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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and

Context Approach
Dr. Sunitha Abburu Jinesh V N
Professor & Director Lecturer, Department of Computer Science
Department of Computer Applications The Oxford College of Science
Adhiyamaan College of Engineering Bangalore, India.
Hosur, India. 919739072949

Abstract— Stored multimedia data poses a number of challenges information, including data and knowledge representation,
in the management of multimedia information, includes indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques,
knowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligent information browsing and query processing. Among the
searching techniques, information browsing and query multimedia entertainment cinema stands in the first position.
processing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema stands Large numbers of groups are involved in the cinema domain.
in the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model that
Nowadays multimedia entertainment became more and more
could describe system at the level of semantic knowledge as
agreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical and popular and vast numbers of groups are working on this
thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semantic domain. Most of entertainment media is introducing cinema
indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with a related programs. Today‘s busy world most of us prefer to
set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base. watch favorite scenes. Our studies on user requirements
In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of pertaining to the entertaining of cinema lovers would like to
sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two different watch information about cinema celebrities like date of birth,
aspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domain hobbies, list of flopped cinemas, ranking…etc,. And would
viz context information and concept based scenes. There is a need also like to view scenes pertaining to specific theme, actor
for two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.
…etc, they may be looking for their favorite actor, director,
Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. The
former deals with the external information and while the later musician…etc,. At the same time directors, cameramen, stunt
focus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and their masters…etc, would like to view scenes pertaining to a
hierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Further specific theme or different theme to improve or enhance their
practical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated using capabilities, skills or knowledge. Cinema, clipping and related
the protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of context information is/are available in the internet. To improve the
information extraction system and cinema scene search engine effectiveness and efficiency of system, one must concentrate
are proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexible on user community and their requirements in different aspects.
and can be easily enhance.
Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasons in
Keywords- Domain ontology; Concept; Context; Cinema; different contexts. Video data is rapidly growing and playing a
vital role in our life. Despite the vast growth of multimedia
I. INTRODUCTION objects and information, the effectiveness of its usage is very
limited due to the lack of complete organized knowledge
In this busy and competitive world entertainment media
representation. The Domain Knowledge should be extracted
plays a vital role. All need some kind of entertainment to come
and stored in an organized manner which will support
out of the daily life pressure. The volume of digital video has
effective retrieval system. An ontology defines a common
grown tremendously in recent years, due to low cost digital
vocabulary, common understanding of the structure of domain
cameras, scanners, and storage and transmission devices.
knowledge among the people who needs to share information.
Multimedia objects are now employed in different areas such
The use of ontology in information systems provides several
as entertainment, advertising, distance learning, tourism,
benefits like knowledge needed and acquired can be stored in
distributed CAD/CAM, GIS, sports etc. This trend has resulted
a standardized format that unambiguously describes the
in the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories that
knowledge in a formal model. Ontology is hierarchical and
require efficient storage. The stored multimedia data poses a
thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the
number of challenges in the management of multimedia
semantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

