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udlaishdkq udOH isoaOdka; - flá ye|skaúula

uydpd¾h veksfh,a
pekaâ,¾*

mßj¾:kh( iuka tï.ldrshlrjk**

ye|skaùu(

1960ka miqj 80 oYlh jk f;la ì%;dkHfha;a wfkla fndfyda rgj,;a udOH wOHhk
úIfhys kj udlaiajdoS t<Uqu m%p,s; j Ndú; jkq oelsh yels úh. udOH wOHhkh
;=< kj udlaiajdoS kHdh Ndú; ùu wêm;sOdrS iajNdjhla fkd.;a kuq;a th b;d
mqΩ`M,a j me;sÍ mej;sK¡ tfyhska udOH wOHhkfha oS udlaiajdofha tk Bg
wod< ixl,am ms<sn| bf.kSu yd idlÉPd lsÍu b;d jeo.;a fõ hhs is;uq¡ udlaiajdoS
kHdhsl t<Uqï wOHhkh lsrSfï oS wu;l fkd l< hq;= lreKla kï Bg wod< jQ ksYaÑ;
tla .=re l=<hla fkdue;s njhs. úúO .=rel=< úiska fï kHdh ixj¾Okh lrñka
úúOdldrfhka udOH wOHhkh i|yd fhdod.kq ,en we;¡ fï flá ye|skaúfuka tu úúO
jQ ixl,am ms<sn| ixlaIsma; úia;rhla bosrsm;a lsrSug W;aidy .efka¡

mj;akd ;;ajh m%;sks¾udKh lsÍu udOHj, ld¾hNdrh jk nj ;yjqre lsÍu flfryS kj


udlaiajdoS kHdhslfhda keUqre j isá;s. ksoyia nyq;ajjdoSka wjOdrKh lrk
wdldrhg kï udOHfha ld¾hNdrh ksid l:d lsrSfï ksoyi jvd wdrlaIdùu yd j¾Okh úu
isÿ fõ¡ udlaiajdoS m%fõYh ksoyia nyq;ajjdoskaf.a m%fõYfhka imqrd u fjkia
fõ¡ iudc úoHdj ;=< udlaiajdofha ke.Su isÿ jkqfha iudch ms<sn| j tjlg wdêm;Hh
Wiq,ñka mej;s lD;HjdoS udos,Skag m%;sl%shd jYfhks¡ lD;HjdoSka iudc ixia:d
ú.%y lsrSug W;aidy lrkqfha tajd wka;¾ iïnkaO iudc ixialD;sl moaO;shla ;=<
mj;sk wfNaoH wx. f,iska olajñks¡ ta wkqj lD;HjdoSka iudc m%;súfrdaO;d
ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq fkd lrhs¡ tfy;a udlaiajdoh mka;s m%;súfrdaO;d ms<sn|
wjOdkh fhduq lrñka iudc mriamr;d ish úIh m:h njg m;a lr.kshs¡ hqfrdamh ;=<
udOH wOHhkh úIfhys udlaiajdoh n,h m;=rejdf.k isá ld,h tkï 1970 iy 1980g fmr
ld,fha tys mej;s m%;s udlaiajdoS {dK iïm%odh jQfha ksoyia nyq;ajjdoh
hs¡ th 1940 muK isg tlai;a rdcOdksfha wêm;sOdÍ ms<s.ekSu njg m;a j mej;sK
^Hall,1982:56&. nyq;ajjdoSkaf.a woyia .=f¾úÉ i|yka lrk wdldrhg fufia h.
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“nyq;ajjdoSka iudch olskqfha ;r`.ldÍ lKavdhï iy Tjqkaf.a wNsu;d¾:j, ixlS¾Khla
f,isKs. bka tllaj;a iEu l,ays u wdêm;Hh m;=rd fkd isáhs¡ udOH ixúOdkhla
fndfydfihska rcfha md,kfhka f;dr ksoyia ;;ajhla wdYajdokh lrk" tlg ne`ÿkq
ixúOdk moaO;shls¡ tfuka u foaYmd,k mlaI" wdh;k.; n,mEï ixúOdk wdosfhka o
TjqyQ ksoyia j fjfi;s¡ udOHlrejkag ie<lsh hq;= kuH;djla olajk iajdëk úo.aO
mka;slhka msrsila w; udOH wdh;kj, md,kh /|S mj;S¡ udOH wdh;k iy ish .%dyl
ckhd w;r mj;skafka hhs fmfkk iuñ;sh ueflda,sf.a jpkj,ska mjif;d;a fufia h¡ zfuu
iïnkaOh idudkHfhka iafõÉPdfjka yd ish wNsu;fhka we;sjQjla f,i fmfkhs¡ tfuka u
Y%djlhdf.a fyda fm%alaIlhdf.a mQ¾j ksYaÑ; wjYH;dj,g wkqj ish wNsu;h mßos
úúO whqßka udOH yeisrùfï yelshdj Tyqg we;¡ tfuka u fydaf,dardka m%ldY l<
wdldrhg iudcfha mj;akd nyqúO jQ jákdlïj,g tu iudcfha mj;akd udOH ia:djr lsÍu
fyda wia:djr lsÍu ke;fyd;a /l.ekSu fyda m%;slafIam lsÍu l<
yelshZZ^Gurevitch,1982:1&.

.=f¾úÉ ;jÿrg;a nyq;ajjdoh iuÕ udlaiajdoh iei|Sul fhfoa¡ udlaiajdoSka OkjdoS


iudch olskafka tla iudc mka;shl wdêm;Hhg hg jQ iudchla f,ihs¡ ta wkqj udOH
oel.; yelafla úúO mka;sj, oDIaájdo .efgk ix.%du N+ñhla f,isks¡ tfy;a tu .eàu
isÿjkqfha tla mka;shl wdêm;Hh kue;s ikao¾Nfha h¡ tys wjika md<kh
mj;skqfha nyq, jYfhka u m%d.aOkfha wdêm;Hh u;hs¡ udOHlrejka ish iajdêm;H
ms<sn| ñ;Hdjla fldf;la m%Ks; f,i ri ú|sñka isáh o i;H ;;ajh jkqfha th hs¡
udOHlrejdf.a ksoyi hkak wêm;sOdÍ ixialD;shg yd tu iudchg uqody, ñ;Hdjla
muKs¡ iuia:hla f,i .;fyd;a udOH úiska wêm;sOdÍ mka;sfha wNsu;hkag tlÕ j
w¾:l:k rduq f.dvke.Su lrkq ,nhs¡ udOHfha .%dylhka úiska Tjqkag wkqj fjk fjkia
rduq ks¾udKh lr.ekSu isÿfõ¡ .%dylhka we;eï úg fuu wdlD;sj,g úreoaO jk w;r
;j;a úfgl tajd iu`. wkql<kh ùu o isÿ fõ¡ úl,am w¾: iïmdok moaO;s iam¾I lsÍug
yelshdj fkdue;s msrsia"1 udOH u.ska imhk w¾:l:kj,g m%;súreoaO j mj;akd
fjk;a w¾:l:k iu`. ii|d ksjeros ks.ukhlg t<öug wfmdfydi;a fj;s” ^Gurevitch,1982:1&.

