost effective BPO and TPO. With half a decade of
experience in the business it’s easy for us to understand the typical
requirement of our clients thus helps us to provide the ultimate service.
With a committed work force and high level of service consciousness, we
provide unmatched BPO and KPO services to our clients Information is
the key for success. We have understood the importance of information and
named our company. We search information for technology, people and
process to perform. We are proud to have customers who always feel that
their job is in secured and professional hands. Our strength is our people.
Our team will always strive hard to give the best to our clients. We bring
Talent and Technology together to support our International clients by
providing end-to-end Business Process Outsourcing and KPO services. and
as of now we are one of the best BPO Companies in South India as we
have learned from the flaws and loop holes in the other job providing
companies and have planned our works in such a manner that the problems
never occur at all.
VISION & MISSION
 VISION: To become a globally respected Information Technology
company acclaimed for its expertise.

 MISSION: We foresee and accentuate innovation as crux to deliverance


of impeccable value and Genuine services to our customers in all our
endeavors.

WHAT WE WILL DO?


Business Process Outsourcing:
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has changed the way the world does
business, and this trend is only likely to accelerate. BPO is quickly
emerging as a key enabler of all high performing organizations. More and
more businesses and governmental leaders-cross industry, organizational
size and geography-are turning to BPO to help them elevate their
organization’s performance. Through the right mix of business process
improvement, labor arbitrage and technology enhancements, BPO is aimed
at reducing cost, increasing service levels and thus improving the
enterprise value of the business processes. Blending qualified workforce
and faster adoption of well-defined business processes leads to higher
productivity gains without compromising on quality. The availability of
cost effective skilled resources - that is well educated and able to converse
in English, well-developed communication infrastructure and software
sector as well as an appropriate time difference with other countries, help
in making India a favorite destination for the BPO industry.
We Offered following Services in ITES & BPO
 Outsourcing all types of Non Voice Projects
 All types of Data Conversions
 All types of Form Processing
 All types of OCR Process
 Data Processing services to all Governmental Firms/Companies
 Back Office Operations for all Banks
 Software Development
 Web Designing

OUR TEAM’S SKILL SETS INCLUDE


 Excellent Analytical and Managerial Skills.
 Good Communication Skills – English and Local Language.
 Experts in usage of Internet, All Softwares, Ms-Office. etc.,
 Willing to work in the night shifts.
 Previous experience of working in a BPO environment catering to
International clients and Relevant technical skills

Quality
We offer nearly 100 percent accuracy for any project. Our commitment to
quality is reflected in numerous satisfied repetitive customers for over 7
Years. Even though turnaround, efficiency and cost are important, quality
is always our top most priority. Supported by our innovative group system,
we have set processes, which make sure that the data processed goes
through rigorous quality control tests
before reaching the customer. We also have an extensive reporting system
in place, which enables us to maintain accountability and accuracy. We
always carry out our work with the aim of adding value to your business.
We run a very cost effective business by utilizing the state of the art
technology. Apart from quality, we can offer you savings up to 40 – 50% as
compared to your current costs. We have a team of young and energetic
people who are very familiar with the quality and data security standards of
international clients. Accuracy A rigorous Statistical Quality Control
(SQC) method ensures the output is functional and bug free. We follow
Double key / Double compare method to ensure 99.995 % accuracy level.
Triple key / Triple compare is also possible based on the requirement of the
project. Triple key / Triple assures an accuracy of 99.999% i.e. a maximum
of one error per 1,00,000 character. Security Our services are carried out in
a highly confidential environment, and the staff are well informed on the
importance of confidentiality. No writing instrument is allowed in the
working area. No machine in the working area is equipped with removable
storage devices.
We follow high business ethics and maintain the confidentiality of the data
by means of firewalls and Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) with every
employee respects and acknowledges the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
of the client.
Careers At RAJGRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS (P) LTD, we aim to
achieve optimum utilization of available skill sets across the organization.
We believe that job rotation is a crucial process that helps individuals to
enhance their technical, behavioral and managerial competence. Our
employees have the flexibility to switch over to a Management or a
Specialist role in their career at RAJGRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS
(P) LTD. We understand that recognition plays an important role in
motivating employees to demonstrate superior performance. There are
many ways in which we acknowledge and appreciate good performance -
from a sincere sharing of an ‘I Appreciate’ Note for a specific job well
done to granting honors through an established formal reward program. So,
if you're an achiever with a passion for setting and attaining goals, you'll
find many opportunities for being recognized at RAJGRUPS TECHNO
SOLUTIONS (P) LTD.
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Financial Security Services We
are delighted to inform that RajGrups Techno Solutions (P)
LtdFinancial security services is a public concept. we are committed for
providing better life for the people with all financial products protection
and who are seeking to enhance their income range , and for those who are
in search of happy and healthy living style. The concept is genuine and
made easy without any obstacle by removing the general problems in other
concepts. Secured life is the dream of everybody. In our view the Financial
Plane has been the main driver of your prosperous life, which is very
important. The best way to find a good financial plan is RajGrups Techno
Solutions (P) Ltd. we assist you to get a good, suitable and efficient
financial plan an affordable condition. RajGrups Techno Solutions (P)
Ltd offers different categories of all financial products from all companies
representing the entire spectrum of what's available anywhere in India.
 Life Insurance
 General Insurance
 Health Insurance
 Stock Broking
 Mutual Funds
 Gold traded funds
 IPO's
 Loans & Advances
 Money transfer
 Private Banking
 Portfolio Management Services
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd
 Postal savings
 Real Estate & Property Management Services
 & International Investments Products

are on offer to every customer who walks into a branch and who wants
meet us directly in their premises . The customer gets choice, comparisons
and advice on what is best suited to him or her. This approach keeps the
clients financial interest at the centre of its business model and is at a
complete variance of the existing approach of most financial institutions
such as banks and insurance companies to "sell" their products, whatever
the need of the client. Customer can invest the money in a mutual fund, in
insurance, in shares, in gold, or RBI bonds with no pressure to choose the
kind of products or the company it comes from. We are specialized in the
range of asset classes would help customers look at options and choose a
product that is best suited to their requirements.
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd V2 Security Solutions RajGrups
Techno Solutions (P) Ltdcompany has been dealing with surveillance
Products. After achieving abundant growth, the company has been
expanded to three divisions, General business, Projects and OFC &
Wireless.
1. General Business:

General sales covering starts from small business establishments, schools,


colleges, hospitals, factories, industries, cinema theatres, firms, Dairies,
Bus Stations, Police stations, Hotels, and lodges, corporate establishments,
marketing centres, Apartments, Banks, Individual Houses etc. Dealing
Products:
1. All type of CCTV Surveillance Systems with recording equipments.