provides a means of data fusion by supplying synonyms or

concepts defined using various descriptions. Above points Ontology development process is an iterative process that will
shows the need of cinema ontology. continue in the entire life cycle of the Ontology. The basic
steps for building Ontology are:
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The literature  Determine the domain and scope of the ontology.
survey report is in section 2. Section 3 discusses the proposed  Consider reusing existing ontology.
method for cinema domain ontology construction. In section 4,  Enumerate important terms in the ontology.
we present a practical implementation and experimental  Define the classes and the class hierarchy.
results. Finally, we conclude with a summary and some  Define the properties of classes—slots.
directions of future research in section 5.  Define the facets of the slots.
II. LITERATURE ON ONTOLOGY  Create instances.
Ontology has been developed in the artificial intelligence When ontology is applied to specific field, it refers as
community to describe a variety of domains, and has been domain ontology and is the specification of a particular
suggested as a mechanism to provide applications with domain domain conceptualization. Ontology together with a set of
knowledge and to facilitate the sharing of information [1] [2] individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.
[3] [4]. Ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared In reality, there is a fine line where the ontology ends and the
conceptualization [5]. A conceptualization of some knowledge base begins. Lili Zhao and Chunping Li [9]
phenomenon in the world identifies and determines the proposed ontology based mining for movie reviews which
relevant concepts and the relations of that phenomenon. uses the ontology structure as an essential part of the feature
Ontology is typically defined as an abstract model of a domain extraction process by taking relationship between concepts.
of interest with a formal semantics in the sense that they The author is using two models movie model and feature
constitute a logical theory. These models are supposed to model. Amancio Bouza [10] initiated a project on movie
represent a shared conceptualization of a domain as they are ontology with the aim to standardize the representation of
assumed to reflect the agreement of a certain community or movies and movie attributes across data bases. This project
group of people. In the simplest case, ontology consist of a set provides a controlled vocabulary of semantic concepts and the
of concepts or classes which are relevant for the domain of semantic relations among those concepts. But still, this
interest as well as a set of relations defined on these concepts. ontology needs further investigation in collecting, filtering and
Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describe normalizing concepts, properties, and instances. Shiyan Ou, et
system at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by a al [11] presents an automatic question pattern generation for
community of people. It serves as semantic reference for users ontology-based question answering for cinema domain. We
or applications that accept to align their interpretation of the have chosen movie domain for the same reasons given by Gijs
semantics of their data to the interpretation stored in the Geleijnse[12].Gijs have chosen to study the movie domain for
ontology [6]. As a new kind of knowledge organization tool, two reasons, firstly, numerous web pages handle this topic, the
ontology has attracted more and more attention. query ‗movie‘ in Google results in 180,000,000 hits. The
performance of the algorithm will thus not or barely be
Ontology has been widely used in many fields, such as influenced by the lack of data available. Secondly, we can
knowledge representation, knowledge sharing, knowledge easily verify the results and formulate benchmarks for
integration, knowledge reuse, information retrieval, and so on. evaluation purposes. To the best of our knowledge, the need
Hence the development of ontology is seriously impeded [5]. and construction of cinema domain ontology has almost not
In the field of knowledge engineering, different scholars give been dealt with. In this paper we present a novel solution to
different definitions of ontology according to the content of construct cinema domain ontology.
ontology, the form of ontology or the purpose of ontology [7].
Different types of ontology may exist, ranging from
sophisticated dictionaries to rich conceptual and formal
descriptions of concepts with their relationships and Cinema domain ontology contains concepts, relations
constraints. N. F. Noy, and D. L. McGuiness in [8] describe between concepts, concepts attributes. The concept attributes
the need for ontology as: share object oriented structure. Cinema industry involves
 To share common understanding of the structure of heterogeneous systems and people .This is the biggest industry
information among people or software agents. in the entertainment world and more complex. As more
 To enable reuse of domain knowledge. number of people with different technical, skills and
 To make domain assumptions explicit. background are trying to show their skills in to the cinema
 To separate domain knowledge from the operational industry. People from vast and various fields are competing to
knowledge. show case their talents, knowledge and the skill sets. All the
communities would be interested to know, acquire the
 To analyze domain knowledge.
knowledge of the latest and best techniques, styles in their

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

own fields. So our proposed Cinema Ontology model supports Metadata such as who captured the video, where, when…etc,
such kind of requirement. motivated by these demands efforts have been made to build a
semantic cinema ontology , exploring more efficient context
In an abstract view, we view cinema ontology as a management and information retrieval system. Our studies on
collection of sub ontologies. The proposed structure is flexible user requirements concluded that most of the queries are based
and can be easily enhanced. We represent the cinema ontology on the two different aspects of the multimedia objects viz
(CO) as a collection of sub ontology. CO = {CCo, CSo, CMo context, concept based scenes. As the requirements may be
…} Domain Knowledge is required to capture the metadata related to the cinema scene or the information about the
and annotation in different aspects, as well as to interpret the cinema. Cinema domain ontology is a hierarchical structured
query. Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasons set of concepts describing cinema context, cinema scenes
in different contexts by different communities. We derive the domain knowledge, which can support cinema information
word stakeholder from software engineering aspect for cinema extraction, storage and retrieval system. This gives the need of
domain as anyone or groups, who are involved, associated or two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.
interested in the cinema industry. It is sensible to look for  Cinema context ontology(CCo)
natural subgroups that will be more homogeneous than the  Cinema Scene ontology (CSo).
total population. Hence in our case we classified the In this scenario, the formalism of knowledge must be
stakeholder community into two classes based on their roles convenient for structuring the movie descriptions based on
they perform with respect to the cinema domain. Stakeholders available resource.
who are involved and associated are fall in one class and the
interested will fall in other class. The advantage of such A. Cinema Context Ontology
classification is that we can easily sum up the retrieval The cinema is closely associates with different kinds of
behavior which directly conveys the information requirement. information like cinema, cinema celebrities, banner, cinema
End user‘s information requirement is a very significant and ranking, etc. This kind of information or data is not related to
substantial input during database design. Unfortunately this the content or semantics of the cinema. To represent the
input will not be readily available and has to be manually complete cinema domain knowledge semantic information
collected and accumulated from the real world. Thus it must be associated with context information along with the
involves extensive human expertise and experience. Even after cinema scenes. Moreover the index considering only
accumulation there is no guaranty that the information is semantics ignores the context information regarding the video.
complete and correct. This has motivated us to design a Unfortunately cinema scenes or multimedia object which is
cinema domain ontology which is flexible and easy to enhance separated from its context has less capability of conveying
as and when the requirements changes. semantics. For example, diagnostic medical videos are
retrieved not only in terms of video content but also in terms
As per our literature survey not much work has been done of other information associated with the video (like
in cinema domain. Survey on stake holders information physician‘s diagnosis, physician details, treatment plan,
requirements pertaining to the cinema lovers reflects that they photograph taken on. …etc., ). Context information includes
would like to watch information about cinema celebrities like information regarding the cinema, such as date of release,
date of birth, hobbies, list of flopped cinemas, ranking…etc, place of release, director, producer, actors and so on. In the
and also would like to view scenes related to specific theme, cinema domain context information abstracts complete
actor, director, musician…etc,. Where as directors, information of that context i.e., actors, producers, technical
cameraman, stunt masters, and technical groups…etc, would community personal details …etc,. The context information
like to view scenes pertaining to a specific theme or different associated to the cinema domain can be classified in to context
theme to improve or enhance their capabilities, skills or independent information and context dependent information as
knowledge. Themes may based on the interest of the viewer shown in Fig. 1
pertaining to
 Actor, comedian...
 Actions. (Happy, angry…etc,.)
 Events (celebrations-birthday, wedding, inauguration)
 Location (hill stations, 7 wonders of the world, etc.) Context independent
 Settings used. Context