Wmrs jHqyh iy wfOdajHqyh

wd¾:sl jdoh ^th lfGdar udlaiajdoh f,i o y`ÿkajhs& iïNdjH udlaiajdofha m%Odk
,laIKh fõ¡ WmrsjHqyh fkdfyd;a iudc foaYmd,k yd nqoaêuh úHqyh iudcfha

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wd¾:sl jHqyh fkdfyd;a wfOdajHqyh úiska ;SrKh lrhs hkak wd¾:sljdoh ^uQ,lD;
fyda uQ,Od¾ñl udlaiajdoh& wkqj ms<s.efka¡ wd¾:sl in|;d iudc m%mxpj, m
%Odk fya;=j f,i ms<s.kakd isoaOdka; fN!;sljdoS isoaOdka; jYfhka
ms<s.efka¡ udlaiaf.a fN!;sljdoS Ndú;h y`ÿkajkqfha ft;sydisl fN!;sljdoh f,ihs¡
wd¾:sljdoh" ;dlaIKsl ksYaphjdoh iu`. iïnkaO fõ¡ udlaia ish ú.%yhka fndfyduhla
bosrsm;a fldg we;af;a ;dlaIKsl ksYaphjdosfhl= f,i hs¡ Tyqf.a we;eï Wmqgd.ekSï
Bg WodyrK f,i oelaúh yels h¡ Tng yq,x fuda, ,efnkqfha jevjiï wêm;shd iu`.
h¡ ld¾ñl OkjdoS iudch yqud,fhka ÿjk tkacsu iu`. ,efí (Marx,1847). fï uq,O¾ujdoS
iïm%odhg wkqj flfrk nyqck udOH wOHhk ;=< ixialD;sl ksIamdok ú.%y
flfrkqfha tajdfha wd¾:sl ksh;Ska wkqj h¡ fï oelaug wkqj udOHfha wka;¾.;h yd
th ord isák mKsjqvh úiska ìyslrk w¾:" uQ,sl jYfhka u tajd ksIamdokh l<
wdh;kj, wd¾:sl wOia: jHqyh úiska ;SrKh lrhs hkak ms<s.kshs
(Curran,1982:18).jdKsc udOH wdh;k fj<| ksfõok imhkkaf.a wjYH;dj,g wkqj
jevigyka bosrsm;a l< hq;= h¡ .%dylhka jeä lr.ekSfï ud¾. o ta iu`. u j¾Okh l<
hq;= h¡ ta ksid Tjqyq fndfydafihska ,sx.sl;ajh yd wmrdO ms<sn| jevigyka ish
udOH ;=<ska bosrsm;a lsÍug fm<fò. fï udOH wdh;kj, wdodhï rch fyda
foaYmd,k wêldrh úiska md,kh lrk úg Tjqyq w;rueos N+ñldjlg .uka lr;s¡ ke;fyd;a
mj;akd idudkH .%dyl leue;a; mskúug jevigyka bosrsm;a lr;s(Curran,1982:18).

;ju;a we;eï foaYmd,k wd¾:sl udlaiajdoSyQ oDIaájdoh wd¾:sl uQ,h mokï fldg
mj;skakla f,i úYajdi lr;s¡ wfOdajHqy$WmrsjHqy udos,sh ckudOHg wdfoaY l<
úg th udOHfha whs;sh yd md,kh hkdosh ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq lsÍu yd
iïnkaO fõ¡ wd¾:sljdoh ms<sn| we;s W!Ks;jdoS úfõpk tys mj;akd úúO;ajh .
%yKh lr .ekSug wfmdfydi;a jQ tajd fõ¡ w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoSka wd¾:sljdoh
úfõpkh lrñka fhdackd lrkqfha WmßjHqyh wfOdajHqyfhka idfmalaI ksoyila ,nk
njhs¡ tfuka u WmßjHqyh wfOdajHqyh u; mj;ajk wfkHdakH in|;dj o TjqyQ
wjOdrKh lr;s.(Althuser Cited in Lapsley and Westlake,1988:5). fï woyig wkqj oDIaájdoS
Ndú;hka jQ ckudOH jeks oE idfmalaI j wd¾:sl ksh;sfhka ksoyia
fõ(Stevenson,1995:15-16). flfia fj;;a fuu idfmalaI ksoyi hk woyi o úpdrhg ,la j we;
(Paul Hirst:1977, Lapsley andWestlake, 1988:13-14, Curran, 1982:25 lD;s WodyrK fõ).
w,a;=i¾f.a n,mEfuka miq iagqj¾Ü fyda,a yd wfkla ixialD;sljdoS udlaiajdoSyQ

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WmrsjHqyh$wfOdajHqyh hk udos,sh m%;slafIam lr;s¡ udlaia i|yka l< iudc
i;ajhd yd iudc úx{dkh w;r mj;akd ohf,la;slh TjqyQ u;= lr;s(Curran,1982:18).

oDIaájdoh

udlaiajdofha flakaøSh ,laIKh th fN!;sljdoS úuhs¡ tfyhska iudc i;ajhd úiska iudc
ú{dkh ;SrKh lrkq ,nhs hkak th ms<s.kS¡ fï oelaug wkqj oDIaájdohka o mka;s
moku wkqj mj;S¡ tfuka u iudcfha mj;akd wêm;sOdrS oDIaájdoh jkqfha iudcfha
wdêm;Hh orK mka;sfha oDIaájdoh hs¡ fuh ú{dkhg uQ,sl;ajh fok ú{dkjdoS m
%fõYfhka fjkia fõ¡ iudc i;ajhd yd iudc ú{dkh w;r in|;dj ms<sn| m%Yakfha oS
udlaiajdoSkaf.a t<Uqï o tlsfklg fjkia fõ¡ tla lKavdhula iudc i;ajhd yd ú{dkh w;r
iïnkaOh iDcq kS;shla f,i i<l;s¡ wfkla msrsi th ohf,la;sl in|;djla f,i jgyd .ks;s¡

uQ,Od¾ñl udlaiajdoh ;=< oDIaájdoh hkq idjoH ú{dkhhs¡ tkï hï iudc msrsila
úiska fkd oeßh hq;= ú{dkhl t<U isáuhs¡ tu ú{dkh yeu úg u wêm;s ú{dkh jk
w;r th Tjqka ;=<g neyerska ldjeoaÿ tlla fõ¡ WodyrKhla f,i ks¾Ok mdka;sl
lïlrefjl= ÿmam;a j we;af;a Tyq úiska fmr Njhl lrkq ,enQ mdmhla fya;=fjka h hk
woyi Tyqf.a iudc mka;shg wh;a ú{dkh fkdfõ¡th idjoH ú{dkhls¡

by; i|yka oelafï msysgd n,k úg ckudOH úiska m;=rejkq ,nkqfha wêm;sOdÍ
u;jdoh hs¡ tkï udOH ysñ iy th yiqrejk mka;sfha jákdlï moaO;sh hs¡ udlaiajdoS
foaYmd,k wd¾:sl kHdhslfhl=g wkqj ckudOH úiska mka;s wr.,fha wd¾:sl
uQ,hka jika lrkq ,nhs¡ wr.,h ksis mrsê ia:dk.; lsÍu fjkqjg th uxuq,d lsrSug
oDIaájdoh Ndú; fõ¡ (Curran,1982:26). iïNdjH udlaiajdofha tk oDIaájdoh hkq idjoH
ú{dkh hs hk woyi w,a;=i¾ úiska m%;slafIam lrk ,os¡ oDIaájdoh hkq wm f,dalh
w;aolsk udOHh fõ¡ hkak Tyq wjOdrKh lf<a h. (Curran,1982:24). w,aa;=irshdkq
udlaiajdoh úiska oDIaájdofha mj;akd wvq l< fkd yels w.h yd tys øjHd;aul
meje;au wjOdrKh lrhs¡ oDIaájdoh iajdh;a; j yeisrSfï n,h we;s fohla f,i Tyq
fmkajd fohs¡ ckudOHj, oDIaájdoS Ndú;h úiska ngysr iudch ;=< OkjdoS l%uh
m%;s ks¾udKh lsÍug odhl jk wdldrh wmg ksrSlaIKh lrkq ,eìh yels h¡ Times jeks
i`.rdjla l,amkdfjka lshjkafkl=g th jegfya.

