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Diffusion is too slow to move substances round the larger bodies of multicellular organisms. They have a circulatory system: substances are carried in blood pumped by a heart. In a closed circulatory system (eg in vertebrates) blood is enclosed in narrow blood vessels. This increases efficiency: blood travels faster as a higher pressure is generated. Valves ensure blood flows in one direction:
Fish have a single circulation: heart pumps blood to gills for gas exchange, then to tissues and back to the heart. Birds and mammals have a double circulation: right ventricle pumps blood to lungs. Blood returns to the left atrium and then the left ventricle pumps it to the rest of the body. Blood travels round the body faster, delivering nutrients faster, so the animals have a higher metabolic rate.
1.1.2 Arteries and veins contain collagen: a tough, fibrous protein to make them tough and durable. The artery wall stretches as blood is pumped in and then recoils as the heart relaxes. Blood flow is continual and there is a pulse. Contracting muscles and low pressure in the chest when breathing in assist blood flow in veins. Valves prevent backflow. There is no pulse and pressure is low. See diagrams and photomicrographs: Figure 1.10 on page 8 of the textbook.
Arteries narrow lumen thicker walls more collagen, elastic fibres and smooth muscle no valves 1.1.3 wide lumen thinner walls
less collagen, elastic fibres and smooth muscle valves
Figure 1.9 on page 8 of the textbook: make sure you know the structure of the heart. The chambers of the heart (atria and ventricles) fill with blood when they relax (diastole) and pump blood out when they contract (systole). The cardiac muscle making up the atria and ventricles is supplied with blood by the coronary arteries.
PHASE OF CARDIAC CYCLE DETAIL
Pressure in the atria increases as they fill with blood returning from the veins. Increased pressure opens the atrioventricular valves allowing blood to enter the ventricles. The atria contract to force remaining blood into ventricles.
Ventricles contract from the base up, increasing the pressure and closing the atrioventricular valves. The semilunar valves open and blood is forced into the arteries.
As the atria and ventricles relax, pressure falls. In the ventricle, this causes closure of the semilunar valves. In the atria blood is drawn into the heart from the veins.
1.1.4 Atherosclerosis: a disease process where fatty deposits block an artery or increase its chances of being blocked by a blood clot (thrombosis) How atherosclerosis (‘hardening’ of the arteries) occurs:
Lining (endothelial) cells damaged eg by high blood pressure or cigarette smoke toxins.
Inflammation occurs – white blood cells move into the artery wall. They accumulate cholesterol. A deposit (atheroma) builds up.
Blood pressure increases in narrowed artery. Positive feedback causes more damage to endothelial cells.
Calcium salts and fibrous tissue build up in the atheroma, now called a plaque. Artery is less elastic – it has ‘hardened’.
In the arteries supplying the heart, this causes a heart attack (myocardial infarction). In the arteries supplying the brain, it causes a stroke. An infarction is when tissue dies due to a lack of oxygen. This is usually the result of a lack of blood – ischaemia.
1.1.5 Blood clots when it flows very slowly, or when blood vessel walls are damaged. A blood clot consists of cells trapped in a mesh of insoluble fibrin protein. When platelets come into contact with the vessel wall, they become ‘spiky’ – they stick to each other and the collagen in the wall: a platelet plug is formed. See Figure 1.14 on page 13 and make sure you understand the roles of thromboplastin, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen and fibrin in the blood clotting process. 1.1.6
Symptoms of cardiovascular disease:
Coronary heart disease Early symptoms shortness of breath angina – chest pain on exertion irregular heartbeat no symptoms, but changes on ECG crushing pain in chest which may spread around the body eg into arms or back indigestion-type pain with dizziness no detectable symptoms
Stroke Full stroke numbness or paralysis on opposite side of body (slurred speech, dribbling mouth, drooping eyelid or mouth) dizziness, blurred or loss of vision confusion same as for full stroke, but only temporary
Mini-stroke (transient ischaemic attack)
reducing the damaging effects of free radicals high salt levels cause the kidneys to retain water. contributes to obesity and causes irregular heartbeat. increasing blood pressure AGE More likely as you get older. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SMOKING carbon monoxide prevents haemoglobin from carrying sufficient O2 – heart rate increases nicotine stimulates adrenaline release. Moderate amounts of alcohol may increase HDL levels. ALCOHOL Heavy drinkers have an increased risk of CHD as alcohol raises blood pressure. 5 . but risk is increased if your parents have CVD. increasing heart rate and blood pressure chemicals damage endothelium triggering atherosclerosis decreased levels of HDLs INACTIVITY most common risk factor exercise can halve the risk of developing CHD reduces blood pressure STRESS Leads to increased blood pressure. It also increases levels of LDLs. DIET some vitamins act as antioxidants. GENDER Incidence is much higher for men than women.The following factors increase a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease: GENETIC This is not straightforward. poor diet and increased alcohol consumption.
Any factor which causes arteries or arterioles to constrict will lead to high blood pressure or hypertension. Both are measured. the blood pressure forces tissue fluid (water + small molecules dissolved in it) out through the capillary wall. The fluid accumulates in the tissues causing oedema. Pressure is at its lowest in the arteries when the ventricles relax: diastolic blood pressure. Hypertension causes more fluid to be forced out. in mmHg eg 120/80. 20% of the tissue fluid returns to the circulation via the lymph system. High blood pressure caused by atherosclerosis leads to a worsening of the condition! Tissue fluid At the arterial end of a capillary.7 Blood pressure is a measure of the hydrostatic force of the blood on the walls of a blood vessel. Systolic blood pressure is highest and occurs when the ventricles contract.1. These include: loss of elasticity with age atherosclerosis adrenaline high salt diet. blood pressure is lower and fluid is no longer forced out.1. using a sphygmomanometer. At the venous end. 6 . It is higher in arteries and capillaries than in veins. As the blood is more concentrated here (because of water loss and the presence of plasma proteins) fluid moves back in by osmosis.
