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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security

Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Combinatory CPU Scheduling Algorithm
Saeeda Bibi 1, Farooque Azam1, ,Yasir Chaudhry 2
Department of Computer Engineering
College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science
Maharishi University of Management
Fairfield,Iowa USA
{saeedabb, yasiryc },

Abstract—Central Processing Unit (CPU) plays a significant role reason behind it is that I/O takes long time to complete its
in computer system by transferring its control among different operation and CPU has to remain idle [3, 4].
processes. As CPU is a central component, hence it must be used
efficiently. Operating system performs an essential task that is There are three different types of schedulers that are
known as CPU scheduling for efficient utilization of CPU. CPU
working in the operating system. Each scheduler has its own
scheduling has strong effect on resource utilization as well as
overall performance of the system. In this paper, a new CPU tasks that differentiate it from the others. These are:
scheduling algorithm called Combinatory is proposed that
combines the functions of some basic scheduling algorithms. The A. Long-term Scheduler
suggested algorithm was evaluated on some CPU scheduling
It is also called high level scheduler, admission scheduler
objectives and it was observed that this algorithm gave good
performance as compared to the other existing CPU scheduling or job scheduler. It works with the job queue or high level
algorithms. queue and decides which process or job to be admitted to the
ready queue for execution. Thus, the admission of the
Keywords-component: Operating System, CPU scheduling,
First Come First Serve Algorithm, Shortest Job First Algorithm, processes to the ready queue for execution is controlled by the
long-term scheduler [5]. The major objective of this scheduler
I. INTRODUCTION is to give balanced mix of jobs i.e. CPU bound and I/O bound,
to the short-term scheduler [6].
Operating system performs variety of tasks in which B. Medium-term Scheduler
scheduling is one of the basic task. All the resources of
computer are scheduled before use; as CPU is one of the major It is also called mid-term scheduler. This scheduler is
computer resources therefore its scheduling is vital for responsible to remove the processes from main memory and
operating system [1]. When more than one process is ready to put them in the secondary memory and vice versa. Thus, it
take control of CPU, the operating system must decide which decreases degree of multiprogramming. This is usually known
process will take control of CPU first. The component of the as swapping of processes (“swapping-in” or “swapping out”)
operating system that is responsible for making this decision is [5].
called scheduler and the algorithm used by it is called term
scheduling algorithm [2]. Suspended and
Long- Swapped-out
In computer system, all processes execute by alternating term Queue
their states between two burst cycles; CPU burst cycle and I/O Schedule
burst cycle. Generally, a process starts its execution with a Scheduler
CPU burst then performs I/O (I/O burst), again another CPU
burst then another I/O burst and this alternation of burst cycle Job Job Ready CPU Exit
Queue Queue
continues until the completion of the process execution. CPU
bound process is that which performs a lot of computational
tasks and do little I/O while I/O bound process is that which Interactive Suspended
Programs Queue
performs a lot of I/O operations [1]. The typical task performed
by the scheduler is to give the control of CPU to another Figure 1: Schedulers
process when one process is doing the I/O operations. The