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oDIaájdoh ms<sn| ;j;a kHdhslfhl= jQ je,kaáka fjd,aisfkda ì%;dkH ixialD;sl
wOHhkh ;=< b;d oeä n,mEula l< wfhls¡ øjHd;aul wdlD;shg mQ¾j.dñ j mj;akd
úhqla; ú{dkhla ms<sn| ixl,amhlg bv i<ik wdldrfhka oDIaájdoh ms<sn|
isoaOdka;hla f.dv ke.sh yelafla mdr fN!;sl j muKla nj fjd,aisfkda ;¾l
lrhs¡ oDIaájdoS rEmdldrhka ú{dkfha ksIamdok fkdfõ¡ oDIaájdo úiska ú{dkh
ksIamdokh lsÍu isÿ lrhs¡ fgdaks fnkÜ i|yka lrk mrsos zz ljfrl=f.a fyda iajrEmh
ks¾Kh ùu ú{dkfha rEmdldrj, ks¾ñ;hkag iïnkaO jkjdg jvd fjk;a wjldYj,g iïnkaO
fõ¡ tajd kï wd¾:sl wjldYh iy oDIaájdoS wjldY ia:dmkh lrkq ,nk ix{dlrK moaO;s
hk wjldYhka h¡ fïjd u iudc tacka;hkaf.a ^hï jHqyhl tallhla¡mjq, kue;s jHqyh
;=< kï mq;d" ÿj" ;d;a;d wd§ wkkH;d .ekSu& ú{dkh iïmdokh lrk jdyl f,i ie,lsh
yelshZZ(Bennett ,1982:51)¡ udOHhg oDIaájdoS n,h we; hkakg meyeos,s j u ish¨
udlaiajdoS kHdhslhka tl`. fõ¡ tfy;a tys mj;akd iajNdjh ms<sn| Tjqyq tlsfkld yd
tl`. fkd fj;s¡

ksIamdok l%ufõohla f,i udOHh

iïNdjH udlaiajdoS fhÿïj,g wkqj udOH hkq OkjdoS iudc l%uh ;=< md,l mka;sfha
whs;sldÍ;ajh hgf;a" w¾: iïmdokh lrkakd" h¡ iïNdjH udlaiajdoh ms<s.kakd
wdldrhg udOH úiska md,l mka;sfha f,dal oelau yd woyia m;=rejd yerSu ir, l
%shdj,shls¡ Bg wkqj úl,am woyia ksfYaO lsrSu yd hgm;a lsrSu o lrkq ,nhs¡ fuh
udlaiaf.a my; ;¾lfhka meyeos,s fõ¡

zzøjHd;aul ksIamdok idOl ysñ mka;sh tu øjHd;aul j;alï md,kh lroa oS u udkisl
ksIamdok iïm;a o md,kh lrkq ,nhs¡ tfyhska idudkHfhka i|yka l< yelafla udkisl
ksIamdok iïm;a wvq whf.a woyia by; mka;sfha wKilg hg jk njhsZZ(Marx and
Engels:The German Ideology Cited in Curran,1982:22).fï ia:djrhg wkqj ckudOH úiska
jevlrk mka;sh ;=< jHdc ú{dkh iïmdokh i|yd l%shd lrhs¡ fuh ;j;a nrm;, lreKla fj;
wjOdkh fhduq lrjhs¡ tkï udOH ks¾ñ;hka ish,a, ;kslr u md,l mka;sfha jákdlï m
%ldYhg m;a lrkakls hkakhs¡ tu ú.%yh md,l mka;sh ;=< yd udOH ;=<
mj;akd ;j;a fldf;l=;a úúO;ajhka wu;l lr ouhs¡ tfuka u udOH .%dylhkaf.a úl,am
lshùï yelshdj o fuys oS wu;l lr oud we;¡

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m%pdrK fuj,ula f,i - udOHh

udlaiajdoS úYaf,aIKh ;=< udOH wdh;k n, jHqyhlg iSud lsÍu isÿ flf¾¡ iudcfha
mj;akd wêm;sOdÍ wdh;k iu`. udOH tlg wE|S l%shd lsÍu ms<sn| TjqyQ wjOdkh
fhduq lr;s¡ udOH u.ska wêm;sOdÍ wdh;kj, woyia yd wdl,am m%ldYhg m;a lsÍu
isÿ flf¾¡ Tjqyq tu wdl,am m%ldYhg m;a lrkqfha tajd fndfyda úl,am iïNdrhlska
tlla f,i fkd fõ¡ tajd mru i;H" flakøSh" imqrd ksjeros yd iajNdúl wdl,am f,i hs¡

udlaiajdoS foaYmd,k wd¾:sl úYaf,aYlhka olajk f,i ckm%sh;dfjka wvq ke;fyd;a


iïm%odhsl fkd jk woyia u.yer iudch ;=< b;d w.h flfrk yd mqΩ,a j iudch úiska
ms<s.;a jákdlï yd ms<s.ekSï je<|.ekSfï keUqrejla udOH úiska olajhs.(Murdock
and Golding,1977:37 cited in Curran,1982:26).

zlrkaZi|yka lrk f,i udlaiajdoS iïm%odhg wh;a fndfyda ì%;dkH m¾fhaIlhka


^iagqjÜ fyda,a jekakka&udOH u.ska m< lrk wmrdO isoaê yd f;dr;=re mj;akd
kS;s rS;s iajNdúl yd mru i;H f,i oelaùfï ksr; jk nj wOHhkh lr we;¡ tu m%jD;a;s
u.ska mj;akd rdcH wKmK;a yd kS;s rS;s i|yd iudc wkque;sh iliñka tajd ;j;a
j¾Okh lsÍug odhl fjhs¡ Bg tfrys jkakka ke;fyd;a tl`. fkd jkakka tfia;a ke;fyd;a
bka mrsndysr jQjka wiajdNdúlhka f,i yxjvq .ikq ,nhs¡ fï wdldrhg udOH i;=
ixksfõok yelshdj u.ska fmd,Sish" kS;sh" mdie,a jeks n, wdh;k fj; nrm;,
wdldrfhka iydh imhk wdldrh fï m¾fhaIlhka úiska ksrSlaIKh lrkq ,en we;¡ tu
ksrSlaIKj,ska meyeos,s jk wdldrhg udOH ish n,h wêm;sOdrS ixialD;sh ia:dmkh
lsrSu i|yd jk mQ¾j ksYaÑ;hka j¾Okh lsrSu" os.= lsrSu" w¨;ajeähd lsrSu úIfhys
Ndú; fõ¡ tu.ska mj;akd ixia:dms;h j¾Okh lsrSu úkd wNskjfhka ;ekSu isÿ fkd
lrhs (Curran,1982:14-27).