 Subjective emotions (happiness, violence) Ontology

Context Dependent
 Costumes used…etc, (dragon, devil, god, special

 Including the presence of a specific type of object
(trains, cars,etc,. )
Figure.1 Context Information Classification

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Context Dependent Information: The information associated hierarchical structure clearly and can be used for application
with a particular cinema, like actors, directors‘ performance in systems such as video search engines for wide range of cinema
a specific cinema, group of people who are involved in a audio, producers, cameramen, directors, musicians …etc,.
cinema, team‘s performance in a cinema i.e. all information Cinema scene sub ontology is based on the cinema scenes and
associated to a particular cinema. classification of cinema scenes which may help various group
Context Independent Information: The general details about of people involved in cinema industry and the TV channels to
cinema celebrities like personal details, location details, movie go for theme, actor oriented entertainment programs. In this
hall details…etc means the information which does not ontology the data is arranged in such a way that the extraction
depends upon a particular cinema. or retrieval process will be improved and it will be based on
scene in the cinema.
The stake holder would like get the information about the
cinema and cinema celebrities. This gives the need for cinema IV. A PRACTICAL APPROACH
context sub ontology. Ontology plays a more important role in
Sousan W.L, Wylie, K.L, Zhengxin Chen in [13]
design and sharing of information. To make full use of
describes the method to construct Ontology from text. Xinli
available data and more efficient search for desired
and Zhao in [14] studied the government ontology and in [15]
information we need proper representation of knowledge.
construction of university course ontology is discussed. This
Effective structure of the knowledge improves the efficiency
section enters in to details of the method of constructing
of the retrieval system. In cinema context ontology the
cinema Ontology. Row cinema is observed by the human
knowledge is represented in such a way that the extraction or
observer and is segmented into scenes. Based on the theme in
retrieval process will be improved and it will be based on
the scene ontology these scenes are stored in a scene database.
context in the cinema. Context of the cinema like actors,
Each scene in the scene database is again given to the human
director, producer, story writer, editor, cameraman, banner,
observer to identify various concepts instances of the scene, to
release date ,success rate, awards won by etc, are is purely
create the annotation. The scene annotation supports the
text data which can be dealt as information extraction ,storage
cinema scene search and retrieval based on various concepts
and retrieval. To support these activities and to improve the
like themes, actor, location, action, event …etc, is as shown in
efficiency of the retrieval system information is stored and
Fig.2. Context dependent and context independent details are
retrieved based on the context sub ontology.
extracted and stored using object oriented concepts.
A. Cinema Scene Ontology
Cinema Ontology
Domain ontology is greatly useful in knowledge
acquisition, sharing and analysis. In order to acquire the
Cinema celebrities
richness and the entertainment contained in cinema we are Information
introducing cinema ontology. Craze on cinema celebrates and Context
cinema scene acted, directed, edited …etc, by specific
individuals of cinema industry …etc, are too high. The current Human Raw Cinema Scene
work is targeted for the cinema stakeholders. The stake holder Observer ontology.

