Allah commands to justice and kindness.

God does not forbid you to be kind and just with them. God loves the just. Let not hatred sway you from justice. Be just. Justice is nearest RELATIONS to consciousness of God. Allah commands to WITH and kindness. justice God doesNON-MUSLIMS be kind not forbid you to and just with them. God loves the just. An introductory examination of the Let not hatred sway youpeaceful justice. Islamic textual evidence for from inter-faith Be just. Justice relations nearest to is consciousness of God. Allah commands to justice and kindness. Da‟wah God does notIslamicInstitute of Nigeria to be kind forbid Trust you Education and just with them. God loves the just. Let not hatred sway you from justice. Be just. Justice is nearest to consciousness of God. Allah commands to justice and kindness.

RELATIONS WITH NON-MUSLIMS
An introductory examination of the Islamic textual evidence for peaceful inter-faith relations

Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria Islamic Education Trust

2

©Islamic Education Trust, 1429/2008
ISBN 978-2159-52-2

All rights reserved: No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner except with written permission from the publisher. Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria Islamic Education Trust Headquarters PMB 229, Ilmi Avenue, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Phone: +234-803-600-5535 Email: dawahinstitute@yahoo.com Website: www.ietonline.org

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5. 8. 10. 2. 7. 6. 9. Authenticity of the Qur‟an Understanding Misconceptions About Islam Appreciating Diversity in Muslim Scholarship What is “Islamic” Culture? Should Muslim Women Speak? Muslim Women in the Public Space The Hijab Q & A Is Polygamy Fair to Women? Jihad and the Spread of Islam Sharing Islam through Dialogue 4 . 4. 3.Other Books in the Train-the-Trainers Course in Islam and Dialogue 101 Series: 1.

..................................................45 9) Concerns in selecting and initating friendships ...55 5 ...........46 10) Visiting and hosting non-Muslims...........................................51 12) Charity (sadaqah) to non-Muslims .......................................................................CONTENTS Foreword .............................................................16 1) Friendliness to all people as the rule ............................................39 7) Non-Muslims in the Mosque of the Prophet () ................52 13) Zakat al-Fitr to non-Muslims ..24 3) Terms denoting close and friendly relations in the Qur‟an ............................................................................................... 9 Notes on Terminology and Transliteration .....14 “Doesn‟t the Qur‟an oppose friendliness to non-Muslims?...........................................................................43 8) Good and bad members of all faith groups ............................. 7 Acknowledgements .27 5) Verses prescribing kindness not „abrogated‟ .........................................................22 2) Interfaith marriages and the quality of relationships ................................26 4) Commonly misinterpreted verses of the Qur‟an: ..................................49 11) Exchanging gifts with non-Muslims ............12 Preface… ......38 6) Trusting non-Muslims .......................................................................... ......................................................

..........63 16) Muslim minorities in non-Muslim territories .................................. 77 Bibliography.......................................................................57 15) Protection and security of non-Muslim Citizens.....14) Zakat to non-Muslims ......................................................79 Recommended Websites.........................................................68 17) Relations with non-Muslim parents and relatives ................................................................92 6 .....................73 19) Conclusion .................................................................................................................71 18) The sanctity of all human life ......................

restricted way of teaching Islam to children. and face questions they cannot answer. Due to the deficiencies of the common. 7 . and extending personal leadership training to others. It is in response to the need for empowering Muslims to know their religion. many Muslims grow up believing that Islam requires only blind faith and invites no intellectual challenges. Some misconceptions about Islam stem from calculated propaganda against Islam. that this work was begun. This effort is part of a wider project of intellectual empowerment of the global Muslim world. but a good amount of it is attributable to the ignorance of many Muslims whose limited knowledge and practice of Islam perpetuates these misconceptions. yet it is the most misunderstood of the world‟s major faiths. Among the programs designed by the Islamic Education Trust over the past decade and a half is the Train the Trainers Course (TTC) in Islam and Dialogue. The contents of this series of books evolved from teaching manuals from the TTC. Often such Muslims manage with minimal knowledge of their faith until they interact with larger circles of people. and to share its beautiful message with the rest of humanity. where they are confronted with many misconceptions about Islam.FOREWORD TO THE SERIES Islam is considered by many observers to be the fastest growing religion in the world. As its name indicates. It is hoped that this publication will serve as intellectual resource material for Muslims of different backgrounds. the course is designed to train da‟wah volunteers in clarifying misconceptions about Islam. in higher institutions or the work place. handling differences of opinion among Muslim scholars.

Justice Sheikh Ahmed Lemu. OFR National President Islamic Education Trust November 2008/Dhul-Qa‟dah. 1429 AH 8 .

Saudi Arabia. Contributions to the development of the course have come from Australia. Sierra Leone. age-groups. U. Kenya.. Ghana. and we continue to pray Allah to bless them with the best in this life and the next. Niger. and specializations. It has unfortunately become practically impossible to cite all who deserve mention . It is therefore with great pleasure that the Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria (DIN) takes this opportunity to express its sincere gratitude to all the brothers and sisters from all over the world. And may the peace and blessings of Allah be in His last messenger. South Africa. Liberia. Sudan. New Zealand. and from all over the world. who have in various ways contributed to the development of the Train the Trainers Course in Islam and Dialogue (TTC) and its study material of which this book is a part. and may Allah forgive us for any omissions. They have come from contributors of various backgrounds. Malaysia. The Prophet () said: “Whoever does not show gratitude to people does not show gratitude to Allah”.but Allah has counted them all. Sri Lanka. Bahrain. 9 . Prophet Muhammad. Cameroun..S. Nigeria. the Gambia. Burundi. both formally and informally. Qatar. Egypt. Jordan. through numerous channels. and most importantly. organizations. U. The material has evolved into its present form over a long period before and after the TTC became an organized course in 1994.K.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS All praise and gratitude is due to Allah Who has made this work possible.A. We will however mention at least the countries where the major contributors have come from. The contributions to the course and its material have come in many ways. the Philippines.

Others include numerous University departments. etc. content. We wish to acknowledge those who. and the DIN in particular. the reader. Justice Sheikh Ahmed Lemu and B. the Muslim Corpers Association of Nigeria (MCAN). style and preparation of the materials for printing include Justice Sheikh Ahmed Lemu. May the reward for whatever benefit comes from this material go to those who have in any way contributed to it. whose wisdom. we would like to acknowledge the following organizations for their key support in the development of the TTC material. B. who also located most of the references and citations in this work. Aisha Lemu. Aisha Lemu. The Da'wah Institute of Nigeria (DIN) takes full responsibility for any 10 . Others who greatly assisted in important capacities such as structure.In Nigeria. They include the Da‟wah Coordination Council of Nigeria (DCCN). Colleges of Education. had the greatest input to the TTC 101 Series. clarity. encouragement and leadership have helped bring the DIN to where it is today alhamdulillah and jazākum Allahu khair. the Federation of Muslim Women‟s Associations in Nigeria (FOMWAN). As only the Qur‟an is perfect. Abdullahi Orire. Salatu Sule. Muhammad Dukuly. this material will by Allah‟s leave continue to evolve through revisions and improvements with better contributions from people like you. Colleges of Arts and Islamic Legal Studies. I would like to pray for the Trustees and minds behind the Islamic Education Trust (IET). Nuruddeen Lemu. the Movement for Islamic Culture and Awareness (MICA). Isa Friday Okonkwo. to the best of our knowledge. Finally. and the Nasirul Fatih Society of Nigeria (NASFAT). the Muslim Students Society of Nigeria (MSSN). support. and Aliyu Badeggi. and on behalf of all the research team and staff of the Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria (DIN). The chief editor of the material was Asiya Rodrigo. inshā Allah. Bashir Mundi.

Alhaji Ibrahim Yahya Director Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria January. 2009 Muharram.imperfection in this work. 11 . 1430 A. and we pray that such will be forgiven by Allah and you the reader.H.

“pbuh” and others. peace and blessings be upon him.” Contemporary writings on Islam by Muslims use many variations and abbreviations of this benediction in Arabic or English or other languages such as “S.”. “Muhammad. p. “p”. In deciding which customary symbol to use. Reservations 1 Jeffrey Lang.NOTES ON TERMINOLOGY AND TRANSLITERATION  Use of “” It is a time-honored and cherished tradition among Muslims that whenever the name of any of the numerous Prophets of God is mentioned. USA: Amana Publications.” or the Prophet's name. It means “may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.s. it is worth mentioning that in manuscripts belonging to the first two centuries of Islam‟s intellectual heritage the writers did not rigidly adhere to the custom of writing a benediction after the Prophet‟s name1. and hence.W.A. 12 . wherever the title “the Prophet.a. there is no „best‟ way of representing it. 1994).” appears in this text. peace and blessings of God are invoked upon him.”.  References to ahadith2 and commentaries drawn from computer software Efforts have been made to ensure that all ahadith (narrations or reported actions of Prophet Muhammad ) in this material are drawn from reliable and well-respected collections.” “Messenger of Allah. “s”. ix. 2 Plural of hadith the narrations or reported actions of the Prophet Muhammad. Struggling to Surrender: Some Impressions of an American Convert to Islam (Beltsville. the blessing in Arabic () appears next to it.” “Apostle of Allah. In line with this tradition and the injunction in Qur‟an 33:56. “s.

we have omitted the diacritical dots and dashes which facilitate exact pronunciations. With a few exceptions. references to hadith collections that end with the phrase “in Alim 6.expressed by respected authorities about the authenticity of any hadith have been indicated in footnotes. With a few exceptions. even as its presence in this text indicates that it is considered authentic by other scholars of repute.0” throughout this material refer to those obtained from the Alim Version 6. 1986-2000). Hence. the details of which may be found in the International Journal of Middle East Studies. 13 .3 The present material has made use of some of these CD-ROMs for obtaining ahadith and their commentaries (tafasir).  Transliteration of Arabic words Modern Islamic literature in English utilizes a number of transliteration systems for Arabic words. for our ease and simplicity. References to collections of hadith commentaries which have been drawn from other CDROMs have been noted in footnotes throughout the text. The most commonly utilized CD-ROM database of hadith in English has been the Alim Version 6. An abundance of Islamic classical texts and some of their translations now exist on CD-ROMs. 3 4 Database software for viewing information on computers.4 However.0 database (ISL Software Corporation. It is expected that this should not render the words unreadable. this material has followed the system used by the majority.0 software.

In this context. television. Trade and services now transcend national boundaries while societies are becoming increasingly multicultural and multi-religious. but to share its beautiful message with the rest of humanity that this work was begun. Muslims live in a world where interactions between people of all faiths and nationalities are increasingly common. This da„wah-conducive relationship should not compromise Islamic values and the security of Muslims‟ lives. 14 . not only preserve their religion. radio. telephone or the internet. and are confronted with many misconceptions about Islam. Often such people are able to minimally manage their faith until they interact with larger circles of people in places. yet it is the most misunderstood of the world‟s major faiths. but for facilitating better communication and reception of the Islamic message. but a good amount of it is attributable to the ignorance of many Muslims whose limited knowledge and practice of Islam perpetuates these misconceptions. whether through travel. Misconceptions about Islam stem from calculated propaganda against Islam. Many Muslims grow up believing that Islam requires only blind faith and invites no intellectual challenges.PREFACE Islam is considered by many observers to be the fastest growing religion. such as schools or workplaces. peaceful and amicable relations between Muslims and other religious groups are essential not just for the advancement of Muslim societies. It is in response to the need for empowering Muslims to.

In fact. This position is commonly pushed by antagonists of Islam for the dual purpose of undermining a Muslim‟s pride in his faith and a non-Muslim‟s confidence in having any interactions with Muslims. the question discussed in this book is phrased as a non-Muslim might ask it. Hence.Yet many non-Muslims and even Muslims are of the opinion that Islam is inherently against any form of friendliness with those who do not ascribe to the faith. It is incumbent upon Muslims in today‟s world to understand the true positive and realistic attitude of Islam to interfaith relations in order to feel uplifted and strengthened against those who may attempt to undermine their faith. many assume that Islam prescribes the normative relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims to be one of war and intolerance. 15 .

and neither drive you forth from your homelands. God only forbids you to turn in friendship towards such as fight against you because of (your) faith. God loves those who act equitably. “As for such (of the unbelievers) as do not fight against you on account of (your) faith. does the Qur‟an not teach against friendliness with nonMuslims (as in Qur‟an 5:51. See the book by the same title. This position is summarized in Qur‟an 60:8-9 which says. his reward rests with God…” they who are truly wrongdoers!” Qur‟an 42:40. friendly.org for more information on this.ietonline.” Muslims and non-Muslims Qur‟an 60:7 abundantly clear. 3:28)?” whom you (now) hold as enemies: for The Qur‟an and Hadith Allah has power (over all things). or aid (others) in driving you forth: and as for those (from among you) who turn “…whoever pardons (his foe) and toward them in friendship. “It may be that Allah will grant love (and friendship) between you and those 57. it is they.RELATIONS WITH NON-MUSLIMS5 Question: “Even though some Muslims appear to be friendly with non-Muslims. The relations with hostile or aggressive non-Muslims is treated under the topic “Jihad and the Spread of Islam” in the relevant sections of the Train-the-Trainers Course in Islam and Dialogue of the Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria. makes peace. and drive you forth from your homelands.43 This topic treats relations with the usual majority of peaceful. God does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave towards them with full equity: for verily. or non-hostile non-Muslims. 5 16 . and make the position of Islam Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most on the relationships between Merciful. or visit www.