udOH úiska Pkao m%pdrK jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSfï oS ksoyia m%cd;ka;


%jdofha n, jHqyh iajNdúl lrKh lsÍu i|yd jk Ndú;hka ixia:dmkh lrk nj we;eï
udlaiajdoS úpdrlhka olajd we;¡ Pkaoh oSug hdu - ksfhdacs; m%cd;ka;%jdoh"
foaYmd,k iudk;ajh" iduQysl iajHx ks¾Kh whs;sh jeks ñ;Hdjka mj;ajdf.k hdug
fya;= jk oDIaájdoS Ndú;hla f,i TjqyQ ols;s¡ udOHh fï ñ;Hdj wLKav j mj;ajdf.k
hdug Woõ imhhs¡^md¾,sfïka;=jla ke;s md,k l%uhla .ek is;Sug ñksiqkag bv

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fkd ;nhs& rdcH oDIaájdoS fuj,ï^ISA&" m%Odk foaYmd,k ixúOdk" wOHdmk
moaO;s wdosh úiska il%Sh j ;yjqre lrk ,o" mqΩ,a j me;sr we;s ngysr m%cd;ka;
%jdoS foaYmd,k jákdlï j¾Okh lsÍu udOH úiska Pkao m%pdrKfha oS isÿ lrk
wdldrh TjqyQ meyeos,s lr;s (Curran,1982:15).

ñksia úIh ia:dmkh lsrSu ^fmd,d mekakùu&

udlaiajdoS kHdhslhka úIh^Subject&yd jia;=j^Object&w;r úfYaI wdldrfha fjkialula


ìys lrhs¡ úIh^ñksia tackaish& yd jia;=j ^tys meje;afï iajNdjh&w;r wfkHdakH f,i
jk wka;¾ iïnkaê; {d;S;ajh;a"ft;sydisl ú>gkh;a w;r in|;djla mj;akd nj fgdaks
fnkÜ i|yka lrhs.(Bennett,1982:42) fcdaka *siala "úIh" hkak fuf,i fjka fldg y`ÿkd
.kshs¡ zzmqoa.,hd hkak iajNdj O¾uh úiska ks¾udKh lrhs¡Z zúIh - ks¾udKh
lrkqfha ixialD;sh úisks¡ mqoa.,hd ms<sn| mj;akd isoaOdka; ñksiqka w;r fjkialï
ms<sn| tl`.;dj m< lrk w;r fï fjkialï iajNdúl foa f,i ú.%y lsÍu o lrhs¡ wfkla w;g úIh
ms<sn| kHdhka" iudchla ;=< ñksiqkaf.a fmdÿ w;aoelSï fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrhs¡
tkï wm ljqrekao hkak ms<sn| iudch mjik foa .ek wjOdkh fhduq lrhs¡Z zúIhZ
hkq iudc ks¾ñ;hls¡ th iajNdúl fkdfõZZ(Fiske,1992:288).udlaishdkq Ñka;khg wkqj
mqoa.,hd iudc in|;dj, n,mEfuka ia:dmkh fõ(Lapsley and Westlake,1988:7). fuh zñksia
úIh ixia:dmkh lsrSuZ f,i ye|skafõ¡

ñksid iaj ú{dk.;" wkkHmr;ka;% l%shdldrlï yd fm!oa.,sl úYajdi wdl,am wruqKq


iy ;j;a foa wkqj ;SrKh fõ hk udkjjdoS woyi w,a;=i¾ úiska m%;slafIam
lrk ,os(Lapsley and westlake,1988:14-15).Tyq ta fjkqjg fmd,dmekSfï l
%shdj,sh^interpellation&ms<sn| ixl,amh bosßm;a lf<a h¡zúsIhkaZ mQ¾jfhka
fok ,o jHqy wkqj ia:dmkh jk nj Tyq úiska fmkajd fok ,os¡ oDIaájdoh mqoa.,hka
úIhka njg m;a lsÍug l%shd lrhs¡ tu.ska mqoa.,hka fmd,d mkakkq ,efí ^th
mqoa.,hkag úúO iudc wkkH;d mjrhs&¡ ckudOH meie,a yd mjq, wdosh
we;=<;a oDIaájdoS rdcH fuj,ï u.ska(I.S.A) mqoa.,hka fmd,dmekakSu lrkq
,efí¡ ñksiqka wkkH;dj ms<sn| wjfndaOh;a h:d¾:h ms<sn| wjfndaOh;a rdcH
oDIaájdoS fuj,ï u.ska ,nd .kshs(Lapsley and westlake,1988:8).

7
ñksia úIh mQ¾jfhka fok ,o jHqyhlg wkqj ixia:dmkh fõ hkak jHqyjdofha idudkH
ms<s.ekSu hs¡ Bg wkqj ñksia úIh" NdIdj" mjq,a in|;d" ixialD;sl iïm%odhka yd
wfkl=;a iudc n,hka hk jHqy u.ska ;SrKh fõ(Lapsley and westlake,1988:10-
11).fmd,dmekSu ms<sn| w,a;+i¾f.a ixl,amh udOH mÀ;j, foaYmd,k l
%shdldrS;ajh ú.%y lsrSug udlaiajdoS udOH kHdhslhkag wjia:dj i<id fohs¡
mÁ;h .%dylhd fmd,d mkakkq ,nhs¡ Tyq fyd weh ñksia úIhla njg m;a lrhs
^tu(12&¡ fï woyig wkqj úIh ^fm%alaIlhd" wikakd" lshjkakd& mÁ;h úiska
ia:dmkh lrkq ,nhs¡ tfia u ckudOH i;= úIh ks¾udKh lsrSfï n,h ;j;a wdldrhlg
oelsh yels h¡ tkï udOH u.ska m%ldYhg m;a lrk foh tosfkod h:d¾:h ;=<
ms<sìUq úu hs¡ h:d¾:h f,i ffoksl j w;aú|sk idudkH oekSu mqoa.,hd ;=<
f.dvke.Su ñka woyia flf¾¡ fuh mqoa.,hd ;=< f,dal oelau ieliSug mQ¾j.dñ j
mj;S¡ w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoh fmd,dmekSfï l%shdj,shg tfrys j úfrdaOh mEug
mqoa.,hdg we;s yelshdj ms<sn| i|yka fkd lrhs¡ tfy;a rdcH oDIaájdoS fuj,ïj, l
%shdldrS;ajh ia:sr f,i u" imqrd u id¾:l jkafka hhs kshuhla ke;¡ ukao hï fudfyd;l
tacka;hd jk mqoa.,hd u ;j;a úfgl fmd,dmekSug ,la jkakd o úh yels neúks¡
w,a;=irshka udOH kHdhslhka mÁ;h imqrd u mqoa.,hdf.a ^úIfha&m%;spdrh
wkqj w¾: ksYaph lrkakla f,i i<lhs¡ oDIaájdofha wduka;%Khg mqoa.,hd olajk m
%;spdrh wkqj muKla fmd,dmekSu isÿúu Bg fya;=jhs (Lapsley and
westlake,1988:15).fï udOH kHdhslhka o ñksia úIh talSN+; m%mxphla f,i i<lk
,os¡ tfy;a miqld,Sk udlaiajdoSka flakaø%.; fkdjQ ñksia úIh ^mqoa.,hd&mÁ;h
iu`. m%;súfrdaO;dj,g hk w;r mqoa.,hd mÁ;h w;aú|sk ikao¾Nh fyda Tyqf.a
ixialD;sl yev.eiau Bg fya;= jk nj mejiS h(Curran,1982:25).

