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Micro Chapter 9

Innate immunity serves as the frontline defense against microbes. It is quick,
genetically coded, and non-specific. Its response does not change upon
repeated exposures to a specific pathogen (unlike adaptive immunity which has

Skin – Barrier that also creates an acidic environment through sweat and sebaceous
secretions. Mucous membranes secrete…mucous. This mucous acts as a
protective barrier keeping bacteria and their byproducts from contacting the
epithelium and makes them easier to sweep away.

Eosinophils – Attack helminths which are too big for normal phagocytosis. They
release Major Basic Protein (MBP) and some other anti-parasitic substances.

Soluble factors – Lysozyme (tears, saliva) (cleaves cell wall between glycan bond),
complement (C3, C5, C9), acute phase proteins (C-RP, IFN). Lactoferrin, transferrin,

Complement – Made up of soluble factors that circulate in the blood and once
activated, serve as enzymes for the next steps (activating higher numbered units,
C3->C5->C9) in the process. There are a few complement pathways, the
“alternate” pathway is attributed to the innate immune system. C3a and C5a serve
as chemokines, C3b and C5b covalently bind to the microbe and serve to bind C9.
C9 units collect and form the MAC (Membrane Attack Complex) which is an
open pore in the membrane of the microbe.

Acute Phase Proteins – C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Mannose Binding Lectin
(MBL) greatly increase in the blood during inflammation. These serve to opsonize
infectious agents and activate complement.

Phagocytic cells – Macrophages and neutrophils engulf invading agents. This is
aided by opsonization.

Macrophages – Develop in bone marrow, circulate as monocytes. They are truly
macrophages only after taking up residence in a non-circulating tissue.
Macrophages can go by different names in different tissues (ie Kupffer in
liver, Microglia in brain, Mesangial in kidney, Osteoclasts in bone). HAS

Neutrophils (Polymorphonuclear) – Do NOT have mitochondria, but massive stores
of glycogen so it does not require oxygen to function. Has two types of granules.
Azurophil granules have myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, elastase, and some other
substances. Specific granules have lysozyme and lactoferrin.

PAMPs – Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns. These are conserved and
essential portions of microbes that can be recognized by cells of the innate immune
system (ie flagellin, LPS, peptidoglycan, nucleic acid).

. this activates oxygen radicals to blow up the invader. These transmembrane receptors recognized PAMPs and activate intracellular cascade (resulting in NF-kB activation). as well as cytokines to keep the reaction going. Downstream.TLRs – Toll-Like Receptors.