60:8.39. It further reaffirms that all those who do not fight Muslims should not even engage the Muslims or drive them them in argument “except in a most out from their homes. even though they may not be allies. p. cited in Muhammad Asad.“The expression „God does not forbid you‟ implies in this context a Tabari explains that. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities: Some Basic Reflections (London: International Institute of Islamic Thought. footnote to Q. 1980). “The positive exhortation.”7 In his Tafsir (commentary) on Q.29:46). cited in Taha Jabir al-Alwani.” Jawzi says.”6 In other most credible view is that words. Imam Al-Qurtubi said: “This verse (Qur‟an 60:8) permits association with those who have not Zamakhshari.without qualification. “This verse permits association with those who have not declared war against the Muslims and allows kindness towards them. p. exception or kindly manner” (Q. Ibn al.8. Muslims are enjoined to the verse refers to people of relate with non-Muslims amicably. religions who should be unless they are hostile.26 6 17 .60:8-9 7 Zad al-Masir. 2003). persecute shown kindness and treated or drive Muslims out of their equitably. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. vol. Allah referred to homes. all kinds of creeds and with kindness and with justice.

quoted by Shaykh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghudda.789 for the hadith. Trans.3. p. See Sahih alBukhari. It was said that this verse was revealed in this specific incident.Ibn al-Jawzi when she asked the Prophet () if she could receive and be kind to her non-Muslim mother who visited her in Madinah and the Prophet () said „Yes‟.The majority of commentators have agreed that this verse has not been abrogated. Hassan Al-Banna (Awakening Publications. without exception or qualification.” Tabari further explains that.60:8]. In answer to her question. Q. Allah referred to all those who do not fight the Muslims or drive them out from their homes.76-77. vol.e. and it allows kindness towards them. 2001).8 declared war against the Muslims. They cited the story reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim of Asmā‟ bint Abubakr . Edited by S.”9 Al-Qurtubi. even though they may not be allies. Allah revealed this verse [i. 9 Cited in Taha Jabir al-Alwani. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities: Some Basic Reflections (London: International Institute of Islamic Thought. the mother visited her daughter in Madinah and brought her a pair of earrings and other gifts. no. by Muhammad Zahid Abu Ghudda. “The most credible view is that the verse refers to people of all kinds of creeds and religions who should be shown kindness and treated equitably. Asmā‟ was reluctant to accept the gifts before asking the Prophet. the mother of Asmā‟. before accepting Islam. Islamic Manners. When the truce was held between the Prophet and the pagans of the Quraish. Abubakr divorced his wife Qatila. pp.M. 2003). Al-Mawardi and Abu Dawood reported that Amir ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Zubair narrated that his father told him that.26 8 18 .

goodness) and taqwa (piety. 1999 edition). Allah does not love the spreaders of corruption” (Q. UK: The Islamic Foundation. 1998). and Mohammad Hashim Kamali. 1997). or debatable. with non-hostile non-Muslims is permitted in Islam. 3:104.28:77). verily. 5:2. An examination of Islamic sources addressing the general treatment of non-Muslims results in the following observations. novel. Qawa‟id al-Fiqh: The Legal Maxims of Islamic Law. 177. For more information on this and other principles of Usul al-Fiqh. 33:35. This is the first principle of Usul al-Fiqh which in Arabic is called “Al„asl fil ashyā„i al-ibaahah” (“the legal premise of everything is permissibility”).When it comes to social relationships. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Kuala Lumpur. Mohammad Hashim Kamali‟s excellent work.2. the principle of jurisprudence stands that everything is permissible except where there is an explicit and decisive verse from the Qur‟an or Sunnah stipulating otherwise. 2002).2:44. which fall under the category of mu„āmalāt (social transactions). Michael Mumisa‟s Islamic Law: Theory and Interpretation (Belstville. 2003). pp. see Tariq Ramadan‟s “Some General Rulings of Usul al-Fiqh” in To Be a European Muslim (Leicester.10 The normative stance of Islam is that Muslims are enjoined to relate with all people with birr (righteousness.3-7. p. and 58:9. and Wael B. See Yusuf al-Qaradawi‟s discussion of this principle in The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (London: Al-Birr Foundation. UK. then. USA: Amana Publications.11 Friendliness. which readers may variously consider as either obvious. Q. (The Association of Muslim Lawyers. 3:92. Hallaq‟s A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni Usul al-Fiqh (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and seek not to spread corruption on earth: for. God-consciousness). 10 19 . “…and do good (unto others) as Allah has done good unto you. 1999). for example. Malaysia: Ilmiah Publishers. 11 See.

5) Many esteemed classical commentators of the Qur‟an state that verses prescribing kindness to non-aggressive nonMuslims are not abrogated by subsequently revealed verses. 3:110. 3:100. 3) The Qur‟an uses a number of terms denoting friendly relations with reference to Muslims as well as nonMuslims. 12 20 . 5:77. he would not have done so. 3:113. 7) The Prophet‟s openness to friendly relations with nonMuslims was such that he freely allowed them into his mosque to resolve upon mutual pacts and alliances as late as 10A.H. If all non-Muslims are enemies by default and not to be befriended.12 2) The permissibility of marriage between Muslim men and Alh al-Kitab women is proof that Islam favors harmonious relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims. etc. 2:144-146. while in some cases more intimate relationships may be extended to Christians and Jews. 29:46-47. 2:213. 4:131. 8) Islamic sources make it clear that there are good and bad members of all faith groups. Examples of the Qur‟an‟s use of the expression “Ahl al-Kitab” include 2:105. 2:109. 6) The Prophet () trusted certain non-Muslims with his life and the lives of other Muslims. 4) Certain verses of the Qur‟an have been misinterpreted to suggest that Muslims may not befriend any non-Muslim under any circumstance. who are described in the Qur‟an as “Ahl al-Kitab” (“People of the Book” in English). 4:123.1) Friendliness to people of other faiths is permitted in Islam. 2:159. The type of individuals that are trustworthy may thus be derived from the Qur‟an and Sunnah.

15) Islamic law specifies that non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic territory must be protected.9) Muslims are to take care in selecting and initiating positive friendships and influences. 16) Muslim minorities in non-Muslim territories are obliged to honor their terms of residence and cultivate a local Muslim identity in keeping with the way of a society and positive Islamic contribution. Therefore. 14) Some scholars also permit giving Zakat to non-Muslims under at least one category of beneficiaries listed by Q. irrespective of faith. given by Muslims as a spiritual complement to their fast of Ramadan. accept invitations from non-Muslims. and host non-Muslims in their homes. 13) Charity to non-Muslims may take the form of Zakat al-Fitr. The preceding points are discussed in further detail throughout the remainder of this book. 11) Cementing positive relationships through exchanging gifts with non-Muslims is also permitted in Islam. 10) Muslims are allowed to visit non-Muslim associates and neighbors. 21 . including non-Muslims. 17) Muslims are also expected to be dutiful to their nonMuslim parents and kin. is encouraged as the norm. 12) Kindness and friendly gestures such as giving charity (sadaqah) to all people. respect and good treatment to others. is encouraged in Islam.9:60. 18) Islam views every human life as sacred and containing a spirit from God (Allah) in it.

charity. 1961). 14 The Qur‟anic term birr.1) Friendliness to all faiths.332. 2003). section: “The Meat of Zoroastrians and Others Like Them” p.108. integrity. n. such as the Zoroastrians (Majus).vi. mentioned in the Qur‟an (60:10. equity. p. p. the Prophet () is reported to have said. Kitab al-Kharaj. peaceful relationship spoken of in Qur‟an 60:8-9 (cited on page 13) applies to all peace-loving “I have not been sent as the invoker non-Muslims. This does not detract from the prohibition of eating the meat slaughtered by polytheists (Q. polytheistic. pp. 5:3. encompasses all forms of sincere goodness. 2:221.2:173.25 15 Reported by Malik and al-Shafi‟i. I have only been sent as a of monotheistic. See Q:2:177. Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan. transmitted in Sahih Muslim Regarding the general treatment of non-monotheists. Islam in Focus (Riyadh: WAMY 1994). a believing slave woman is better than a free mushrik woman even though she pleases you. Chapter 2. cited in Sa‟id Ramadan. (Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi‟s The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. 6:121) and the prohibition of marriage to their women. mercy. Section: “The Meat of Zoroastrians and Others Like Them” (London: Al-Birr Foundation. 5:5). whether they are of curses. Also see Abu Yusuf. p. love. p. What usually comes at the end of reports of this hadith (i.e.: “(But) Do not marry their women nor eat their meat”) is not considered authentic by the compilers of ahadith. "Treat them as you treat the People of the Book”.130-131. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi‟s The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. and Hammudah Abdalati.” or non-religious persuasions. For reasons why some scholars prefer this translation of the term “Ahl al-Kitab”. compassion. and righteousness. and more intimate relationships with the “People of the Book”13 The kindness14 and fair. The Message of The Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus). see Muhammad Asad. devotion. Chapter 2.15 The 13 Or “People of Earlier Revelation”.Prophet Muhammad. translated here as “kindness”. .41). is still applicable: “Do not marry mushrik women until they become believers. 22 .49.

11.190.17 Hence.108 18 See footnote 8 for examples of the Qur‟an‟s use of the expression “Ahl alKitab” (“People of the Book”) in reference to Jews and Christians. p. see the relevant sections of the Train the Trainers Course in Islam and Dialogue material (produced by the Da„wah Institute of Nigeria).26-27. p.majority of scholars state that Zoroastrians are polytheists16 and thus that this precedent . 1998) p. Fiqh al-Aqalliyat al-Muslimah (Lebanon: Darul-Iman. Tafsir al Manar. 1961). marriage to polytheists and eating of their slaughtered meat is not permissible to Muslims19. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (London: AlBirr Foundation. (Dar al-Kutub Beirut 2001) Vol. 6.49 17 Sa‟id Ramadan. Zaidan. Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. the statement of the Prophet () is interpreted to mean that non-Jews and non-Christians may be treated with the rights. as Allah says in the Qur‟an. (Mu‟assasat al Risalah."Treat them as you treat the People of the Book” . For further reading on the views of scholars on who the “Ahl-al-Kitab” are and whether they still exist today.18 Though. Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Jawzy. Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan.2:221). ethical and spiritual reasons. Qurtubi. Al-Jami' Ahkam al-Qur'an.307: Rashid Rida. 2003). 6.also applies to people of other creeds besides the People of the Book. Also see Sheikh Khalid Abdul-Qadir.60:10 and 2:221 – quoted in footnote 9 above 23 . p. “Do not revile those whom others invoke instead of God. Vol. www. Disgracing or reviling others‟ beliefs is forbidden in Islam. kindness and friendliness accorded to Jews and Christians (“People of the Book”). kindness and justice are to be given to all nonMuslims.com 2002. for moral. Al Mufassal fi Ahkam al Mar‟ah. p. 16 Yusuf al-Qaradawi. p. 1993)Vol. lest they in retaliation revile Allah out of ignorance” Likewise. Beirut.el-ariss. do not marry (your girls to) mushrik men until they become believers. 19 See Q. 6. a believing slave man is better than a free mushrik man even though he pleases you…” (Q. Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah in CD Rom "Maktabah Ibn Taymiyyah.

The Prophet () exemplified this in his response when it was said to him. he is also reported to have said. and when Aisha wanted to retort to some Jews who had insulted the Prophet (). prohibited for a Muslim woman.1192 in Alim 6.0 23 See Q.”20 In another hadith.0 Sahih Muslim.410 in Alim 6.24 2) Sanction for interfaith marriage as proof of Islam‟s promotion of harmonious interfaith relationships The fact that Islam would tolerate a Muslim man initiating and having a relationship as 20 21 Islam would tolerate a Muslim man initiating and having a relationship as close and intimate as that of marriage with a Christian or Jewish wife.5:5 24 .5:5. “I have not been sent as the invoker of curses. I have only been sent as a mercy. be gentle and beware of being harsh and of saying evil things. no. in spite of the difference in faith. no. The wisdom of this prohibition is discussed further in the topic “Why can‟t a Muslim woman marry a non-Muslim man?” found in the relevant sections of Train the Trainers Course in Islam and Dialogue by the Da„wah Institute of Nigeria.6:108). Muslims are also allowed to eat meat slaughtered by Jews or Christians. no. “Pray to Allah against the polytheists and curse them!” The Messenger () replied. “I have been sent to join ties of relationship”21.0 22 Sahih al-Bukhari.(Q. 24 See Q. “O Aisha.”22 This considerate relationship is extended to the permission for Muslim men to marry upright or chaste Christian or Jewish women (“People of the Book”)23. Marriage to any non-Muslim man is.410 in Alim 6.8. he said to her. Sahih Muslim. however. vol.

Contemporary canons of Catholicism and guidelines for pastoral practice in Protestant churches.25 It is also proof that Islam does allow genuine friendship with non-Muslims. In Christianity. Exodus 34:12-16. whether male or female. 25 This level of respect and.30:21) – qualities that also characterize the closest of friends. in the Bible. such a marriage should not be allowed to undermine Islamic ideals. (See legal studies on Christianity and Judaism. indeed. See also further readings referred to in footnote 9 above. love is not morally permissible to initiate in some other religions. Nehemiah 13:25-27. and irrespective of the person‟s faith.) titled: “Is the food of Non-Muslims permissible to eat?”. This prohibition is derived by Christian and Jewish scholars in view of II Corinthians 6:14-15. Deuteronomy 7:1-4.close and intimate as that of marriage with a Christian or Jewish woman.org/ifm_bibl. in spite of the difference in faith.religioustolerance. “Why can a Muslim man marry a Jewish or Christian woman?” and “Why can‟t a Muslim woman marry a Non-Muslim man?”. 26 For more on the subject of relations with People of the Book. 25 . I Corinthians 7:39. however. accommodate the fact that interfaith marriages are legitimate in common law. for example. etc.htm. See: http://www. cit. for more information about Biblical teachings on inter-faith marriages.26 As with all relationships. however. for marriage is a relationship that the Qur‟an characterizes as one of “tranquility” and “mutual love and mercy” (Q. 2005. refer to topics in the relevant sections of the Train the Trainers Course (TTC) in Islam and Dialogue (op. points to the extent of expression of love and kindness that a Muslim is allowed to offer some non-Muslims. where any form of interfaith marriage is prohibited. Ezra 10:2-3. an already existing interfaith marriage is tolerated if one of the partners accepts Christianity and the other does not (I Corinthians 7:12-14)).