depolarisation of the ventricles causing ventricular systole repolarisation of the ventricles leading to ventricular diastole 1.See Figure 1. Not all individuals are at risk to the same degree. which can be used to diagnose cardiovascular disease.1.9 Risk is the probability of occurrence of some unwanted event or outcome. This spreads from cell to cell (like a wave) causing them to contract. A time period is always quoted eg children in a class having a 1 in 5 (0. This is measured in an electrocardiogram or ECG. It then travels down the Bundle of His in the septum and into the Purkyne fibres which then make the ventricles contract from the bottom upwards pushing blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.30 on page 28 for an explanation of how tissue fluid is formed. 1.1. P wave PR interval QRS complex T wave depolarisation of the atria causing atrial systole time taken for impulses to travel from SAN. The atria are electrically insulated from the ventricles so the wave of depolarisation converges on the atrioventricular node (AVN). through AVN to ventricles. 7 . Depolarisation starts in the sinoatrial node or SAN (pacemaker) in the right atrium and spreads across the left and right atria causing them to contract.2 or 20%) risk of catching head lice in a year.8 Cardiac muscle contracts without being stimulated by a nerve impulse. When the cells are depolarised. problems with the conducting system or irregular heartbeat rhythms (arrhythmias). The electrical charge in the heart muscle cells changes – depolarisation. there is a small electrical current detectable on the skin.
dreaded. heavier or more active. BMR is higher in males and people who are younger. They overestimate the risk of something happening if the risk is not under their control.Risk factors increase the chance of the harmful outcome. 8 .1. The basal metabolic rate is the energy required to maintain life processes and varies between individuals.10 People’s behaviour is affected by the perception of risk. lipids and alcohol all contain energy: used to be measured in calories. The Department of Health issues Dietary Reference Values to encourage balanced & healthy diets and to indicate the amount of energy which should be derived from different foods. 1. A positive correlation does not necessarily mean that the two are causally linked! 1.11 Carbohydrates.1. the SI unit is the Joule. When data is lacking to estimate the risk. unfamiliar. Average person requires 8000-10000 kiloJoules per day. There is a tendency to underestimate the risk if it has an effect in the long-term future eg health risks associated with smoking. unfair or very small. proteins. the outcome is uncertain. Factors that contribute to health risks include: heredity physical environment social environment lifestyle and behaviour choices Two factors are positively correlated if an increase in one is accompanied by an increase in the other eg the number of people suffering sunburn and the amount of ice cream sold. unnatural.
12 Carbohydrates are a large family of compounds with the general formula Cx(H20)n monosaccharides (monomers) single sugar units α glucose fructose galactose used in respiration found in fruit & honey found in lactose (all the above are hexose sugars: C6H12O6) 2 single sugar units combined maltose (2 α glucose molecules) sucrose (glucose and fructose) lactose (glucose and galactose) oligosaccharides 3-10 sugar units found in germinating seeds eg barley crystals used in cooking sugar found in milk disaccharides found in vegetables eg leeks.1. glycogen branched stored in animals and bacteria Cellulose is also a polysaccharide – long chains of a slightly different form of glucose. 1. 9 . lentils.Eating fewer kilojoules than you use results in weight loss. beans polysaccharides (polymers) long chains of glucose molecules starch 25% amylose (unbranched & spiral) 75% amylopectin (branched) starch is found stored in plants: compact and insoluble with little osmotic effect. Eating more kilojoules than you use results in a gain in weight.
If one of the fatty acids in a triglyceride is replaced with a phosphate group. fatty acid fatty acid fatty acid Saturated fatty acids contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and no carbon-carbon double bonds. Monounsaturated fats contain 1 double bond eg in olive oil. 10 .13 When monosaccharides join together.1. hydrogen and oxygen. 1. They provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates and supply the body with essential fatty acids. they are linked by a glycosidic bond. Water is required for the reaction to take place. 1. Ester bonds are formed. Polyunsaturated fats contain a larger number of double bonds eg vegetable and fish oils. Found in animal fats and dairy products. maltose. a phospholipid is formed.Make sure you can recognise the structural formulae for glucose.1. Glycosidic bonds are broken in hydrolysis. Vitamins are often found dissolved in lipids. a condensation reaction takes place. This is formed by a condensation reaction during which water is given off. The most common type are triglycerides: made up of 3 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol: G L Y C E R O L When the molecules join together. fructose and galactose molecules – see pages 32 and 33. They are insoluble in water. These molecules make up part of the cell membrane.14 Lipids contain the elements carbon.
16 It is estimated that around 46% of deaths from coronary heart disease in the UK are due to blood cholesterol levels of more than 5. 1.Cholesterol is a short lipid molecule with a structure very different to a triglyceride. high-density lipoproteins or HDLs contain more protein and transport unsaturated fats to the liver where they are broken down reduce blood cholesterol deposition low-density lipoproteins or LDLs (the main blood cholesterol carriers) associated with saturated fats overload membrane receptors and reduce cholesterol absorption from the blood associated with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques Saturated fats also reduce the activity of LDL membrane receptors and therefore increase blood cholesterol levels. Less than this is underweight and over 30.15 Body mass index (BMI) is a method of classifying body weight relative to height. sex hormones and bile salts. Found in food.1. Insoluble cholesterol is transported combined with proteins to form soluble lipoproteins.1. Important for cell membranes. 1.2 mmol per litre. obese. Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. 11 . body mass / kg BMI = height2 / m2 Normal range is around 20. 20% of the population are obese – excess dietary fat and inactivity are the likely causes. associated with saturated fats.
STOP SMOKING After stopping.1.17 Practical on the effect of caffeine on heart rate in Daphnia.Eating both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats reduces the level of LDLs in the blood. saturated fats and salt more polyunsaturated fats. the risk of CHD is almost halved after one year. 1. 12 . including omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish more fruit and vegetables containing soluble fibre and antioxidants include food with added sterols and stanols (plant compounds which reduce cholesterol) EXERCISE A person who is physically active is much more likely to survive a heart attack or stroke.1. but drugs such as antihypertensives and β blockers can be used.18 A person’s risk of developing coronary heart disease can be reduced by: DIET should be energy balanced reduced cholesterol. CONTROLLING BLOOD PRESSURE Can be achieved by changes in lifestyle and diet. 1.
2. 13 phosphate group G L Y C E R O L fatty acid fatty acid . 1.1 In larger organisms. The phosphate head of the phospholipid is polar and attracts water – it is hydrophilic.1. Fick’s law explains that: surface area x difference in concentration Rate of diffusion In the respiratory system: α thickness of the gas exchange surface the alveoli provide a large surface area circulation of blood through numerous capillaries and efficient ventilation of the lungs maintains an effective concentration gradient flattened epithelial cells making up the walls of the alveoli and capillaries (which are very close together) reduce the distance gases travel between air and blood Look at Figure 2.2. The respiratory system provides a large surface area to volume ratio to ensure efficient gas exchange.2.2A on page 52 to revise the structure of the respiratory system. there is a reduced surface area to volume ratio. The cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer. which presents a problem for the exchange of substances between the organism and its environment. The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic.