2. Time Attendance access control

3. Burglar Alarm&Fire Alarms

4. Detectors(smoke, Motion, Metal)

5. Multi Store Apartment Security Systems

6. Cell Phone Jammers

7. EPBX (intercom connections)

8. Video door phones


RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd 2. Projects: Concentration on
surveillance , CCTV, Public Tenders, Big Events, mainly coverage of all
divisions of important sectors of government. 3.OFC& WIRELESS NET
WORK: Covering activity is to provide BROAD BAND Connectivity,
VPN,LAN, WAN, POINT TO POINT, POINT TO MULTI POINT, LONG
DISTANCE connectivity. Some ofProducts:
Dome camera Dome IR camera Bullet IR camera Housing Camera PTZ
camera C&CS mount camera Wire less camera Pen camera PTZ IR camera
Shirt button cameras Tye camera Standalone digital video
record(4/8/16/32)
Finger print attendance Card print attend system Smoke Detector Gas leak
e detector Pro Security system Basic Control Pannel TFT Color Video
Door Phone Video door Phones
EPBX (Intercom Connections) ABC Fire Extinguisher Water split Fire
Extinguisher
RAJ GR UPS Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Water & waste water
managements RajGrups Techno Solutions (P) Ltdformed as a Joint
venture with Eco-chem Laboratories (P) Ltd. Well established in Sales
and services,manufacturer,exporter and supplier of wide range of efficient
waste water recycling equipment, water purification plant, and wastewater
recycling systems, waste water treatment plants, water treatment
chemicals, water treatment cartridges, de-scaling treatment unit, UV
sterilizer, water treatment chemical, ultra filtration plants and allied
products.
Under the able guidance of our mentor Mr.N.Ganesh Natarajan, we have
emerged as thefront-runnersinthewatertreatmentindustry.Ourproductsare
highlydemanded inthenationalandinternationalmarketsfortheircorrosion
resistantandhighfunctionality.Backedbyateamofexpertconsultants,we
offerconsultancyforeffluenttreatmentplantsandsupportvariedindustriesin
contributing towardsenvironmentprotectiontherebyreducingpollutionlevels.
Further, with theassistanceofefficientquality analysis department,R&D
departmentandstandardmachines,ourproductsgiveusanedgeoverour
competitors.
Standards&QualityCertifications
SSIRegistrationNo-(330021105477E)
ExperiencedR&D Department ProvideCustomized Solutions
GoodFinancialPosition &TQM
SEWAGEWATERTREATMENTPLANT Weareoffering
awidespectrumof SewageTreatmentPlanttoour
valuableclientswhicharefabricated fromaqualityapprovedofraw-
materialsbyusingadvancedtechnologyandknownforits longdurability
andservicelife.
Sewage Water Treatment plantEffluent Sewage Water Treatment plant
Sewage Treatment Plant
WATERTREATMENTSYSTEMANDPLANTS WeofferWater
Treatment System andPlants that are
manufacturedincompliancewithInternationalqualitystandardsandare
goodindisinfectionofrawwastes.Itsupportsoxidizationand volatilization
oforganics,removal of color causingcomponentsand
oxidationofironandmanganese.
Ozone Water Treatment SystemWater Softener System
Waste Water Treatment Plant OTHER PRODUCTS:
Ultra FiltrationPlantsNanoFiltrationPlant
ReverseOsmosisPlantReverseOsmosisWater Systems
OTHER PRODUCTS:
EffluentTreatment ChemicalsWaterTreatment Cartridges
WaterTreatment ChemicalsIndustrialSandFilters
www.water-treatmentplant.co.in
Someofourreputedclienteleincludesthefollowing: 1.
TWAD(GovtofTamilNadu)-2MLDSTP 2. DCWLtd.-5MLDSWRO 3.
VVMPLtd.-3MLDSWRO 4. BMCPLtd.-2MLDSWRO 5. BMCPvt.Ltd.-
1MLDZeroDischargeETP 6. TransworldGarnetIPvt.Ltd.-1MLDETP 7.
HngilLtd.-0.5MLDROandSTP 8. DaewonAutomotiveIPvt.Ltd. 9. DR
EnterprisesIPvt.Ltd. 10.ChamundeswariSugars 11.EidParryNeutratical-
WTP 12.IMCPvt.Ltd. 13.ImperialReadyMadeGarmentsPvtLtd
14.InfantJesusCollegeOfEngineering-0.3MLDSTP
15.PhoenixLogisticsUganda-ZeroDischargeETP 16.CresolGroup-Bhutan-
ETP 17.PrimeDevelopers-TiruppurRoPlant 18.GrantEnterprises-ETP
19.AnandEstates-ROPlant 20.AmmayepperTextiles-ETP 21.ArrowBus
CoachIndustries-ETP 22.MatsyafedFoodIndustry-Kerala-WTP
23.NRGreenWoodsConstructions-Bangalore- STP 24.Surgimed-Ghana-
WTP 25.IOGSPLtd-ETP Abovelistwouldbe the compressedoneandwe are
servingentiresouthIndiafor allwaterandwastewatertreatment needs.
Some of our esteemed clients:
BLACK BERRY(texttile)
GUptha Medical House,
Our support Raj Grups Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Support centre Its an
exclusive contact centre reachable from 9:30am to 6:30pm, 6 days a week,
is a one-stop solutions hub to address queries and provide solutions to both,
our customers as well as associates. The ceaseless focus of Raj Grups
Techno Solutions (P) Ltd Support Centre will be to add smiles to our
customers & associates, in our endeavor to become a proactive solutions
provider. With this initiative, we aim to ensure total customer and associate
satisfaction. To know more about us please Cont : 97 012345 83,
08666666661
Site : www.rajgrups.com, Mail :hrm.rajgroups@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Amid the profound
changes in the
companies and
the economy as a whole,
but also the need to
adapt
to markets globalization
has led to widespread
acceptance of
management thinking
based on project
management. This
means achieving a
long-term
future projection of
specific company goals
and
objectives [1]. Basically,
any activity that is
intended
to have objectives,
concrete results, is
managed and
conducted as a series
of projects. Nowadays,
at
internal as well as
international level,
engineering
contributes, with an
important percentage,
to the
society progress and
ensuring the
environmental and
life quality, an
engineer being
considered as a
“change manager” [ 12]
The project is a dynamic
process whose time
and cost constraints
conditions the
preparing of a
detailed project plan,
which specifies the
starting
point, strategies
followed and results
obtained.
Interdependence
between work packages
in the
project, how they
relate and condition
each other
sometimes raises
tensions and may lead to
conflicts.
The general term
designating all the
tension, the
causes and effects of is
stress. Stress is an
imbalance
between the demands
imposed and the
available
resources to resolve
those requests.
In the project, stress
can occur due to a
multitude of internal and
external factors. In terms
of
internal tensions,
conflicts may arise in
the human
plan, at project team
level or in the material
plan in
the inadequate
resources organization
or structure.
Study of individual and
organizational stress
has
become a necessity
given that the stress
level
conditions the quality
of the activities [2].
Stress
study provides a better
way of understanding
stress
generators and their
effects on human body
and
proposes methods and
techniques to cope
with
negative stress.
Traditional project
management relied on
an
approach based on
linear cause-effect
relationships.
Modern project
management offers a
perspective
and a systems approach
whereby projects are
seen as
a "whole" complex
unit, characterized in
particular
by a two-way
relationship. This means
that instead
of being considered the
"input" problems (input
actions) and "output"
problems (output
actions), it
should be seen as
coming from the entire
set of
information reception
and response, its
control and
process control,
feedbacks and
assessment. Through
this broad perspective
more accurate and
complex
results are obtained
than traditional
methods,
especially if changing
and adapting to
environmental
variables is seen as a
continuous process and
not as a
creator and
uncontrollable risk factor.
2 STRESS
TYPOLOGY IN
PROJECTS
In recent decades the
field has intensified
research
on stress. What is
stress, how does it
appear, what
can be done when the
organism is filled and
no
longer can deal with
the situation, these are
fundamental questions
the researchers sought
to
answer [3].
According to R. Lazarus,
stress occurs when
an individual perceives
the external
environmental
demands as beyond his
power. Later, along
with
Lazarus, S. Folkman
proposes in one of their
works,
the idea that stress
can be seen as the
result of
"imbalance between
demands and resources"
or as a
result of "pressure that
exceeds the power
supposed
to be held".
Introduction
Stress is a fact of everyday life. When people reach out for help, they are
often dealing with circumstances, situations, and stressors in their lives that
leave them feeling emotionally and physically overwhelmed. Many people
feel that they have very little resources or skills to deal with the high levels
of stress they are experiencing. The information in this manual has been
compiled to provide information and education about stress, the effects of
stress, and the most popular stress management and relaxation techniques
that are being used today. This information could be helpful for people who
want to learn how to react to stress in a more constructive, proactive way.
The basic premise of this manual is that the benefits of stress reduction and
relaxation techniques can be best noticed after they have been practiced
regularly over a period of time. Stress & Stress Management 2 Stress:
What is it? Although we all talk about stress, it often isn’t clear what stress
is really about. Many people consider stress to be something that happens
to them, an event such as an injury or a job loss. Others think that stress is
what happens to our body, mind, and behavior in response to an event (E.g.
heart pounding, anxiety, or nail biting). While stress does involve events
and our response to then, these are not the most important factors. Our
thoughts about the situations in which we find ourselves are the critical
factor. When something happens to us, we automatically evaluate the
situation mentally. We decide if it is threatening to us, how we need to deal
with the situation, and what skills we can use. If we decide that the
demands of the situation outweigh the skills we have, then we label the
situation as “stressful” and react with the classic “stress response.” If we
decide that our coping skills outweigh the demands of the situation, then
we don’t see it as “stressful.” Stress can come from any situation or
thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or anxious. Everyone sees
situations differently and has different coping skills. For this reason, no two
people will respond exactly the same way to a given situation.
Additionally, not all situations that are labeled “stressful” are negative. The
birth of a child, being promoted at work, or moving to a new home may not
be perceived as threatening. However, we may feel that situations are
“stressful” because we don’t feel fully prepared to deal with them. Stress is
a normal part of life. In small quantities, stress is good; it can motivate you
and help you become more productive. However, too much stress, or a
strong response to stress can be harmful. How we perceive a stress
provoking event and how we react to it determines its impact on our health.
We may be motivated and invigorated by the events in our lives, or we may
see some as “stressful” and respond in a manner that may have a negative
effect on our physical, mental, and social well-being. If we always respond
in a negative way, our health and happiness may suffer. By understanding
ourselves and our reaction to stress-provoking situations, we can learn to
handle stress more effectively. In the most accurate meaning, stress
management is not about learning how to avoid or escape the pressures and
turbulence of modern living; it is about learning to appreciate how the body
reacts to these pressures, and about learning how to develop skills which
enhance the body’s adjustment. To learn stress management is to learn
about the mind-body connection and to the degree to which we can control
our health in a positive sense. Stress & Stress Management 3 Sources of
Stress We can experience stress from four basic sources: The Environment
– the environment can bombard you with intense and competing demands
to adjust. Examples of environmental stressors include weather, noise,
crowding, pollution, traffic, unsafe and substandard housing, and crime.
Social Stressors – we can experience multiple stressors arising from the
demands of the different social roles we occupy, such as parent, spouse,
caregiver, and employee. Some examples of social stressors include
deadlines, financial problems, job interviews, presentations, disagreements,
demands for your time and attention, loss of a loved one, divorce, and co-
parenting. Physiological – Situations and circumstances affecting our body
can be experienced as physiological stressors. Examples of physiological
stressors include rapid growth of adolescence, menopause, illness, aging,
giving birth, accidents, lack of exercise, poor nutrition, and sleep
disturbances. Thoughts – Your brain interprets and perceives situations as
stressful, difficult, painful, or pleasant. Some situations in life are stress
provoking, but it is our thoughts that determine whether they are a problem
for us. Types of Stressors Situations that are considered stress provoking
are known as stressors. Stress is not always a bad thing. Stress is simply the
body’s response to changes that create taxing demands. Many professionals
suggest that there is a difference between what we perceive as positive
stress, and distress, which refers to negative stress. In daily life, we often
use the term “stress” to describe negative situations. This leads many
people to believe that all stress is bad for you, which is not true.
Positive stress has the following characteristics:
• Motivates, focuses energy
• Is short-term
• Is perceived as within our coping abilities
• Feels exciting
• Improves performance In contrast, negative stress has the following
characteristics:
• Causes anxiety or concern
• Can be short or long-term
• Is perceived as outside of our coping abilities
• Feels unpleasant
• Decreases performance
• Can lead to mental and physical problems
Stress & Stress Management
It is somewhat hard to categorize stressors into objective lists of those that
cause positive stress and those that cause negative stress, because different
people will have different perceptions and reactions to particular situations.
However, by generalizing, we can compile a list of stressors that are
typically experienced as negative or positive to most people, most of the
time.
Examples of negative personal stressors can include:
• The death of a partner
• Filing for divorce
• Losing contact with loved ones
• The death of a family member
• Hospitalization (oneself or a family member)
• Injury or illness (oneself or a family member)
• Being abused or neglected
• Separation from a spouse or committed relationship partner
• Conflict in interpersonal relationships
• Bankruptcy/money problems
• Unemployment • Sleep problems
• Children’s problems at school
• Legal problems
• Inadequate or substandard housing
• Excessive job demands • Job insecurity
• Conflicts with team mates and supervisors
• Lack of training necessary to do a job
• Making presentations in front of colleagues or clients
• Unproductive and time-consuming meetings
• Commuting and travel schedules Examples of positive personal stressors
might include:
• Receiving a promotion at work • Starting a new job • Marriage or
commitment ceremony
• Buying a home • Having a child
• Moving • Taking or planning a vacation
• Holiday seasons • Retiring •
Taking educational classes or learning a new hobby Stress & Stress
Management 5 Internal Sources of Stress and Anxiety Stressors are not
always limited to situations where some external situation is creating a
problem. Internal events such as feelings, thoughts, and habitual behaviors
can also cause negative stress.
Common internal sources of distress include:
• Fears (e.g., fears of flying, heights, public speaking, chatting with
strangers at a party) • Repetitive thought patterns • Worrying about future
events (e.g., waiting for medical test results or job restructuring) •
Unrealistic or perfectionist expectations Habitual behavior patterns that can
lead to stress include: • Over scheduling • Failing to be assertive • Failing
to set and maintain healthy boundaries • Procrastination and/or failing to
plan ahead Cognitive Aspects of Stress and Anxiety
Anxiety is a feeling that we commonly experience when faced with
stressful life events. Anxiety can be one of the most distressing emotions
that people feel. It is sometimes called “fear or nervousness”.
Common reactions to anxiety include: Physical Symptoms: • Sweaty
palms • Muscle tension • Racing heart • Flushed cheeks • Light headedness
Behaviors: • Avoiding situations where experiencing anxiety might occur •
Leaving situations when feelings of anxiety begins to occur • Trying to do
things perfectly or trying to control events to prevent danger Moods: •
Nervous • Irritable • Anxious • Panicky Stress & Stress Management 6
Thoughts: • Overestimation of danger • Underestimation of your ability to