The Holy Qur‟an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary.3) Some Qur‟anic terms for close relationships do not exclude non-Muslims in their scope The Qur‟an uses different terms to express a degree of close or positive association between people. which may include non-Muslims. p. n. while Q. Mawaddah – “love. and mawaddah in the following verses: a. Most Merciful. These include the terms: hubb. akh.3388. Abu Talib. And Allah has power over all things. and Allah is Oft-Forgiving. you cannot guide aright everyone whom you love (man ahbabta).” This verse was revealed in relation to the Prophet‟s uncle.1136. Hubb – “love” (as in Q. The verse is a clear indication of the fact that nonMuslims may be among those whom we love and hold even our closest relationships with. Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur‟an Printing Complex. Q. Akh – “brother”.28:56) – “Verily.” This verse refers to Allah‟s ability to place love (or at least warm sentiment) between oneself and one‟s enemies. c.27 b. For 27 Yusuf Ali. 26 . and He is fully aware of all those who receive guidance. but it is Allah who guides whom He wills. IFTA.60:7) – “Perhaps Allah will make friendly relations between you and those whom you hold as enemies. 1411H). Revised by The Presidency of Islamic Researches. friendly relations” (as in Q.30:21 also speaks of love between husbands and wives. who supported him and whom he loved dearly but could not convince to become a Muslim. as understood from the context of verses 8 and 9 of the same chapter which refer to kindness to NonMuslims who do not fight against Muslims. The Qur‟an refers to Prophets and the people they deliver their Message to as brethren.5:82 mentions Christians being nearest in love to the believers.

superior. The relationship term “brother” may thus be addressed to them.26:124. But he looked upon his people as his brethren. 11:50. Yusuf Ali makes the following comment on the use of the word “brethren”: Note that Lot‟s people are the people to whom he is sent on a mission. “helper”. n. 11:84.50:12-14). The term “their brother” is also mentioned with respect to Nuh (Q.1049 to Q. as was Salih or Shu„aib. 7:85. willing subordinate.. Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur‟an Printing Complex. as a man of God always does..28 In other words. guardian. and not just to fellow Muslim believers.” (Q. 46:21). IFTA. “protector”.422. master. 11:61). 29:36). He was not one of their own brethren. 27:46.26:106). 28 “The term wali has several shades of meaning: “ally”.26:142.example. “friend”. etc.26:176. The Holy Qur‟an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary. responsible manager. Revised by The Presidency of Islamic Researches. Salih (Q. 4) Commonly misinterpreted verses of the Qur‟an: Many misinterpreted verses of the Qur‟an make use of the term “wali” which means protector. 7:73. and Shu„aib (Q.7:80 27 . confidante. The choice of the particular term – and sometimes a combination of two terms is always dependent on the context. p. 1411H). Hud (Q.” . non-Muslims also belong to the brotherhood of humanity. “guardian”. or favored servant or companion.Muhammad Asad Yusuf Ali. 7:65. “…the brethren of Lut.

The choice of the particular term – and sometimes a combination of two terms is always dependent on the context.29 Muhammad Asad notes: It should also be borne in mind that the term wali has several shades of meaning: “ally”. he who does this cuts himself from God in everything – unless you fear from them something that is to be feared (to protect yourselves against them in this way)…” This injunction is logical from any religion‟s point of view. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. “helper”. 1996). it would be hypocritical truth for their allies for any believer to ally himself with a (awliyā’) in preference denier of truth in preference to fellow to the believers – since believers. 1980). In cases where the interests of the “deniers of truth” clash with the interests of the faithful. p.30 Let us examine some examples of misinterpreted verses one by one: a. “protector”.155 28 . Qur‟an 3:28: In cases where the interests of the “Let not the believers “deniers of truth” clash with the interests take those who deny the of the faithful. etc. Lebanon: Dar El-Ilm Lilmalayin.1248 M. it would be hypocritical for any believer to ally himself with a denier of truth in preference to fellow believers. p.The term often implies one party being superior in rank and authority to another. “friend”. This understanding is consistent with a number of 29 30 Al-Mawrid (Beirut. Verses such as this one imply that a hierarchical relationship (where deniers of truth have authority over believers) should not be sought after. Asad. “guardian”.

32 This explanation may be found in the Tafsir of Ibn Kathir. he becomes an enemy and hates whatever disagrees with the [beliefs of those he has supported]. and will be judged according to the same judgments that are Not taking disbelievers as “awliyā‟” does not mean one applied to these people.50. in preference to other Muslims who have their interests at heart. offering them your love even though they have rejected the truth that has come to you and driven out the Messenger and yourselves simply because you believe in Allah. If he is content with their beliefs and their religion. Imam al-Tabari explains that: Whoever is loyal to Jews and Christians against believers is one of them… No one can be loyal to others unless he is part of them and is content with that.other verses which encourage guardianship and protection between believers. Lebanon: Ariss Computers Inc..3:28 is that relationships of the Prophet Allah forbids his servants from () and the expressions of taking a party of disbelievers as positive relations in the “awliyā‟” and extending love to Qur‟an as mentioned above. there will be tumult and 31 Tafsir al-Tabari.60:1: “…take not my enemies and yours as awliyā‟. Unless you do likewise. NonMuslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. emphasis added. vol. them at the expense of believers. in Maktab Taalib al-Ilm CD-ROM (Beirut. 29 .179. as Ibn Kathir‟s comments that demonstrated by the what is meant in Q. p.6. your Sustainer…”32 It also relates to Q.8:73 which states. 2002). and that this corroborates Allah‟s words in Q. 2004). “Those who deny the truth are awliyā‟ of one another. p. and discourage Muslims from taking protection from non-Muslims who subordinate them.31 cannot bring them close. quoted in Salim Al-Bahnasawy.

1411H). cited in Alim 6. IFTA. and precludes the possibility of their ever being real friends [supporters in faith] to the believers. otherwise the world will give way to aggression and chaos. of course.) mentioned in this verse does not generally prohibit a friendly relationship with non-Muslims. the degree of “al-walā‟” (i. elaborates that the message of this “The fact that their being bent on denying the truth of the divine message constitutes. etc. n.34 Hence. Revised by The Presidency of Islamic Researches.e. it condemns favoritism and preference for disbelievers. as it were. in this context as „allies‟” . not taking disbelievers as “awliyā‟ ” does not mean one cannot bring them close. This refers. to relations between communities. Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur‟an Printing Complex. alliance. the verse is not condemning general friendliness to nonMuslims. particularly those who have recently persecuted or are presently persecuting Muslims. The Holy Qur‟an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary. Rather. Yusuf Ali. a common denominator between them. as demonstrated by the relationships of the Prophet () and the expressions of positive relations in the Qur‟an as mentioned above. 33 34 Ibid.1242. Hence. guardianship.oppression on earth. protection.”33 Yusuf Ali verse is that the good should consort with the good just as the evil consort with each other.0 30 . and not necessarily between individuals: hence the rendering of the term awliya.Muhammad Asad Moreover.

31 . Muhammad Asad (1980) writes: wali) does not indicate in this context. while all power and authority belong to Allah.36 Al-Qurtubi states that those referred to in the verse are hypocrites (munafiqun) who connive with others against Islam in order to win recognition and favor. Since an imitation of the way of life of confirmed unbelievers must obviously conflict with the moral principles demanded by true faith. p. Qur‟an 4:139: “As for those who take the deniers of truth for their allies (awliyā’) in preference to the believers – do they hope to be honored by them. Here. is evidence that rebelling against the 35 M. merely political alliances. sing. This verse is similar in meaning to the preceding one. 2002). and also does not negate general friendly relations. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. in the hope of being „honored‟ or accepted as equal. sing. but more than anything else a „moral alliance‟ with the deniers of truth in preference to the way of life of the believers.. when behold. all honor belongs to God (alone). but more than anything else a „moral alliance‟ with the deniers of truth in preference to the way of life of the believers.35 Ibn Kathir states that the verse rebukes believers who seek eminence in the eyes of disbelievers. 1980). This. wali) does not indicate in this context.” The term „allies‟ (awliyā‟. The term „allies‟ (awliyā‟.b. by the former.131 36 Tafsir of Ibn Kathir. by the former. he says. in the hope of being „honored‟ or accepted as equal. Asad. Lebanon: Ariss Computers Inc. believers are discouraged from seeking an alliance which may make them subordinate to disbelievers in order to be accepted. merely political alliances. it unavoidably leads to a gradual abandonment of those principles. in Maktab Taalib al-Ilm CD-ROM (Beirut.

as it were. Muhammad Asad‟s commentary of Q. However. The Message of the Qur‟an.5:51 is: “The fact that their being bent on denying the truth of the divine message constitutes. n. and not necessarily between individuals: hence the rendering of the term awliya.38 should not be sought after as guardians wielding authority over them. p. He also states that it is said that the verse was revealed concerning a hypocrite called Abu Lubabah. cit. in Maktab Taalib al-Ilm. 1980. 38 32 .82). Asad. Al-Qurtubi states that in doing so.37 c. of course. op.4:139 above. Believers are warned that Jews and Christians. Sa'di said it was revealed concerning the event of Uhud. Another narration said it was revealed in the case of Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salool. when the Muslims were afraid to the extent that some of them decided to take the Christians and Jews as confidantes. who was afraid of being involved in a calamity and thus took protection among the Jews. in this context as „allies‟” (M. Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. as communities. Qur‟an 5:51: “O you who have attained to faith! Do not take the Jews and Christians for your allies/protectors (awliyā’): they are but allies/protectors (awliyā’) of one another…” The meaning of this verse is related to that of Q. and precludes the possibility of their ever being real friends [supporting in faith] to the believers. This refers.253.people of tawheed (pure Islamic monotheism) is a sign of hypocrisy. to relations between communities. Al-Qurtubi states that those addressed in this verse are hypocrites who were apparently among the Madinan believers but who were associating with disbelieving opponents and revealing Muslims‟ secrets to them. a verse identical in substance to Q. a common denominator between them. Abdullah ibn Ubayy was considered by Allah to be among 37 Tafsir al-Qurtubi.8:73. as they have their own interests to protect and would not be committed to protecting the interests of Islam.

and Muslims should not hope to attain their favor as opposed to the favor of Allah. This point is expressed in another verse. would never find any 39 Ibid. but they do not love you… (Q.them. helper against Allah.Ibn Kathir This verse is closely related to the verses mentioned earlier which make the realistic observation that disbelievers are not suited to safeguard Muslims‟ interests because they have their own interests to protect. Allah was assuring the Prophet () that he should not be stirred by their disputation for their hearts.’ Were you to follow their desires after the The verse (Q.3:118-119) Ibn Kathir comments that Qatadah narrated that Q. Thus have We made clear to you the signs. but what their hearts conceal is still greater.2:120 was revealed in the specific context of the Prophet‟s discussions with some People of the Book. particularly regarding antagonist non-Muslims: They will spare nothing to ruin you.” . they yearn for what makes you suffer. 2:120) was revealed knowledge which has in the specific context of the reached you. Hatred has been expressed by their mouths. Say: ‘The Guidance of Allah – that is the only Guidance. Qur‟an 2:120: “Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with you unless you follow their form of religion.39 d. since they had willfully disobeyed Allah and His Prophet and yet he inclined towards them. having already been satisfied with disbelief. 33 . Lo! You love them. then would you Prophet‟s discussions with some find neither protector nor People of the Book. if you possess understanding.

the warning to desist from reverting to error.) 42 Tafsir Ibn Kathir. etc.40 Ibn Kathir also said that the verse contains a strong warning for Muslims to avoid following the (religious) paths of Jews and Christians41 after what they (i. while he should know that he is upon true guidance.3:118-119 apply to particular communities. in Maktab Taalib al-Ilm CD-ROM (Beirut. Furthermore. We may therefore safely conclude that though Q. 40 Tafsir of Ibn Kathir. 34 .42 The Qur‟an declares itself as the final and most preserved revelation.explanation by the Prophet () satisfactory. Lebanon: Ariss Computers Inc. Shafi„i. as opposed to truth. 41 Al-Qurtubi states that a great number of scholars such as Abu Hanifa. op. Ahmad ibn Hanbal. rather than the attitudes and sincerity of individuals among them who may be favorably disposed towards Islam and Muslims.. op. cit. and may even. and their religious paths.e. hold the view that disbelief in its entirety is one path. Others remain non-Muslim but bear no ill will towards Islam or Muslims. they do not necessarily apply to every one of its members. and thus do become satisfied with it. come to its defense for the sake of justice or filial duty.2:120 and Q. while Malik and Ahmad hold that disbelief has many different paths (Maktab Taalib al-Ilm. cit. Muslims) have learned of the truth from the Qur‟an and example of the Prophet (). like the Prophet‟s uncle Abu Talib. One may infer from these explanations that the verse refers to Jews and Christians as a group. 2002). it is common knowledge that many individuals from among non-Muslim communities embrace Islam wholeheartedly. and a correction of the errors of belief and practice of those claiming allegiance to earlier revelations – hence. Dawood.

(one who ascribes divinity to others 9 (and implied in Q5:57 besides Allah) as being najas above). and in that which has been sent down to us and in that which has been sent down before…(Q. that is harm from them is a matter of because they are a people who discretion which the majority of understand not. do you criticize . as well as the (impure) because of their shirk numerous sayings and (ascribing divinity to others besides actions of the Prophet Allah) – the shirk being what is Muhammad (). they take it (but) as a benefit the believers or prevent mockery and fun. or (from among) those who deny the truth…” The type of disbelievers referred to in the verse above is made clearer through an examination of the verses that follow: “…making alliances with nonAnd when you proclaim the call Muslims in ways that will to prayer.5:58-59) As has been made Ibn Abbas considered the mushrik abundantly clear in Q.Rashid Rida us for no other reason than that we believe in Allah.e. Say.60:7. this actually najas.” of the Scripture.Qurtubi alliance‟ with non-Muslims who mock Islam does not constitute an injunction against normal friendly relations with those of them that interact with Muslims 35 . prohibition of a „moral . Qur‟an 5:57: “O you who have attained to faith! Do not take for yourselves allies/protectors (awliyā’) such as mock at your faith and make a jest of it – be they from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time. „O people scholars have permitted.

Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam. and drive you forth from your homelands.” (Tafsir al-Manar.). 2004. it is they. nor is it an injunction against accepting assistance from non-Muslims whose sincerity is not in doubt. “Forbidden in the issue of showing loyalty is when Muslims show loyalty to Jews and Christians and make alliances with them to support them against other Muslims or to convene with them against other Muslims. they who are truly wrongdoers! (Q. have preserved the 43 Such as some of the Prophet‟s uncles and non-Muslim political allies – see relevant section on “Trusting Non-Muslims” below. f.81-82. quoted in Salim Al-Bahnasawy. The term „najas‟ occurs in the Qur‟an only in this one instance. 322 ff. etc. Sheikh Muhammad Rashid Rida also writes.16. the Bedouin of Central and Eastern Arabia – who.. Muslims cannot touch non-Muslims. let alone show them affection or allow them into mosques. But making alliances with non-Muslims in ways that will benefit the believers or preventing harm from them is a matter of discretion which the majority of scholars have permitted. and carries an exclusively spiritual meaning (see Manar X.” Some conclude from this verse that since non-Muslims are “impure”. contrary to the modern town-dwellers. pp.60:9) It may be inferred from this that Muslims may “tawalla” (i. “turn to”) those non-Muslims that do not fight against or support those who fight against Muslims on account of their faith.52) 36 . p.respectfully or peacefully.. or aid (others) in driving you forth: and as for those (from among you) who turn toward them in friendship.e.43 God only forbids you to turn in friendship towards (an tawallawhum) such as fight against you because of (your) faith. Qur‟an 9:28: “O you who have attained to faith! Those who ascribe divinity to aught besides God (mushrikūn) are nothing but impure (najas). Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. and so they shall not approach the Secure House of Worship from this year onwards. vol. However. To this day.

44 Al-Qurtubi cites views of scholars such as the Companion. vol. p. 47 Tafsir al-Tabari. n. p.6 (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah. Ibn Abbas. The Prophet () replied that a true believer is never impure. who consider the mushrik (one who ascribes divinity to others besides Allah) as being najas (impure) because of their shirk (ascribing divinity to others besides Allah) – the shirk being what is actually najas.46 Al-Tabari cites a narration where the Prophet () took Hudhayfah by the hand whereupon he (Hudhayfah) said he was in a state of junub (impurity).103 46 Ibid.purity of the Arabic idiom to a high degree – describe a person [even a Muslim] who is immoral. Ibn Abdul-Hakam opines that this najas is removed upon the acceptance of Islam. faithless or wicked as najas.45 Accordingly. This narration implies that an individual‟s real purity or impurity rests in the purity of his faith. and not necessarily the individual‟s physical entity. vol.48 The fact that the Qur‟an also permits marriage to a Jewish or Christian woman further proves that this verse does not ascribe 44 Muhammad Asad. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus.261. 1980). 1992).345 48 See section on “Non-Muslims were allowed into the Mosque of the Prophet” below. 1985).47 The text of this verse is explicit that any prohibition of nonMuslims entering mosques refers specifically to the Protected Mosque of Makkah (al-Masjid al-Harām).8 (Beirut: Dar Ihya at-Turath al-Arab. This is supported by the Prophet‟s () allowing non-Muslims into his Mosque in Madinah after this verse was revealed.37 45 Tafsir al-Qurtubi. p. 37 .

as a number of great Qur‟anic commentators have made very clear. Also. an impurity of faith. 1999).” 49 See Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged).4 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers). verses of the Qur‟an which enjoin peaceful relations with peaceful non-Muslims are fixed rules. vol. rather. Safi. An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur‟an (UK: Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution. and Louay M. concept of God. without relating them to several others that explain the whole subject better.402 50 See for example Abu Ammaar Yasir Qadhi. USA: IIIT. see another book in this series titled “Jihad and the Spread of Islam. and understanding of His will. will not repay it unless you constantly stand demandingly over them.50 “Among the People of the Book are some who. there is a tendency among some people to take some passages or verses in the Qur‟an or hadith in isolation from their context. will (readily) pay it back. Peace and the Limits of War: Transcending Classical Conception of Jihad (Herndon. others. p.49 5) No abrogation of verses prescribing friendliness with non-Muslims Unfortunately.254. who. if entrusted with a single silver coin. and have not been “abrogated” (“mansūkh”) by any other verse of the Qur‟an. 2001) for more details.” 38 . p. if entrusted with a hoard of gold. 9). 58:22 and 60:1. These verses often relate to non-Muslims who are hostile to Islam and have made war upon Muslims (as explicitly mentioned in Qur‟an 3:118-119. For further discussion on the subject of the “verse of the sword” abrogating all other references to friendly coexistence with non-Muslims.physical impurity to non-Muslims.

Seeking help from non-Muslims was also done at the time of the Prophet () and is thus permissible provided it does not endanger or compromise Islamic values and principles. Transport (e. Agriculture.g. to be his guide on his “Hijra” (i. if entrusted with a hoard of gold. Industry.6) Trusting non-Muslims . “flight.Ibn Taymiyyah 39 . Qur‟an 3:75 states: Among the People of the Book are some who. so he entrusted him with his life and money. hired a polytheist as a guide at the time of his migration to Madinah. In such areas. Aisha narrated that: The Prophet and Abubakr employed a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail and the tribe of Bani „Abu bin „Adi as a guide. will not repay it unless you constantly stand over them demanding it. The Prophet () employed Abdullah ibn Uraiqit. and he was on “…the Prophet. if entrusted with a single silver coin. who. non-Muslims may be consulted and assigned positions of trust in technical matters at private or governmental level. a polytheist. such as in the fields of Medicine. however.e. For example.Qur‟an 3:75 The Qur‟an makes mention of the fact that some non-Muslims are trustworthy. pilots of air carriers). Military equipment. will (readily) pay it back. peace be upon him. migration”) from Makkah to Madinah. others.” . it is also encouraged that Muslims should collectively strive to attain some autonomy and independent strength vis a vis their status in comparison to non-Muslim states. in pursuit of greater social equity and effective political and economic interdependence in the world. etc. He was an expert guide and he broke the oath contract which he had to abide by with the tribe of Al„Asi bin Wail.

and the Prophet. NonMuslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. Revised edition (Riyadh: Darussalam Publications. p. the Prophet‟s beloved uncle.464. Negus.52 It is also a wellknown historical fact that the Prophet () trusted the Christian Ethiopian King. The Prophet and Abubakr had confidence in him and gave him their riding camels and told him to bring them to the Cave of Thaur after three days.265. sent a man of the Khuza„ah tribe to gather intelligence. therefore. vol. peace be upon him. So.0 Ibn Abidin.118-123. vol. hadith no. who was one of the leaders of Makkah that sympathized and helped the Prophet () especially during the years of the Boycott by the Makkans. and the Prophet trusted him. with the lives of the first group of Muslim refugees escaping persecution from the polytheists of Makkah. accepted his report despite the fact that he was a disbeliever. does not necessarily mean that he is untrustworthy.51 A person‟s state of unbelief.53 „…the Prophet. who gave the Prophet security in Makkah. 2002). pp.67 53 Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri.3. 2004).‟ 51 52 Sahih al-Bukhari. in Alim 6. Hashiyah. 40 . peace be upon him. The Prophet‟s life was at stake yet this particular polytheist was trustworthy. p. Al-Raheeq al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet).5.the religion of Quraysh pagans. he brought them their two riding camels after three days and both of them (The Prophet and Abubakr) set out accompanied by „Amir bin Fuhaira and the Dili guide who guided them below Makkah along the road leading to the sea-shore. cited by Salim Al-Bahnasawy. and Mut‟im bin „Adi. Other trusted non-Muslims included Abu Talib.

peace be upon him.” (Qur‟an 29:46) In a hadith on the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. states: . accepted his report despite the fact that he was a disbeliever. the Exalted. peace be upon him. who. Fiqh usSunnah. says: “Among the People of the Book are some who. „the Prophet. It is also reported that the Prophet. The people of the tribe of Khuza„ah. The same applies when one has to entrust a person with funds or deal with him in business. except in ways that are best. others. Sayyid Sabiq. It is not prohibited to befriend Jews and Christians. But when a Muslim physician with the expertise is available.Ibn Taymiyyah In his book. hired a polytheist as a guide at the time of his migration to Madinah. one should seek his or her treatment and not turn to anyone else. will not repay it unless you constantly stand over them demanding it” (Qur‟an 3:75)‟ We find in a sound hadith that the Prophet. who was a disbeliever. Al-Adab ash-Shari‟ah. the Exalted.The author of the renowned work. says: “And do not argue with the people of the Book. ordered Muslims to seek treatment from AlHarith ibn Kildah. Allah. sent a man of the Khuza„ah tribe to gather intelligence. he should address them in ways that are polite and sincere. Abu Al-Khattab tells us that. Ibn Muflih writes that Sheikh Taqiuddin Ibn Taymiyyah said: „A credible Jew or Christian who has medical expertise may treat a sick Muslim. Such a person may. If a Muslim has to confide in or turn to someone from the people of the Book for medical treatment. peace be upon him. Indeed. if entrusted with a single silver coin. And when the Muslim has an opportunity to talk to them. be entrusted with funds or other financial transactions. if entrusted with a hoard of gold. he may do so.‟ This proves. and the Prophet. according to 41 . peace be upon him. acted as scouts for the Messenger of Allah. peace be upon him. so he entrusted him with his life and money. will (readily) pay it back. likewise. who were both Muslims and Non-Muslims. for Allah.

is an essential factor to consider when seeking the assistance of a non-Muslim. the Prophet () asked Al-Harith ibn Kildah. therefore. 2004.Abu Al-Khattab.4. Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. cited in Salim Al-Bahnasawy in NonMuslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam.6A in Alim 6. hadith no. Fiqh us-Sunnah.55 Trustworthiness. p.54 Even as late in the sequence of revelation as the Farewell Hajj. 54 55 Sayyid Sabiq.67 42 . provided he is not suspected and his fidelity is not doubtful. a non-Muslim physician. that it is quite permissible to take the advice of a non-believing physician for diagnosis and treatment.11. vol. Vol. or anyone else for that matter. p. al-Qurtubi.112. to treat the illness of Sa‟d ibn Abi Waqqas.0 Tafsir.

cited in Saeed Ismaeel. n. They ate. The aspect of prayer in this incident is. p.433 states that the Najran delegation was received at the time Q.7) Non-Muslims were allowed into the Mosque of the Prophet () The respect Islam has for non-Muslims is such that the Prophet () endorsed receiving The Prophet () received non-Muslims guests in his about 60 Christian delegates Mosque.56. slept.. IFTA. p.76.77 58 Ibn al-Qayyim. Ed. verses 59-63 of this Surah [3] were revealed in the year 10H. Fiqh-U-Seerah: Understanding the Life of Prophet Muhammad. therefore. the Prophet () pray in the Prophet‟s Mosque received about 60 Christian in Madinah. Zād al-Ma„ād. on the occasion of a dispute between the Prophet and a deputation of the Christians of Najran who.48 to Q.” This dating is also agreed by Yusuf Ali. 2004. like all other Christians. The Relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims (Originally published in Toronto. p. p. Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur‟an Printing Complex.58 This shows the extent of respect the 56 This dating of the event is based on the following sources: Muhammad AlGhazali. p. 1995).57 They ate. Muhammad Asad (The Message of the Qur‟an. Beirut: Dar al-Ilm Lilmalayin. 1411H).3:61). slept. p. 1964. 2000. 1980. God incarnate. vol.59.629.158 57 Ibn al-Qayyim. Canada: Al-Attique International Islamic Publishing. maintained that Jesus was „the son of God‟ and. delegates from Najran. in the opinion of al-Albani (in his footnotes to Muhammad Al- 43 . meanwhile. cited by Salim Al-Bahnasawy in Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam. For example. and were even permitted to pray in the Prophet‟s Mosque in Madinah.H. Republished in Lagos: Sawtul Haqq). Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. year 10 A. states: “According to all the reliable authorities. Gibraltar: Dar alAndalus. p.3. Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah. The Holy Qur‟an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary. Revised edition with hadith authenticated by Nasiruddeen al-Albani (Riyadh: International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations.691.3:59-61was revealed. Revised by The Presidency of Islamic Researches. the „Year of and were even permitted to Deputations‟. in the from Najran. As-Salih.

2001). author of the acclaimed biography of the Prophet ().” and in alMukhtasar states. no.H. 62 Quoted in Sayyid Sabiq.522. Sahih al-Bukhari.57. vol. p. “If a polytheist could sleep in a mosque.0 44 .73a in Alim 6. 1995). Reports also indicate that he received some pagans of Banu Thaqif from Taif in his Mosque in 9A. p.0 on “Thumama ibn Uthal”.658 in Alim 6.Imam al-Shafi„i a Muslim can. defective in the narration. 59 Imtiaz Ahmad. the hadith “There is no harm in a collection of Imam Bukhari has polytheist staying in any records of non-Muslim prisoners mosque except in the of war who were held in the Inviolable Mosque (of mosque.59 Al-Mubarakpuri.Prophet () had for the right of these Christians to practice their faith. 2002). no.”62 Ghazali‟s Fiqh-U-Seerah: Understanding the Life of Prophet Muhammad.61 Imam al-Shafi„i writes Makkah). p. Fiqh us-Sunnah. writes that their “tent was erected in the corner of the mosque so that they could listen to the Qur‟an and see the people in prayer. Al-Raheeq al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet). Riyadh: International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations..” in al-Umm. 60 Al-Mubarakpuri. Revised edition (Riyadh: Darussalam Publications. “There is no harm in a polytheist staying in any mosque except in the Inviolable Mosque (of Makkah).”60 Furthermore.5.523 61 E. “Friendship with Non-Muslims” in Speeches for an Inquiring Mind (Madinah: Al-Rasheed Printers. cit. Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri. op.g. though others consider it strong – see Muhammad al-Ghazali‟s preface to Fiqh-U-Seerah. the Sealed Nectar (2002).2. then definitely . vol.

vol.” (Qur‟an 5:8) people.9:17-18 as evidence for the prohibition of non-Muslims entering mosques.4 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers). Thus. The verses read: It does not befit those who ascribe divinity to any other than Allah. p.8 (Beirut: Dar Ihya atTurath al-Arab.258. 64 Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged).Some Muslims unfortunately quote Q. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus.388 45 . (See Tafsir al-Qurtubi.cause you to swerve from justice. 1980). n. to maintain the mosques of Allah… The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by only he who believes in Allah and the Last Day.63 Ibn Kathir notes that what is prohibited for non-Muslims to enter is [only] the Masjid al-Haram (the Inviolable Mosque in Makkah). Be Muslims are bad people.27. There are honest and 63 Muhammad Asad.64 8) Good and bad people exist in all faiths The Qur‟an and Sunnah “Let not the hatred of any people make it clear that not all non. – that is. vol. just as just: this is nearest to being Godnot all Muslims are good conscious.89). Asad (1980) notes that prohibiting non-Muslims from entering all mosques based on this verse is not tenable: … in view of the fact that in 9H. p. the above verse expresses no more than the moral incongruity of the unbelievers‟ “visiting or tending God‟s houses of worship. This incongruity of one who does not believe in worshipping Allah maintaining the place where Allah is worshipped is also mentioned by Abu Ja‟far. p. after the revelation of this Surah – the Prophet himself lodged a deputation of the pagan Banu Thaqif in the mosque of Medina (Razi). 1985). and who is steadfast in his prayers… M.