1. while the hydrophilic heads point outwards.4 Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area where they are in high concentration to an area of lower concentration through a partially permeable membrane. the hydrophobic tails face inwards to avoid water. while others move around.5 Diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions from an area of their high concentration to an area of their low concentration. Small uncharged molecules eg oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse across the cell membrane. It will continue until the substance is evenly distributed throughout the whole volume. carriers or channels. May be enzymes. reducing the movement of the water molecules.3 Practical on the effect of temperature on membrane structure. 1. 14 .2. Diffusion is made easier.In the cell membrane.2. or facilitated.2. cholesterol: reduces the fluidity of membrane by preventing movement of phospholipids. glycoproteins: (polysaccharide + protein) cell recognition and receptors glycolipids: (polysaccharide + lipid) cell recognition and receptors 1. Hydrophilic molecules and ions cannot penetrate the hydrophobic phospholipid tails. by proteins: channel proteins span the membrane and have a specific shape to transport specific particles. Some are gated – they can be open or closed. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with solutes. In the phospholipid bilayer are other molecules: proteins: some are fixed.
In active transport.6 DNA is a type of nucleic acid called deoxyribonucleic acid. Diffusion. depending on the concentration gradient. carrier proteins bind with the molecule or ion. change shape and transport the particle across the membrane. Each nucleotide in DNA has 1 of 4 different bases: Adenine. Exocytosis involves the bulk transport of substances out of the cell eg insulin into the blood. It is a long chain molecule made up of nucleotides. Cytosine or Thymine.2. 1. are held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases. 15 . Endocytosis is the reverse: substances are taken into a cell by the creation of a vesicle. Guanine. is then twisted in a helix. with alternating sugar and phosphate molecules forming the uprights and pairs of bases forming the rungs. ATP supplies energy to change the shape of a carrier protein molecule when substances are moved against the concentration gradient ie from low to high concentration. Two long polynucleotide strands. Vesicles (little membrane sacs) fuse with the cell surface membrane and the contents are released. running in opposite directions. One nucleotide is made up of: -a 5 carbon sugar -a phosphate group -an organic base Nucleotides link together by condensation reactions between the sugar of one and the phosphate group of the other. This ladder-like structure. Movement can occur in either direction. facilitated diffusion and osmosis are passive – they do not require energy.
The bases pair in a particular way.2. based on their shape and chemical structure: adenine thymine guanine cytosine A & T pair forming 2 hydrogen bonds C & G pair forming 3 hydrogen bonds RNA (ribonucleic acid) is made up a single strand of nucleotides. TRANSCRIPTION occurs in the nucleus. There are 3 types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) transfer RNA (tRNA) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 1. In these the sugar is called ribose and the bases are adenine. hydrogen bonds break and RNA nucleotides pair with the exposed bases on the template strand of the DNA 3 bases on the DNA (triplet) are transcribed into 3 bases on the RNA (codon) the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule formed enters the cytoplasm through a nuclear pore TRANSLATION occurs on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum the beginning of the sequence is always marked with the start codon AUG which codes for the amino acid methionine a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) with 3 bases exposed (an anticodon) pairs with a specific codon on the mRNA 16 . cytosine and uracil (not thymine). guanine.7 The sequence of bases in the DNA of the chromosomes acts as a coded recipe for making proteins. catalysed by RNA polymerase DNA helix unwinds.
are joined with peptide bonds to form a polypeptide a stop codon signals the last amino acid in the polypeptide chain base triplets in DNA transcription (in the nucleus) codons in mRNA translation (on the ribosomes) amino acid sequence in polypeptide chain See Figure 2.8 The genetic code in the DNA making up the chromosomes acts as a code for protein synthesis.2. arranged in the order dictated by the mRNA codons. The code is degenerate: there is more than 1 triplet for each amino acid. A gene is a sequence of bases on a DNA molecule (ie a short section of a chromosome) coding for a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. 3 bases code for 1 amino acid and these base triplets are non-overlapping.2. It dictates the amino acids required to make the protein and the order in which they should be bonded together. 1.9 Structure of an amino acid: residual or R group – different in each amino acid 17 .36 on page 79 for a more detailed explanation. 1. attached to the tRNA molecule is a specific amino acid the amino acids.
They speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. interactions between hydrophilic R groups and strong disulphide bridges between R groups containing sulphur if the protein contains more than one polypeptide chain Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Fibrous proteins remain as long chains. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptides. 1.2. Primary structure Secondary structure the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain the shape the molecule folds into as a result of hydrogen bonding between the C=O of one amino acid and the N-H of the amine group of another – an α helix or a β pleated sheet the final 3D shape of the molecule. collagen.10 Enzymes are globular proteins which act as catalysts.R H amine group O N C H C OH carboxylic acid group H 20 different amino acids are found commonly in the proteins of living organisms. and remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. The amino acid monomers join together in a condensation reaction to form peptide bonds. 18 . They are soluble and are important metabolic molecules eg enzymes. The polymer formed is called a polypeptide. held together by ionic bonds. antibodies and some hormones. often with several polypeptides cross-linked for extra strength. Globular proteins are folded into a compact spherical shape. They are insoluble and are important structural molecules eg keratin.
Part of the molecule is a specifically shaped active site.2. the increased vibration of the atoms in the protein molecule break the bonds maintaining the tertiary structure. into which a substrate fits to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The induced fit hypothesis describes the active site moulding around the substrate once it is in place. Tertiary structure bonds are again affected and extreme changes will denature the enzyme. DNA double helix unwinds hydrogen bonds between the base pairs break free DNA nucleotides line up along side each strand hydrogen bonds form between complementary bases DNA polymerase links adjacent nucleotides 2 identical DNA double helices are formed by this semi-conservative replication 1. The active site of the enzyme is irreversibly destroyed or denatured. Beyond the optimum temperature. pH changes around the enzymes optimum pH. 1.2.12 DNA copying or replication must occur before a cell divides to ensure that daughter cells receive a copy of the genetic code. The rate of reaction increases. The lock and key hypothesis suggested an exact match between the shapes of the substrate and active site.2. alter the charge distribution in the active site.11 An increase in temperature (and therefore an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules) increases the likelihood of a collision between enzyme and substrate molecules. reducing the compatibility of enzyme and substrate. 1.13 19 . An increase in either substrate or enzyme concentration will increase the rate of reaction until the other acts as a limiting factor.