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010
C. Short-term Scheduler B. Shortest Job First (SJF) Scheduling
It is also called dispatcher or CPU scheduler. It decides This algorithm is non-preemptive in nature and permits the
which process from the ready queue takes control of the CPU processes to execute first that have smaller burst time [10]. If
next for execution [1]. Short-term scheduler makes scheduling more than one process has same burst time then control of CPU
decision much more frequently as compared to the other two is assigned to them on the basis of First Come First Served. In
schedulers. This decision is made on the basis of two most system, this algorithm is implemented for maximum
disciplines these are non-preemptive and preemptive. In non- throughput [5].
preemptive, the scheduler is unable to take control of the CPU SJF algorithm is an optimal scheduling algorithm; it gives
forcefully from the processes. Processes take control of the minimum average waiting time and average turnaround time
CPU until the completion of execution. In preemptive, the [11] because it executes small processes before large ones. The
scheduler is able to take control of the CPU forcefully from the difficulty of this algorithm is to know length of CPU burst of
processes when it decides to take CPU to the other process [5]. next process and it is usually unpredictable [9], there is also a
problem of starvation in this algorithm because the arrival of
Design of CPU scheduling algorithm affects the success of processes having short CPU burst prevents processes having
CPU scheduler. CPU scheduling algorithms mainly depends long CPU burst to execute [5].
on the criteria; CPU utilization, throughput, waiting time,
turnaround time and response time [5]. Consequently, the C. Round Robin (RR) Scheduling
major attempt of this work is to develop an optimal CPU In this algorithm, a small unit of time called time quantum
scheduling algorithm that is suited for all types of processes or time slice is assigned to each process. According to that time
and gives fair execution time to each process. quantum processes are executed and if time quantum of any
The organization of rest of the paper is as follow: Section II process expires before its complete execution, it is put at the
discuses existing scheduling algorithms. Section III describes end of the ready queue and control of the CPU is assigned to
proposed scheduling algorithm. Section IV contains pseudo the next incoming process.
code of the algorithm. Experimental Evaluation & Results have Performance of Round Robin totally depends on the size of
been given in Section V followed by conclusion. time quantum. If size of time quantum is too small; it will
cause many context switches and also affect the CPU
II. OVERVIEW OF EXISTING CPU SCHEDULING efficiency. If time quantum is too large; it will give poor
ALGORITHMS response time that approximately equal to FCFS [1]. This
algorithm is preemptive in nature [7] and is suitable for time
The basic CPU scheduling algorithms, their advantages and sharing systems. Round Robin algorithm gives high waiting
disadvantages are discussed in this section. time therefore deadlines are rarely met in it [5].
A. First Come First Served (FCFS) Scheduling
D. Priority Based Scheduling
It is the simplest CPU scheduling algorithm that permits the
execution of the process on the basis of their arrival time means In this algorithm, priority is associated with each process
the process having earlier arrival time will be executed first. and on the basis of that priority CPU is allocated to the
Once the control of CPU is assigned to the process, it will not processes. Higher priority processes are executed first and
leave the CPU until it completes its execution. For small lower priority processes are executed at end [4]. If multiple
processes this technique is fair but for long processes it is quite processes having the same priorities are ready to execute,
unfair [7]. control of CPU is assigned to these processes on the basis of
FCFS [1, 3].
This algorithm is simple and can be implemented easily
using FIFO queue. The problems of this algorithm are: the In this algorithm, average waiting time and response time
average waiting time, average turnaround time and average of higher priority processes is small while waiting time
response time are high therefore it is not suitable for real time increases for processes having equal priority [5, 12]. The major
applications [9]. A long burst time process can monopolize problem with this algorithm is problem of starvation that can be
CPU, even if burst time of other process is too short called solved by a technique called aging [1].
convoy effect. Hence throughput is low [8].
E. SJRR CPU Scheduling Algorithm
In this algorithm, all the incoming processes are sorted in
ascending order in the ready queue. Time quantum is
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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010
calculated and assigned to each process. On the basis of that IV. PSEUDO CODE
time quantum, processes are executed one after another. If fÅ0
time quantum expires, CPU is taken from the processes temp Å 0
forcefully and assigned to the next process; the preempted total_tatime Å 0.0
tw_time Å 0.0
processes are put at the end of the ready queue [7]. avg_wt Å 0.0
SJRR is provides fair share to each process and is useful in avg_tatime Å0.0
time sharing systems. It provides minimum average time and
For i Å 0 to process
average turnaround time [7]. The problem with this algorithm F[i] Å atime[i] + btime[i]
is that if calculated time quantum is too small then there is
overhead of more context switches. For i Å process-1 to 0
For j Å 1 to process
f Å F[j-1]
In this algorithm, a new factor F is calculated that is F [j-1] Å F[j]
addition of two basic factors (arrival time and burst time of the F [j] Å f
processes). Here is the equation that shows this relation: temp Å btime[j-1]
btime[j-1] Å btime[j]
F= Arrival Time + Burst Time
btime[j] Å temp
This factor F is assigned to each process and on the basis ptemp Å proname[j-1]
of this factor processes are arranged in ascending order in the proname[j-1] Å proname [j]
ready queue. Processes having highest value of the factor are proname[j] Å ptemp
executed first and those with lowest value of the factor are wtime [1] Å 0
executed next. Depend on this new factor CPU executes the For j Å 1 to count
process that: wtime[j] Å btime [j-1] + wtime [j-1]
• Has shortest burst time
• Submit to the system at start For j Å0 to process
Proposed CPU scheduling algorithm reduces waiting time, tw_time Å tw_time + wtime[j]
turnaround time and response time and also increases CPU tatime[j] Å b[j] + wtime[j]
total_ tatime Å total_tatime+ tatime[j]
utilization and throughput. It has resolved the problem of
starvation at much more extent and there is no problem of avg_wt Å tw_time / process
context switching in this algorithm. avg_tatime Å total_tatime/ process

The working of the proposed algorithm is as given below: V. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION & RESULTS
1. Take list of processes, their burst time and arrival To explain the performance of proposed scheduling
time. algorithm and to compare its performance with the
2. Find the factor F by adding arrival time and burst performance of existing algorithms; consider the following set
time of processes. of processes along with their burst time, arrival time in
3. On the basis of factor, arrange processes and their milliseconds and priority in numbers as shown in the Table 1:
relative burst time in ascending order using any
sorting technique.
Process  Arrival  Burst  Priority 
4. Calculate waiting time of each process.
Name  Time  Time 
5. Iterate through the list of processes
a. Add total waiting time with waiting time of P1  0  20  6 
each process to find total waiting time
b. Add burst time and waiting time of each
P2  1  10  8 
process to find turnaround time P3  2  3  2 
c. Add total turnaround time and turnaround time
of each process to find total turnaround time P4  3  13  1 
6. Average waiting time is calculated by diving total P5  4  10  4 
waiting time with total number of processes.
Table 1: Set of Processes
7. Average turnaround time is calculated by dividing
total turnaround time with total number of processes.