5:8). there are upright people…” (Q. There should be reasonable trust and good expectations of everyone.trustworthy people.4:58) and “Do not let hatred of any people cause you to swerve from justice. along with hypocrites (munafiqun). 2:8-9) In other words. 3:75) “And there are people who say. others. 9) Friendship and influences Interaction implies the “It is better to be alone than in bad possibility of influence. a person is not judged as bad and untrustworthy just because he is a non-Muslim. and wrongdoers (fasiqun). A few verses will suffice to demonstrate this point: “(But) they are not all alike: among the followers of earlier revelation. who. etc. They would deceive God and those who have attained to faith – they deceive none but themselves. “If you judge between mankind.” (Q. among all religious and irreligious communities. neutral. if entrusted with a single silver coin. This company. and perceive it not. will (readily) pay it back. 3:113) “Among the followers of earlier revelation are some who. and it is better still be in influence could be positive or good company than to be alone …” negative. Be just: this is nearest to being God-conscious” (Q. will not repay it unless you constantly stand over them demanding it.Prophet Muhammad. It is important for transmitted in Sahih Bukhari Muslims to recognize the influence that others around them have. „We do believe in God and the Last Day.” (Q. if entrusted with a hoard of gold. Abu Musa al-Ash‟ari narrated that the Prophet () said: 46 . judge with justice” (Q.‟ while they do not (really) believe. as Allah reminds us. as influence is rarely . nor is he automatically good and trustworthy just because he calls himself a Muslim.

as much as .7.314. and it is better still be in good company than to be alone.442.3. or you will buy some from him. is having a negative influence. The following passages from the Qur‟an and 65 66 Sahih al-Bukhari. or you will get a good smell from him.Prophet Muhammad. Moreover. The one who is carrying musk will either give you some perfume as a present.” therefore ensure. whether Muslim or non-Muslim. then the following advice of the Prophet () becomes applicable: It is better to be alone than in bad company. no. he should take the initiative to have a positive influence on those around him. It is better to speak to a seeker of knowledge than to remain silent.The example of a good (pious) companion and an evil one is that of a person carrying musk and another blowing a pair of bellows. also found in vol. saying that if others treat you Muslim is a potential well you will treat them well and that if Muslim. just as every weak they do wrong you will do wrong. vol. Baihaqi 47 .65 If a Muslim realizes that his or her interaction with a particular person. but Muslim is potentially a good accustom yourselves to do good if people one (mu‟min). but the one who is blowing a pair of bellows will either burn your clothes or you will get a bad smell from him.your own. no. he can. by Allah‟s do good and not to do wrong if they do Grace. in Alim 6. but silence is better than idle words. A Muslim should evil.0 Sahih al-Bukhari.66 A Muslim should always “Do not be people without minds of remember that every non. that his life and transmitted in Tirmidhi relationships serve as a testament to his faith.

544 in Alim 6. nor walk proudly on earth.1889 in Alim 6.Prophet Muhammad.16:125-126) Do not speak to the people with your face turned away. wrong.68 A believer should not taunt. respond only to the extent of the attack leveled against you. but accustom yourselves to do transmitted by Abu good if people do good and not to do Dawood.0 48 .0 70 Abu Dawood.0 69 Tirmidhi.70 67 68 Muslim. Tirmidhi wrong if they do evil. (Q. and reproaches you for what he knows about you. (Q. no.67 Do not be people without minds of “Allah will not give mercy to your own. abuse or talk indecently69 If someone abuses you.31:18) Do you know what is better than charity and fasting and prayer? It is keeping peace and good relations between people. then do not reproach him for what you know about him. saying that if others treat anyone. so that you may have the reward thereof and the sin thereof is against him. as quarrels and bad feelings destroy mankind. except those who give you well you will treat them well and mercy to other creatures” that if they do wrong you will do . but to bear yourselves with patience is indeed far better for (you. no. for Allah does not love any arrogant boaster. Bukhari Tirmidhi. curse. no.1325 in Alim 6.Hadith illustrate the manner and disposition enjoined on Muslims to have such positive influence: Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful exhortation… And if you have to respond to an attack. since God is with) those who are patient in adversity.

vol. “Pray to Allah against the idol-worshippers and curse them!” The Prophet () replied. and do what Islam prohibits. the passages provide guidance from Allah‟s wisdom for such interaction. Tirmidhi 73 Sahih al-Bukhari. p.2.119. Therefore. Though Muslims should be cautious of negative influences within the society. lest they in retaliation revile Allah out of ignorance. except those who give mercy to other creatures. Amr. „Embrace Islam.72 These passages and many others assume that a Muslim would sometimes interact with those who are unpleasant towards him or who oppose his beliefs.Do not revile those whom others invoke instead of God. records that Anas said. vol. cited in Salim Al-Bahnasawy.‟ So he did. fear of this should not prevent them from relating with others in a positive manner. Once he fell ill and the Prophet () visited him and said to him.7. no. Fath al-Bari.10. “A Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet (). for instance. The kind of relationship that is prohibited between a Muslim and nonMuslim is that which makes a Muslim compromise the essential teachings of Islam. 10) Visiting and Hosting Non-Muslims Visiting non-Muslims is not only permissible but an encouraged act of da„wah and relationship-building. Abu Dawood. vol. Imam Bukhari.”73 Sa‟id 71 72 Sahih Muslim.0.438. “I have not been sent as the invoker of curses. no.0 Narrated by Abdullah b.57 49 .6:108) Someone once said to the Prophet (). Ibn Hajr. Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. I have only been sent as a mercy. 2004).”71 Allah will not give mercy to anyone. p.1192 in Alim 6. no. (Q.561 in Alim 6.

74 This latter narration was recorded by Imam Bukhari under a chapter entitled.” He said. and he was an expert in the preparation of soup. “She is also here.561. Muslims are allowed to host non-Muslims in their homes. Muslims are also permitted to accept invitations from nonMuslims if it does not cause any harm to anyone. no.” He (the Persian) returned to invite him.” then Allah‟s Messenger also said. “Yes” on the third occasion. “„IyadatulMushrik” (i. „O Messenger of Allah. “My mother came to me and she is a polytheist. no.” He said. the daughter of Abubakr. Anas ibn Malik narrated that: Allah‟s Messenger () had a neighbor who was Persian [a Zoroastrian]. He prepared (soup) for Allah‟s Messenger () and then came to him to invite him (to that feast). For instance.5 in Alim 6. vol.4.0 50 . He () said.958 in Alim 6.” He (the Persian) said. A frequently cited example is the report of Asmā‟. “Visiting polytheists who are unwell”). and Allah‟s Messenger said.0 75 Sahih Muslim. who said. no. Then he accepted his invitation.75 Finally. if my mother came to 74 Sahih al-Bukhari. Fiqh us-Sunnah. “No. Sayyid Sabiq. “No” whereupon Allah‟s Messenger also said. vol. just as the Prophet demonstrated (). “No (then I cannot join the feast).7.e. I said. “No” (and declined his offer). and both of them set out and went to his house. “She (Aisha) is also here.ibn al-Musayyab narrated that the Prophet () also visited his uncle Abu Talib when he was ill. “Here is Aisha (and you should also invite her to the meal). He (the Persian) returned another time to invite him and Allah‟s Messenger again said.

me and she is willing. vol. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) extended his hand and ate. no. and so did the Companions. For example. he was not yet a Muslim. He knew that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was dignified and would not accept charity.0 Abu Dawood.317 51 . „Yes. in Alim 6. p. Salim Al-Bahnasawy notes a well-known case from the lifetime of the Prophet (): When Salman Al-Farisy first came to Al-Madinah. and numerous hadith narrations abound to this effect. the Jew. do I establish a link with her?‟ He said.2446 in Alim 6.”78 True friendly relations entail reciprocal exchanges of friendship. not a Sadaqah (charity). He entered upon the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said.103a. “Have you presented a gift from it to my neighbor. receiving gifts from non-Muslims is also permissible to a Muslim. Fiqh us-Sunnah. Mujahid narrated that Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-„As slaughtered a sheep and said. irrespective of the religion of the recipient.3. for I heard the Apostle of Allah () say. Al-Hafiz Al-Iraqi commented on this saying. al-Tabarani.0 78 Ahmad. Accordingly. establish a link with your mother. “This hadith shows the lawfulness of accepting gifts 76 77 Sayyid Sabiq. „Jibril kept on commending the neighbor to me such that I thought he would make him an heir‟?”77 Umm Salamah also narrated that the Prophet told her. 2003). “I respect your dignity and I present a gift to you. no. “I have sent alNajashi [the Abyssinian king] a robe and some milk. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (London: Al-Birr Foundation.‟”76 11) Exchanging Gifts with Non-Muslims It is a time-honored tradition of Muslims to give gifts.

337-339.29 in Alim 6.0 82 Sahih al-Bukhari. citing An-Nasa‟i in Al-Kubra 6:305. no. in Alim 6. p.3 (Beirut: Dar al-Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi. The . without regard to faith. Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at.”79 Moreover. vol.317 81 Sahih al-Bukhari.from a polytheist as Salman had not embraced Islam at that time.63. vol.68. he instructed his Companions to give charity only to those who accepted Islam. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi. p. 1985). it is reported that the Prophet () accepted gifts from non-Muslim kings. “Whoever believes in Allah and in the Hereafter should take care of his neighbor. Allah revealed the verse: 79 Salim Al-Bahnasawy. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (London: Al-Birr Foundation. vol. vol. See also no.27.”82 When the Prophet () first migrated to Madinah. p.8.80 12) Giving Charity (sadaqah) to Non-Muslims A Muslim is free and even The Prophet () explicitly encouraged to give his wealth to enjoined Muslims to give any one he so wishes. particularly charity to all who needed it. vol.83 In correction of this Prophetic instruction. 52 . his needy and blood relatives irrespective of faith. p.0 83 This event is reported in a number of traditions quoted by al-Tabari in his Tafsir. p.2 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers).112. vol. Tirmidhi.11. 2003). Tafsir alQurtubi.28.3 (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah. quoting Tafsir al-Qurtubi. p.94-96. 80 Ahmad. 1992). 2004). and was concerned about the meager resources available to assist those in poverty. no.8.”81 and “Jibril continued to remind me of the neighbor‟s rights till I thought he would tell me that the neighbor inherits from his neighbor.Ibn Kathir Messenger of Allah said. and Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged).

Asad. p. the Prophet then explicitly enjoined Muslims to give charity to all who needed it. “there is full agreement among all commentators that the above verse… lays down an injunction binding upon all Muslims. must be based on for your own good provided you conviction and free choice. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. never become a means of since it is God alone who guides attracting unbelievers to whom He wills. Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged). must be based on conviction and free choice.” (Ibn Abi Hatim. 1980). 84 Muhammad Asad notes that. deserving or undeserving persons. (Q. in order to be valid.63.2 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers). For whatever good you may spend will be repaid unto you in full and you will not be wronged. n. 86 Ibid. for faith.86 Ibn Kathir states on the issue of one‟s charity possibly being used for un-Islamic purposes (if one gives to a non-Muslim): „Ata Al-Khurasani said that the āyah [“verse”] means. Imam al-Razi derives from this verse the conclusion that withholding charity must never become a means of attracting unbelievers to Islam.Al-Razi God‟s guidance. Abu Dawood and others.It is not for thee (O Prophet) to Withholding charity must make people follow the right path. p. Asad.61. evil. irrespective of faith.2:272) According to several traditions reported by al-Nasa‟i. and whatever Islam. 3:1115). for faith. 85 M. “You give away charity for the sake of Allah. cit.”85 In fact.260. This is a sound meaning… [The giver] will not be asked if the charity unintentionally reached righteous. in order to be good you may spend on others is valid. op. vol. for he will be 84 See M. you will not be asked about the deeds [or wickedness] of those who receive it. 53 . Therefore. spend only out of a longing for .

“Thy debtor is thy captive.63-64 88 Ibn Abi Shayba.). “And whatever you spend in good. The Message of the Qur‟an (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus. from Arabic by Dr. truly kind to thy captive” (Zamakhshari. The proof to this statement is the āyah. p.”88 Asad (1980) elaborates: The term asīr denotes anyone who is a “captive” either literally (e.89 Abu Sufyan (the leader of Sayyid Sabiq writes: One can give sadaqa to the dhimmi90 and the (nonMuslim) soldier. “Captives in Muslim society were obviously unbelievers. p.4. 1999). i. Monzer Kahf (London: Dar alTaqwa. Ibn Abi Shaybah observes that.2 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers). pp. to the poor and orphans and captives” (Q. pp.rewarded for his good intention.916. 1980). et.2:272. Zamakhshari). Razi. Trans. quoted in Yusuf al-Qaradawi. as reported by al-Hasan and others..39-40. therefore. protected by a covenant 54 ..76:8). despite their love for it.11 90 A Non-Muslim subject of an Islamic state. al. and you shall not be wronged. vol. Musannaf. the Prophet said. it will be repaid to you in full. 87 Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged).449 89 M. “…give food. Fiqh al-Zakat. The injunction of kindness towards all who are in need of help – and therefore “captive” in one sense or another – applies to The Prophet () gave 500 believers and non-believers dinars as financial assistance to alike (Tabari. n. Asad. Allah Makkah) for the poor of the predominantly idol-worshipping Makkans during their period of famine. a captive of circumstances which render him helpless. Allah praises those who. and one is rewarded for that. vol.e. thus. a prisoner) or figuratively.”87 In addition to Q.g. be.

the indigent. in his compendium. The works of Seerah (History of the Prophet) record that during the peace treaty of Hudaibiyyah. the orphan. Egypt: Dar al-Wafa‟. describes Zakat al-Fitr in the following words: These āyāt make no distinction between poor 91 Sayyid Sabiq.0 Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi. and the captive” [Q. p. the Prophet () gave 500 dinars as financial assistance to Abu Sufyan (the leader of Makkah) for the poor of the predominantly idolworshipping Makkans during their period of famine. for His love. 1996). Fiqh us-Sunnah.praised a group of people (for this) when He said. Imtiaz Ahmad. vol. 76:8].56. Fatawa al-Ma‟asira (Al-Mansura. 2001). 13) Giving Zakat al-Fitr to Non-Muslims Sayyid Sabiq.92 This gesture demonstrates the fact that Islam encourages the consolidation of peaceful relationships with non-Muslims. The captive is a [non-Muslim] soldier …91 The Prophet‟s example was one of regular charity towards Muslims and non-Muslims. Fiqh us-Sunnah. “And they feed. no.l3. “Friendship with Non-Muslims” in Speeches for an Inquiring Mind (Madinah: Al-Rasheed Printers.103a in Alim 6. 92 55 .