it will have no effect. The characteristic resulting from the genotype is the organism’s phenotype. A dominant allele (represented by the same letter in the upper case eg F) will be expressed in the phenotype in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition. The most common mutation is a deletion of 3 nucleotides resulting in the loss of the 508th amino acid in the protein. the DNA replication does not work perfectly – an incorrect base may slip into place. or may reduce the flow of chloride ions through the channel. Gregor Mendel initiated the study of genetics using the garden pea.Sometimes. their genotype is described as homozygous. He established patterns of inheritance of a number of phenotypes including height and the morphology of seeds. See page 85 on how to set out a monohybrid genetic cross. it will cause an error in the mRNA and an incorrect amino acid may be included in the polypeptide chain causing a genetic disorder eg sickle cell anaemia.This is called a gene mutation. At a particular position or locus on each of the pair is found a gene for a particular characteristic. A number of different mutations can affect the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulatory (CFTR) protein channels. 20 . In the 19th century.2. If the mutation occurs in non-coding DNA. The altered protein may not open. Different forms of the same gene are called alleles. every cell in the new organism will carry the mutation. If this occurs in a sperm or ovum which ultimately forms a zygote. If a cell contains two copies of an allele. 1. In a gene.14 Human cells contain 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. which allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. A recessive allele (represented by a small case letter eg f) is only expressed in the homozygous condition. Different alleles at a locus result in a heterozygous condition.
the amount of water in the mucus produced must be regulated: too runny and it floods the airway too viscous (sticky) and it can’t be cleared by the cilia This is controlled by the transport of sodium and chloride ions across the epithelial cells. In the digestive system. 21 . then die and release DNA making it even more viscous. Summary: the CFTR channel is non-functional.19 on page 67 for a full explanation of why in cystic fibrosis. the mucus is too viscous.In humans. so chloride ions cannot pass out of the cell towards the lumen the sodium ion channels are open and sodium ions are continually absorbed from the mucus water is drawn out of the mucus by osmosis and it becomes much too viscous The cilia cannot move the viscous mucus – it builds up in the airway and becomes infected. See Figure 2.2. White blood cells invade the mucus. recessive mutations of single genes result in: cystic fibrosis: mucus which is too viscous thalassaemia: abnormal haemoglobin formation albinism: lack of pigment production 1. Mucus blocks the bronchioles. anaerobic bacteria thrive. Because of low oxygen levels in the mucus. Water follows the ions because of osmosis. This reduces the efficiency of gas exchange.15 In the respiratory system. the viscous mucus blocks the pancreatic duct. reducing the number of ventilated alveoli.
a mucus plug blocks the cervix in males. 22 .2. increased heart rate. Altering germ cells (sperm and eggs) is known as germ line therapy and is not legal. Produces side effects eg headache. 1. the vas deferens leading from the testes is either blocked or missing 1.17 Practical on using gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments. CF also affects the reproductive system: in females.Enzymes are not released into the small intestine and food is therefore not digested effectively.2. Using liposomes: Normal allele inserted into a plasmid. chloride transport in respiratory epithelial cells has been restored to 25% of normal. In CF trials. Treatment is temporary as epithelial cells are constantly lost. Patient breathes in aerosol containing the liposomes and the DNA is carried into the target cells. which is then combined with the liposome (a spherical phospholipid bilayer). Altering specific somatic cells (body cells) like this is permitted in the UK.16 Gene therapy attempts to alter the genotype and phenotype of target cells: normal alleles inserted into target cell using viruses or liposomes (see below) normal form of gene transcribed and translated functioning protein produced by target cell Using viruses: Viral DNA for replication is deleted and replaced with normal allele. A gene promoter is required to initiate transcription and translation. fever. Undigested food cannot be absorbed and energy is lost in the faeces (malabsorption syndrome).
See Figure 2. While a positive result will confirm a diagnosis. The sample is obtained either by amniocentesis (withdrawing amniotic fluid around 15-17 weeks of pregnancy) or by chorionic villus sampling (cells removed from the placenta at 8-12 weeks). a negative result must be treated with caution! 1. There is a large number of mutations responsible for the abnormal CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis. 23 .Electrophoresis is a technique which can separate DNA fragments of different lengths: restriction endonucleases cut the DNA into fragments at specific base sequences fragments placed on a gel connected to electrodes fragments separate according to their size and charge fragments are transferred to a nylon filter (Southern blotting) strands of the DNA helix are separated by an alkaline buffer the desired sequence is identified using a gene probe image obtained by placing the radioactive probe next to X-ray film A gene probe is a short. pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: used to test an embryo created by IVF.2.19 Uses of genetic screening: identifying carriers: heterozygotes with normal phenotypes. This can be followed up with counselling to help potential parents make a decision. embryo testing: a sample of cells from a developing fetus can be analysed.44 on page 91 for a full explanation of this technique. A gene probe identifies one specific base sequence. complementary to the base sequence of the gene. Both techniques carry a risk of miscarriage. radioactive base sequence.
but is a contentious business! You need to consider the social. ethical.2. 2.3.20 Genetic screening has obvious advantages. moral and cultural issues related to the process.1.1 Organelle nucleus Structure and function enclosed in double membrane with pores contains chromosomes with genes made of DNA to control protein synthesis made of RNA and protein free in cytoplasm or attached to RER site of protein synthesis interconnected sacs with ribosomes attached transport proteins to other parts of cell synthesis of lipids and steroids ribosomes rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria double membrane – inner folded into cristae site of later stages of aerobic respiration 24 .
See Figure 3. 2.3. Some eg enzymes and hormones are released from the cell. The 5th kingdom is the Prokaryotes. with prokaryotic cells which: are smaller than eukaryotic cells have no membrane-bound organelles 25 . Plants.centrioles one pair found in animal cells made of protein microtubules involved in spindle formation and cellular transport digestive enzymes wrapped in membrane breakdown of unwanted structures or old cells dense body in nucleus synthesis of ribosomes lysosomes nucleolus 2. Fungi and Protoctists. Organisms with eukaryotic cells are classified into 4 kingdoms: Animals. with membrane-bound organelles are eukaryotic.3.3 The cells described above. The Golgi apparatus is a stack of membrane-bound sacs formed from fused vesicles from the ER.2 Proteins synthesised on the ribosomes of the RER are moved to other parts of the cell through the cavities of the endoplasmic reticulum.9 on page 101. Proteins are modified here and packaged in vesicles.
