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The Vitoria immersed tunnel southwest link

João Renato R. Prandina

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

The growth of the cities is followed by demands for new urban infrastructures which are responsible to allow its
sustainable economic growth and ensure quality of life. The road network is remarkable as one of the main
infrastructures which assures mobility for the citizens and modes of transportation. Vitória is the capital city of Espírito
Santo (ES), one of the most important states in Brazil considering its harbor areas. Alone, it exports more than 60% of
the iron ore, more than 75% of the ornamental stone exported of the country, and it has become the second in petroleum
production, with an average of 355,000 barrels per day (Petrobras, 2015), having only 3.9 of the 202 million Brazilian
inhabitants. This intense economic scenario leads to a much greater GDP than the national average. Vitória is an island,
densely populated (very small area), and has been demanding new road connections for its neighbor cities: Vila Velha
and Cariacica, both part of the conurbation of its grater urban area. For the so called fourth connection between Vitória
and Cariacica, the local government disclosed a conceptual bridge project, 36 m wide and 1,4 km length. However,
neither ES nor Vitória have a great tradition in tunnel construction for road infrastructure. Kneib & Prandina (2004)
presented an immersed tunnel proposal between Vitória and Vila Velha and Prandina (2014) presented his conceptual
tunnel solutions for the improvements of the Vitória’s local road network. This paper presents a new and an alternative
proposal for the Vitória and Cariacica link under the Vitória Bay channel adopting the immersed tunnel solution. Many
factors indicate that the tunnel is the best solution: there is ship traffic which leads to a high bridge with long spans,
foundation of the bridge is a major problem due a thick soft ground (more than 40 m) and others. In opposite, the shallow
channel is favorable for the immersed tunnel, which will not apply additional high stresses on the ground. Moreover, the
advantages of the tunnel over the bridge solution rely on the neglected aesthetic and acoustic environmental impact. The
cost of the construction of each solution, considering the same road ways are assessed with respect the international
and the local costs of each one. The life cycle cost of the tunnel is projected and a tow is estimated as possible finance
response to enable its construction.


Vitória is an island with an equivalent diameter of 13 km.

It is the capital city of the state of Espírito Santo, with
355,000 inhab. It is the economic core of the Greater
Vitória Area (GVA), surrounded by other 4 municipalities
(Figure 1): Vila Velha, Cariacica, Serra, and Viana. The
total population of the GVA is 1.5 million inhab. The
number of people that comes to Vitória and leaves the
island through its road connections reaches 227.000
people every day (IBGE,2015).
Alone, the state of Espírito Santo exports more than
60% of the iron ore, more than 75% of the ornamental
stone exported of the country, and it has become the
second in petroleum production, with an average of
355,000 barrels per day (Petrobras, 2015), having only
3.9 of the 202 million Brazilian inhabitants. The PIB per
capita of Espírito Santo is the 5 of the Brazilian states,
13% above the overall average, and Vitória holds a 142%
greater GDP per capita compared to the same number.
Despite these good economic numbers, the road
infrastructure of the GVA can be considered frozen since
the 80’s, when the last major bridge was open in 1989. Figure 1. The 5 municipalities of GVA (apud PDTU, 2007)
All the arterial and express ways can be considered Vila Velha. The 6 link, the Vitória-Vila Velha Tunnel is
saturated, with the level of traffic of the road connections already designed at its 60% design phase. Two solutions
between D, E and F in almost the total business hours. have been discussed: a 1.9 km NATM tunnel and a 1.1
Any major connection, bridge or tunnel, took place in the km immersed tunnel (Figure 4). It was also called a 4
last 30 years to increase its road network. Considering the Link, however, between Vitória and Vila Velha.
1.1 The Fourth Link of Vitória

Vitória and Vila Velha have 3 road links adopting bridges

for road connection which have to different characteristics
regarding maritime traffic. The Darcy Castelo Branco
Bridge, the so-called 3 Bridge (Figure 2), has the highest
clearance, reaching 70 meters.
Because Vitória is an island, its road connections
between the continents over the Vitória Bay channel
(VBC) can be called as links.