cope • Underestimation of help available • Worries and catastrophic
thoughts Stressors can contribute to our feelings of anxiety.
Examples of stressors that contribute to feelings of anxiety might include
trauma (being abused, being in an accident, war); illness or death, things
we are taught (“snakes will bite you”); things we observe (an article in the
newspaper about a plane crash); and experiences that seem too much to
handle (giving a speech, job promotion or termination, having a baby). The
thoughts that accompany anxiety involve the perception that we are in
danger or that we are threatened or vulnerable in some way. A threat of
danger can be physical, mental, or social. A physical threat occurs when
you believe that you will be physically hurt (e.g., a snake bite, a heart
attack, being hit). A social threat occurs when you believe you will be
rejected, humiliated, embarrassed, or put down. A mental threat occurs
when something makes you worry that you are going crazy or losing your
mind. The perception of the threats varies from person to person. Some
people, because of their life experiences, may feel threatened very easily
and will often feel anxious. Other people may feel a greater sense of safety
or security. Certain life experiences such as growing up in a chaotic home
with volatile surroundings may lead a person to conclude that the world
and other people are dangerous. The perception of danger and sense of
vulnerability may have helped a person survive as a child. Being able to
recognize danger and its early warning signs are critical to one’s emotional
and physical survival. Some may have developed a very fine ability to spot
and respond to dangerous situations. As an adult, it may become important
to evaluate whether or not its possible that one is over-responding to
danger and threat. Perhaps the people in their adult life are not as
threatening as the people in their childhood. One might consider whether or
not their resources and abilities to cope as an adult open new and creative
ways of responding to threat and anxiety. Stress & Stress Management 7
Anxious Thoughts Anxious thoughts are future oriented and often predict
catastrophe. Anxious thoughts often begin with, “What if…” and end with
a disastrous outcome. Anxious thoughts frequently include images of
danger as well. For example, a man with a fear of public speaking may,
before a talk, think, “What if I stumble over my words? What if I forget my
notes? What if people think I’m a fool and don’t know what I am talking
about?” He may have an image of himself standing frozen in front of the
crowd. These thoughts are all about the future and predict a dire outcome.
Signs and Symptoms of Stress Overload It is important to learn how to
recognize when your stress levels are “out of control” or having an adverse
effect. The signs and symptoms of stress overload can be almost anything.
Stress affects the mind, body, and behavior in many ways, and everyone
experiences stress differently. Three common ways that people respond
when they are overwhelmed by stress are: 1. An angry or agitated stress
response. You may feel heated, keyed-up, overly emotional, and unable to
sit still. 2. A withdrawn or depressed stress response. You shut down, space
out, and show very little energy or emotion. 3. Both a tens and frozen stress
response. You “freeze” under pressure and feel like you can’t do anything.
You look paralyzed, but under the surface you may feel extremely agitated.
The following lists some of the common warning signs and symptoms of
stress. The more signs and symptoms you notice in yourself, the closer you
might be to feeling stress overload.
Cognitive Symptoms: • Memory problems • Inability or difficulty
concentrating • Poor judgment • Seeing only the negative • Anxious,
racing, or ruminating thoughts • Constant worrying Emotional Symptoms:
• Moodiness • Irritability or short-tempered • Agitation, inability to relax
Stress & Stress Management 8 • Feeling overwhelmed • Sense of
loneliness or isolation • Depression or general unhappiness Physical
Symptoms: • Aches and pains, muscle tension • Diarrhea or constipation •
Nausea, dizziness, or butterflies in the stomach • Chest pain or rapid
heartbeat • Loss of sex drive • Frequent colds • Shallow breathing and
sweating Behavioral Symptoms: • Eating more or less • Sleeping too much
or too little • Isolating yourself from others • Procrastinating or neglecting
responsibilities • Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax • Nervous
habits (nail biting, pacing) Keep in mind that the signs and symptoms of
stress also can be caused by other psychological and medical problems. If
you’re experiencing any of the warning signs of stress, it’s important to see
a doctor for an evaluation. Your doctor can help you determine whether or
not your symptoms are stress related.
Stress & Stress Management :
Effects of Stress :
Stress is difficult for professionals to define because it is a highly
subjective phenomenon that differs for each of us. Things that are
distressful for some individuals can be pleasurable for others. We also
respond to stress differently. Some people blush, some eat more while
others grow pale or eat less. There are numerous physical as well as
emotional responses as illustrated by the following list of 50 common signs
and symptoms of stress. 50 Common Signs and Symptoms of Stress Stress
& Stress Management
1. Frequent headaches, jaw clenching or pain
2. Gritting, grinding teeth
3. Stuttering or stammering
4. Tremors, trembling of lips, hands
5. Neck ache, back pain, muscle spasms
6. Light headedness, faintness, dizziness
7. Ringing in the ears
8. Frequent blushing, sweating
9. Dry mouth, problems swallowing
10. Cold or sweaty hands, feet
11. Frequent colds, infections
12. Rashes, itching, hives, “goose bumps”
13. Unexplained or frequent allergy attacks
14. Heartburn, stomach pain, nausea
15. Excess belching, flatulence
16. Constipation, diarrhea
17. Difficulty breathing, sighing
18. Sudden attacks of panic
19. Chest pain, palpitations
20. Frequent urination
21. Low sexual drive or performance
22. Excess anxiety, worry, guilt, nervousness
23. Increased anger, frustration, hostility
24. Depression, frequent or intense mood swings
25. Increased or decreased appetite
26. Insomnia, nightmares, disturbing dreams
27. Difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts
28. Trouble learning new information
29. Forgetfulness, disorganization, confusion
30. Difficulty in making decisions
31. Feeling overwhelmed
32. Frequent crying spells or suicidal thoughts
33. Feelings of loneliness or worthlessness
34. Little interest in appearance, punctuality
35. Nervous habits, feet tapping, fidgeting
36. Increased frustration, irritability
37. Overreaction to petty annoyances
38. Increased number of minor accidents
39. Obsessive/compulsive behaviors
40. Reduced work productivity
41. Lies or excuses to cover up poor work
42. Rapid or mumbled speech
43. Excessive defensiveness or suspiciousness
44. Problems with communication
45. Social withdrawal or isolation
46. Constant tiredness, weakness, fatigue
47. Frequent use of over-the-counter drugs
48. Weight gain or loss without diet
49. Increased smoking, alcohol, or drug use
50. Excessive gambling or impulse buying As demonstrated in the
preceding list, stress can have wide ranging effects on emotion, mood, and
behavior. Equally important but often less appreciated are effects on
various systems, organs, and tissues all over the body, as illustrated in the
following diagram.
Stress & Stress Management :
Physical or mental stresses may cause physical illness as well as mental or
emotional problems.
Here are the parts of the body Effected by stress:
Hair:
High stress levels may cause excessive hair loss and some forms of
baldness.
Muscles: Spasmodic pains in the neck and shoulders, musculoskeletal
aches, lower back pain, and various minor muscular twitches and nervous
tics are more noticeable under stress.
Digestive tract: Stress can cause or aggravate diseases of the digestive tract
including gastritis, stomach and duodenal ulcers, ulcerative colitis, and
irritable colon.
Skin: Some individuals react to stress with outbreaks of skin problems such
as eczema and psoriasis.
Reproductive organs: Stress affects the reproductive system causing
menstrual disorders and recurrent vaginal infections in women and
impotence and premature ejaculation in men.
Lungs: High levels of mental or emotional stress adversely affect
individuals with asthmatic conditions.
Heart: Cardiovascular disease and hypertension are linked to accumulated
stress.
Brain: Stress triggers mental and emotional problems such as insomnia,
headaches, personality changes, irritability, anxiety, and depression.
Mouth: Mouth ulcers and excessive dryness are often symptoms of stress.
The Effects of Stress There are numerous emotional and physical disorders
that have been linked to stress including depression, anxiety, heart attacks,
stroke, hypertension, immune system disturbances that increase
susceptibility to infections, a host of viral linked disorders ranging from the
common cold to herpes to certain cancers, as well as autoimmune diseases
like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, stress can have
direct effects on the skin (rashes, hives, atopic dermatitis), the
gastrointestinal system (GERD, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome,
ulcerative colitis) and can contribute to insomnia and degenerative
neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease. In fact, it is hard to think of
any disease in which stress cannot play an aggravating role or any part of
the body that is not affected (see Effects of Stress on the Body diagram).
This list will undoubtedly grow as the extensive ramifications of stress are
increasingly being appreciated. Questions to Consider When Assessing for
Stress: • How do you know when you are stressed? • Where do you feel
stress in your body? • What do you notice about your body, thoughts, and
feelings when things are difficult? • How do you behave when you are
feeling stressed out? • How do you react negatively or proactively to
stress? • How do you currently cope with stress? Do you… (answer ‘O’ for
often. ‘S’ for sometimes, or ‘R’ for rarely or never) _ regret being angry or
short-tempered with others? __ feel like your emotions are getting the best
of you? __ use alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to cope with stress
(prescription, counter, or street drugs)? __ have sleep problems (either
sleep too much or not getting enough restful sleep)? __ feel like things are
overwhelming or out of control? __ laugh or smile less than you used to?
__ yell, cry, or withdraw a lot? __ feel sad, disappointed, or worried? __ eat
too much or too little when you are stressed? __ feel that you are not in
control of your life? __ have trouble letting go of things that are bothering
you? __ blame yourself or think that nothing goes right? If you have
answered often or sometimes to four or more of these questions, it may be
time to address your stress. Stress & Stress Management 12 The Stress
Response The groundwork for the modern meaning of “stress” was laid by
Dr. Walter B. Cannon, a physiologist at Harvard almost 100 years ago. He
was the first to describe the “fight or flight response” as a series of
involuntary physiological and biochemical changes that prepare you to deal
with threats of danger. This response was critical to the survival of
primitive humankind when requiring quick bursts of energy to fight or flee
predators such as the saber-toothed tiger. Hansselye, the first major
researcher on stress, was able to trace what happens in your body during
the fight or flight response. He found that any problem, real or imagined,
could cause the cerebral cortex (the thinking part of the brain) to send an
alarm to the hypothalamus (the main switch for the stress response, located
in the midbrain). The hypothalamus then stimulates the sympathetic
nervous system to make a series of changes in your body. Your heart rate,
breathing rate, muscle tension, metabolism, and blood pressure all increase.
Your hands and feet get cold as blood is directed away from your
extremities and digestive system into the larger muscles that can help you
fight or run. You experience butterflies in your stomach. Your diaphragm
locks. Your pupils dilate to sharpen your vision and your hearing becomes
more acute. While all of this is going on, something else happens that can
have long-term negative effects if left unchecked. Your adrenal glands start
to secrete corticoids (adrenaline, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), which
inhibit digestion, reproduction, growth, and tissue repair and the responses
of your immune and inflammatory systems. In other words, some very
important functions that keep your body healthy begin to shut down. The
stress response is useful and can be necessary in times of emergency, but
the frequent or unrelenting triggering of the stress response in our modern
life without a balancing relaxation response can contribute to a number of
illnesses and symptoms. The same mechanism that turned the stress
response on can turn it off. This is called the Relaxation Response. As soon
as you decide that a situation is no longer dangerous, your brain stops
sending emergency signals to your brain stem, which in turn ceases to send
panic messages to your nervous system. Minutes after the danger signals
stop, the flight or fight response burns out. Your metabolism, heart rate,
breathing rate, muscle tension, and blood pressure all return to their normal
levels. Many professionals suggest that you can use your mind to change
your physiology for the better, and improve your health by using the
natural restorative process called the Relaxation Response. Stress & Stress
Management 13 The Relaxation Response In the late 1960’s, at Harvard
Medical School, where Walter B. Cannon performed fight or flight
experiments 50 years earlier, Herbert Benson, M.D. found that there was a
counterbalancing mechanism to the stress response. Just as stimulating an
area of the hypothalamus can cause the stress response, activating other
areas of the brain results in its reduction. He defined this opposite state the
“relaxation response”. The relaxation response is a physical state of deep
rest that changes the physical and emotional responses to stress. When
eliciting the relaxation response: Your metabolism decreases Your heart
beats slower and your muscles relax Your breathing becomes slower Your
blood pressure decreases You return to a calmer state of being. If practiced
regularly, it can have lasting effects. Eliciting the Relaxation Response
Elicitation of the relaxation response is actually quite easy. There are two
essential steps: 1. Repetition of a word, sound, phrase, prayer, or muscular
activity. 2. Passive disregard of everyday thoughts that inevitably come to
mind and the return to your repetition. The following is the generic
technique that elicits the relaxation response: • Pick a focus word, short
phrase, or prayer that is firmly rooted in your belief system, such as “one,”
“peace,” “The Lord is my Shepard,” “Hail Mary full of grace,” or
“Shalom”. • Sit quietly in a comfortable position. • Close your eyes. •
Relax your muscles, progressing from your feet to your calves, thighs,
abdomen, shoulders, head, and neck. • Breathe slowly and naturally, and as
you do, say your focus word, sound, phrase, or prayer silently to yourself
as you exhale. • Assume a passive attitude. Don’t worry about how well
you’re doing. When other thoughts come to mind, simply say to yourself,
“Oh well,” and gently return to your repetition. • Continue for ten to twenty
minutes. • Do not stand immediately. Continue sitting quietly for a minute
or so, allowing other thoughts to return. Then open your eyes and sit for
another minute before rising. • Practice the technique once or twice daily
(e.g., before breakfast and after dinner). Stress & Stress Management 14
Regular elicitation of the relaxation response has been scientifically proven
to be an effective treatment for a wide range of stress-related disorders. In
fact, to the extent that any disease is caused or made worse by stress, the
relaxation response can help. Other techniques for evoking the relaxation
response are: • Mindfulness Meditation • Progressive Muscle Relaxation •
Deep Breathing • Imagery • Self-Massage Stress Relieving Techniques
Mindfulness Meditation that cultivates mindfulness can be particularly
effective at reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and other negative
emotions. Mindfulness is the quality of being fully engaged in the present
moment, without over-thinking or analyzing the experience. Rather than
worrying about the future or dwelling on the past, mindfulness meditation