4 Mitosis is a type of cell division. 2. a cell with 46 chromosomes divides to form 2 identical daughter cells.8 on pages 98 & 100. see Figures 3. In humans. called plasmids always have a cell wall To compare prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells. which retains the full or diploid number (2n) of chromosomes.3. have no nucleus have circular DNA. Before nuclear division. These stages are part of the cell cycle: G1 (first gap phase) interphase S (synthesis phase) G2 (second gap phase) synthesis of cellular proteins and organelles replication of DNA synthesis of spindle proteins 26 . a copy of each chromosome is made by semi-conservative replication of the DNA. each with 46 chromosomes.4 and 3. not associated with protein have small rings of DNA. Each double helix is called a chromatid.
but 4 stages of mitosis (nuclear division) can be described: prophase chromosomes condense (get shorter and thicker) microtubules are organised into a spindle by the centrioles nuclear membrane breaks down the centromeres of the chromosomes attach to the spindle at the equator centromeres split spindle fibres pull chromatids to opposite poles spindle breaks down chromosomes unravel two nuclear envelopes form metaphase anaphase telophase 27 . with identical daughter cells. vegetative reproduction in plants 2.3.6 Cell division is a continuous process.5 Mitosis. ensures genetic stability .3.division mitosis (nuclear division) separation of the 2 DNA helices making up the chromosome cytoplasmic division cleavage of a single cell into two daughter cells 2.important for: growth: development from a single cell to a multicellular organism repair: regeneration of lost or damaged parts or replacement of old or damaged cells asexual reproduction eg budding in Hydra.
3. OVUM large cell. As either of the pair can end up at either pole (random assortment).7 The sex cells or gametes are adapted for sexual reproduction. genetically variable gametes are produced. 2. 28 .Make sure you are familiar with the details of the core practical in which you observed the stages of mitosis. The diploid number is restored and the cell contains genetic information from both parents.8 At fertilisation (in the oviducts) the sperm nucleus enters the ovum and fuses with its nucleus forming a zygote. incapable of independent movement wafted along oviducts by cilia and muscular contractions of the tubes cytoplasm contains protein and lipid food reserves surrounded by a jelly-like coat – the zona pellucida – which hardens after one sperm penetrates ovum preventing any others entering SPERM smaller than the ovum and motile (it can move) long tail for swimming. 2.3. powered by energy released by mitochondria head contains acrosome (package of digestive enzymes) to break down the zona pellucida 2.9 Gametes are produced in the ovaries and testes of animals by meiosis which: produces haploid cells (contain half the number of chromosomes found in a body cell: one of each homologous pair) creates genetic variation among offspring During meiosis. pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equator.3.
10 Fuelled by nutrients from the ovum. UK research is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) Bills passed in 2001 and 2002 allow ‘spare’ embryos from IVF treatment to be used as a source of stem cells for research into serious diseases. isolated from embryos could provide new cells. After 5 days. tissues or organs for transplantation. but not all cell types) As the embryo develops.11 Stem cells. a blastocyst (a hollow ball of cells) is formed: the outer cell layer forms the placenta the inner are pluripotent embryonic stem cells (each can form most.2.12 The specialised function of a cell depends upon the proteins it synthesises ie which genes are expressed.3. 2. cells differentiate and become more specialised. the zygote divides rapidly to form smaller cells – the embryo remains the same size. Most lose the ability to develop into a wide range of cell types. there are 8 totipotent stem cells – each could form a total human being. 2.3. Opinion varies according to the status accorded to a human embryo. 29 . A significant number of people consider the use of an embryo for research purposes morally and ethically unacceptable. but some don’t: they are multipotent stem cells. After 3 divisions.3.
which prevent attachment of the transcription initiation complex.Transcription of a gene is initiated by RNA polymerase and transcription factors binding to a promoter region (section of DNA adjacent to gene). which is later activated by signal proteins. skin and hair colour.33 on page 122. RNA polymerase + transcription factors = transcription initiation complex Some transcription factors are always present in all cells. often in an inactive form. Transcription of a gene can be prevented by protein repressor molecules.14 Differences in phenotype between members of a population are caused by: genetic make-up (genotype) the environment in which the individual develops Some are due completely to genotype eg blood groups and show discontinuous variation: they fall into discrete categories with no overlap. Others are influenced by both genotype and environment and show continuous variation eg human height. are present.4. 2. in their active form. 2. See Figure 3. Signal proteins may act directly by entering the cell or indirectly through a second messenger.13 Sometimes the gene for an enzyme required for the metabolism of a particular substrate can be expressed only when that substrate is present (induction) eg β galactosidase and lactose in prokaryotes. See core practical on this topic. 30 . cancer. Others are only synthesised in certain cells at a particular stage of development. The gene remains switched off until all the transcription factors.3.
2. but also by the number of MSH receptors in skin cells. Cancer is caused by environmental damage to DNA from physical factors such as UV light and asbestos 31 . UV light increases the amount of MSH and the number of MSH receptors on the melanocytes. some animals have mutant alleles for tyrosinase so that the unstable enzymes only works in cooler areas: extremities are darker. Human height average height has increased in the past 150 years for various reasons. melanin (packaged as melanosomes) transferred to neighbouring skin cells and surrounds the nucleus. variation is skin colour is affected not only by exposure to UV light.38 on page 127. This causes the growth of a tumour. albinos have a gene mutation preventing the production of melanin – they have white skin. but not achieve their potential height because of malnutrition. melanin is made by melanocytes activated by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).3. a person may have genes for being tall. white hair and no pigment in their iris and retina.15 Cancer occurs when the rate of cell multiplication is faster than the rate of cell death. Skin and hair colour the pigment is called melanin and is made from tyrosine in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme tyrosinase. protecting the DNA from harmful UV light.See Figure 3.
cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymphatic systems. About 5% of cancers are due to an inherited gene. chemical carcinogens such as those in the tar in cigarette smoke viruses may trigger cancer by altering the DNA Chemicals called radicals are produced by the cell metabolism and can damage DNA.16 A genome is all the DNA of an organism or species. M) is controlled by: oncogenes which stimulate the cycle. Work continues to identify specific genes and establish their function. S. Detailed information about the genome 30 000 – 40 000 genes average human gene contains 3000 bases non-coding sequences (junk DNA) makes of 50% 1. 2. The progression through the cell cycle (G1.4 millions locations of single nucleotide polymorphisms breast cancer gene total colour blindness gene genes analysed for mutations causing disease Identification of new genes 32 . Mutations mean there is no brake on the cycle and control is lost. The cause may also be genetic. Mutations can result in the cycle being continually active and lead to excessive cell division and tumour formation tumour suppressor genes which stop the cycle. This is called metastasis.3. In 2001. If tumours are not removed. Fresh fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants to destroy radicals. the Human Genome Project published a working draft of the sequence of bases in human cells. G2.