Immersed Tunnel

Figure 2. The 3 Bridge of Vitória with 70 m clearance
and the VBC entrance (apud UVV, 2016)
The Florentino Avidos Bridge (1 Bridge, 1928) and
the Prince’s Bridge (2 Bridge, 1978) were not designed
considering the maritime traffic natural capacities and the
VBC draught. The clearances in these two bridges does
not surpass 20 meters.


Figure 4. The 4 Link between Vitória and Vila Velha
proposal in immersed tunnel (modified Kneib, 2001).

In the city of Vitória, the project uses the available

binary of João Santos (red line) and Paulino Muller (blue
line) avenues to feed the immersed tunnel. The cross
section of the immersed tunnels (Figure 5) offers lanes for
Figure 3. The 1 Bridge of Vitória and the VBC (apud road traffic, dedicated lane for BRT and in its central area,
Vitória Port Authority, 2016) a chamber for LRT or a Metro line. This chamber also
plays a first row of safety in case of fire or emergency
Vitória and Vila Velha can be connected by an inside the tunnel as an alternative route of escape. The
immersed tunnel or a conventional tunnel (Prandina, maximum ramps of the tunnel solutions were limited to
2014), already designed. These solutions have coincident 3%, matching the minimum band of the maximum values
main axis and adopt the same arterial routes in the city of suggested by FHWA (2004).
1.2 The Ports of Vitória

The state of Espírito Santo has 7 ports listed by the state

government officially. But the number of terminals
operated by private and public companies surpass 13,

32.0 only in the Vitória Bay. Small private terminals are
Figure 5. Conceptual cross section of the Fourth Link operating under the regulations of the Vitória Port
(modified Kneib & Prandina, 2004). Authority - VPA (APV, in Portuguese) such as Pirelli,
Oiltanking and Technip. The little state is responsible for
The state of Espírito Santo developed a conceptual more than 9% of the Brazilian revenue with exportation
design (SETOP, 2010) proposing a land reclamation and throughout its ports, and 5% of the Brazilian imports.
an incorporation of the “Ilha da Fumaça”, an small island More than 45% of the state GDP flows through its ports.
of the costal line of Vitória, to spread an arterial system of
the Nossa Senhora dos Navegantes avenue. This system
will feed with traffic a conventional NATM tunnel to be
built through an extrusive fractured rock massif, more
than 50 m deep in the channel.
The conventional tunnel solution adopts a very close
axis to the first one presented, and some common
aspects to the first tunnel conceived, such as the same
arterials system in Vila Velha. The land reclamation is
used for the road network to give access to the tunnel in
the side of Vitória (Figure 6). The land reclamation
suggested by Kneib (2001) was to develop a city park for
contemplation of the water front of the VBC.
The Espírito Santo project do not adopt the João
Santos and Paulino Muller avenues as part of the tunnel Figure 7. Private and public terminals of the VPA (VPA,
feeding main system, keeping it for local traffic. This 2016).
solution only offers two lanes inside the road tunnel and
does not consider the link for the BRT network, according Vitória has along its bay different major berths, and at
to SETOP (2010). The gradients of this tunnel were not least 8 small private operational terminals, all under the
limited to the international suggested level of 3-4%, jurisdiction of the Vitória Port authority. There are 13
surpassing the double of this number, reaching 6.02% in berths, distributed in both sides of the VBC (SEP/PR,
the whole stretch of the Vitória side. 2015), totalizing 2,700 meters of space for ship

Figure 8. Land reclamation of an Oil & Gas industry

supplier private terminal at Vitória Bay (VPA, 2016)