;;ajh tfia jqj o y¾nÜ udfldaiaf.a^1972&ck udOHj, n,h ms<sn| is;shu .%dyl
ckhd wl%Sh f.dÿre f,i oelaùug keUqrej we;¡ tfy;a kj udlaiajdoS kHdhslhka
mGkfha oS .%dylhkag úYd, ld¾hNdrhla mjrhs¡ zlrkaZ i|yka lrk f,i udOH úiska
wêm;sOdrS w¾: moaO;s fudv,hka f,i .ekSu yd tajd tlsfkld w;r yqjudre lr .ekSu
olakg ,enqK;a th o mj;akd w¾: moaO;s iu`. fyda mka;s mokï jQ w¾: moaO;s
iu`. iyfhda.fhka .%dylhd úiska u udOHlrejkag mqreÿ mqyqKq lrk ,oaola f,i o .;
yels h¡ tkï .%dylhd o fmr<d udOH úIfhys tacka;hd f,i fkdfyd;a
fmd,dmkakjkakd f,i ke;fyd;a wduka;%Kh lrkakd f,i l%shd lrhs (Curran,1982:25).

8
úúO udlaiajdoSka w;r fjkialï

úpdrlhka úiska udlaiajdoS udOH kHdhslhka úúO wdldrhg rduq .; lr we;


¡ ñfp,a .=f¾úÉ iy Tyqf.a wkq.dñlhka Bg we;=<;a mervhsu^iqiudo¾Y& ;=kla
kï lr we;¡

1¡jHqyjdoS mervhsuh
2¡foaYmd,k wd¾:sl mervhsuh^wfOdajHqyh u; mokï jQ&
3¡ixialD;sljdoS mervhsuh^Wmrs jHqyh u; mokï jQ&

w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoh jHqyjdoS fõ¡ meyeÈ,s jHqyjdoS úYaf,aIKhla u.ska


udOHfhys ix{dlrK moaO;sj, wNHka;r m%ldYkh ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq lrhs
(Curran,1982:28). udlaiajdoS uQ,O¾ujdoS iïm%odh ;=< tkï foaYmd,k wd¾:sl
kHdfhy" oDIaájdoh wd¾:sl mokug mrdh;a; j mj;skakla f,i olshs.(Curran,1982:26)..
%eyeï u¾fvdlaf.a lD;sj, (Murdock and Golding,1977, Murdock1982) úpdrd;aul
foaYmd,k wd¾:sl t<Uqula bosrsm;a lrhs¡ tys oS udOH i;= n,h wd¾:sl l
%shdj,sh ;+< fyda udOH ksIamdokfha jHqyj, ia:dk.; lrhs¡ udOH u.ska
bosrsm;a lrk ksfõok ;SrKh lrk yd tajd fufyhjk ;Srl idOlh udOHfha whs;sldÍ;ajh
yd wd¾:sluh md,kh f,i tys oS y`ÿkd .kshs¡

iagqj¾Ü fyda,af.a (Hall,1978) ueosy;aùï udlaiajdoS ixialD;sljdoS t<Uqula


.kshs¡ Tyq nyqck udOH fmdÿ ú{dkh ilia lsrSfï oS uy`.= n,mEula lrk nj y`ÿkd
.kshs¡ ixialD;sljdoh wd¾:sljdoh neyer lrñka w,a;=irshdkq jHqyjdoS udj;
wkq.ukh lrhs¡ tfy;a jHqyjdofhka fjkia j iudcfha Wm lKavdhïj, i;H w;aoelSï
wjOdrKh lsrSu;a" ixlS¾K m%ldYk mqxchla f,i fmfkk iudchla ;=< udOHh hkak
ikao¾N .; lsrSu;a Tjqka úsiska lrkq ,nhs (Curran,1982:27).l,la iagqjÜ fyda,a
wOHlaI OQrh fynjQ n¾ñka.ayeï úYajúoHd,fha iuld,Sk ixialD;sh wOHhkh i|yd jQ
uOHia:dkfha lghq;= fuu ixialD;sljdoS t<Uqu ksfhdackh lrhs¡ nyqck
udOH"oDIaájdoj, n,h" udOHfha iajNdjh" nyqck udOH ks¾Kh ùu hk lreKq
iïnkaO j úúO udlaiajdoS kHdhslhka ork u; fjk fjkia fõ(Curran,1982:23).

*%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,h

9
*%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,fha úfõpkd;aul isoaOdka; iïNdjH udlaiajdoSka ÿgqfõ
ixfYdaOkjdohla f,ihs¡ Bg fya;=j kï Tjqyq iïNdjH udlaiajdofha wd¾:sl ksh;sjdoh
yd oeä fN!;sljdoS ia:djrh m%Yak lsrSu;a *%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,fha isoaOdka;
;=< ;snQ idr ix.%yjdoS .=Kh;a h¡ udOH wOHhkh ;=< fudjqkaf.a woyia jeo.;a
jkqfha udOH" kHdhsl j lshúug oerE m%:u udlaishdkq m%h;akh fuh jk
fyhsks(Gurevitch,1982:23).flfia fj;;a TjqyQ udOH wOHhkh i|yd WÑ; u ud¾.h
iïmdokh lf<a hhs lsj fkd yels h (Curran,1982:23)¡ *%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,h iu. iïnkaO
ù isá fndfyda fihska u jeo.;a kHdhslhska kï ;shfvda¾ wev¾fkda" y¾n¾Ü udlia
yd uelaia fydlhsu¾ hk whhs¡ fï ish¨ fokd u udlaiajdoSka fõ¡ tfuka u Tjqka ish¨
fokd u 1923 *%ekala*¾Üys werô iudc m¾fhaIK wdh;khg iïnkaO j isáfhda
fj;s¡ fï wdh;kh 1933 oS ksõfhdala kqjrg f.k hk ,os¡

*%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,h fldkafijáhq woyila jQ nyqck iudch kue;s ixl,amhg


jdujdoS w¾:l:khla fok ,os¡ fï wjêfha u;= ù fmfkk u;jdoh jQfha fldkafijáõ jdohhs
(Bennett,1982:42)¡kj jdu Ñka;kfha mshd f,i ie<flk y¾nÜ udlia Tyqf.a zjka
vhfukaIk,a uEkaZ(One-Dimensional man, 1972) kue;s lD;sfha udOH hkak yÿkajd oS
we;af;a b;d wiqNjdoS f,i hs¡ th fkdje,elaúh yels n,hla f,i Tyq y`ÿkajd we;(

zzikaksfõokfha wruqK ke;skï w¾:h kï¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡udOHfha úfkdaoh iemhSfï yd


f;dr;=re l¾udka;fha fkd je<elaúh yels M,h jkqfha tu f;dr;= yd úfkdaoh iu`.
wdl,amuh" p¾hduh" nqoaêuh yd Ndjuh f,i mqoa.,hd" mdrsfNda.slhd"
ksIamdolhkag ne| ;eîu hs¡ iuia: iudch u fuf,i ksIamdolhka fj; ne| ;eîug udOH
Woõ fõ¡ ksIamdokh mdrsfNda.slhd fj; ldjeoaoSu yd tu.ska mdrsfNda.slhd
md,kh lsÍu isÿ flf¾¡ udOH tu ksIamdokh ms<sn| ienE ;;ajh jid ouhs¡ fï wdldrhg
taludksl Ñka;k Odrdjla yd p¾hd rgdjla u;= ùu isÿ fõZZ(Marcuse cited in
Bennett,1982:43). udliag wkqj wm f,dalh ms<sn| is;sh hq;= wdldrh udOH úiska
w¾:l:kh lrhs (Bennett,1982:44). fmdÿfõ .;a l, *%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,h udOH ms<sn|
wiqNjdoS wd,amhla orhs¡ fckÜ jQ,afldÜ wef.a lD;sj, i|yka lrk f,i *
%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,hg wkqj udOH yd ixialD;sl l¾udka;h ish oDIaájdoS n,fhka
uOHu mka;sfha mqoa.,jdoh;a" ks¾Ok mka;sfha úma,jjdoS cSj .=Kh;a úkdY
lrkq ,nhs (Woollacott,1982:105)¡ ;shfvda¾ wev¾fkda yd uelaia fydlhsu¾