reshuffling and creating new genes comparisons with the genome of other organisms establishes evolutionary pathways Preventative medicine and improved drug treatment Understanding basic biology Investigating evolution Part of the budget for the HGP has been set aside to address the ethical. legal and social issues which may arise from the project: should health insurance companies have access to information about genetic predisposition of potential clients to particular conditions? when.Identification of new drug targets a molecule that a drug interacts with identification of genes allows identification of drug targets variation in base sequences may account for why some people experience side effects from drug therapies identification of mutations associated with a particular disease allows patient to make lifestyle changes or adopt preventative drug therapy receptor proteins in the sense of taste post-production processing of proteins repeat sequences replicate and insert themselves into the DNA modifying. and on whom should predisposition tests be carried out? who keeps this information confidential? should scientists have the right to patent particular sequences? how will treatment made possible by the project be paid for? is it acceptable to destroy embryos found to contain mutant genes? is it acceptable to select embryos on the basis of desirable characteristics? inserting genes into embryos (germ line gene therapy) presents many risks should genes be transferred between species for transplantation purposes? 33 .
4.2. Hydrogen bonding affects the properties of water eg it explains why water is liquid at normal biological temperatures.1 Water is a polar molecule: the hydrogen end is slightly positive and the oxygen end is slightly negative. pond skaters. This cohesion (attraction between like molecules) is important in transporting water through plants. 34 . This avoids large changes of temperature inside living organisms. It also means that the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water is high. It also creates surface tension – useful for supporting organisms eg pondweed. The positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another hydrogen bonding.
4. 2. 35 Chloroplasts Amyloplasts . Organelle Cell wall Comments Rigid structure composed mostly of the polysaccharide cellulose. Fully permeable to salts and water. Plants also require inorganic ions. Contain mixture of pigments (chlorophyll). Calcium Magnesium Required for chlorophyll production – a deficiency results in yellowing of older leaves. The density of ice is less than liquid water. absorbed through the roots and transported in the xylem: Nitrates Used by cells to manufacture amino acids/proteins.5 on page 148 – the ultrastructure of a generalised plant cell. Storage vacuoles containing insoluble starch grains. nucleic acids. This is vital for chemical reactions to occur and for the transport of substances in living organisms. Water is often a reactant eg in hydrolysis reactions and photosynthesis. where solar energy is converted into chemical energy. Water expands as it freezes. Important constituent of cells walls and affects the permeability of the cell membrane. so ice floats enabling organisms to live in liquid water under ice in frozen ponds and lakes.Ionic substances eg NaCl and polar molecules eg sugars dissolve in water. ATP and growth substances. Compare this with Figure 3.2 See Figure 4. Site of photosynthesis.8 on page 100 – the ultrastructure of a generalised animal cell.
4 glycosidic bonds only ie no side-branching. pigments. Remains as a long. Contains pectins eg calcium and magnesium pectates. 36 . The region between cell walls of neighbouring cells which cements them together. Used as a structural carbohydrate to form the cell wall.4.7 on page 149 showing the structure of α and β glucose. Contains cell sap: a concentrated solutions of salts. straight chain. Contains 1. Contains 1. Points in the cell wall with only a thin layer of cellulose where plasmodesmata are found. central vacuole.3 See Figure 4. Fine thread of cytoplasm linking neighbouring cells. Starch and cellulose are two important polysaccharides in plants. Plasmodesmata Pits Middle lamellae 2. sugars.Tonoplast Vacuole The membrane surrounding the large. Starch Made up of α glucose monomer. Winds into a spiral shape. Used as a storage carbohydrate. Cellulose Made up of β glucose monomers.4 and 1.6 glycosidic bonds ie there is side-branching. Important in determining osmotic properties of the cell.
Hydrogen bonds form between the OH groups of adjacent cellulose chains. 2.4. Plant fibres are used to absorb heavy metals and oil spillages. Extracting fibres is called retting – bacteria/fungi. plants must grow tall. Because plants fibres are long and thin. A bundle of about 70 cellulose molecules linked in this way creates a microfibril. Xylem vessels (together with phloem sieve tubes) form vascular bundles. The sclerenchyma fibres are found on the outside of the bundle. they have been used by humans for thousands of years eg for clothing.5 Xylem vessels • made up of large cells with thick cell 37 • Sclerenchyma fibres elongated cells . flexible and strong. leaving the more resistant fibres intact. enzymes and in some cases caustic alkali breaks down the polysaccharides holding the fibres together. paper. sclerenchyma fibres assist with support. The polymer lignin gives strength to the structures and renders them waterproof. Look at Figure 4.13 on page 154 and know the location of the vascular bundles in the stem. floor coverings. rope. The microfibrils are wound around the cell at different angles and stuck together with a polysaccharide glue made of hemicelluloses and pectins. 2. This presents two problems: they must be mechanically supported they must be able to transport water and inorganic ions up to the leaves Xylem vessels do both.4. This composite structure makes the cell wall strong and flexible.4 To compete effectively for light. They can be combined with plastic to form biocomposites.
2. water moves up the stem in a continuous column: the cohesion-tension theory.• • • walls form a column of cells to transport water and inorganic ions waterproofed and strengthened by the polymer lignin laid down in spirals or rings dead tissue formed from previously living cells • • • sole function to provide support and mechanical strength cell wall heavily thickened with lignin which provides great tensile and compressional strength* dead tissue formed from previously living cells *tensile strength means it doesn’t break easily on stretching. Thick xylem walls prevent them from collapsing.6) 2.4.7 Practical on extracting fibres from nettles and testing their strength (Activity 4. lowering the hydrostatic pressure at the top of the vessel. The rate of transpiration increases as: temperature increases windspeed increases humidity decreases surface area and number of stomata in leaf increases when stomata are open ie in sunlight 2. There is adhesion (attraction between unlike molecules) between the water and the xylem walls.6 Water evaporates from the surface of the spongy mesophyll cells and diffuses down the diffusion gradient through the stomata of the leaves. This results in water being drawn up from below: the transpiration stream. The narrow xylem vessels have a high surface area to volume ratio so that the high adhesive forces hold the column of water within the tube. Water in these cells is replaced from the xylem.8 38 . compressional strength means it doesn’t buckle easily.4. This is called transpiration.4. Because of hydrogen bonding causing cohesion between water molecules.