The different purposes of each berth bring different

ranges of draughts for operations, from 2.9 to 11.2
meters. Recent expansion in construction of the Vitória
Port infrastructure will increase the maximum draught to
Binary of Paulino Muller
12.5 meters.
Figure 6. Land reclamation to accommodate the road
1.3 The Aquatic Transit
access of the NATM tunnel (DER, 2010)
The GVA has been planning the reactivation of its aquatic due different possibilities, such as 2 or 3 speculated
transit public transportation with 4 stations/berths tunnels (PDTU, 1998, 2007) through the Central Massif of
planned (Espírito Santo, 2016) in the Vitória Bay East the island, the 8 Link becomes a very suitable solution.
channel. However, there are enough density to comprise The Figure 10 shows the design of the bridge, a 2.1
all the coastal line of the island and its vicinity cities with km concrete deck between the main edges. The smallest
this mode system. The estimated number of trips between off-shore distance between two points located on-shore
th th
Vitória, Vila Velha and Cariacica can be said as 160 for 4 under the projection of the 8 Link or the so-called 4
stations, considering intervals of 30 minutes. Currently, Bridge design on the Cariacica side and on the onshore
the plan does not include the West region of the VBC side of Vitória is 610 m. However, the main bridge deck
beyond the 1 Bridge. extends over 2.1 km, because the bridge flies more than
The road traffic of GVA and especially the bridges 1,000 meters over the onshore platform in the side of
have been facing more than 4 hours per day of Cariacica as a viaduct. The bridge is fed by Florentino
congestions. The average time spent in traffic of the Avidos Avenue, ES-080 in Cariacica side. In the side of
home-work path is 53 min to 76 min (Viana, 2015) Vitória, fed by Dário Lourenço de Souza Avenue and
showing an average loss of 23 min per day. The Aquatic Serafim Derenzi.
Transit may reduce the pendulous individual vehicle trips
by 10%, combined with other individual modes, such as
bicycle and walking.

1.4 Maritime Traffic in the Vitoria Bay

The traffic of vessels through the VBC is used by small

fish boats to Handymax (Handy). At least 16 different
types of vessels crosses all the length navigable channel
every day. The restriction imposed in by a project of the
1920 has reduced the natural talent of the region for port
operation at least in its half.

Figure 10. The 4 Bridge Project between Vitória and
Cariacica over the VBC (DER, 2014).

The Vitória and Cariacica link project, the so-called

fourth bride, has its environmental impacts reported
issued by DER-ES (2014). It is highlighted in the Figure
11 the described road network to feed the bridge in its
both sides, which is considered the projection of the direct
environmental impact on the physics medium.

st nd
Figure 9. The 1 and the 2 Bridges of Vitória and Vila
Velha and the VBC (apud Vitória Port Authority, 2016).
Due the possible available technical solutions, the 1
and 2 Bridge should be object of a feasibility study to
study a life cycle cost analysis to assess the potential for
the local economy if the VBC could be totally used in its
length for port operations. Therefore, the bridge might be
updated for a better technological solution. Figure 11. Direct and indirect environmental impact area
on of the 4 bridge design according to DER-ES (2014).


The 4 Bridge of Vitória to connect Cariacica is a solution
to offer a road system integration to the southwest of the To connect the southwest network of Vitória and
Vitória island and the Northeast of Cariacica, connecting th
Cariacica by a tunnel, in the same region of the 4 Bridge,
the traffic to the new arterial road system ES-080. an immersed tunnel takes advantage of the same routes
Actually, it is the 8 link project designed for the capital, already proposed by DER-ES (2014). It connects Vitória
which will connect the island with Cariacica. Additionally, and Cariacica through an onshore distance of 373 meters,
adopting an immersed tunnel as the solution for the
subaquatic link of just 533 meters. It reduces a couple of
kilometers of bridge construction works over the sea bed
in Vitória and over residential areas in Cariacica, avoiding
major expropriation of home and land owners.

3.1. Immersed Tunnel Projects

There are several immersed tunnels built around the

world (Figure 12), in all continents. Immersed tunnels can Figure 13. Cable-stayed bridge proposed in 2009 (apud
be considered the best solution for short subaquatic CREA-SP, 2016).
crossings in dense urban areas, especially when maritime
or fluvial traffic is an important factor. For a projected traffic of 20,000 vehicles per day in
each way in the beginning of the operations, 3% of traffic
increasing per year, it would be an extra consumption of
47 million liters of gasoline in 25 years (1/4 of the life
cycle of the project), meaning 170,000 tons of equivalent
CO2 launched in the atmosphere, considering the rates of
the Brazilian gasoline, which is mixed with 23% of Ethanol
of sugar cane (Soares et al., 2009).