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010
Proposed CPU scheduling algorithm was implemented waiting time of each process and average waiting time for each
with existing CPU scheduling algorithms and performed scheduling algorithm.
detailed analysis by using Deterministic Evaluation method.
C. Turnaround Time:
Following Gantt charts of each algorithms, average waiting
time and average turnaround time was obtained from this Turnaround Time of the process is calculated as the interval
method. between the time of the submission of the process to the time of
A. Gantt Chart: the completion of that process. From the Gantt chart of the
proposed Combinatory Scheduling, it is observed that
a. First Come First Served Scheduling:
turnaround time for the processes P1, P2, P3, P4 & P5 is 20, 2,
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 29, 5& 10 respectively and the average turnaround time is
0 10 12 21 24 29 (20+2+29+5+10) /5=13.2ms. Turnaround Time for all other
algorithms is calculated in the same way. Table 3 shows
Figure 2: Gantt chart for FCFS
turnaround time of each process and average turnaround time
b. Shortest Job First Scheduling: for each scheduling algorithm.
P2 P4 P5 P3 P1 Process Waiting Time (ms)
0 2 5 10 19 29 Name
FCFS SJF RR Priority SJRR Proposed
Figure 3: Gantt chart for SJF
c. Round Robin Scheduling: P1 0 19 18 11 19 10
Here time quantum assigns to each process is 8.
P2 10 0 8 9 0 0
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P1 P3
P3 12 10 20 0 15 20
0 8 10 18 21 26 28 29
Figure 4: Gantt chart for RR P4 21 2 18 21 2 2
d. Priority Based Scheduling: P5 24 5 21 24 5 5
P3 P2 P1 P4 P5 Avg. 13.4 7.2 17 13 8.2 7.4
0 9 11 21 24 29
Figure 5: Gantt chart for Priority Scheduling
Table 2: Waiting Time of each process and Average Waiting
e. SJRR Scheduling: Time for Each Scheduling Algorithm

P2 P4 P5 P3 P1 P3 P1
0 2 5 10 15 20 24 29 Process Turnaround Time (ms)
Figure 6: Gantt chart for SJRR Scheduling FCFS SJF RR Priority SJRR Proposed

f. Proposed Combinatory CPU Scheduling:
P2 P4 P5 P1 P3 P1 10 29 28 21 29 20
0 2 5 10 20 29 P2 12 2 10 11 2 2
Figure 7: Gantt chart for Proposed Combinatory Scheduling
P3 21 19 29 9 24 29
B. Waiting Time:
P4 24 5 21 24 5 5
Waiting Time of the process is calculated as the time taken
by the process to wait for the CPU in the ready queue. From the P5 29 10 26 29 10 10
Gantt chart of the proposed Combinatory Scheduling, it is Avg. 22.8
19.2 13 18.8 14 13.2
observed that waiting time for the processes P2, P4, P5, P1 & Turnaround
P3 is 0, 2, 5, 10 & 20 respectively and the average waiting time Time
is (0+2+5+10+20) /5=7.4ms. Waiting Time for all other Table 3: Turnaround Time of each process and Average
algorithms is calculated in the same way. Table 2 shows Turnaround Time for Each Scheduling Algorithm

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010
The proposed algorithm along with existing algorithms has VI. CONCLUSION
been simulated with C#.NET code and comparisons are made
between the performance of proposed algorithm and existing From the comparison of the obtained results, it is observed
algorithms. Graphical representation of these comparisons is that proposed algorithm has successfully beaten the existing
shown in Figure 8 and Figure 9. CPU scheduling algorithms. It provides good performance in
the scheduling policy. As SJF is optimal scheduling algorithm
but for large processes, it gives increased waiting time and
sometimes long processes will never execute and remain
starved. This problem can be overcome by the proposed
algorithm. In future, the working of proposed algorithm will
be tested on any open source operating system.


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Figure 9: Comparison of Turnaround Time of Proposed 2009.
Algorithm with Turnaround Time of Existing Algorithms

From the Gantt charts of proposed algorithm and existing
algorithms (Figure 2 to 7), it is noticed that waiting time,
turnaround time and response time of the proposed algorithms
are smaller than existing algorithms. The above two graphs in
Figure 8 and 9 also represents that proposed scheduling
algorithm is optimum as compared to other existing
scheduling algorithms. Maximum CPU utilization and
throughput can also be obtained from proposed scheduling

ISSN 1947-5500