Ibn Majah. and to help the poor and needy. to shield one‟s self from any indecent act or speech and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. Fiqh us-Sunnah. vol. no. This view is based upon the hadith reported by Abu Dawood. and al-Daraqutni from Ibn Abbas. The Messenger of Allah.0 56 . in the month of Sha„bān in the which is an expression of the second year of the Hijra. It is accepted as Zakah for the person who pays it before the „Eid Salah.87a. enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on the one who fasts.93 Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi explains: Abu Ubayd and Ibn Abi Shayba report that some followers [of the Companions of the Prophet] gave Zakat al-Fitr to some 93 Sayyid Sabiq. and it is sadaqa for the one who pays it after the Salah. under the title “The Purpose of Zakat al-Fitr”. in Alim 6. upon whom be peace.Zakat al-Fitr was made obligatory believers and unbelievers. Its generally required good purpose is to purify one who fasts treatment of the People of from any indecent act or speech the Pledge.3.

and “The expiation in that case is to feed ten poor people with the average amount you feed your family” (5:92). and those who are in charge thereof (to administer it). which is an expression of the generally required good treatment of the People of the Pledge. Zakat should not be given to any Non-Muslim.Yusuf al-Qaradawi those who are in bondage. vol. Monzer Kahf (London: Dar al-Taqwa. and those who Yusuf al-Qaradawi.49). such as the āyāt [verses]. p. “Alms are for the poor and needy. Muhammad. Trans. and We will erase some of your bad actions from you” (2:271).2.4. “If you make your sadaqa public. that is better for you.449 57 . These āyāt make no distinction between poor believers and unbelievers. and those whose hearts are being reconciled.613-614 and Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba. p. Fiqh al-Zakat. expiation Christian monks.Zakat al-Fitr. But if you conceal it and give it to the poor. Abu Hanifa established the condition that an unbeliever must not be fighting against Muslims in order to be given Zakat al-Fitr (AlBada‟i„. 1999). 39). (kaffara) and vows are like voluntary charity as far as giving to People of the Pledge is concerned. and some other jurists permit paying these charities to People of the Pledge on the grounds that texts about these charities are general. 94 14) Giving Zakat to NonMuslims The Qur‟an states. p. and for 94 The majority of Muslim scholars believe that. Abu Ubayd and Ibn Abi Shayba report that some followers [of the Companions of the Prophet] gave monks Zakat al-Fitr (Al-Amwal. Lastly. and “And anyone who is unable to do that must feed sixty poor people” (58:4). from Arabic by Dr. . that is good. with the exception of “those whose hearts are being reconciled”. Abu Hanifa. pp. Obviously these scholars believe it is undoubtedly better to give to the Muslim poor since it helps a person who obeys Allah. vol.

451.. that the Prophet () instructed him. with the exception of “those whose hearts are being reconciled”.are in debt.96 This majority view is founded on the hadith narrated by Mu‟adh. or aid (others) in driving you forth…” (Q. “Allah prescribed Zakat on their wealth to be taken from the rich among them and rendered to the poor among them. Monzer Kahf.447 96 Yusuf al-Qaradawi (1999) Fiqh al-Zakat. 58 . …this hadith does not clearly exclude the non-Muslim poor since it may simply mean that Zakat should be collected and distributed in the same area. The majority of Muslim scholars believe that. This verse is the basis for the establishment of Zakat in Islam. in the view of other scholars. Wise” (Q. from Arabic by Dr. This is an ordinance from Allah. p. 97 Ibid. and Allah is All-Knowing.97 However.60:9) This is because financial help to enemies could be used against Islam in one way or another. p. This hadith is agreed upon as authentic. Trans. and drive you forth from your homelands. Zakat should not be given to any non-Muslim. Trans. 1999). (and for) the wayfarer. p. Monzer Kahf (London: Dar al-Taqwa. Muslim scholars unanimously agree that Zakat cannot be paid to non-Muslims that fight Muslims.95 This ijmā‟ (consensus) is based on the verse: “God only forbids you to turn in friendship towards such as fight against you because of (your) faith. This hadith is often quoted to 95 Al-Bahr az-Zakhkhar Vol. p.” in which the word “them” is interpreted to refer to Muslims. and in the cause of Allah. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi. from Arabic by Dr.9:60).195. Fiqh alZakat.449.2. London: Dar al-Taqwa.

().511. citing Imam al-Shawkani (n. the Qur‟an includes among the recipients those “whose hearts are being reconciled” (in Arabic.Muslims. the manner in which the and „Ikrimah narrator. Ibid. Qaradawi notes. “mu„allafat It must be noted here that the share of those belonging to this qulubuhum”).d. 59 . “Mu‟adh implemented this instruction by dividing Yemen into regions in such a way that Zakat was collected and distributed within each region autonomously. Mu‟adh.161. Sheikh Yusuf al. category is not on account of The following hadith their inability to meet their indicates how this category material needs but for was treated by the Prophet “reconciliation” of their hearts. p. he was the person I hated most.2. Al-Halabi Publishers. “By Allah. While prescribing laws for the distribution of Zakat. Sa‟id ibn al-Musayyab narrated that Safwan ibn Umayyah said. implemented „Umar the word the Prophet‟s instruction interpreted “masakin” in the verse (Qur‟an indicates that he interpreted the word “them” to mean everyone in 9:60): “Alms are for the poor and the region (and not just the the needy (masakin)…” as NonMuslims). He continued to give to me until he became the person I loved the 98 99 Ibid.) Nayl al-Awtar Vol. He wrote letters to the effect that Zakat be distributed within the same clan from which it was collected.98 Indeed. when the Prophet gave to me.support the policy of non-transportation of Zakat from one land to another. p.”99 Non-Muslims are included in at least one of the categories of the recipients of Zakat.

Sahih Muslim subjects.2. and individuals whose evil can be forestalled or who can benefit and defend Muslims. vol.4 (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers).”101 From these and other accounts. “Those who hearts are being reconciled were often pagan bedouins whom the Prophet () used to reconcile through giving Zakat in order to bring them to faith.Ibn Sa‟d 60 .465 transmit it.”100 Qatadah said. however. Tafsir. no.106 100 Tafsir Ibn Kathir.. cit.most. no. vol. “those whose hearts are being reconciled” include “persons who have recently become Muslims or who need to strengthen their commitment to this faith.1806 and Ahmad.and as much be ransomed Zakat.. .377. Monzer Kahf (London: Dar al-Taqwa. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi.6. Fiqh al-Zakat.314.377 Umar ibn Abdul Aziz ordered subjects. Zaydi and Ja‟fari Schools of Thought. Fiqh al. one group of Malikis.expenses as any Muslim cit. vol. Some other prominent scholars of the past and present. He views are based on a simply judged that there were precedent of „Umar ibn al. op.Yusuf al-Qaradawi some recipients of this 104 category.none entitled in that category at Khattab who cancelled the that point in time. Ibn Qudama.380 liberated on government 102 Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Dr. op. should Ibn Kathir (Abridged). p.”102 Some jurists are of the Umar did not annul payment to view that this clause is „individuals whose hearts are inoperative after the time of being reconciled‟ nor was there the Prophet (). are of the view that this injunction is operative even today.105 Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi mentions that scholars that view the applicability of the verse as permanent include al-Zuhri. Muslim. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi‟s Fiqh alduring his caliphate that nonZakat.4. vol. Trans. payment of Zakat towards .455 101 Al-Tabari. p. vol. and the followers of the Hanbali. al-Khattabi. cited in taken Tafsir prisoner by an enemy.14. p. p. Abu Ja‟far al-Baqir.325. p. Qadi Ibn al-„Arabi. 1999). p.103 Their an ijma on such annulment.

vol. In other words. op cit. cited in Yusuf al-Qaradawi.2 (Delhi: 1983). pp. p. A text in the Qur‟an can only be annulled by another text in the Qur‟an itself.107 103 104 Ibid. when Muslims do not need those individuals who were paid in the past.381 Ibid. such annulment could only take place during the life of the Prophet (). Rashid Rida. Moreover. as stated in famous reports.. p.. He continued to do this until he died. Fiqh al-Zakat. because the texts required for annulment ceased to be revealed upon his death.Ibn Qudama expounds: Allah mentions reconciliation of hearts among the categories of Zakat-spending and the Prophet () used to give generously for reconciliation. Tafsir al-Qur‟an al-Hakim..H. A category may not exist at a certain time. Al-Mughni.2.382 105 A. p. this principle applies to all categories. Tafhim al-Qur'an. vol. cit. It is unacceptable to abandon the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger () except by authentic annulment from Allah or His Messenger. “Umar did not annul payment 61 .9.” Lastly. that can be done. and if the need arises in the future to pay the same individuals or others. Fiqh al-Zakat. vol. Mawdudi. so how could such an opinion stand against the Qur‟an and Sunnah? Al-Zuhri also says. pp. p. they may choose to cease such payment. p.666. By what virtue is one asked to abandon Qur‟an and Sunnah and revert to mere human opinion or the statements of a Companion? Scholars do not consider a statement of a Companion strong enough to stand in opposition to analogy.385-386).2 (1354 A.. Umar‟s action does not contradict the Qur‟an or Sunnah since. and annulment is not confirmed by mere possibility. “I know of nothing that annuls the category of those whose hearts are being reconciled.574 106 Yusuf al-Qaradawi. there is no such text.). but that does not mean it is eliminated because it may exist at some later time. op. In reality.380-386 107 Ibn Qudama.

. therefore.108 In spite of this.260. p.109 Ibn Abi Shayba also cites „Umar‟s comment that the verse includes People of the Pledge (“Ahl al-„Ahd”)110 who are chronically ill.8.). cit. vol. cit. He simply judged that there were none entitled in that category at that point in time. The statement of al-Hasan and al-Sha„bi that „today there are no individuals who are being reconciled‟ is understood similarly as a fact of the age in which they lived.450 62 . 108 An example of this occurring after the time of Caliph Umar was recorded by Ibn Sa‟d (vol.111 Al-Tabari reports that „Ikrimah understood the word “needy” to refer to the poor among to „individuals whose hearts are being reconciled‟ nor was there an ijma on such annulment. Abrogation of a ruling enacted by Allah can only be made by Allah through Revelation to His Messenger and can. cited in Fiqh al-Zakat. 1382 A.383. Fiqh al-Zakat.4.144 110 The “People of the Pledge” are “the People of the Book. op. p. and all who like them live within Muslim society. pledging their sincerity to the state and obeying its laws” (Yusuf al-Qaradawi. should as much be ransomed and liberated on government expenses as any Muslim subjects”.. p. Cited in Sa‟id Ramadan. p. In the case in hand there is only one text which determines this category as a recipient of Zakat.40. p. only take place during the time of the Message.H.It must be noted here that the share of those belonging to this category is not on account of their inability to meet their material needs but for “reconciliation” of their hearts. Abrogation is dictated only when two authentic texts of Qur‟an or Sunna contradict one another and we know that one of them came after the other chronologically.448) 111 Ibn Abi Shayba.. op. taken prisoner by an enemy. p. Fiqh al-Zakat. it is reported that „Umar interpreted the word “masakin” in the verse (Qur‟an 9:60): “Alms are for the poor and the needy (masakin)…” as non-Muslims. cit. Kitab al-Kharaj (Cairo. Musannaf. (London: Macmillan. Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity. who wrote that “Umar ibn Abdul Aziz ordered during his caliphate that non-Muslim subjects.133). emphasis added). p. op. There is no text contradicting the Qur‟anic verse” (Yusuf al-Qaradawi. 272). 109 Abu Yusuf. 1961).

the People of the Book.112 Other scholars who allowed the paying of Zakat to non-Muslims include Ibn Sirin and Al-Zuhri.113 Zafar, a student of Abu Hanifa, also sanctioned it for People of the Pledge.114 There are some reports which suggest that the needy among non-Muslims were helped from the collective Zakat funds during the early days of Islam.115 It is recorded that „Umar even ordered the payment of a monthly allowance from the treasury to a Jew when he saw him begging from door to door, on the grounds that he was covered by the categories of Q.9:60.116 In addition, some past and present day scholars still also hold the view that the poor and destitute (and not just “those whose hearts are to be reconciled”) among non-Muslims may be helped out of the Zakat funds.117 As the Muslim sultanates and empires grew to lands of other faiths, a dhimmi evolved to being virtually any non-Muslim who agreed to live under a Muslim government.