Figure 12. Immersed tunnel projects (Tribune, 1999).

Considering the geometry aspect of a road link, when

a channel is demanded for maritime traffic, immersed Figure 14. Length of the immersed tunnel, excavated
tunnels usually take advantage of the shorter arch tunnel and bridge for Santos-Guarujá link (DERSA-SP,
distance between the onshore edges which the link is 2013).
connecting. Depending of the geological conditions of the
rock bed, soft soil layers and minimum height, this Considering links and short distances around 1 km, a new
advantage alone will determine the immersed tunnel as approach has been adopted: different modes of
the solution with the lowest initial cost. transportation inside the immersed tubes. In the case of
Therefore, for sea road crossings in urban areas, the Santos-Guarujá project, it comprises a cycle lane and
there is no reasonable explanation when a feasibility a dedicated BRT lane.
study comparing solutions for a road link does not include
immersed tunnel solutions, because generally the public
interest for lower construction cost, lower life cycle cost
and efficiency are predominant parameters in the majority
of the countries for decision-making.

3.2. São Paulo Replaces Bridge by Immersed Tunnel

A list of advantages can be stated replacing the bridge

solution proposed in 2009 (Figure 13) by the immersed
tunnel of DERSA-SP (2013), which cross section is
shown in Figure xx. The construction contract of the
bridge solution was about to be bid, when a private study
demonstrated that the immersed tunnel would be the
most efficient solution for the road link.
According to Dersa-SP (2013), an immersed tunnel
could play the same role of the cable-stayed bridge with a Figure 15. The Santos-Guarujá cross section (from TJ,
total length of 1,700 m, when this bridge would need 2 km 2016).
more, totalizing 3,700 since the beginning of the ramps.
An excavated tunnel would demand 2,900 m, roughly 3.3. Geometry of the Vitória Bay Channel
70% greater in distance.
The Vitória Bay channel (VBC) has been well studied. It’s
depth is allowing Handymax ships up to the Florentino
Avidos Bridge. Silva (2010) updated the bathymetry of the
channel using na ecobathymeter multibundle, EM 1000 Actually, hundreds of boreholes from projects along the
Kongsberg Simrad, capable to deliver high resolution VBC are available and the there is a predominance of
outputs with 95 kHz, which can operate in deep water slightly consolidated sandy-silts and silty marine clays.
inside ranges of 3 to 1000 meters. The bathymetry is The rock bed is usually deeper than 30 meter. Ii rarely
matching the previous study of Veronez Jr. et al (2009), occur in depths smaller than 20 meters. Referring to the
which is shown in Figure 16a. In Figure 16b, it can be basic geotechnical investigations conducted for the
seen 3 profiles of the bottom of the channel referred in the design of the 4 Bridge, a total of 18 boreholes were
Figure 16a, as the elevations 1, 2 and 3. performed, as located in the Figure 17, labeled SP
(Standard Penetration Test, in Portuguese) and the basic
summary of geotechnical information of the alignments 4
and 5 profiles are shown in the Figure 18.

Figure 17. The 18 boreholes (apud DER-ES, 2014)

There is an occurrence of the bed rock on the surface,

close to SP 16 which shows an exception for the rule of
Figure 16a. VBC bathymetry (Veronez Jr. et al, 2009) the bed rock in the VBC. The geotechnical conditions will
govern the project and will determine the foundations,
In the Figure 16b, the lowest level of 12 m has been estimated as direct for this solution. In immersed tunnels,
reached in the bottom of the sea. It is important to register the dead weight of the concrete segment should have a
that the operation and maintenance work keep this level perfect balance to avoid incremental stresses surpassing
as the minimum, once the ship draught operations the over consolidation ratio (OCR).