10
udOHfha iuia: l%shdldrS;ajh we`.ùu i|yd ixialD;sl l¾udka;h kue;s fhÿu Ndú;hg
f.fkk ,os(One-Dimensional man- 1972, cited in Bennett,1982:47)¡oDIaájdoh ms<sn| *
%ekala*¾Ü .=rel=,fha oelau udlaiajdofha wd¾:sl ksh;sjdoh we;=<;ska
Ldokhg ,la lsrSug iu;a úh¡ tfy;a tu úpdr wkH udlaiajdoSka úiska m
%N+;ajjdohla f,i yd fy.,shdkq ú{dkjdohg h<s mshuka lsÍula f,i olajñka
úfõpkhg ,la lrk ,os (Bennett,1982:47).

¨ú w,a;=i¾ - 1918 ^Althusser&

¨ú w,a;=i¾ ^1918 Wmka j¾Ih hs& udlaiajdoh úoHdjla f,i ÿgq m%xi
udlaiajdosfhls¡ Tyqf.a iïm%odkh jHqyjdoS iïm%odhg we;=<;a fõ¡
w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdofha tla úfYaI ,laIKhla kï th udlaiajdofha we;s fy.,shdkq
ksh;sjdoh fkd ms<s.ekSuhs¡ ksh;sjdo úiska hula tla kshduhlg fyda tla idrhlg
W!Kkh lsÍu isÿ lrhs¡ w,a;=i¾ úiska udlaiajdofha tk wdldr foll ksh;sjdo m
%;slafIam lrhs¡ wd¾:sl ksYaph jdoh^wd¾:sl idOlh ish,a, ks¾Kh lrhs hk
woyi&iy udkjjdoh^mQ¾jfhka fok ,o ñksia iajNdjhl m%ldYkhla f,i iudc ixj¾Okh
isÿfõ hk woyi&tajd fõ¡ tfyhska w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoh m%;s wd¾:sljdoS yd
m%;s udkjjdoS fõ¡ wd¾:sl ksYaph jdoh m%;slafIam lrk Tyq oDIaájdoh wd¾:sl
jHqyhg wkqj mrdh;a; j mj;skakal fkdj iajdh;a; j ;SrKh úfï yelshdj we;a;la f,i;a
thg ñksia ú{dkh ieliSfï n,h we;s nj;a y`ÿkd .kakd ,os¡ rdcH oDIaájdoS fuj,ïj,
ffjYsl ix{dlrk Ndú;hka ;=< oDIaájdoh uQ¾;su;a fõ¡ tf,i u th idfmalaI
iajdêm;Hhla w;am;a lr.kshs¡ w,a;=i¾f.a Ñka;kuh Ndú;h udlaiajdofha wd¾:sl
ksh;sjdoh flfrys ;snQ wjOdkh fjk;lg yrjhs¡

w,a;=i¾g wkqj oDIaájdoh hkq mqoa.,hkaf.a ienE meje;au ms<sn| l,ams;


iïnkaOhla Tyq fj; bosrsm;a lsrSuhs(cited in Stevenson,1995:37)¡ oDIaájdoh ñksiqka
ñksia úIhka njg mrsj¾:kh lrhs¡ oDIaájdoS l%shdj,shla u.ska mqoa.,hka fjkia
lsrSu ke;fyd;a ks¾udKh lsrSu lrkq ,nhs¡ tfia ;ìhoS;a ;uka ;ud ms<sn| j ;Srl
tacka;hd jkafka h hk ñ;Hdj ms<s.kakd ;ekg mqoa.,hd f.khdu oDIaájdoh úiska
lrkq ,nhs¡

11
fgdaks fnkÜ i|yka lrkqfha mj;akd iudc l%uh m%ldYhg m;a lsrSu i|yd Ndú; jk
oDIaájdoS wdldrhka ish,a, ms<sn| i|yka lsrSfï oS w,a;=i¾ ìysiqkq f,i

lD;Hjdofha wdikakhg u meñfKk njhs¡ Tyq OkjdoS iudch fudf.d,s;sldldr2 jQjla f,i
bosrsm;a lrhs¡ tfuka u tys wNHka;r .egqï ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq fkd
lrhs(Bennett,1982:53)¡ w,a;=i¾f.a kHdh ;=< wêm;s u;jdoh l:sldj yryd m%ldYhg
m;a lrk wdldrh f;areï .ekSu myiq nj iagqjÜ fyda,a i|yka lrhs(Hall,1982:78)
¡w,a;=i¾f.a kHdhg wkqj udOH mÁ;h úiska úIh lr.kakd ^mdGlhd" fm%alaIlhd"
wikakd& fmd,dmkajkq ,nhs¡ tfiauq;a woH;k udOH kHdhslhka ;¾l lrkqfha úIh
ke;fyd;a mqoa.,hd úiska udOH mÁ;hg w¾: f.k tk njhs¡ w¾: u; lrk igk ms<sn|
oek.ekSug flfkl= fjd,aisfkdõ yd .%dïiaÑ foig keUqre úh hq;= h¡ w,a;=i¾f.a
iuyr f,aLk u.ska Tyqf.a we;eï wkq.dñlhka" nyqck udOHj, ix{dlrk moaO;Skays
ksIamdok m%dldrh yd tajd fmdÿ ms<s.ekSug ,la lsrSfï hdka;%Kh ms<sn|
fkd ;ld tu nyqck udOH ;kslr u wdlD;sjdoS lshùulg ,la lsÍu fj; ;,a¨fldg we;s ieáhla
o olakg yels h¡ flfia fj;;a jHqyjdoh yd ix{d¾:fõoh hk {dk YdLd fofla ixj¾Okh
udOH ms<sn| udlaiajdoS t<Uqu idl,Hfhka fjkia l< w;r w,a;=i¾ tu l%shdj,sfha
flakaø%Sh prs;hla fõ(Bennett,1982:53)¡ w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoh ms<sn|
fndfyduhla udOH úpdrlhka úiska fmdÿfõ wjOdkh fhduq lr we; (Lapsley and
Westlake,1988:3-16. Gurevitch,1982:23-25, Bennett,1982:51-53. White,1992:168-169.
Fiske,1992:286-288).