switches the focus on what is happening right now. Mindfulness meditation
is not equal to zoning out. It takes effort to maintain your concentration and
to bring it back to the present moment when your mind wanders or you
start to drift off. But with regular practice, mindfulness strengthens the
areas of the brain associated with joy and relaxation. Mindfulness provides
a potentially powerful antidote to the common causes of daily stress such
as time pressure, distraction, agitation, and interpersonal conflicts. How to
do a Mindfulness Exercise • Find a comfortable place to sit. It can be on a
chair or on the floor, but do not slump or slouch. Keep your posture
straight but relaxed, making sure you are not rigid or stiff. • Focus on your
breathing. • Concentrate your attention completely on your breathing.
Become aware of the sensations inside your air passages as the air enters
the nose. Just become aware of that feeling as your breath goes in and out.
Do not attempt to influence or check your breathing; just let it happen
naturally. Marvel at the quality and precision of internal sensations that are
normally ignored. Wonder at how deeply you can sense the air inside you.
Just allow yourself time to be aware of the air going in and out, nothing
else. Keep your mind on your breathing; become your breathing. • When
thoughts come into your mind, that’s o.k. Just examine the thoughts for
what they are, as if they were some strange animal that wandered into your
sight. When these thoughts come into your mind, allow them to wander off
on their own and wish them well on their way. Do not get involved in the
thought. Just notice that it is there and return your focus to your breathing.
Stress & Stress Management 15 • Treat each thought as a guest. When a
thought or feeling arises, simply observe and acknowledge it. There is no
need to interpret it or to use it. You might wonder where it came from, what
caused it to surface now, what purpose it serves. Notice it like a precious
jewel, turning it this way and that. If you feel yourself drifting away on a
thought then just return and refocus on your breathing. Use your breathing
as the anchor for your mindfulness. • Stay in the moment as long as you
can. Continue to focus on your breathing. Aim to clear your mind
completely for 5 minutes. With practice you will be able to extend the time
to twenty minutes or more. • Notice the repeating thoughts. As you
progress you will come to recognize that the same thoughts are appearing,
over and over, even in your calmest moments. Notice them and let them
pass by, returning your attention to your breath. The following mindfulness
meditation techniques can also be helpful for stress relief. Body Scan –
Body scanning promotes mindfulness by focusing your attention on
various parts of your body. Like progressive muscle relaxation, you can
start with your feet and work your way up. However, instead of tensing and
relaxing your muscles, you simply focus on the way each part of your body
feels, noticing any sensations without labeling then as “good or bad”.
Walking Meditation – You don’t have to be seated or still to practice
mindfulness. In walking meditation, mindfulness involves being focused
on the physicality of each step; the sensation of your feet touching the
ground; the rhythm of your breath while moving, and feeling the wind
against your face. Mindful Eating – If you reach for food when you feel
stressed, or you gulp your meals down in a rush, try eating mindfully. Sit
down at the table and focus your full attention on the meal. This means no
T.V., reading the newspaper, or eating on the run. Eat slowly, taking time to
concentrate on each bite, noticing the texture and taste of the food. A
Sample Meditation Exercise • When you practice meditation at home, you
will need to choose a quiet place where you will not be disturbed. If you
wish you may sit cross-legged on a cushion on the floor, you may kneel, or
sit in a chair with your back straight. You should feel comfortable, but not
so comfortable that you fall asleep. While practicing mindfulness, it is
important to stay alert. • Remain seated in your chair. Sit with your back
straight, feet flat on the floor, hands in your lap. Now close your eyes. •
Just breathe normally through your nose. As you continue breathing
normally through your nose, begin to focus your attention on the sensations
in and around your nostrils, and on your upper lip just below your nostrils,
that are caused by the breath passing in and out. You might feel a slight
tickle, or a feeling of warmth or coolness, or heaviness or lightness. Just
keep your concentration fixed there. This area is your Stress & Stress
Management 16 anchor; the place you will always return to. Observe the
changing sensations you experience in that area as the breath passes over
your anchor. • At the beginning of every breath, try noticing everything you
can about the sensations caused by just that one breath. Do the same for the
next breath, just one breath at a time. • If thoughts arise, as they most
certainly will, gently but firmly bring your awareness back to your anchor
and remain focused on the in an out breath, one breath at a time. (Pause for
a few seconds). • Again, focus all of your attention on the changing
sensations around your nose and upper lip that are caused by the breath as
it goes in and out. Notice whether the breath is long or short. Does the air
pass through one or both nostrils? Is the air cool or warm? • If your mind
wanders again, just note, “mind wandered away” and immediately return it
to your anchor. It is the mind’s nature to wander and your job to train it, so
just keep bringing it back. Gently but firmly bring it back. If you are
having difficulty bringing it back, you can try counting your breaths, just
up to 10. Continue focusing on the in and out breaths for another four
minutes. I will let you know when the time is up. Following the meditation
exercise ask yourself these questions: • Open your eyes. • How was that for
you? • Were you able to keep your attention focused on your anchor? •
Could you experience your breath? • Where did you feel it? • What
sensations did you feel? • Did you experience the wandering mind? It is
very persistent isn’t it? • Can you see how the wandering mind might get
you into trouble if you are not aware of where it has wandered off to? •
Were you able to bring your attention back to your anchor each time it has
wandered away? It takes a lot of practice doesn’t it? Stress & Stress
Management 17 Ten Simple Ways You Can Practice Mindfulness Each
Day: 1. As you awaken in the morning, bring your attention to your
breathing. Instead of letting your mind spin off into yesterday or today,
take mindful breaths. Focus on your breathing, and sense the effects of
breathing throughout your body. 2. Instead of hurrying to your usual
routine, slow down and enjoy something special about the morning; a
flower that bloomed, the sound of the birds, the wind in the trees. 3. On the
way to work or school, pay attention to how you walk, drive or ride the
transit. Take some deep breaths, relaxing throughout your body. 4. When
stopped at a red light, pay attention to your breathing and enjoy the
landscape around you. 5. When you arrive at your destination, take a few
moments to orient yourself. Breathe consciously and calmly, relax your
body, then begin. 6. When sitting at your desk or keyboard, become aware
of the subtle signs of the physical tension and take a break or walk around.
7. Use the repetitive events of the day (the ringing telephone, a knock at the
door, walking down the hall) as cues for a mini-relaxation. 8. Walk
mindfully to your car or bus. Can you see and appreciate something new in
the environment? Can you enjoy walking without rushing? 9. As you return
home, consciously make the transition into your home environment. If
possible, after greeting your family or housemates, give yourself a few
minutes alone to ease the transition. 10. As you go to sleep, let go of today
and tomorrow. Take some slow, mindful deep breaths. By following the
main elements of mindfulness, combining awareness of your breath and
with focusing on the activity at hand, you will be able toe experience every
moment as fully as possible. Relax in a Hurry Mini-relaxation exercises
help reduce anxiety and tension immediately. You can do them with your
eyes open or closed. You can do them anywhere, any time, and no one will
know that you are doing them. Some good times to “do a mini” are when
you are: • Stuck in traffic • Put on hold during a phone call • In your
doctor’s waiting room • Someone says something that upsets you • Waiting
for a phone call • Sitting in a dentist’s chair • Feeling overwhelmed by
what you need to accomplish in the near future • Standing in line • In pain
Stress & Stress Management 18 “Mini’s” are most beneficial for people
who elicit the relaxation response on a regular basis. However, they can
make anyone feel refreshed, calmer, and better able to concentrate. The
basic method for doing a “Mini” is quite simple: Put your hand just below
your navel. Take a deep breath, bringing the air in through your nose and
through your mouth. You should feel your stomach rising about an inch as
you breathe in, and falling about an inch as you breathe out. This is
diaphragmatic breathing. If this is difficult for you, lie on your back or on
your stomach, where you will be more aware of your breathing pattern.
Remember to relax your stomach muscles. Here are some variations: •
Mini Version 1 Count very slowly to yourself from 10 down to zero, one
number for each breath. With the first diaphragmatic breath, you say “10”
to yourself, the next breath, you say “nine”, etc. If you start feeling light-
headed or dizzy, slow down the counting. When you get to “zero”, see how
you are feeling. If you are feeling better, great! If not, try doing it again. •
Mini Version 2 As you inhale, count very slowly up to four. As you exhale,
count slowly back down to one. Thus, as you inhale, you say to yourself,
“one, two, three, four”. As you exhale, you say to yourself, “four, three,
two, one.” Do this several times. • Mini Version 3 After each inhalation,
pause for a few seconds. After you exhale, pause again for a few seconds.
Do this for several breaths. Relax Your Body at Work One of the most
common questions asked about stress is, “What can I do to de-stress during
a busy day?” Fortunately, there is something you can do for yourself when
you need to release tension and stiffness or simply refocus your mind. The
following body-centered exercises work well in an office setting, as all you
need to do is sit forward on a chair with your feet flat on the floor. You may
increase the number of repetitions, as your body grows stronger and more
flexible. Take a few minutes at the end of your exercise to sit comfortably,
noticing your breath and releasing tension with each exhalation. You’ll be
ready to return to work feeling more comfortable and refreshed. Stress &
Stress Management 19 Exercises Feet and Legs With legs outstretched: •
Alternate curling and stretching the toes. Repeat three times and relax. •
Alternate flexing (bending) and extending (stretching) the whole foot at the
ankle. Repeat three times. • Rotate the ankles to the right as if drawing
circles with your toes. Repeat three times. • Rotate the ankles to the left.
Repeat three times. Arms and Hands • With arms extended out in front of
you: • Move your hands up and down, bending from the wrist. Repeat three
times. • Alternate stretching your fingers, then making a fist. Repeat three
times. • Rotate your wrists three times, first to the right, then to the left.
Relax. Repeat three times. Shoulders • Raise your right shoulder up toward
your ear. On the exhale, release your shoulder down. Repeat three times. •
Move your right shoulder forward. On the exhale, return it to the starting
position. Repeat three times. • Move your right shoulder back. On the
exhale, return it to the starting position. Repeat three times. • Repeat the
sequence on the left side. • Bring both shoulders up towards your ears,
tense, then drop your shoulders down as you exhale. Repeat three times.
Head and Neck Hold each of these positions, taking three easy breaths and
relaxing tension with each exhalation, then return your head to upright
centre before doing the next movement. • Drop your chin to your chest.
Feel the weight of your head stretch out the back of your neck. Hold. •
Look as far as you can over your right shoulder. Hold. • Look as far as you
can over your left shoulder. Hold. • Drop your right ear to your right
shoulder. Hold. • Drop your left ear to your left shoulder. Hold. Stress &
Stress Management 20 Progressive Muscle Relaxation *Be careful. Take
care not to hurt yourself while tensing your muscles. You should never feel
intense or shooting pain while completing this exercise. Make the muscle
tension deliberate, but gentle. If you have problems with pulled muscles,
broken bones, or any medical issue that would hinder physical activity,
consult your doctor first. Progressive muscle relaxation is another effective
and widely used strategy for stress relief. It is a great technique for
reducing overall body tension. It involves a two-step process in which you
tense and relax different muscles in the body. With regular practice,
progressive muscle relaxation helps you recognize what tension as well as
complete relaxation feels like in different parts of the body. This awareness
helps you spot and counteract the first signs of the muscular tension that
accompanies stress. As your body relaxes, so will your mind. You can
combine deep breathing with progressive muscle relaxation for an
additional level of relief from stress. As you practice tensing and relaxing
all the muscle groups in your body, you can move to a shortened
procedure, where you rapidly relax your whole body. As you reduce the
tension you carry in your body, your whole being will feel less stress and
you can enjoy increased physical and emotional health. Here’s how to get
started: After finding a quiet place and several free minutes to practice
progressive muscle relaxation, sit or lie down and make yourself
comfortable. Loosen your clothing, take off your shoes and get
comfortable. Take a few minutes to relax, breathing in and out in slow,
deep breaths. • Begin by tensing all of the muscles in your face. Make a
tight grimace, close your eyes as tightly as possible, clench your teeth,
even move your ears up if you can. Hold this for a count of eight as you
inhale. Now exhale as you relax completely. Let your face go completely
lax, as though you were sleeping. Feel the tension seep from your facial
muscles and enjoy the feeling. • Next, completely tense your neck and
shoulders, again inhaling and counting to eight. Then exhale and relax. •
Continue down your body, repeating the procedure with the following
muscle groups: chest, abdomen, entire right arm, right forearm and hand
(making a fist), entire left arm, left forearm and hand (again making a fist),
buttocks, entire right leg, lower right leg, right foot, entire left leg, lower
left leg, and left foot. For a shortened version, focus on the following four
main muscle groups: 1) face; 2) neck, shoulders, and arms; 3) abdomen and
chest; and 4) the buttocks, legs and feet. You can use progressive muscle
relaxation to quickly de-stress anytime. Stress & Stress Management 21
Deep Breathing Deep breathing is a relaxation technique that can be self-
taught. Deep breathing releases tension from the body and clears the mind,
improving both physical and mental wellness. We tend to breathe shallowly
or even hold our breath when we are feeling anxious. Sometimes we are
not even aware of it. Shallow breathing limits your oxygen intake and adds
further stress to your body. Breathing exercises can help to reduce this
stress. The key to deep breathing is to breathe deeply from the abdomen,
getting as much air as possible into your lungs. When you take deep
breaths from the abdomen, rather than shallow breaths from your upper
chest, you inhale more oxygen. The more oxygen you get, the less tense,
short of breath, and anxious you feel. This kind of breathing is called
diaphragmatic breathing. It means to breathe from the depths of your belly,
rather than from your chest and nose. The importance of good posture
cannot be overstated. While sitting, we tend to slouch, which compresses
the diaphragm and other organs, resulting in shallow breathing. Slouching
also strains muscles in the neck and back. It is helpful to sit in a chair with
good back support to avoid fatigue that leads to slouching. There are many
ways to practice deep breathing. Here is an example of a deep breathing
exercise: • Sit comfortably with your back straight. Place one hand on your