Depth (m)

Horizontal Distance (m)

Figure 16b. Depth of the channel (Veronez Jr. et al, 2009)

In this paper, the Vitória and Cariacica side is defined by

the bottom line of the seabed.
Rock bed Embankments
3.4. The Geotechnical Investigations Sediments (soft ground) Sea water

The geotechnical conditions at the axis of the tunnel have Figure 18. Profile of the boreholes in different alignments
been considered similar to the one close to the bridges.
3.5. The Design Proposal of the Tunnel

The immersed tunnel proposal has basically 3 different

cross sections: i) the East tunnel / approach in Vitória; ii)
the West tunnel / approach in Vitória; iii) the total
subaquatic crossing up to the Cariacica side.
The project comprises a cycle lane from the East side
of the Dario Lourenço de Souza Avenue. It means that a
cyclist in Vitória can cross to the Cariacica side using the
immersed tunnel. The East approach comprises 2 lane for
each side and adapts smoothly to the current design of
the road way. The cross section of the East tunnel can be
seen in Figure 19. The dimensions are in metric units.
Figure 21. Vitória-Cariacica Link adopting 2 different
gradients: 3% on the tunnel lining and 6% on the


1.0 3.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 8.0 1.0


Figure 19. Cross section of the individual element East

tunnel in Vitória. Figure 22. Vitória-Cariacica Link adopting a constant
gradient of 3% on the approaches and tunnel lining.
In the West side of the Dario Lourenço de Souza
Avenue, the project comprises a dedicated lane for BRT, The same tunnel and approaches is shown in Figure
as well as 2 lanes for the traffic of individual vehicles, 23 with a constant gradients of 3% on approach ramps
matching the solution of the 4 Bridge. . It means that a and in the tunnel liner. In this case, the total length has a
cyclist in Vitória can cross to the Cariacica side using the lump sum of 1,133.85 m.
immersed tunnel. The West approach comprises 2 lane
for each side and also adapts smoothly to the current
design of the road way. The cross section of the West
tunnel can be seen in Figure 20. The dimensions are in
metric units.