.%dïiaÑ yd wKil ^fycfudksh&

wkaf;daksfhda.%dïiaÑ b;d,s cd;sl udlaiajdosfhl= jk w;r m%Odk Odrdfõ


udlaishdkq Ñka;lfhls (1891-1937)¡ Tyq o w,a;=i¾ fuka u udlaiajdofha
wd¾:sljdoh m%;slafIam lrk ,os¡ oDIaájdofha iajdêk meje;au ms<sn| Tyq
wjOdrKh l< w;r oDIaájdo wd¾:sl jHqyh úiska ;SrKh lrkafka h hk iïNdjH
udlaiajdoS woyi neyer lrk ,os¡ ñksia úIh ^mqoa.,hd& foi udkjjdoS úoelaulska
hq;= j n,k udlaishdkq t,Uqula Tyq úiska ks¾udKh lrk ,os¡

hï iudc mka;shla wfkla iudc mka;sh u; olajk wdê;Hh úia;r lsrSug .%dïiaÑ

fycfudks3 kue;s fhÿu Ndú; lrk ,os¡ nq¾Iqjd fycfudksh WodyrKhla f,i i|yka l<

12
yels h¡ fycfudksh hkafkka woyia jkqfha foaYmd,ksl yd wd¾:sl jYfhka jk md,kh
muKla fkd fõ¡ md,l mka;s úiska Tjqyq f,dalh olsk wdldrh" f,dalh ms<sn| is;k
wdldrh wfkl=;a md,l mka;sj,g idudkH oekSu ke;fyd;a jHjydr {dkh f,i b;d
iajNdúl foaj,a jYfhka ta;a;= .ekaúug olajk iu;alu o fycfudks hkakg we;=<;a
fõ¡ tfy;a fï wdêm;Hh md,s; mka;s úiska ms<s.kqfha ish leue;af;ks¡ ish wNs,dI
iu`. o md,l mka;sfha fycfudksh ms<s.ekSu ne|S we;s nj úpdrlfhda
mji;s¡ jHjydr {dkh ms<sn| fc*ars fkdfj,a iañ;a mjikqfha" ks¾m%N+ mka;sh
úiska ish ks¾m%N+ cSjk l%uh mj;ajdf.k hk wdldrh jHjydr {dkh jk njhs(cited in
Alvarado and Boyd-Barrett,1992:51).flfia fj;;a w,a;=i¾ fihska u .%dïiaÑ o wr.,h
wjOdrKh lrhs¡ jHjydr {dkh hkq oeä fkd fi,afjk fohla fkdj ksrka;rfhka iajhxj
úmrsj¾:kh lr.kakd fohla nj Tyq olajhs ^Gramsci cited in Hall,1982:73&¡ *siala olajk
f,i zz¡¡¡¡¡¡leue;a; hkak h<s h<s;a ksrka;rfhka oskd .; hq;a;ls¡ ñksiqkaf.a
fN!;sluh iudc w;aoelSï úiska ksrka;rfhka Tjqka ks¾m%N+ Ndjhg m;a j isáfï
wjdisodhl ;;ajh u;la fldg fohs¡ tu.ska wêm;sOdrS mka;shg yd tys wdêm:Hhg
wk;=re t,a, fõ¡ oDIaájdoh yd ks¾m%N+kaf.a iudc w;aoelSï w;r mj;akd ksi`. m
%;súfrdaO;d úiska fkd je<elaúh yels f,iska oDIaájdoS wr., ìula ks¾udKh
lrhsZZ(Fisk,1992:291)¡ udOH iïnkaOfhka" oDIaájdoS wr., ìula" hk fhÿu fnfyúka
n,mEï iy.; ù we;¡ .%dïiaÑf.a ia:djrh jkqfha wd¾:sl ksh;sjdoh m%;alafIam
lsrSuhs¡ Tyq oDIaájdoS wdêm;Hh ,nd .ekSu i|yd lrk wr.,h ms<sn| b;d /äl,a jQ
oeä wjOdrKhla lrhs¡ .%dïiaÑ oDIaájdoh ms<sn| olajk woyia yryd Tyqf.a kHdhg
kj udlaiajdoS iajrEmhla ,efí¡

iagqjÜ fyda,a ^Stuart Hall&

fyf;u iuld,Sk ixialD;sh wOHhkh i|yd jQ n¾ñka.ayeï uOHia:dkfha mqfrda.dó


nqoaêuf;la fõ¡ Tyq 1960 iy 1970 ld,fha ì%;dkH jdudxYsl foaYmd,kfha m%Odk
prs;hla úh¡ w,a;=i¾ wkq.ukh lrñka Tyq ;¾l lr isáfha udOH úiska h:d¾:h m
%;sìïnkh lrk w;r u h:d¾:h ksIamdokh lsrSu o lrk njhs¡ fckÜ jQ,afldÜ úiska
iagqj¾Ü fyda,af.a m%Odk ,shú,a,la jk Policing The Crisis kue;s f,aLkhg jeo.;a
úfõpkhla bosrsm;a lrñka M,odhS lreKq /ila olajd we; (Janet Woollacott,1982:108-
110)¡ jQ,afldÜ mjik f,i fyda,af.a tu wOHhkh .%dïiaÑf.a fycfudksh ms<sn|

13
isoaOdka;h foig keUqre jQ udlaiajdoS ixialD;sljdoS m¾hdjf,dalkhls¡ tu.ska
nyqck udOHj, ix{dlrK l%shdj,sh úYaf,aIKh flfrhs¡ tfia u w,a;=i¾f.a kHdhg wkqj
udOH" rdcH oDIaájdoS fuj,ï f,i f.k tajd wêm;s oDIaájdo ks¾udKh lrk wdldrh
ms<sn| j o fyda,a wjOdkh fhduq lrhs¡ udOHj, idfmalaI wdêm;Hh o fyda,a
ms<s.kshs (Janet Woollacott,1982:108-110). by; i|yka f,aLkfha fyda,a olajk f,i nyqck
udOH úiska md,l mka;sfha reÑhg wkqj w¾:l:k ksIamdokh lrkq ,nhs¡ tfy;a tu l
%shdj,sh isÿjkqfha o oDIaájdoS wr., ìul h¡ udOH ix{dlrK moaO;sh idfmalaI
iajdêm;Hhlska hqla; nj oelsh yels h¡ zm%jD;a;sZ jevigyka úúO isoaê w¾:
oelaùfï oS úYd, N+ñldjla ksfhdackh lrhs¡ TjqyQ m%jD;a;s f,i bosrsm;a lrk
lreKq uQ,sl w¾: olajkakka jQ rch fyda fjk;a wdh;k u.ska wkqu; lrk ,o tajd jqj o
kej;;a oaú;Sh w¾: l:khlg ,la lr;s¡ udOHh o ms<s.;a jd.a iïm%odhla Ndú; lrñka
ms<s.;a woyia m%ldY lsÍug iqÿiqlï orhs¡ wd.u"mjq, fyda mdie,a fuka fudjqka
o ms<s.ekSug ,la j isá;s¡ tu n,h yryd udOH úiska fmdÿ iïuq;s.; woyia Yla;su;a
lsÍu i|yd fiajh lrkq ,nhs (Woollacott,1982:108-110)¡