15) Guarantee of Rights and Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens The Prophet () commanded that non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic State are to be protected against internal oppression and external aggression. A non-Muslim citizen of an Islamic state is called a “Dhimmi” (i.e., protected person).118 Historian Jane Smith
112 113

Tafsir al-Tabari, vol.14, p.308; cited in Fiqh al-Zakat, op. cit., p.451 Al-Majmu‟, vol.6, p.228; cited in Fiqh al-Zakat, op. cit., p.450 114 Al-Sarakhsi, Al-Mabsut (n.d.); cited in Fiqh al-Zakat, op. cit. 115 Abu „Ubaydah, Kitab al-'Amwal (Cairo, 1353 A.H.), pp.611-612 116 Abu Yusuf, Al-Kharaj (n.d.), p.126 117 See more detailed discussion on this by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Fiqh alZakat. Trans. Dr. Monzer Kahf (London: Dar al-Taqwa, 1999), pp.447-452 118 Jews and Christians were the earliest dhimmis, though the status was one that the Prophet also later afforded to Zoroastrians and then Sabians. (Murad

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writes, “Christians and Jews, along with Magians, Samaritans, Sabians, and later Zoroastrians and others, were treated as minorities under the protection of Islam (dhimmis).”119 Numerous hadith enunciate The term mu‟ahid is used for the importance of upholding the an approved non-Muslim rights of a dhimmi. On separate visitor from another state, as occasions, the Prophet () is distinguished from a dhimmi reported to have said, “Whoever who is a citizen of the Islamic hurts a dhimmi, hurts me, and he who territory. hurts me angers Allah”120, “Whoever - Al-Shawkani hurts a dhimmi, I am his adversary, and I shall be an adversary to him on the Day of Resurrection”121, “On the Day of Resurrection, I shall dispute with anyone who oppresses a person from among the People of the Covenant, or infringes on his right, or burdens him beyond his strength, or takes something from him against his will”122, and “Anyone who kills a person from among the people with whom there is a treaty (mu„ahid)123 will not smell the fragrance

Wilfried Hofmann, Protection of Religious Minorities in Islam, Leicester, UK: The Islamic Foundation, 1998.) As the Muslim sultanates and empires grew to lands of other faiths, a dhimmi evolved to being virtually any nonMuslim who agreed to live under a Muslim government. This is all too evident in the fact that the Caliph Umar‟s assassination was perpetrated by Abu Lulu‟ah, the Zoroastrian, who was a dhimmi! (Sa‟id Ramadan, Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.121). 119 Jane I. Smith, “Islam and Christendom: Historical, Cultural and Religious Interaction from the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries,” The Oxford History of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p.307 120 Al-Tabarani 121 Al-Khatib 122 Abu Dawood 123 The term mu‟ahid is used for an approved non-Muslim visitor from another state, as distinct from a dhimmi who is a citizen of the Islamic

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of Paradise, even though its fragrance extends to a walking distance of forty years.”124 It is required for the State to uphold that “they enjoy the same rights we enjoy.”125 For example, Khalid ibn al-Walid, in his famous “Covenant of Peace” with the people of Hirah, wrote:
“…Dhimmis were allowed to keep their own communal laws, although they could apply to a Muslim judge if they wished….” - Historian Jane Smith

I have stipulated that if any one of them becomes unfit to work on account of old age or for some other reason, or if anyone who was formerly rich becomes so poor that his co-religionists have to support him, then all such persons will be exempt from paying the jizya126 and they, together with their dependents, will get a pension from the Islamic Treasury as long as they choose to reside in the Islamic state.127

Historian Jane Smith (1999) describes the early Islamic state‟s practice of dhimmi rights as follows:
territory (Al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar, vol.7, p.14; cited in Sa‟id Ramadan, Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan, 1961), pp.109-110). 124 Sahih al-Bukhari, vol.9, no.49, in Alim 6.0 125 Al-Kasani, Bada‟l as-Sana‟l, vol.7, p.100; Ibn al-Qayyim, Ahkam Ahl alDhimmah, Ed. P. Sobhy al-Saleh (Beirut: Dar al-Ilm Lilmalayin, 1964), p.48; both cited in Salim Al-Bahnasawy, Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at, 2004), p.3 126 Military exemption tax paid by able-bodied, male, non-clergy, nonMuslim subjects of an Islamic state, in lieu of having to join the army. Exemptions to women, children, elderly, monks, and those who join the Muslim army are evidence that the tax is not a fine for disbelief as some have postulated (Sa‟id Ramadan, Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity, London: Macmillan, 1961, p.123). 127 Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj, p.144; cited in Sa‟id Ramadan, Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.123

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p.The specifics of the requirements for Christians who enjoyed dhimmi status were spelled out in what has come to be referred to as „the covenant of Umar. and translators. engineers. and sometimes they were treated as having virtually equal rights with Muslims. Muslim writers and poets sometimes gave great tributes to Christians in their literature.308 66 . Smith.‟ which exists in several versions and most likely was attributed to rather than designed by the second caliph. John L.128 It is true that Muslim administrations. Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. Smith states that this may be explained by the fact that after the lifetime of the early caliphs. Christians occupied high positions in the caliphal courts as physicians. Cultural and Religious Interaction from the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries. 1999). architects. although they could apply to a Muslim judge if they wished….” The Oxford History of Islam. however. have at times imposed some inequitable conditions and restrictions upon dhimmi communities. although in some cases when financing was available Christians did construct new places of worship… Dhimmis were allowed to keep their own communal laws. the: Through the Middle Ages there was a hardening of attitudes against dhimmis. Ed. due more to political than to religious reasons. “Islam and Christendom: Historical. The covenant stipulated prohibition of the building of new churches or repair of those in towns inhabited by Muslims. especially after the 128 Jane I. 634-44). Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press.

in that laws were made and either broken or forgotten… never free from the whims of individual rulers who might choose to enforce strict regulations. knowledge of the implicit rights of dhimmis in an Islamic state compelled other Muslims to campaign for justice.…dhimmi status seems to have period of the Crusades.99 67 . 847-61).. p. cited in Sa‟id Ramadan. p. and others [Muslim sects] considered opponents of the state. Islamic Law and Constitution (Karachi. Under the reign of the caliph al-Mutawakkil (r. 1961). was fairly flexible in terms of its Christian citizens. or from the caprice of mobs expressing their passions in prejudicial and harmful ways [as may be observed even today in the policies of nonMuslim dominated nations towards their minorities]. Pakistan: Jamaat-e-Islamic Publications. 1955). led by Muslim jurists. but in Islam‟s second century the laws became more stringent. laws against dhimmis were most severe.188.308-309 Abul-„Ala Maududi. pp. Examples of this include the fervent protest of the public. Shiites. been a changing one. due more to political than to religious reasons. especially after the period of the Crusades. the first Arab Muslim dynasty. sometimes resulting in persecution of Christians as well as of Mu'tazilis. and the reprimand sent by Imam al-Awza‟i to the Governor of Lebanon who exiled some non-Muslim civilians that lived in the same areas as some armed rebels: 129 130 Ibid. In general. that of the Umayyads.129 Despite these changing attitudes of rulers and the Muslim masses. Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan. against the Caliph Walid ibn Yazid when he exiled nonMuslim citizens of Cyprus to Syria130. Through the Middle Ages there was a hardening of attitudes against dhimmis.

”131 16) Muslim minorities living within Non-Muslim states are to honor their terms of residence and strive to make positive contributions If a Muslim is able to practice Islam openly in a non-Muslim land. The Qur‟anic injunction is quite clear that ultimately everybody will have to account for his own actions and nobody shall beheld responsible for anybody else‟s actions. I fail to understand why common people should be punished for the sins of particular individuals and be deprived of their homes and properties.The following extract from the letter that he wrote to him speaks for itself: “Dhimmis of the hill-tracts of Lebanon have been exiled and you know the fact. and tax them beyond endurance. and the best advice therefore. 68 . that I can give to you is to remind you of one of the directives of God‟s Prophet that he himself will stand up as plaintiff against all such Muslims who are unkind to those non-Muslims who have entered into an agreement with them. Amongst them are men who had not taken part in the revolt. This is an eternal and universal injunction. then that land becomes Dar al-Islam (the Abode of Islam) by virtue of his settling there. and living there is preferable to moving away from it as other people may be 131 Ibid.

prospects (Cambridge: The Muslim Academic Trust.23:8). then that land becomes Dar al-Islam (the Abode of Islam) by virtue of his settling there.135 However. in order to foster a positive relationship between Muslims.Al-Mawardi accommodated local customs and practices in societies that newly embraced Islam. Hallaq.12 133 Ibid.230).132 Such scholars as Abu Hamid al-Ghazali emphasized the universality and flexibility of Shari‟ah133 and the role of public interest (maslaha) in the revision of rulings (fatawa) that were previously deduced only on the basis of analogy with an explicit scriptural ruling. no. in order to be granted entry. pp. since all believers are characterized as those “who are faithful to their trusts and to their pledges” (Q. vol.112-113. and fellow citizens. and living there is preferable to moving away from it as other people may be attracted to Islam merely by their interaction with him (Fath al-Bari. 1997). Once a Muslim chooses to remain a citizen or resident (rather than migrate to another land). 132 T. study or work in a non-Muslim land. attracted to Islam merely by traditional scholars of the their interaction with him.When deriving laws. whether for visa or migration purposes. and provided he or she is granted the right to his/her identity and practice of Islam. 2003). Winter.7. British Muslim Identity: Past. J. A History of Islamic Legal Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A Muslim who is born in a non-Muslim land is usually given automatic citizenship and is naturally bound by same agreements. 69 . p. Muslim world substantially . 134 Wael B. A Muslim living anywhere in the world belongs to the Ummah (community of believers). problems.134 This flexibility permits rulings specifically for Muslim minorities in a non-Muslim state. he must agree to abide by certain conditions. 135 Ibn Hajr cites the view of al-Mawardi that if a Muslim is able to practice Islam openly in a non-Muslim land. the state. it is permissible for a Muslim to reside.

“In the past. Al-Tafsir al-Qur‟an. This is because Muslims are enjoined to be “the best nation ever raised for mankind” (Q. cited in Taha Jabir al-Alwani. a Muslim is bound by them. 2003). while Abu al-Su„ud elaborates that. Moreover. „Ikrimah explained this verse. who was a foreigner residing in Egypt.e.136 This obligation on Muslim minorities in non-Muslim lands illustrates Islam‟s endorsement of peaceful interfaith co-existence. “You are the best community for people.4. cited in Taha Jabir al-Alwani. op. vol. op... Upon acceptance of these conditions of residence.12:54-55). no. cit. vol. “A feature of the Muslim nation is that it should not keep any beneficial advantage to itself but should share its benefit with other human societies. To Be a European Muslim (Leicester. “Muslims are bound by their conditions”). cit. p.28 139 Abd al-Karim al-Khatib. which clearly means helpful to other people. p.he is required to acknowledge the nation‟s legislation and conduct himself within the scope of the law.173 137 Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim. vol. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities: Some Basic Reflections (London: International Institute of Islamic Thought. as stipulated by the Islamic rule “al-muslimoon „inda shurootihim” (i.3:110).472. but as Muslims people of any color feel secure among you…”137.”140 and the example of the Prophet Yusuf (peace be upon him).”138 AlKhatib also says. and even offered his services at the level of government (Q. UK: The Islamic Foundation. p.27 138 Irshad al-„Aql al-Salim ila Mazaya al-Qur‟an al-„Azim.”139 These explanations accord with the Prophet‟s statement. “The best among you is the best towards people. p. p.70. saying. p. people were not secure in other people‟s lands. 136 Tariq Ramadan. cited in Taha Jabir al-Alwani.2.548.28 140 Sunan Baihaqi 70 . 1999). a Muslim should not just be dutiful to his host country but actively contribute towards improving it.1. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities.

Muslims in China. Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs.2 (UK: July 1986). for instance.373-383. are celebrated for successfully constructing an indigenous Muslim identity within the country and making significant contributions to their homeland.7.org/articles/muslims_in_nonmuslim_lands.Shaykh Abdullah ibn Bayyah. transmitted by Bukhari and 141 Shaykh Abdullah ibn Bayyah. “Islam in China: The Internal Dimension”. “Muslims Living in Non-Muslim Lands”.htm. This is a relationship of dialogue and a relationship of giving and taking… It is absolutely essential that you respect the laws of the land that you are living in… We have to maintain those things that are particular to us as a community. a highly distinguished Maliki scholar serving on many international fiqh councils and one of the contemporary world‟s leading authorities in Usul al-Fiqh (Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence). http://sunnah. explains the obligations of Muslims in non-Muslim lands in the following remarks: …the relationship between Muslims living in this land and the dominant authorities in this land is a relationship of peace and contractual agreement – of a treaty. no. but we also have to recognize that there are other things that are not particular to us but rather general to the human condition that we can partake in.141 Examples of this friendly yet faith-retaining integration may be found throughout the history of Muslim minority groups in nonMuslim lands. vol.142 17) Duty to Non-Muslim Relatives and Parents “He who desires that his provision be expanded and that his days be lengthened should join ties of kinship. 71 . 2005 142 See Ibrahim Ma Zhao-chun. pp.” Prophet Muhammad.

74 144 Bukhari. cit. reports.321.324. p. vol. Allah states in the Qur‟an: “Be mindful of your duty to Allah in whose name you appeal to one another.Prophet Muhammad. the daughter of Abubakr. “My mother came to me and she is a polytheist. no.4:2). “„My mother has come to see me 143 Bukhari and Muslim. It despite prevailing tensions is the one who upholds them when the between family members. p.” Abdullah ibn Amr. if my mother came to me and she is willing. transmitted Holy Prophet () said. establish a link with your mother. This message is emphasized by the Prophet () in the following narration: “Anas related that the Prophet said. „He who desires that his provision be expanded and that his days be lengthened should join ties of kinship. no. cited in Imam an-Nawawi.‟”145 Another version of this tradition states that Asmā‟ said. from Arabic by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan (London: Curzon Press. „O Messenger of Allah. and of your obligations in respect of ties of kinship” (Q.. for instance. relates that the .75 145 Sayyid Sabiq. Riyadh us-Saliheen.‟”143 “One who reciprocates in doing good is not This duty is sustained the one who upholds the ties of kinship. I said. do I establish a link with her?‟ He said.Numerous mentions are Muslim made in both the Qur‟an and hadith on the obligations of being considerate and loyal to the ties of kinship. cited in Riyadh us-Saliheen.103a in Alim 6. by Bukhari “One who reciprocates in doing good is not the one who upholds the ties of kinship. It is the one who upholds them when the other party severs them”144 Asmā‟. no. irrespective of the religious background of one‟s kinsmen.0 72 . Fiqh-us-Sunnah. 1974). upon whom be peace.” Transl. under section “On Benevolence towards Parents and Strengthening the Ties of Kinship.3. op. „Yes. other party severs them.

op. p.”148 18) Sanctity of human life Each human being has a “Whoever killed a mu‟ahid shall special place in Allah‟s creation not smell the fragrance of irrespective of what faith or belief Paradise though its fragrance can an individual chooses to profess. O Bani Abdul Muttalib. for I can avail you nothing against Allah. O Bani Murrah ibn Ka‟ab..75 Muslim. safeguard yourselves against the Fire. O Bani Ka‟ab ibn Lu‟ayy safeguard yourselves against the Fire. safeguard yourselves against the Fire. O Fatimah. natural disposition) of surrender to God‟s will (Islam).32:7-9).and she is hoping for something from me. p.‟”146 Similarly.. safeguard yourselves against the Fire.147 When Q. safeguard yourselves against the Fire.76 73 . cit.331.” of Adam to whom Allah . no. no. commanded the Angels to bow transmitted by Bukhari (Q. op. Then treat its people kindly. safeguard thyself against the Fire. I have ties of kinship with you. “You will soon conquer the land of Egypt. cit. Should I gratify her?‟ He said. O Bani Hashim. be smelt at a distance of forty Not only are all humans children years. every human is a spiritual being living in a physical or earthly body. op.330. cited in Riyadh us-Saliheen. Allah says “…and then He forms him in accordance with what he is meant to be. but each human has a spirit Allah breathed into him or her. and breathes into him of His spirit” (Q.2:34). It is the family that 146 147 Riyadh us-Saliheen.26:215 was revealed.327. for there are ties of treaty and kinship with them. and these I shall continue to honor. Abu Dharr relates that the Prophet () said. in Riyadh us-Saliheen. Abu Hurairah relates that the Holy Prophet () summoned the Quraysh and said to them. p.75-76 148 Muslim. cit. „Yes. Thus. no. Each and every human is born in the way of the fitrah (pure. O Bani Abd Manaf. “O Bani Abd Shams. be benevolent towards your mother..Prophet Muhammad.