1.0 0.5 3.5 3.5 0.5


Figure 20. Cross section of the individual element of the

West tunnel in Vitória Figure 23. Location of the Vitória-Cariacica Link adopting
a constant gradient of 3% on the approaches and tunnel
The Est tunnel in the Vitória side starts with an lining.
approach in cut-and-cover solution, as show Figure 21.
The traffic coming from the regular system that feeds the The elevation of the Vitória side is shown in Figure 24
st nd
1 and 2 bridges can use the tunnel as an alternative for with a constant gradients of 3% on approach ramps and
their destiny. in the tunnel liner. In this case, the total length has a lump
The West tunnel receives the traffic volume of Dario sum of 1,133.85 m.
Lourenço de Souza Avenue and both segments meets
towards Cariacica, crossing the VBC with a total of 4
lanes for general traffic and 1 dedicated lane for BRT,
which can be converted in a rail lane for LRT or a Metro.
The elevation of the Est tunnel is show Figure 22. The
elevation shows the Cariacica side, considering the 2
different elevations, 3 for the tunnel liner and 6% for the Figure 24. Elevation Vitória-Cariacica Link adopting a
approaches, totalizing 833,71 m of road way for a vehicle constant gradient of 3% on the approaches and tunnel
to cross the VBC. lining.
Both solutions, the one with different gradients and the Table 1. Objective and Subjective parameter of the
one with constant, can be adopted and a feasibility study engineering solutions for the 8 Link Project.
would determine with the necessary level of accuracy Immersed
which one should be adopted. Aspects of the Engineering Solution 4th Bridge
For the traffic coming from Dario Lourenço de Souza
which will not cross to Cariacica, but flowing to Vitória Total lenght of the crossing
1 533 m 2100 m
East, an internal route through Santo Antônio or a viaduct (excluding ramps)
cab be adopted to cross the approaches of the tunnel with 2 Onshore distance 0 1000 m
relatively small clearance conspiring the ground level. 5 Fuel consumption savings 1 6
614x10 L
6 Ship heigh limitation None 20 m
3.6. Pros and Cons of the Tunnel Vitória-Cariacica
7 Aestetic impact Minor Major
A list of advantages, objective and subjective, can be 8 Length of Max ramps 300 m 1200 m
th 10 Sediment/current impact Minor Major
stated replacing the 4 Bridge proposed by DER-ES
(2014) by the proposal of an immersed tunnel solution. In 11 Complementary acess works Medium Major
the Table 1, the aspects of the engineering solutions are 12 Schedule predicted by 36 months 36 months
listed side by side. Even though there area subjective 13 Practiced Schedule NA 120 motnhs
parameters, their qualification is very intuitive. Impact on the expansion of
14 Null Major
the port
3.7. Approaches of the Immersed Tunnel
15 Absorb traffic of the 1st Yes No
The accesses of the immersed tunnel can adopt in each Impacts on the historic sites
16 Minor Menium
side ramps between 3% or, considering small distances and features of the old city
such as 150 m, an exceptional stretch of 6%. For ramps Risks of discovery of buried
of 3%, the distance of each side reaches 300 m, and for 17 Minor Medium
ramps of 6%, the distance falls to 150 m. The accesses of
immersed tunnels are used constructed with the cut-and- Impacts from increased
cover method. The cut-and-cover solution is facilitated by 18 traffic on noise and air Medium Major
the possibility of adopting horizontal supports close to the quality;
tunnel portal to avoid anchors in the soft soil. Disturbance during
The road access to the tunnel in the side of Cariacica 19 Medium Major
will be performed primarily by the Vale do Rio Doce
Avenue (Figure 25), a costal road which will distribute the 20 Construction pollution Medium Major
traffic volume to the Florentino Avidos Avenue, the same 21 Construction transport Medium Major
one adopted by the 4 Bridge project. The Vale do Rio 22 Involuntary resettlement Medium Major
Doce Avenue allows minor land reclamation to conform Management of the
the different sides of the tunnel, which comes from the 23 construction workforce and Regular Regular
East of and West side of Vitória from the Dario Lourenço worker health and
de Souza Avenue.
24 Safety Major Major
3.8. Construction Costs of the Tunnel and Accesses Management of accidents
25 Especial Especial
and emergencies.
One of the major advantages of the immersed tunnel
construction cost is that 80 to 90% of them are spent on There are some areas along the West side of the
local business. The immersed tube itself and the VBC, therefore, the tunnel can be constructed all in the
approaches are reinforced concrete cast-in-place works. local site.
The basic activities for this immersed tunnel project are Therefore, the costs can be considered related to
(adapted from RHDHV/TEC, 2015): these phases. The construction cost of the reinforced
concrete structure of the elements of the tunnel (blocks)
 Build a dry dock; and the reinforced concrete structure of the approaches
 Build the approaches in cut-and-cover; are estimated in R$ 240 million (Brazilian currency) and
 Casting of the blocks in dry docks; U$ 72 million (rate R$/U$ of 3,30, June/2016). The total
 Transport of the blocks in to the site; length of pavement is 1,133.85 m and the 2-lane
 Preparation of bed and dredging; equivalent length of the solution is 2.08 km.
 Immersing of the blocks; th
The cost of the 4 Bridge project, its approaches and
 Joining of the blocks; other related costs were released in October/2014 and
 Finishing and foundation; they are estimated in R$ 1.28 Billion ( Brazilian currency),
equivalent to U$ 510 million (rate 2.5 on Oct/2014). The
There are some areas along the West side of the structure listed over concrete deck has a lump sum of
VBC, therefore, the tunnel can be constructed all in the 3.02 km, 2-lane equivalent to 7.2 km.
local site.
Vitória is a city demanding road infrastructure.
Considering this tunnel proposal, the city has a stock pile
of projects waiting for funding. The traditional PPP might
be a way to run the wheel of the economy and certainly
will improve road traffic. The conceptual design of the
southwest link in immersed tunnel has shown advantages
which suggests that an accurate feasibility study would
have positive results comparing to the 4 Bridge project of
DER-ES (2010) and could even achieve smaller initial
cost of construction.