chest and the other on your stomach. Breathe in through your nose. Try to
make the hand on your stomach rise, while keeping the hand on your chest
still. Exhale through your mouth, pushing out as much air as you can while
contracting your abdominal muscles. The hand on your stomach should
move in as you inhale, but your other hand should move very little.
Continue to breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth. Try
to inhale enough so that your lower abdomen rises and falls. Count slowly
as you exhale. If you have a hard time breathing from your abdomen while
sitting up, try lying on the floor. • Sit back in your seat. Close your eyes.
Take a deep breath. Breathe again. Now make your hands comfortable
while keeping your eyes closed. You have a choice of any comfortable
hand positions such as One hand on your belly, one on your chest Palms of
hands on your knees Hands folded in your lap • Now sit back, feet on the
floor, hands comfortable. Inhale slowly and deeply through your nose. Feel
your stomach expand as your lungs fill with air. Now exhale through your
mouth to the count of five. Pause. Repeat while inhaling through the nose
and exhaling through your mouth and slowly count to five. Stress & Stress
Management 22 • Again, in through your nose and out through your mouth
counting to five. Sit and enjoy the calmness for a few minutes. • Turn your
attention to breathing your tensions away. Focus on your feet. Feel all of
the sensations there, feet and socks inside of your shoes, pressure on the
floor, and any other sensations. Now, as you take a deep breath, breathe all
of those feelings and sensations up into your lungs and then exhale them
away. Go ahead. Deep breath in, bringing all of those sensations into your
lungs, then exhale them away. Now, breathe in all those tensions in your
legs and hips; big breath in and exhale those tensions away. All the tensions
into your lungs and exhale them away. Your shoulders, arms, and hands –
go ahead, and breathe the tensions in them away. Now your neck, jaw,
eyes, and forehead. Breathe away the tensions in them. Now with two last,
deep breaths, you can go back and breathe away any residual tensions. • Sit
up straight. Do not arch your back. First, exhale completely through your
mouth. Place your hands on your stomach, just above your waist. Breathe
in slowly through your nose, pushing your hands out with your stomach.
This ensures that you are breathing deeply. Imagine that you are filling
your body with air from the bottom up. Hold your breath to a count of two
to five, or whatever you can handle. It is easier to hold your breath if you
continue to hold out your stomach. Slowly and steadily breath out through
your mouth, feeling your hands move back in as you slowly contract your
stomach, until most of the air is out. Exhalation is a little longer than
inhalation. You can also do this exercise lying on your back. Deep
breathing exercises can help you to relax before you go to sleep for the
night, or fall back asleep if you awaken in the middle of the night. You can
also practice deep breathing exercises standing (e.g., while standing in line
at the grocery store), If you are really tense and feel as if you are holding
your breath, simply concentrate on slowly breathing in and out. Guided
Imagery Guided imagery is a convenient and simple relaxation technique
that can help you quickly and easily manage stress and reduce tension in
your body. It is virtually as easy as indulging in a vivid daydream and, with
practice, this technique can help you to ease the tension and stress that you
feel. When used as a relaxation technique, guided imagery involves
imagining a scene in which you feel at peace, free to let go of all tension
and anxiety. Choose whatever setting is most calming to you, whether a
tropical beach, a favorite childhood spot, a therapist’s chair, or a quiet place
in the woods. Here’s how to get started with guided imagery: • Get into a
comfortable position. If lying down will likely put you to sleep, trying
sitting cross-legged, or recline in a comfy chair. Close your eyes and
breathe deeply, focusing on breathing in feelings of peace, and breathing
out feelings of stress. Stress & Stress Management 23 • Once you get to a
relaxed state, begin to envision yourself in the midst of the most relaxing
environment you can imagine. For some, this could be floating in the cool,
clear waters on a tropical beach, listening to smooth music playing in the
background. For others, this might be sitting by a fire in a secluded snow
cabin, deep in the woods, sipping hot chocolate and reading a good novel
while wrapped in a plush blanket and fuzzy slippers. • As you imagine your
scene, try to involve all of your senses. What does it look like? How does it
feel? What special scents are involved? What is around you? Who is there
or not there with you? What sounds do you hear? Focus your attention on
the smells in the area. What does the air feel like on your skin? Do you feel
any other sensations? • Stay here for as long as you like. Enjoy your
surroundings and let yourself be far from what stresses you. When you’re
ready to come back to reality, count back from ten or twenty, and tell
yourself that when you get to one, you’ll feel more calm and refreshed, like
returning from a mini-vacation, but you won’t have left the room! Tips:
You may want to use ambient sounds that accompany your imagery. You
may feel more immersed in your environment. You may also want to set a
gentle radio alarm just in case you loose track of time or fall asleep. This
might allow you to relax and let go, knowing your schedule won’t be in
jeopardy. Self Massage Getting a massage provides deep relaxation, and as
the muscles in your body relax, so does your overstressed mind. There are
many simple self-massage techniques you can use to relax and release
stress. Self-Massage techniques: Scalp Soother – Place your thumbs behind
your ears while spreading your fingers on top of your head. Move your
scalp back and forth slightly by making circles with your fingertips for 15-
20 seconds. Easy on the Eyes – Close your eyes and place your ring fingers
directly under your eyebrows, near the bridge of your nose. Slowly
increase the pressure for 5-10 seconds, then gently release. Repeat 2-3
times. Sinus Pressure Relief – Place your fingertips at the bridge of your
nose. Slowly slide your fingers down your nose and across the top of your
cheekbones to the outside of your eyes. Repeat 3-4 times. Shoulder Tension
Relief – Reach one arm across the front of your body to your opposite
shoulder. Using a circular motion, press firmly on the muscle above your
shoulder blade. Repeat on the other side. Stress & Stress Management 24
Foot Massage – Sit in a chair or on the floor. Get comfortable. You may or
may not want to use lotion or oil. If you are sitting up, rest one foot on the
opposite leg. Put one hand on top of the foot and the other closer to your
toes, then stroke smoothly from your toes to your ankles. Glide your hands
to the sole of your foot and massage the underside of your foot. Support
your foot with one hand and with the other make a fist. With a circular
motion move along the sole of your foot. Support your foot with one hand
and work on each toe individually. Squeeze and gently twist and stretch
each toe. Stroke around the ankle with your fingertips, as you stroke up
toward the leg and then glide back to your toes. Finish by stroking your
entire foot again. Do the same for the other foot. Face Massage – Begin by
rubbing the palms of your hands together quickly. As you feel the heat
build in your hands, stop rubbing your hands and place the now heated
palms over your face. Feel the warmth, and the soothing sensation it
immediately provides. Breathe deeply. Breathe in through the nose, filling
your chest and stomach. Hold and slowly release through the mouth. You
can have your eyes open or closed, whichever is more comfortable. Repeat
the deep breathing several times until you begin to feel less stress. For
relaxation, continue to breathe slowly and deeply throughout the entire self
massage routine. Keep your head upright and centered. Use your thumbs
for this exercise. Turn your hands outward, palms facing away from you.
Place your thumbs at either side of the nose, beside the flares, where you
feel a slight depression. Gently push in with your thumbs. Drag your
thumbs across the sinuses, and maintain an even pressure throughout. Keep
your thumbs on the face for the entire motion. Next, rest your thumbs on
your neck or below the jaw. Take your four fingers, with your index finger
at the top of the jaw and your baby finger lower along the jaw, and starting
at the top of the jaw line massage along your jaw with tiny clockwise
circular motions. As you do the circular motions, slowly move your fingers
down along the course of your jaw until the fingers of both hands meet at
the chin. Repeat at least 5 times. Stress & Stress Management 25 Thought
Stopping Techniques It has been well documented that negative and
frightening thoughts invariably precede negative and frightening emotions.
If the thoughts can be controlled, overall stress levels can be significantly
reduced. Thought stopping involves concentrating on the unwanted
thoughts and, after a short time, suddenly stopping and emptying the mind.
The command “Stop” or a loud noise is generally used to interrupt the
unpleasant thoughts. Instructions for Thought Stopping Explore and List
Your Stressful Thoughts – Create a list of stressful thoughts to help you
assess which recurrent thoughts are the most painful and intrusive. If a
caller is struggling to identify stressful thoughts, here are some questions
you can ask to help them: • Do you worry about being on time? • Do you
worry about leaving the lights or the gas on, or whether the doors are
locked? • Do you ever have persistent ideas that someone you know might
be having an accident or that something might have happened to them? •
Do you go back and think about a task you have already completed,
wondering how you could have done it better? • Do you question yourself
or have doubts about a lot of the things that you do? • Do you worry about
money a lot? • Do you frequently think things will not get better and may,
in fact, get worse? • Do you ruminate about details? • Do you worry about
auto accidents? • Do you worry about getting trapped in crowds, on
bridges, elevators and so on? • Does a negative feature of your appearance
or your make-up preoccupy you at times? • Do you think again and again
about your failures? Ask yourself these questions about each stressful
thought you identified: • Is the thought realistic or unrealistic? • Is the
thought productive or counter-productive? • Is the thought neutral or self-
defeating? • Is the thought easy or hard to control? • Is it possible that this
thought could come true? Just how probable is it? Thought stopping
requires consistent motivation. Decide now if you really want to eliminate
any of stressful thoughts you have listed. Select a thought that you feel
strongly committed to extinguishing. Imagine that Thought – Close your
eyes and bring into imagination a situation in which the stressful thought is
likely to occur. Try to include normal as well as stressful thinking. In this
way, you can interrupt the stressful thoughts while allowing a continuing
flow of healthy thinking. Stress & Stress Management 26 Thought
Interruption – Thought interruption can be accomplished initially by using
one of two startler techniques: • Set an egg timer or alarm clock for 3
minutes. Look away, close your eyes, and ruminate on your stressful
thought as described above in Step 2. When you hear the ring, shout,
“Stop!” You may also want to raise your hand, snap your fingers or stand
up. Let your mind empty all but the neutral and non-anxious thoughts. Set
a goal of about 30 seconds after the stop, during which your mind remains
blank. If the upsetting thought returns during that time, shout, “Stop!”
again. • Tape record yourself loudly exclaiming, “Stop” at intermittent
intervals (e.g. three minutes, two minutes, three minutes, one minute). You
may find it useful to repeat the taped stop messages several times at five-
second intervals. Proceed the same way as with the egg timer or alarm
clock. The tape recording shapes and strengthens your thought control.
Unaided Thought Interruption – Now take control of the thought stopping
cue, without the timer or tape recorder. While ruminating on the stressful
thought, shout, “Stop!” When you succeed in extinguishing the thought on
several occasions with the shouted command, begin interrupting the
thought with “Stop!” said in a normal voice. After succeeding in stopping
the thought by using your normal speaking voice, start interrupting the
thought with “Stop!” verbalized in a whisper. When the whisper is
sufficient to interrupt stressful thoughts, use the sub-vocal command
“Stop!” Imagine hearing “Stop!” shouted inside your mind. Success at this
stage means that you can stop thoughts alone or in public, without making
a sound or calling attention to yourself. Thought Substitution – The last of
thought stopping involves thought substitution. In place of the stressful
thought, make up some positive, assertive statements that are appropriate in
the target situation. For example, if you are afraid of flying, you might say
to yourself, “This is a fantastically beautiful view from way up here.”
Develop several alternative statements to say to yourself, since the same
response may lose its power through repetition. If the sub-vocalized “Stop”
is not working for you, create a technique that you can use to substitute the
word “Stop!” (e.g. keep a rubber band around your wrist, and snap it when
unwanted thoughts occur). Be aware that thought stopping takes time. The
thought will return and you will have to interrupt it again. The main effort
is to stifle each thought just as it begins, and to concentrate on something
else. The thoughts will return less and less readily in most cases. Stress &
Stress Management 27 38 Stress Busters 1. Start off your day with
breakfast. 2. Occasionally change your routine by meeting a friend or co-
worker for breakfast. Allow time to relax and enjoy it. 3. Find some time
during the day to meditate or listen to a relaxation CD. 4. Instead of
drinking coffee all day, switch to fruit juice. 5. Organize your work - set
priorities. 6. Don't try to be perfect. Don't feel like you must do everything.
7. Avoid trying to do two, three, or more things at a time. 8. Develop a
support network. 9. If possible, reduce the noise level in your environment.
10. Always take a lunch break (preferably not at your desk). 11. Optimize
your health with good nutrition, sleep and rest. 12. Get regular exercise. 13.
Celebrate birthdays and other holidays. Turn more events into special
occasions. 14. Look at unavoidable stress as an avenue for growth and
change. 15. Avoid people who are "stress carriers." 16. Avoid people who
are "negaholics." 17. Don't watch the 11 p.m. news. 18. Give yourself
praise and positive strokes. 19. Develop a variety of resources for
gratification in your life, whether it's family, friends, hobbies, interests,
special weekends or vacations. 20. Treat yourself to "new and good
things." 21. Be assertive. Learn to express your needs and differences, to
make requests, and to say "no" constructively. 22. Seek out the emotional
resources available to you such as co-workers, partner, friends and family.
23. Don't be afraid to ask questions or to ask for help. 24. Allow extra time
to get to appointments. 25. Take deep breaths when you feel stressed. 26.
Try to find something funny in a difficult situation. 27. Take an occasional
"mental health day." 28. Adopt a pet. 29. Take a mindful walk. 30.
Understand that we do not all see or do things in the same way. 31. Practice
mindfulness - learn to live in the moment. 32. Become a less aggressive
driver. 33. Show kindness and consideration. Open a door for someone,
pick up litter, etc. 34. When stressed, ask yourself "Is this really
important?" and "Will this really matter a year from now?" 35. Resist the
urge to judge or criticize. 36. Become a better listener. 37. Be flexible with
change - things don't always go as we planned. 38. If spiritual, pray; speak
to God, a higher power, or your inner guide. Stress & Stress Management
28 References http://www.cmha.ca http://www.mentalhelp.net
http://helpguide.org http://www.oprah.com http://stress.about.com
http://www.psybersquare.com http://www.k-
state.edu/counseling/student/biofedbk/sample5.html http://www.stress-
relief-exercises.com http://www.hypknowsis.com
http://www.info.med.yale.edu Davis, M., Robbins Eschelman, E., &
McKay, M. (1995). The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook
Introduction
Introduction:
CHAPTER-3