9.”150 Imam Malik said. Ramadan (1961) observes about a similar hadith: …there is another recorded hadith which gave rise to controversy. 2. „Do you have anything of divine literature besides what is in the Qur‟an?‟” (or. It reads as follows: “A Muslim should not be killed for (murdering) an 74 .50 in Alim 6. “I asked Ali.0. vol. as Uyaina once said. “„Apart from what the people have?‟”) “Ali said.Bukhari (Q. great sin and crime that is When he was asked why. and Sahih al-Bukhari. Muwatta. no.16. 150 Sahih al-Bukhari. „The legal regulations of Diya (compensation for death) and the releasing of captives and the judgment that no Muslim should be killed in qisas for killing a kafir‟” (Sahih alBukhari. no.brings different individuals up as belonging to one religious group or the other.0). irrespective replied. vol. “Whoever killed a mu‟ahid shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years. 149 Every human is a spiritual The Prophet () stood up out being whose life is sacred and of respect for a Jewish corpse harming or taking it unjustly is a being carried by for burial. „What is on this paper?‟ He replied.2:178). no.0 respectively.‟ I asked.9.0. “Was he not a soul?” of the murdered person‟s faith . no.298 in Alim 6. vol. he punishable by death.53 in Alim 6. The gravity of this crime is highlighted in the narration of Abdullah ibn Amr that the Prophet () said. vol.440 & 441 in Alim 6.6.49 in Alim 6. such as the following: Abu Juhaifa narrated. “What is done in our community is that a Muslim is not killed for [killing] a kafir [one who denies the truth]151 unless the Muslim kills him wrongfully. Then he is killed for it… The diya [blood money/compensation] 149 See Sahih al-Bukhari. nos.0 151 Misunderstanding on this issue has been generated by incorrect interpretation of some hadith. we have nothing except what is in the Qur‟an and the ability of understanding Allah‟s Book which He may endow a man with and what is written in this sheet of paper. vol. „By him who made the grain split and created the soul.

and a Muslim may be killed for a dhimmi.2:178) which they said has general applicability. He explains that a dhimmi is equal to a Muslim in sacredness.82). This is consistent with Ramadan‟s explanation above. which states. „infidel‟. Issue 7). p. 1961). particularly since both of them (Muslim and dhimmi) belong to Dar al-Islam.. „We ordained for them a soul for a soul…‟ (Q. interpret it within the general implication of Qur‟anic and other Prophetic texts. according to Abu Hanifah. a Muslim‟s hand may be cut for stealing the property of a dhimmi. belligerent to Muslims). Beirut: Dar Ihya at-Turath al-Arab. This also indicates that the wealth of a dhimmi is equal to the wealth of a Muslim. Likewise. op cit. “Thawri and the scholars of Kufa said that a master may be killed for a slave. Al-Tashri‟ al-Islami li-Ghayri‟lMuslimin.146. should be protected (Qurtubi. and also the words of Allah. Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London: Macmillan. Abu Hanifah states that the wording of the hadith. Nor should a holder of a covenant be killed so long as he holds his covenant. Furthermore. Thus. should mean the belligerent non-Muslim and the hadith should thereby imply that neither a Muslim nor a dhimmi is to be executed for killing a belligerent non-Muslim. stating that the hadith has specific (rather than general) application. his blood. in practice. They derived their evidence from the words of Allah „O you who believe. but they opine differently over its implication. Qurtubi continues to state that the majority of ulama believe that a Muslim cannot be killed for a kafir out of Dar al-Islam (i. using „infidel‟ (kafir) in the first portion and „holder of a covenant‟ (dhu-„ahdin) in the second. (See Tafsir al-Qurtubi. Others. p. which is even more sacred than his wealth.e. just retribution is ordained for you in cases of murder…‟ (Q. p. which is evident in the laws of just retribution. Some of them.infidel.246). like Abu Hanifah. 75 . 1985. Jurists accept the authenticity of this hadith.5:45). take it as implying a restriction of the general principle of retaliation. vol. implies two different categories. The reasonableness of such an interpretation can well be appreciated if we recall that in the early days of Islam there were only two active camps: the subjects of the Islamic State (Muslims and nonMuslims) and their hostile neighbors… (Sa‟id Ramadan.” (Al-Maraghi.” Al-Qurtubi agrees with this conclusion.2 (Issue 6). This explanation is corroborated in Tafsir al-Qurtubi. like Malik and Al-Shafi‟i.

vol. NonMuslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at. on the permissibility of visiting non-Muslims.. Non-Muslims in the Shari‟ah of Islam (Egypt: Dar an-Nashr lil-Jami‟at.1. p. if anyone saves a life. p. vol. Abu Talib died.Qur‟an 5:48-49 Allah also says “…if anyone slays a human being – unless it be (in punishment) for murder or for spreading corruption on earth – it shall be as though he had slain all mankind. vol. He Magians in their injuries is could surely have made you all one [also] according to the injury of single community…” the Muslims in their diya. by virtue of everyone‟s possession of a soul and spirit from Allah. p.399. Bada‟l as-Sana‟l. and the guidelines for these (Al-Bahnasawy.8b in Alim 6. 155 Al-Kasani. cited in Salim Al-Bahnasawy. …” (Q. “Was he not a soul?”153 Similarly. greeting them.2. Al-Bahnasawy also cites evidence from the life of the Prophet and the Sahaba.154 It is also reported that the mother of Al-Harith ibn Abu Rabi‟ah died as a Christian and he followed her funeral accompanied by a group of Companions. Christians and “…And if God had so willed.303. no. when the Prophet‟s pagan uncle.5:32) Islam therefore enjoins believers to respect the life (and death) of every human being irrespective of religion. An-Nasa‟i. comforting.of the Jew.56-69) 76 . Sahih al-Bukhari.155 152 153 Al-Muwatta.58.1423. whereas. visiting their graves. as well as the views of some classical scholars. etc. he replied.43. preparing their dead for burial and following their funerals. 2004). in Alim 6. This is demonstrated in the report that the Prophet () stood up out of respect for a Jewish corpse being carried by for burial.58.0. no. no.. it shall be as though he had saved the lives of all mankind.0 154 Abu Dawood. 2004). cited in Salim Al-Bahnasawy. pp. emphasis added. he ordered the Companion Ali (Abu Talib‟s son) to bury him. When he was asked why.”152 .

3:92. and do not follow their errant views. 44. However. judge between the followers of earlier revelation in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high. just as he would with a Muslim. And if God had so willed.3:110). but (He willed it otherwise) in order to test you by means of what he has vouchsafed unto you. Allah compulsion in religion” has given Muslims a responsibility to be witnesses unto mankind (shuhada „ala al-nas Q.2:177. He could surely have made you all one single community. since Allah has warned in Qur‟an 5:4849. 58:9). who would like Muslims to follow their form of religion or moral law. a Muslim should make his relationship with non-Muslims conducive for da„wah and positive influence. that: “…Unto every one of you have We appointed a (different) law (Shari‟ah) and way of life (Minhaj). and beware of them lest they tempt thee away from aught that God has bestowed from on high upon thee…” 156 156 Similar warnings are also given in the Qur‟an regarding others. Furthermore.2:143). and the best nation raised for mankind (Q. besides Jews and Christians. with one another in doing good works! Unto God you all must return. through their example of goodness (birr) and God-consciousness (taqwa) (Q. then. a Muslim is advised not to seek subjugation to nonMuslim communities out of a desire to be accepted. Islam has encouraged relations between Muslims and non-Muslims to be one of Islam respects other people‟s respect and kindness. Hence. Muslims are to safeguard their faith and pursue their own moral and spiritual development.In conclusion. and “there is no throughout his mission. The Qur‟an warns faithful Muslims about Muslim hypocrites 77 . 189. In this manner. Vie. as right to follow their respective practiced by the Prophet () faiths. and then he will make you truly understand all that on which you were wont to differ.

and not turn away from submission to Allah‟s Will and final guidance to mankind as contained in the message of the last Prophet. so that you should be like them. nor drive you out of your homelands.” In Q. God does not forbid you to show them kindness and to deal with them with fairness and equity…” (Q. and do fight against you on account of (your) what Islam prohibits. and “there is no compulsion in religion”. and neither do you worship that which I worship.60:8-9). and neither will you (ever) worship that which I worship. even though Islam respects other people‟s right to follow their respective faiths. and unto me mine!‟” 78 . those who insist The kind of relationship that that Islam forbids showing is prohibited between a kindness to peaceful non. your religion. (Munafiqun) in Qur‟an 4:89: “They (Muslim hypocrites) would love to see you deny the Truth even as they have denied it.109:1-6. Muhammad ().Muslim and non-Muslim is Muslims would do well to that which makes a Muslim remember Allah‟s explicit words: compromise the essential “As for those (unbelievers) who do not teachings of Islam. Muslims are cautioned to hold strongly to their faith. And I will not worship that which you have (ever) worshipped. faith.Hence. Muslims are told regarding those bent on denying His truth (Kafirun) to: “Say: „O you who deny the truth! I do not worship that which you worship. However. Unto you.

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d. IBN RUSHD (AL-HAFID). 1995. Qasim. 1993 91 . 1983 IBN QUTAYBAH. 'ABD AL-KARIM. Al-Mufassal fi Ahkam alMar'ah. Zad al Ma’ād fi Hadyi Khayr al-Ibad. Cairo: Dar al-Turath. ABI BAKR. TAQI AL-DIN AHMAD B. 2004 ZAYDAN. n. ABU MUHAMMAD ABDALLAH B. Ta'wil Mushkilat Al-Qur'an. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi. AHMAD B. AHMAD AL-QURTUBI. KUWAIT. Majmu' al-Fatawa. AL-SAYYID. Beirut. Cairo: al-Fath li al-A'lam al 'Arabi. Ed. 'Abd al-Rahman b. Cairo: Maktabat Ibn Taymiyyah. 13th edn. Wizarat al-Awqaf. Kitab Ta'wil Mukhtalaf Al-Hadith. Ed. Mawsu'at al-Fiqhiyyah. n. Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtasid.IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYAH. Kuwait: Maktabat al-Manar. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah. SHAMS AL-DIN ABI 'ABD ALLAH MUHAMMAD B. Beirut: Dar al'Ilm li al Malayin. 1973. SABIQ. Fiqh al-Sunnah. ABU AL-WALID MUHAMMAD B. 1996 WIZARAT AL AWQAF.d. 1997 IBN TAYMIYYAH. Subhi Salih. Lebanon: Mu'assasat al-Risalah. Kuwait. MUHAMMAD B. 'ABD ALHALIM. Muhammad b. Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah. MUSLIM AL-DAYNURI.

witness-pioneer. 92 .org www.islamic-awareness.islamicgarden. Other Islamic websites may be even more informative than the above listed. as new websites debut on the internet daily.com www.shamela.org www.masud.blogspot.co.html www. and whereas these websites are recommended.soundvision.com www.org www.com www.sunnipath.zaytuna.com.about.com www.jannah.ietonline.pk www.islam-guide.irf.com www.islam.uk www.RECOMMENDED WEBSITES157 www.muslimtube. however.islamonline.jannah.muhaddith. far from being exhaustive.org/ www.islamunveiled.net www.org 157 These online resources have very useful information and products on Islam. not all the views and opinions expressed in them necessarily reflect those of DIN or the IET.com www.ws (Arabic) www.net www.islamicity.com/index.com www.discoverislam.com www.edu/islam www.renaissance.com www.net www.com/info www. This list is.uga.com www.altafsir.islamicweb.

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Da‟wah Resource Management. DIN also organizes a rural Da‟wah Grassroots Program. and produces audiovisual and other multimedia content. Minna.com Website: www. Relations with Non-Muslims aims to clarify the Islamic position regarding inter-faith relations based on the authoritative and authentic teachings of the Qur‟an and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (p). Nigeria. The Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria (DIN) is the research and Islamic propagation department of the Islamic Education Trust (IET). Europe. Phone: +234-803-600-5535 Email: dawahinstitute@yahoo. Niger State. DIN has partnered with organizations based in Nigeria as well as other countries in Africa. hostility. The DIN partners with other organizations for comprehensive capacity building and improved da‟wah effectiveness. Many assume that Islam prescribes the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims to be one of war. Imam training courses. North America. and even some Muslims. Business and Financial Literacy. South Asia.org 94 . and the Middle East. non-Muslim. government agencies and NGOs .BACK COVER Many non-Muslims. Ilmi Avenue. are of the opinion that Islam is inherently against any form of friendliness with those who do not ascribe to the faith. This position is commonly advanced by antagonists of Islam for the dual purpose of undermining a Muslim‟s pride in his faith and a non-Muslim‟s confidence in having any valuable long-term interactions with Muslims. It conducts training programs on Islam and Dialogue for Peaceful Coexistence. Pre-marital and Marital Counseling.ietonline. as well as Personal Development and Leadership. Da‟wah Institute of Nigeria Islamic Education Trust Headquarters PMB 229. and intolerance. In addition DIN partners with other organizations – Muslim. and other courses. and cultivates a greater understanding of Islam‟s attitude towards bridgebuilding. Australia.in furthering its objectives and the strategic good of society at large. The book empowers readers against the litany of confusion on this topic.