39 . morphine from poppies. When conditions are suitable (water.4. They absorb water through the micropyle causing the cells to expand and rupture the seed coat. 2. He bought the recipe for a herbal cure for oedema (accumulation of fluid in the tissues) from a patient and used it on an unpredictable ‘hit and miss’ basis as a treatment for the condition. Pre-clinical testing Clinical testing – I Clinical testing – II Clinical testing – III Laboratory and animal testing Small group of healthy volunteers assess how the body deals with the drug Small group of volunteer patients are treated to assess effectiveness. Water triggers metabolic changes: growth substances are activated and enzymes (amylase.4. warmth). maltase. lipase and protease) are released to digest stored food. Many medicines are derived from plants eg aspirin from willow bark.Plants contain many antibacterial compounds eg allicin in garlic. they re-start growth: germination.7) 2. Large group of patients divided into two for double-blind trial ie neither doctor nor patient knows if they’re given the drug or an inactive placebo. New drugs are now tested extensively before marketing – it can take over 10 years. An amount slightly less than this was considered the ideal dose. In 1775. oxygen. Digitalis purpurea. He began with a low dose and increased it until the patient suffered side effects. is now marketed as a drug called digitalin and is used to treat heart disease.9 Practical on the antibacterial properties of plants. The extract from the foxglove plant. (Activity 4. Dr William Withering published A Treatise on the Foxglove. inside a protective coat.10 A seed contains an embryonic plant with its own food supply.
waterlily peas. laburnum 40 . it develops into a seed. blackberry coconut. succulent fruits Fibrous seeds coats with lots of air Explosive rupture of seed coat (dehiscence) Example sycamore.Seeds are vital to the survival of a plant as they: protect the embryo by means of a lignified seed coat (testa) aid dispersal to avoid competition with the parent plant provide nutrition for the new plant When the ovule in a flowering plant is fertilised by the nucleus in a pollen grain. This happens inside the ovary. dandelion burdock. The embryo plant consists of three parts: a young root (radicle) a young shoot (plumule) one or two seed leaves (cotyledons) Some seeds store food in endosperm tissue rather than in the cotyledons. Some seeds germinate as soon as conditions are suitable. Others are dormant and must be activated by eg: an extended period of chilling intense heat mechanical abrasion or microbial degradation of the seed coat a minimum period of light chemical action in an animal’s gut Seeds are adapted for dispersal: Method Wind Animal Water Self Adaptation Small light seeds with wings or parachutes Hooked fruits. which develops into a fruit.
there are still problems eg: paper bags are less strong than plastic bags and disintegrate when wet degradation of waste requires aerobic organisms. wallpaper paste. Can be used as a fuel eg castor oil & peanut oil were both used to power the first diesel engine. cross-linked starch is a supermanufacture. Other uses include glues. Sustainability means we can keep using the resources in the long term without harming the environment. so little happens in deep landfill sites closer to the surface.2. starch ‘puffs’ into an expanded structure eg cereals. methane (a greenhouse gas) is often produced 41 . but it was recently absorbed when the plants grew.4. The use of oil-based plastics and fuels is not sustainable as: they release carbon dioxide and contribute to global warming oil reserves will eventually run out they generate non-biodegradable waste Burning plant-based fuels also produces carbon dioxide.11 Seeds (particularly of cereal crops) are useful in animal and human diets. plaster. packaging. Uses of oils Widely used in cooking. hair mousses and antiperspirants. corn snacks. Hydrolysis of oils with alkali produces fatty acid salts (soaps) and glycerol (used in paint Dried. Uses of starch Thickening agent: when heated. However. starch granules absorb water and thicken the liquid (gelatinisation) eg custard. Carbohydrate polymers and oils also have major industrial uses.) absorbent used in nappies and tampons. With little water and high temperature and pressure.
4. Two inbred lines can be crossed resulting in hybrid vigour: plants more vigorous than either parent. Antibiotic resistance marker genes are used to identify successfully modified cells. or by shooting into the plant minute pellets covered in DNA. Many die. which are then micropropagated to produce parent plants. people Altered genes creating toxic or allergenic substances in the plant. So long as food is clearly labelled. Increased yield of crops eg by reducing competition with weeds in ‘Roundup Ready crops’.14 Arguments for Arguments against Improved plant quality eg tomatoes with PG Creation of antibiotic resistant microbes by inhibited. allowing specific characteristics to be rapidly introduced to a species – a faster and more efficient method of artificial selection. See Figure 4. using marker genes. Hybridising two different species of plants is possible: wheat currently used in bread making was produced in this way. which stay firmer for longer.13 & 2. but they remain. so that competitors are destroyed. Transgenic plants or plants to which resistance genes have been transferred could prove very difficult to manage and keep under control.4. A plant is genetically modified by introducing a new gene using an infective bacterium or virus. genetic modification was developed.40 on page 176. which may be induced by chemicals or radiation. New plants are produced by spontaneous mutation. This has gone on for thousands of years.2. If a plant doesn’t normally self-pollinate.12 Artificial selection involves choosing plants with advantageous features and then breeding them eg by self-pollinating or saving seeds from one year to plant during the following year. but is a very slow process. In the 1980s. 2. Increased herbicide use to control resistant 42 .4. These are plants which have been modified to contain a resistance gene to glyphosate. yield and fertility. but some are fertile and useful. inbreeding depression can occur: a loss of size.
Although methane absorbs more infrared radiation than carbon dioxide does. animals and decomposers Methane 1.have the choice of eating GM products. It keeps the Earth’s average temperature stable and suitable for living organisms. 2.8 x 10-4 20 anaerobic decomposition eg in bogs. Carbon dioxide Relative abundance Greenhouse factor Sources 3. landfill sites digestive system of cattle incomplete combustion of fossil fuels increased combustion of fossil fuels 43 . Earth warms up and radiates infra-red back into space. Some is absorbed by greenhouse gases and the atmosphere (and the Earth) is warmed. 2. paddy fields. 1. Companies hold patents for the GM crops and developing countries can’t afford them. The Sun radiates energy (mostly visible light) and the Earth absorbs some of it. 3. crops.15 The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases extending 100km above the Earth’s surface. or not. it breaks down quicker and there is less of it.4. The main greenhouse gases are: water vapour carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide CFCs.7 x 10-2 1 respiration in plants.