SOURCE OF DATA
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION:

Under Research Methodology various steps that are generally


adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with logic
Behind them is discussed. The researcher methodology has many
dimensions and research methods to constitute a part of the research
methodology. It is necessary for the researcher to design the methodology
for his problem as it may differ from problem to problem. In the process of
conduction the study, the researcher has followed the following
methodology
Field Study:
The researcher has conducted the study among the executives and
offices level employees in RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT
LTD. Since employees were operating, study on the whole system could
not be undertaken as a whole and is restricted to with in the unit of the
company.
Collection Of Data
Primary Data:
Primary data was colleted within the employees of organization
through personnel interview.
Secondary Data:
Secondary data was collected from various published books,
companies’ web sites and company old records.
Research Design
The research designs under taken for the study is in descriptive one.
The methodology involved in this design is mostly qualitative in a nature.
Types of Study
 The present study is partly exploratory, partly descriptive and partly
causal.
 It is exploratory because it is concerned with maintaining the health and
safety measures of employee of the company.
 It is descriptive as it aims to describe the various internal and external
factors that contribute health and safety of the employees.
 It is causal as it aims to analyze the factors effect the health and safety
which results in the performance of the employees.
Sample Design
A sample of 14 employees is taken out of a total population of 25
employees (56%), based on judgment sampling. The sample is selected in
such a way that it includes the employees of all ages, different designations
from different educational streams with distinct experience from various
departments.
Hence the sample is a representative of the population and an unbiased mix
of all factors.
A sample of 25 labors is taken out of a total population of 50 labors
(50%) based on judgment sampling. The sample is selected in such a way
that it includes the working areas of the company.
Hence the sample is a representative of the population and an unbiased mix
of all factors.