would like to watch the scenes of cinema celebrities. This

gives the need for the cinema scene database, where the main Cinema Scenes Cinema
repository is cinema scenes from various movies based on the music
user interest. For all the above reasons there is a need to define
cinema scene ontology. The semantic concepts in generic to
cinema domain concept hierarchy and relationship between
the concepts, attributes of the concepts …etc, needs to be Figure.2 Construction of Cinema Ontology
considered. To support the cinema scene retrieval, there is a
need for cinema scene ontology in which knowledge The overall process can be formatted in the steps below.
pertaining to cinema scenes can be identified, represented and
classified. The concepts of cinema scenes are identified and Step1: Multiple cinemas are taken as the source of the
classified in general by considering multiple cinemas. Themes, semantic data. The power of ontology in organizing concepts
actors, actions, location, action …etc, are different concepts of can be used in modeling the video data.
the cinema scene ontology. Step2: Manual approach is adopted to identify the semantic
concepts in cinemas. Cinemas are segmented into different
Video scenes can be queried to their semantic content scenes based on the concepts.
which will increase the retrieval efficiency. The cinema scene Step3: Identify the concept hierarchy. Identify the abstract,
sub ontology supports semantic and concept based retrieval of concrete concept classes in cinema scenes.
cinema scenes. CO can reflect the cinema domain knowledge Step4: Concepts are classified into disjoint concepts,
overlapping concepts, range concepts …etc,.

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Step5: Build the ontology using ontology construction tool - ( Mark Musen‘s group at Stanford
protégé and the ontology graph to visualize and evaluate the University. We generated few figures with the onto graph
ontology. plug-in to protégé as depicted in Fig.3.a, Fig.3.b, Fig.3c. We
Step6: Post-construction analysis by domain expert. selected OWL, as the ontology language, which is standard
ontology language recommended by W3C.
Multiple cinema are taken as a source, and based on
which, core concepts, abstract concept class, concrete concept
classes, concept instances and the concept hierarchy between
them are identified. Manual annotation is generated for cinema
scenes. The main aim is to extract the semantics of cinema
scene using which semantic concepts can be detected and
concept information can be maintained.
A. Identification of Concept in Cinema Domain
Concept represent Themes, Events, Actions, Locations,
Emotion, Artist or anything that is desirable to mark the
presence in the media object. Concepts may be organized in to
hierarchies. The basic logical unit in the structure of cinema
domain is Scene. Based on cinema, we have segmented the
cinema into various Scene objects, which contains one
complete meaningful scene. A cinema contains concepts like Figure 3.a Onto graph showing cinema ontology
Themes, Events, Actions, Locations, Emotion, Artist …etc,. A
raw cinema V can be segmented in to n number of segments or
video objects VOi, i.e., V = {VO1, VO2,...VOi} where i ranges
from 1 to the number of scenes in the cinema. Each Cinema
contains a number of concepts.

Let C be the set of all possible concepts in a given

domain. C = {C1, C2 …Cj} where j ranges from 1 to the
possible number of concepts. The number of concepts and the
type of concepts depends on the abstract view of the
application and the user requirements. We now can view a raw
video as a collection of concepts, V = {C1, C2 …Ci}. Each
video object VOi contains set of concepts Cc which is a sub set
of the concept set C. VOi = {C1, C6, Cy, Cj….}. Concepts can
be classified in to concept class based on the concept type. A
concept can have z number of subclasses. For example, scene Figure 3.b Onto graph showing cinema ontology.
concept can be further classified into comedy, tragedy, fights,
romance …etc, based on the theme. Further a concept class
can have number of concept values, CCm = {CV1,CV2, ……},
where CVo is the possible values that the concept can have.
For example action concept can have subclasses as Fight,
comedy, Song, Tragedy …etc,. Multimedia objects are
described by a set of concepts C1, C2, C3.......Cn where n is
the number of concepts associated to cinema, each concept Ck
can have m concept values. i.e., VOi = {CC1 (CV1), CC2
(CV2)......CCn (CVm)}. E.g.: VOi = {Song (romantic), Hero
(Bachan), shot (trolley)}. Concepts can be identified and
added at any time which increases the flexibility of the
proposed model. User can browse a cinema based on the
semantic concepts like all comedy, tragedy, fighting, romantic Figure 3.c Onto graph showing cinema ontology.
…etc and they can search specific type of comedy scene like
comedy scenes in a song, comedy scenes in fighting …etc,. V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
[16][17][18] describes ontology tools. We have used Protégé
as an Ontology developing tool to implement our cinema Ontology is widely accepted technique for knowledge
ontology construction [19] [20]. Protégé was developed by system development. Ontology plays important role in design

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

and sharing of knowledge. Effective structure of the [5] Gruber T.R: Towards principles for the design of ontologies used
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[11] Shiyan Ou, Constantin Orasan, Dalila Mekhaldi, Laura Hasler,
Further studies can be done towards: Automatic Question Pattern Generation for Ontology-based
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Gijs Geleijnse A Case Study on Information Extraction from the
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT Description of the State-of-the-Art, Applications, Challenges and
Trends for Ontology Learning from Text,‖ Information,
This work has been partly done in the labs of
Wissenschaft und Praxis, Vol. 57, No. 6-7. (October 2006), pp.
Adhiyamaan College of Engineering where the first author is
currently working as a Professor& Director in the department [18] Duineveld A. et al. ―Wonder Tools‘? A Comparative Study of
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