Cutting the trees down and either burning them or leaving them to decay adds CO2 to the air. better waste recycling using methane as a biofuel (burns to produce two less serious greenhouse gases) 2.68 on page 206 for a full diagram of the carbon cycle. oil and coal based power stations. It remains as a carbon sink until the CO2 is released back into the atmosphere through combustion.4. Two factors are likely to be mainly responsible for the imbalance in the carbon cycle and the increased levels in carbon dioxide concentration: combustion of fossil fuels: coal is formed over millions of years from plants which photosynthesised converting CO2 into carbohydrate. This may be because: increased levels stimulate photosynthesis more is dissolving in the ocean more is stored as organic compounds in the soil 44 . Other minor factors affecting CO2 levels: Increase in acid rain eroding limestone Incorporation of into calcium carbonate shells in marine organisms Volcanoes producing carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide levels are not rising as fast as calculations predict.How levels might be controlled Reduction in deforestation and burning of trees Reduced combustion of fossil fuels eg in aircraft. deforestation: mature forests are stable releasing the same amount of CO2 through respiration (and decay) as they absorb in photosynthesis.16 See Figure 4. cars and public transport.
alcohol produced from the refining of sugar cane is added to petrol to make gasohol. straw. as higher temperatures and increased CO2 levels stimulate photosynthesis: there will be more food and therefore more animals respiring more respiring microbes develop 2. Pollen Vast amounts of pollen. In Brazil.23) 2. When combusted. TEMPERATURE RECORDS Some have been kept since the 17th century – they are useful although not as accurate as current data. because of rapid growth. directly in plants or indirectly in animals. Reafforestation involved planting young trees which. the decay of which has been slowed or stopped by the anaerobic or acidic conditions in a peat bog. absorb a lot of CO2 for photosynthesis. Methane produced from anaerobic fermentation of human sewage or animal slurry is an effective biogas. PEAT BOGS Climate information for up to 12000 years ago can be obtained by studying plant and insect remains. However. there is no net increase in CO2 levels. As the forest matures.4. Look carefully at the graphs and tables of data on pages 190-195 – you need to be able to describe and analyse them. dried chicken litter is any source of energy produced. by recent photosynthesis.18 Evidence for global warming comes from a range of sources.17 Practical on investigating how carbon dioxide may affect global warming (Activity 4. Since different 45 .A biofuel eg wood. in will no longer be a net absorber. unless transporting the biofuel involves combustion of fossil fuels.4. This provides a renewable energy source and is carbon dioxide neutral. protected by a tough outer layer can be carbon dated to indicate the species of trees which grew in a particular period of time.
Beetles On the same basis. 46 . the more the tree grew – more than likely because the conditions were warmer or wetter. ICE SAMPLES Bubbles of air trapped in ice can be analysed to estimate carbon dioxide levels. These predictions don’t account for change in the future period of time eg reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. climatic information can be obtained from the exoskeletons of preserved bog beetles. CFCs and nitrous oxide aerosols – extremely small liquid particles in the atmosphere cloud cover the fraction of the earth covered with ice and snow and the consequent reflection Modelling climate change is done by computer on programmes which take all these factors into account and predict the interaction between them. A combination of information from these sources helps provide evidence to support the various theories on global warming which have been proposed. Other include: other greenhouse gases eg methane. which responded to climate change faster than plants. The ratio of different oxygen isotopes gives an indication of the temperature at that time. Global warming due to increased carbon dioxide levels is only one factor which may affect climate change. DENDROCHRONOLOGY The study of tree rings gives a clue to past climatic conditions. narrower vessels in summer. 2.4. Each year a new layer of xylem is laid down: wide vessels in spring.species flourish in different environmental conditions. information on the climate at that time can be discerned. a curve is best dealt with by a computer. or increased levels due to better living conditions in developing nations. While a straight line graph is easy to extrapolate.19 Actual data gathered can be extrapolated to predict future changes. The wider the ring.
or have good seed dispersal the distribution of the species may change. carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity according to the law of limiting factors.Several major climate models are in use. but they differ (one predicts a fall of 50C for the UK and another a rise of 50C) and have limitations due to: limited data limited knowledge of how the climate system works limited computer resources failure to consider all factors affecting climate change changing trends in snow/ice cover and CO2 emissions 2.4. hatching and growth rates in animals eg trout are often cued by temperature. others die. In these fish. Overall. ALTERED DEVELOPMENT and LIFE CYCLES Plant growth is determined mainly by the rate of photosynthesis. whereas warmer tropical regions may suffer from poorer yields. Climate change affects the balance between species: some flourish and become dominant in the new conditions. growth ceases when a critical temperature is reached. crop production in cooler climates will benefit from climate change. Examples are described on pages 184 and 185.20 The major aspects to climate change are: changing temperatures changing rainfall patterns changing seasonal cycles These affect living organisms in the following ways: DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES A community is a group of species found in the same place at the same time. Pests and diseases may also spread to new areas. If they are mobile. 47 . Spawning. so global warming could result in underweight organisms. This is affected by the interaction of a number of factors such as temperature.
2. These events are frequently related to seasonal change. A reaction occurs when the substrate binds with the active site of the enzyme forming an enzyme-substrate complex.In reptiles. The kinetic energy of substrate and enzyme molecules is increased. increasing temperature increases the rate of reaction.4. as this is determined by temperature. 48 . Life cycles of organisms are intricately related eg hatching of marine worm eggs to coincide with a high level of phytoplankton. 2. Major decisions on eg reducing CO2 emissions need to be determined at governmental level and with international agreement eg the Kyoto Protocol. which are temperature dependent. fruiting. After the optimum temperature (at which the rate of reaction is highest)increasing temperature causes the atoms in the enzyme to vibrate. Bonds holding its 3D structure in place break.18) 2.23 Climate change is a controversial issue with major political and economic implications. egg laying.4. migration.21 The rate of metabolic reactions is controlled by enzymes. they collide more frequently and more ES complexes are formed. the male:female ratio could be affected. The active site changes shape so that the substrate no longer fits in – the enzyme is denatured.4. The eggs hatch in response to day length (photoperiodism) while the phytoplankton grow in response to temperature. Up to a certain point.22 Practical on the effects of temperature on the development of brine shrimps. The likelihood of this happening depends on a collision occurring between the two molecules and this is determined by their kinetic energy ie how fast they are moving. Phenology is the study of natural events in the lives of animals and plants eg time of flowering. hatching. A mismatch in timing could result in a lack of food supply for the worms. (Activity 4.
49 .While scientific method aims to be objective. the evidence in this case is limited. cultural and ethical issues all influence the way conclusions are drawn and action implemented. political manoeuvring. arguably imprecise and open to differing interpretation by different people. Business interests.
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