Sample Size
Out of the total universe 25 employees a total of employees a total of
14 employees belonging to different units of RAJ GRUPS TECHNO
SOLUTIONS PVT LTD
Out of the total universe 50 labours a total 25 labours belonging to
different areas of RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD
Research Instrument
The research instrument used for the survey is a structured
undisguised questionnaire. The questionnaire has been framed in structures
and undisguised form, with a total number of 20 questions. It has both open
ended and closed ended questions. The information collected through
personal interview is also being used. Pre-testing was conducted to find if
there were any discrepancies in the questionnaire designed necessary
changes were made after designing the questionnaire for which data was
collected
Diagrams used:
 Bar Charts
 Pie Charts
DATA ANALYSIS

1. Perception of Employees of Different age groups about Stress

Perception of employees of different Ages about Stress

80%

70%

60%
20-29
50%
Percentage

30-39
40% 40-49
50-59
30%

20%

10%

0%

Wokload Meeting targes Performance Anxiety


Stress Factors

INTERPREATION: From the above graphical representation it has been


found that the age group of 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 (65%) are having more
workload than the employees aged between 20-29.
The employees with age group of 30-39 are having more stress on
facing the Meeting targets than the other age group.
Finally the performance anxiety is more to the 20-29 age group and
it is negligible in 50-59 aged employees.
2. Problem areas identified by employees of different ages

Different Ages Vs Identified Problems


Percentage

80
60
40
20
0 20-29

Relationshi
30-39
Health

Inteperson

40-49
al

p 50-59
Problem Areas

INTERPRETATION: The analysis shows that the employees grouped


between 20-29 and 50-59 are facing more health problems (66%) than
the other age group 30-39 and 40-49 and this is because of stress factors
like performance anxiety, workload and meeting targets.
It can be inferred that there is a strong correlation between health
and psychology because the later as a direct impact on health. Problems
like mental tension, anxiety, depression, loss of memory and
concentration, which arise due to psychological problems. And finally it
can be found that the age group 20-29 and 30-39 are having problem in
their work itself (67%) as these are the up coming employees with new
positions.
It has been found that the employees though they are facing more
stress they are still able to maintain better interpersonal relationship
with their peers, subordinates and superiors this may be because to
reduce the stress and to complete the task with their support.

Suggestions by employees of different ages for changes at


work place

Ages Vs Changes at work place

80
20-29
Percentage

60
30-39
40
40-49
20
50-59
0
Timely targets Distributed Periodic
work load Relaxation
Change at work place
-

INTERPRETATION: From the above data we can analyze that the all
the employees of different age groups wanted a few changes at work
place like timely targets (33%). And distributed work load is more in
age group of 40-49 i.e., (56%) and finally 66% of the employees of age
group 20-29 and 50-59 want changes in periodic relaxation as these are
people who feel more stress in handling the work than the others.
3. Measures to reduce stress given by employees of different age
groups

DIFFERENT AGES VS MEASURES TO


REDUCE STRESS
120
100
PERCENTAGE

80
20-29
60
30-39
40
40-49
20 50-59
0
MEASURES
1 2TO REDUCE
3 STRESS
4
1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation 3.Relations 4. Recognition

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the employees of age


group 40-49 and 50-59 require counseling (66%) as they are undergoing
more stress, where as employees the age group 20-29 and 30-39 do not
feel the need for counseling (33%).
It has been found that the age group of 30-39 and 40-49 (47%) feel
more stress; they insist that job rotation can be used as one of the
measures to reduce stress.
From the above analysis we can say that the age group 40-49 feels
that better interpersonal relationships (47%) can help reduce the stress
level, which in turn will improve relationship between superior and
subordinate.

It has been found that the employees of all the different age group
have felt recognition of good work (67%) can also be one of the
measures to reduce stress and this is more in age group of 50-59.

4. Perception of employees about stress according to their


designations

DESIGNATION vS STRESS FACTORS

100 MANAGERS(3)
PERCENTAGE

80
60 DY.MANAGERS(5)
40
20 ASST.MANAGERS(
0 5)
1 2 3 OFFICERS (17)
STRESS FACTORS
1.Work load 2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 80% of officers face more


stress than the other managers because these face more work load and
performance anxiety in meeting the targets. From the above
representation we can say that the Managers facing more stress in
meeting their targets (71%) than the Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers.

5.Problems areas identified by employees with different


designations

DESIGNATION VS IDENTIFIED PROBLEM


AREAS
100
PERCENTAGE

MANAGERS(3)
80
60 DY.MANAGERS(5
40 )
20 ASST.MANAGER
0 S(5)
1 2 3 4 OFFICERS (17)
PROBLEM AREAS
1.Health 2. Psychological 3.Interpersonal Relationship 4.Work
Itself

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the Managers, Asst.


Managers and Officers are having more health problems (65%) because
there is a direct impact of stress factors like work load, performance
anxiety and meeting targets on health.
The Psychological problems are more marked among Officers and
these are equal in Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers are equally facing
same psychological problems
It has been found that managers and officers 35% face fewer
problems in interpersonal relationships than the others.
And finally we can analyze that the Dy. Managers, Asst. Managers
and officers are feeling more stress due to work itself i.e., 90% of problems
are due to work itself according to officers and it 67% of it in Dy.
Managers and Asst. Managers. And it is very little in Managers.

6. Suggestions by employees with different designation for changes


at work place
DESIGNATION VS CHANGES AT WORK
PLACE
80
PERCENTAGE

60
managers
40
20 dy.managers

0 asst .
1 2 3 managers
CHANGES AT WORK officers
PLACE

1.Timely Targets 2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic Relaxation

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that over all 60% Officers


undergo more stress, hence they are desirous of changes at work place like
timely targets, distributed workload and periodic relaxation where as 57%
Managers prefer more distributed work load and more periodic relaxation
&0%. And the Asst. Managers and Dy. Managers want changes in Periodic
relaxation more and less in timely targets and distributed workload.
7. Measures to reduce stress given by employees with different
designation

DESIGNATION VS MEASURES TO
REDUCE STRESS

100
PERCENTAGE

80
60 MANAGERS
40
DY.MANAGE
20
RS
0 ASST
1 2 3 4 MANAGERS

MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS OFFICERS

1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation 3.Relations 4. Recognition

INTERPRETATION: it has been found that 70% of those in Officers


cadre feel the need for counseling, job rotation and recognitions they
undergo major stress. On the other hand, Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers
80% feel that recognition of food work is a good measure of reducing the
stress levels. When the good work is being recognized it provides them
motivation, encouragement’s there by contributing to the high morale and
indirectly reducing the stress level.
8. Perception of employees about stress at work place (Graduates &
Post-Graduates)

EDUCATION VS STRESS FACTORS


80
PECENTAGE

60
GRADUATES(17)
40
POST
20 GRADUATES(14)
0
1 2 3
STRESS FACTORS

1.Work load 2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 60% of Graduates face more


work load than post graduates 50%, where as 27% of Graduates face
problems in meeting targets while it is more in post Graduates 60%,
although there work load is comparatively lower than the graduates.
It has been found that post graduates 675 face more performance
anxiety than graduates 33%, this can be considered as a positive stress of
the employees for the organization.
9. Problem areas identified by employees at work place (Graduates &
Post-Graduates)

EDUCATION VS IDENTIFIED PROBLEM AREAS


70
60
PERCENTAGE

50
GRADUATES
40
30
20 POST
10 GRADUATES
0
1 2 3 4
PROBLEM AREAS

1.Health 2. Psychological 3.Interpersonal Relationship 4.Work


Itself

INTEPRETATION: From the above we can analyze that postgraduates


33%, this can be attributed to more meeting targets and performance
anxiety among postgraduates.
It has been found that 65% of the postgraduates face more
psychological problems tan the graduates 35% because of the health
disorders among post graduates is high and 66% of the graduates face
problems in work itself as compared to 20% of the post graduates.
The interpersonal relationships problems are more seen more in
postgraduates 30% than compared to 15% of the graduates.

10. Suggestions by employees for changes at work place (Graduates 7


post-Graduates)

EDUCATION VS CHANGES AT WORK PLACE


60
PERCENTAGE

50
40 GRADUATES
30
POST GRADUATES
20
10
0
1 2 3
CHANGES AT WORK PLACE

1.Timely Targets 2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic Relaxation

INTERPRETATION: It has been analyzed that 24% of the gradates feel


that there should be timely targets as compared to 18% of postgraduates
and 53% of the graduates feel that workload should be distributed to reduce
the stress whereas incase of postgraduates only 36% feel the need for
distributed workload.
And it has been found that 50% of postgraduates need more periodic
relaxation compared to 36% of the graduates as the meeting targets is less
compared to postgraduates.

11. Measures suggested by employees to reduce stress (Graduates &


Post-Graduates)

EDUCATION VS MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS


60
50
PERCENTAGE

40
GRADUATION
30
POST GRADUATES
20
10
0 MEASURES TO REDUCE
1 2STRESS3 4

1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation 3.Relations 4. Recognition

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 30% of the graduates require


less counseling when compared to 43% of the postgraduates. There is not a
much significant difference between graduates 35% and postgraduates 36%
who give equal importance to job rotation. And the interpersonal
relationships are found more in postgraduates 29% than 29% the graduates
24%
It has been found that 53% of graduates feel the need for recognition
of god work where as 36% of the postgraduates feel less the necessity for
recognition of good work as means to reduce the stress.

12.Perception of experienced employees about stress

PERCEPTION OF EXPERIENCED
EMPLOYEES

100
PERCENTAGE

80
EX>10 YEARS
60
5-10 YEARS
40
1-5YEARS
20
0
1 2 3
STRESS FACTORS

1.Work load 2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety


INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 88% of employees with
more than 10 years of experience are facing more workload when
compared to 71% of 5-10 years and 50% 1-5 years. But employees with
more than 10 years of experience are facing less stress in meeting
targets as that of 5-10 years the difference is very minute.
It has been found that the 33% of those having more than 10 years
and 1-5 years of experience face more performance anxiety.

13. Problem areas identified by experienced employees.

EXPERIENCE VS PROBLEM AREAS


100
PERCENTAGE

80
60 >10 YEARS
5-10 YEARS
40
1-5 YEARS
20
0
1 2 3 4
PROBLEM AREAS

1.Health 2. Psychological 3.Interpersonal Relationship 4.Work Itself

INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the employees having


more than 10 years of experience (77%) are facing more health
problems. And 33% of employees with experience 1-5 years are facing
health problems less compare to employees of more than 10 years
experience. It has been found that 28% of Psychological problems are
same among the employees who are having experience of more than10
years and 5-10 years than those of 1-5 years experienced employees.
They is not a much significant difference between the employees
with more than 10 years experience 22% and 5-10 years experience
25% who are facing equal problems interpersonal relationships and
there are no interpersonal relationships with 1-5 years experience of
employees.
57% of employees with experience 5-10 years are facing problems
in work itself and it is less in 10 years experienced employees 44%, and
50% in 1-5 years experienced employees due to more workload.

14.Suggestioons by experienced employees for Changes at their


work place.

EXPERIENCE VS CHANGES AT WORK PLACE


80
PERCENTAGE

60 >10YEARS
40 5-10YEARS
1-5YEARS
20

0
1 2 3
CHANGESAT WORK PLACE
1.Timely Targets 2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic
Relaxation

INTERPRETATION: From the above we can analyze that (33%)


employees of 1-5 years equally feel the need for distributed workload
and periodic relaxation and these feel there should be 50% timely
targets.
It has been found that 58% employees of 5-10 years experience
desired distributed workload and they want 43% periodic relaxation as
they face more work load.
67% of more than 10 years experienced employees desire to
distribute workload and 39% periodic relaxation and 22% feel to have
timely targets.
15.Measures given by Experienced Employees to reduce work

EXPERIENCE VS MESURES TO REDUCE


100
PERCENTAGE

80
>10 YEARS
60
5-10 YEARS
40
1-5 YEARS
20
0
1 2 3 4
MEASURES TO REDUCE
stress.