Figure 25. Costal road as access to feed the tunnel 5 FUTURE RESEARCH AND SUGGESTIONS
towards the Cariacica arterial systems (modified DER-ES,
2014). As consequence of the proposal, the following studies
should be considered:
3.9. Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Public Interest
 A feasibility study to determine the real number in terms
The initial cost of an engineering solution for infrastructure of user’s fuel economy considering a O/D research
is usually the unique criterion for decision-makers when it between this immersed tunnel proposal and the 4
comes to infrastructure investment. The initial cost of Bridge;
construction, cash disbursement to pay expropriation  A feasibility study to determine the best gradients of the
costs to allow road expansions and other consequent tunnel for the interchanges;
complementary costs form usually the total cost of a
solution. In the case of a tunnel, the life cycle cost is
st nd
important to be compared to other solutions. Figure 26 5.1. Replacing 1 and 2 Bridges
shows a proposed top-down view of a Work-Break-Down-
Structure (WBS). The tunnel project as proposed has the ability to absorb
However, the positive and negative economic 100% of the traffic volume of the Vutória 1 Bridge,
consequences of a infrastructure solution should be Florentino Avidos. This bridge is the obstacle for the port
evaluated and the benefits and negative economic and harbor area business in the West side of Vitória and
impacts should join the sides of a scale for objective in the Northeast of Cariacica costal line. A feasibility
decision-making. study, including a Life Cycle Cost Analysis and
Environmental Impact Assessment could show the
st nd
benefits of the replacement of the 1 and 2 bridge for
immersed tunnel solutions to allow development and
growth of the economic activities of the Vitória Port. The
port and logistics are a natural expertise of Espírito Santo
and should be improved for sustainable growth.

5.2. Automatic Toll Systems for Road Infrastructures

To enable this type of infrastructure investment, Brazil

should evolve the toll systems through a federal law to
Figure 26. Hierarchy structure of a tunnel project (from give juridical stability for future investments. Toll fees are
Thewes et al., 2015) a fair way to share the benefits and costs of a new
infrastructure such as a bridge or a tunnel, or a new
A bridge has also especial costs of operation, expanded road, with its users and it’s the best tool to
equipment, and overall, maintenance, replacement and balance the tax payers money.
reconstruction costs (MRRC) of several elements. There
are cases of bridges running retrofits without expansion of Open Road Tolling (Barbosa, 2013) for is a viable solution
capacities costing more than 75% of the initial cost. for dense urban areas, especially for everyday users. For
Therefore, there is enough state-of-the-practice data non-regular users, an electronic system may charge the
to allow an accurate life cycle cost analysis of any vehicles individually by any means. This technique may
engineering solution such as bridge and tunnels. In case allow a great benefit for the population because the toll
of private-public-partnerships (PPP), the a baseline report may be a significant part to fund the investment.
should be part of the agreement, because any concession
should consider the current and potential economic
benefits and risks for large scale and long term contracts. AKNOWLEDGEMNET

4 CONCLUSIONS This paper was produced inside the Ph.D. program of the
University of Ottawa. The Ph.D. study of the author is
being financed by the Capes, a Brazilian agency of the Petrobras. 2015. The oil extraction in Espírito Santo.
Ministry of Education, founded in 1957, which for decades Petroleo Brasileiro S/A – Petrobrás.
has been supporting thousands of Brazilian students
across the world in full and sandwich doctorate programs. operacoes/bacias/bacia-do-espirito-santo.htm [accessed in
Also in the Brazil, an acknowledgement to Mr. Adriano 05 , 2016] (in Portuguese).
dos Santos Alves for sharing data of costs and other Prandina, J.R.R. 2014. Disclosure of technical solutions of
strategic ones and Mr. João Prandina. An especial tunnels by the press as the decisive factor for the
acknowledgment to the supervisor of the author, Dr. insertion of underground works in feasibility studies of
Mamadou Fall and his co-supervisor, Dr. Julio Angel road connections for Vitória, ES. Proc. of the World
Infante Sedano for their support. Tunnel Congress 2014 – Tunnels for a better Life. Foz
do Iguaçu, Brazil.
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