1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation 3.Relations 4. Recognition

INTERPRETATION: It has been found than t55% of employees with


10 plus years of experience feel the acute need for counseling compared
to those witless than 5-10 years and 1-5 years of experience.
It has been analyzed that 57% of those with 5-10 years experience
feel the need for job rotation than those with 10 plus years of
Experience (44).
It has been found that 39% of 10 plus experience employees
maintain good relationship compare to those of 5-10 years of experience
employees.
It has been found that 85% of those with 5-10 years experience feel
the need for recognition of good work compared to 66% of those with
10 plus years and 1-5 years of experience.
16. Perception of employees about HR dept in implementing work
Stress Management techniques

HR DEPT. IN IMPLEMENTING WSM


TECHNIQUES

10%
PREPLANNED

OPINION OF THE
EMPLOYEES
90%

INTERPRETATION: 90% of the analyses says that HR department must


take the opinions of the employees regarding the implementation of work
stress management techniques and 10% of the employees wants to be pre-
planned by the HR department itself.
CHAPTER-5
Conclusion and Suggestions
CONCLUSIONS

 The employees of RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD


are selected in a step by step procedure, only the best are selected
and the rest are screened out, the usual working hours are 8 to 10
hours a day, depending upon the work load. The work is assigned on
equitable basis. On achieving the targets, monetary incentives and
perks are given.

 No medical camps are held, but medical reimbursement is given.


The employees are satisfied with the working environment; a
friendly environment usually prevails in the organization. The
management maintains both formal and informal relationship with
the employees. There is low participation of employees in the
management decisions. The promotion policy and transfer policy is
favorable to the employees. If an employee is unable to complete the
job he is given constant back up’s.

 The management understands the various reasons for stress and


plans different techniques and implements it to reduce stress and
increase employee moral. The cost incurred on implementing the
work stress management techniques is considered to be cost
effective. RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTIONS PVT LTD considers
work stress as a management process.

 The different techniques are adopted to boost of the moral the


employee and it is achieved. Work stress management is considered
to be profitable to the organization. The employees have job
satisfaction. The techniques adopted are usually preplanned but in
unavoidable cases they are instant. While planning and
implementing the different techniques the opinions of team leaders
are also considered. The work stress management techniques have
also proved to be effective in appraising the employee performance.
The H.R department is Responsible for planning and implementing
work stress management.

 RAJ GRUPS TECHNO SOLUTION PVT LTD the work stress


management is being implemented from the past 3-4 yrs and is
successful in enhancing the employee morale. This can be seen in
the employee performance; the employee avoids absenteeism and is
satisfied with his job. The techniques so implemented have proved to
be positive in nature. The employees are surely benefited from work
stress management. The more the employee morale, the less the
chances of leaving the organization, so this reduces chances of
leaving the organization. Yes, the different techniques adopted boost
up confidence of employee. The quality of performance is not
considered for vertical up graduation. The different techniques used
are innovative plans; they are not based on any set standards. The
employees are satisfied with the remuneration what they are paid.
SUGGESTIONS

 It has recommended to the company that if stress management


techniques are initiative then the average health of the employees will
be better and he will be able to better cope with stress, then by the level
and degree of performance of the employee will improve.
 It is recommended that the company should give one task at a time and
give sufficient time in meeting the targets so that the employee performs
his best without any stress.
 It is recommended that it should focus more in giving stress
management techniques to the age group of 20-29 probably due to
inexperience.
 It is recommended to the company to take appropriate measures in
identifying and arresting the psychological problems, then the health
related problems would also come down. As psychological has a direct
impact on health, the performance of employee will improve.
 It is recommended to the company that it should conduct frequent
health check ups gauges the health level of employees from time to
time. If the health of the employee is fine then it can inferred that the
degree of stress in the organizations less or negligible.
 It is recommended to the company to conduct frequent recreational
programs like get together in departments concerned, parties on
occasions like the birthdays of the employees, on the achievements of
any particular department, cultural activites, sports pleasure trips etc.
 It is recommended to the company that bit should improve interpersonal
relationships among the employees of different departments by bridging
the gap between superiors and subordinates. These can a long way in
reducing the degree stress to some extent.

 It is recommended to the company to initiate a few changes at the


work place such as timely targets, distributed workload, flexible
work hours and periodic relaxation.
 It is recommended to the company to provide frequent counseling to
the employees who are under stress. The counseling should be more
focused on the employees in the age group between 20-29 they
should also not ignore those with 10 plus years of experience as they
are more vulnerable to stress.
 It is recommended to the company to employee job rotation since
doing the same job again and again causes monotony therefore job
rotation can be used as an effective tool to reduce stress by creating
more interest in the work which will lead to better employee
performance.
 It is recommended to the company to instantly recognize any good
wok done by the employees however small it may be. They should
regard then suitably and provide them constant encouragement and
support. This will stand in good stead in the long run in sustaining
the high morale of the employees and also enhancing it future.
 It is recommended that since psychological problem have a direct
impact on health it also affect the interpersonal relationships and the
quality of work performance among the employees. It is therefore
recommended to the company that they try to reduce or eliminate the
psychological problems by engaging or hiring well-trained
psychiatrist.
 It is recommended that the more experienced employee should be
given more work load than the in experienced employee shouldn’t be
burdened with workload but initially they should be given
distributed work and gradually the amount of workload can be
increased with the passage of time as they gain more experience.
 It is recommended that the company should create a balance
between timely targets and distributed workload by allotting a piece
of work to be competed in a

specified time. The time limit be proportionate with the work given i.e.
time limit should be neither too short not too long.

 It is recommended to the company to organize frequent camps or


programs on meditation, yoga, transcendental meditation and stress
management.
 It is recommended to the company that it compulsorily insist on the
employees to mediate for 15 minutes after coming to the office and
before starting their work. They should also similarly mediate for 10-15
minutes after their lunch break and once at the end of the day before
they leave the office. This will help the employees to take the work on
the next day with a fresh mind.
 It is recommended to the company to arrange for a special and separate
room from noise and disturbance and which is quite and peaceful for
meditation purposes.
FINDINGS

 It has been found that 58% of the employees among the total employees
in the organization are undergoing stress and these are officers and asst.
Managers.
 It has been found that the employees in the age group of 20-29 are
facing more health problems than the higher age headache. This is
because the employees of this age are undergoing more stress compare
to higher age group due to factors like work load, meeting targets and
performance anxiety.
 It is observed that though the employees in the age group of 30-39 are
facing stress than the employees in the age group 40-49. Still they are
able to maintain better inter personal relationship with their peers,
subordinates and superiors.
 It has been found that employees in the age group of 30-39 wanted a
few changes at work place to reduce the stress like timely targets,
distributed work load and periodic relaxation because they feel that it is
too concentrated and the time to meet these targets is highly
insufficient.
 It is observed that 95% of the employees are comfortable with the
working environment in which they are working.
 It is observed that the 99% of employees agree that the work stress
management techniques will improve the morale of the employees.

 It has been found that most of the organization has the opinion to take
into consideration the employees while implementing the stress
management techniques taken by the HR dept.
QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

The objective of this study is to identify the existence of


“WORK STRESS” in our Organization. Hence, I kindly request you to
spend a little time in helping me know your views.

Name : Age :
Designation : Education :

1. Since how long have you been working in SAFA FOOD


PRODUCTS PVT LTD?
a) Less than 1 year b) 1-5 years
c) 5-10 years d) More than 10 years

2. Do you think that you are undergoing any stress in your job?
a) Yes b) No

3. If yes, according to you, which of the following do you think


cause stress?
a) Work load b) Work timings
c) Meeting targets d) Ventilation
e) Interpersonal relationship f) Performance anxiety
g) Others_______________________
4. In which of the following areas do you face a problem due to
stress in your job?
a) Health b) Psychological
c) Meeting targets d) Work itself
e) Others________________________

5. Are you comfortable with the working environment in which you


work?
a) Yes b) No

6. Does Stress in the work place have an impact over your basic
performance?
a) Yes b) No

7. Do you get frustrated due to excessive stress in your job?


a) Yes b) No

8. Does stress act you on a daily basis or it is encountered while


meting targets?
a) Daily basis b) Meeting targets c) Some times

9. Is all the stress generated having its origin in the work place or
home place?
a) Work place Yes No
b) Home place Yes No

10.How do you think stress in the work place, which is internal in


nature can be stopped?
a) Flexible work hours b) Distributed work
load
c) Timely targets d) Periodic relaxation
Others________________

11.Do you thin work Stress Management improves the morale of


the employees and employee Good Will?
a) Yes b) No

12.What measures do you suggest in controlling the Stress causing


factors?
(Tick as many)
a) Counseling b)Job rotation
c) Leisure breaks d Informal relationship
e) Sports activities f) Recognizing good work
g) any other specify___________________________

13.If usage of work Stress Management techniques boost up


confidence of the employees?
a) Yes b) No

14.Do you feel using work Stress Management techniques will


improve the working environment?
a) Yes b) No

15.What are the Recreational Activities does your company provide


to the employees to reduce the work stress?
a) Recreational Tours b) Sports Activities
c) Family Tours d) Honoring the hard working people
Others Specify ______________________

16.How often does your company provide Recreational Activities to


reduce the work stress of an employee?
a) Yearly once b) Half-Yearly c) Quarterly

17.Do you think the performance of the employees have enhanced


due to various techniques adopted by the management?
a) Yes b) No

18.How do you want your HR department in implementing work


stress management techniques?
a) Pre-planned b) takes the opinion of the employees

19.Please give your valuable suggestions as to how stress can be


effectively handled in your organization?

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

The objective of this study is to identify the existence of


“Health and Safety” in our Organization. Hence, I kindly request you to
spend a little time in helping me know your views.

Name : Age :
Working area : Education :
1. Since how long have you been working in SAFA FOOD
PRODUCTS PVT LTD?
a) Less than 1 year b) 1-5 years
c) 5-10 years d) More than 10 years

2. If there is a risk of material flying in to your eyes you should wear


a) Tinted welding goggles b) Laser safety goggles
c) Chemical Resistant goggles d) Impact resistant goggles

3. Your employer must supply you with proctective personal


Equipment
a) Twice a year b) If you pay for it
c) If it is in Contract d) If you need to be protected

4. When digging you hit a damaged buried cable what should you
do?
a) Move the cable out of way and start digging
b) wait for 10 sec and start digging
c) Stop the work and inform to supervisor d) none of the
above

5. Occupational asthma can stop you working against with some


substances it is caused by?
a) Exposure to loud noise b) Exposure to
rat urine
c) contact with hazardous substances d) breathing hazardous dust,
fume, vapours
6. Who is responsible in maintaining health and safety in the
Company?
a) Client b) health and safety officer c) Supervisor d) none

7. Ladder should not be painted because?


a) paint will make slippery b) paint may hide damaged parts

c) paint may cause damage to ladder d) it will need regular


repainting

8. While lifting the heavy loads which part of the body is likely to
be injured?
a) Knees b) back c) shoulders d) elbow

9. To lift a load safely you need to think about?


a) Size and shape b) how to grip and hold firmly
c) its weight d) all of the above

10. While handling hazardous chemical you must use?


a) Goggles b) Safety pins c) Hand Gloves
d) Gumshoes
CHAPTER - VII
Bibliography