udOH mÁ; fj;ska ckhd w¾: ,nd .kqfha flfia o hk m%Yakh kHdhd;aul j idlÉPd
lsÍug o iagqj¾Ü fyda,ag yels ù ;sfí¡ fyda,a w,a;=i¾f.ka fjkia jkqfha udOH
mÁ;hlg m%;spdr oelaùug we;s bvlfvys jQ úúO;ajh wjOdrKh lsrSfuks¡ iagqj¾Ü
fyda,af.a m%Odk f,aLkhla jk Encoding/Decoding-1980^fla:lrKh$úfla:kh& ys udOH
mÁ;hl" wêm;sOdÍ oDIaájdoh fok ,o lshúula f,i ^Prefered reading& ksi.fhka u
igyka jk njg ;¾l lrhs¡ tfy;a udOH mÁ;h weiqre lrkakd ksrdhdifhka u th ms<s
fkd .kakd nj o Tyq i|yka lrhs¡ lshjkakdf.a"krUkakdf.a fyda wikakdf.a iudc ;;ajh
úúO ia:djrhka ms<s.ekSu foig Tyq fhduq lrjhs¡ ish iudc ;;ajh yd fok ,o lshùu tlg
.e,fmk wjia:djl lshjkakd úiska wêm;sOdÍ lshúula ^Dominant Reading& iïmdokh
lrkq ,nhs¡ mÁ;h wkql<kh l< lshùulg ,la lrkqfha fok ,o lshùu ish iudc ;;ajhg
wkqj ilia lr .ekSu i|yd tys w¾: fjkia lr.kq ,nkakd úisks¡ fok ,o lshùu yd ish
iudc ;;ajh iDcq j .efgk wjia:djl oS tu lshjkakd úiska cks; lrkqfha m
%;smlaI^Oppositional&lshúuls(Fisk,1992)¡ *sialaf.a u idrdxYh yd Tyq Bg olajk
WodyrK fï lD;sfha we;¡ tfuka u fyda,a úiska w¾:l:khg iSud mj;sk nj wjOdrKh
lrk ,È(Stevenson,1995:41-42).tkï w¾: ir, f,i ;ks mqoa., (Individual) fyda mqoa.,sl
(Private) úh fkd yels njhs (Hall,1980:135)¡ fyda,a oDIaájdoh ms<sn| olajk wjOdrKh

14
úfõpkhg ,la j we;¡ Bg fya;=j whs;sldÍ;ajfha iy md,kfha jeo.;alu ms<sn| fkd
;elSuhs(Stevenson,1995:35)¡

udlaiajdoS úYaf,aIKfha iSud

udlaiajdoh ;j;a tla oDIaájdohla muKlehs we;eï úpdrlfhda ;¾l lr;s¡^ft;sydisl


fN!;sljdoh øjHd;aul úoHdjla f,i fmdÿfõ ms<s.kshs¡ udlaiajdoh oDIaájdohla f,i
i<lk wh tu lreK wu;l lr;s&we;efula udlaiajdoSyQ wkaO Nla;slhka msrsilehs
fpdaokd lr;s(Berger,1982) uQ,O¾ujdoS udlaiajdoh b;d r`MΩ f,i ksh;s jdoS fõ¡ úIh
uQ,sl;ajhg yd mqoa., l%shdldrS;ajhg øjHjdoS W!Ks;jdosfhl= ,nd fokqfha b;d
wvq bvlvls¡ udlaiajdoh fndfyda úg fmfkkqfha wdkqNúl m¾fhaIK j,lajk iqmsrs
isoaOdka;hla f,ihs¡ flfia fj;;a udlaishdkq foaYmd,k wd¾:sl iïm%odh ;=< úfYaI
jYfhka wdkqNúl l%ufõo Ndú;hg .kshs¡ tfuka u úfYaI mÁ; ms<sn| lrk ióm
wOHhk u.ska udOH m%ldYk úYaf,aIKhka isÿ lrkq ,nhs¡

iïNdjH udlaiajdofha tk jHdc ú{dkh kue;s ixl,amh u.ska" ueosy;aùï yryd úlD;s
fkd lrk ,o h:d¾:hla mj;sk njg jeros woyila fhdackd lrkq ,nhs¡ fuu jHdc ú{dkh
ms<sn| u;h iu`. iïnkaO jk wfkla woyi kï udOH úiska bosrsm;a lrk fohg m
%;súreoaO lshùula bosrsm;a lsrSug mdGlhdg bvla ke;" hkak ms<s.ekSuhs¡ .
%dylhka úiska udOH Ndú; lrk úúO rEmdldrhka ms<sn| wjOdkh wm fj;ska bj;a
lsrSug udlaiajdoS m¾hdjf,dalh ljr fyda W;aidyhla fkd .; hq;= h¡ flfia fj;;a kj
udlaiajdoSyQ fï w.;Ska u.yrsñka isá;s¡ uq,ald,Sk udlaiajdoSka mka;s wjYH;d
ms<sn| l< wjOdrKh fï jk úg b;d iS.%fhka wfkl=;a iudc úfNaokhka jQ ,sx.sl;ajh"
cd;sl;ajh" wd.ï jeks lafIa;% lrd o f.k hñka mj;S¡

udlaiajdoS úYaf,aIKfha YlH;d

wfkla kHdhka fuka fkdj udlaiajdoh udOH wOHhkh i|yd meyeos,s kHdhl
wjYH;dj w.h lrhs¡ Y=oaO úoHd iu`. .;a úg iudc úoHd w.fhka f;dr h hk ñ;Hdj
udlaiajdoS úpdr kHdh úiska fy<sorõ lrk ,os¡ udOH u.ska m%ldYhg m;a jk
foa ;=< we;s wiu;=<s; nj wjOdrKh lrñka tys we;s wd¾:sl yd foaYmd,k
wNsu;hkaf.a iajrEmh foig wmf.a wjOdkh fhduq lsrSug udlaiajdoS

15
m¾hdjf,dalkh iu;a fõ¡ udOH mÁ; iqúi,a iudc rEmdldrhla ;=< msysgqùug
udlaiajdoh Woõ lrhs¡ oDIaájdofha iajNdjh ms<sn| th olajk wjOdkh fok ,o jákdlï
úixfhdackh lsÍug wmg Woõ fõ¡ udOH mÁ; u.ska wm fj; msrskukqfha ldf.a
h:d¾:h o hkak fy<sorõ lr .ekSug oDIaájdoS wOHhkh wmg Woõ lrhs¡ mqoa.,
iajdêm;Hh kue;s ñ;Hdj we;=<;ska ydrd oeóug w,a;=irshdkq udlaiajdoh Woõ
lrk úg wfkl=;a udlaiajdoS ia:djrhka úiska udOHh" oDIaájdoS w¾: i|yd wr., ìula
f,i y`ÿkd .kshs¡ ta wkqj mdGlhkag hï mÁ;hla úIfhys m%;súfrdaë lshùul fhoSug
we;s yelshdj újD;a; lrhs¡

udlaiajdoS kHdh iudc mka;sj, jeo.;alu udOHfha whs;sldrs;ajh yd .%dylhd


udOH mÁ; ms<sn| lrkq ,nk ks¾jpkh hk lreKq fol ms<sn| j u wjOdkh fhduq
lrñka wjOdrKh lrhs¡ udlaiajdoS kHdh ;=< fuu wjOdkh úfYaI jeo.;alula Wiq,hs¡
wka;¾.; úYaf,aIK yd ix{d¾:fõoh udOHfha wka;¾.;h u; ish wdf,dalh m;=rejoa
oS udlaiajdoS kHdh udOH ksIamdok yd Bg olajk m%;spdrj, ø%jHd;aul ;;ajh
ms<sn`o lreKq wjOdrKh lrk ,os¡ úfõpkd;aul foaYmd,k wd¾:sl kHdhslhka
udOHfha whs;sldrS;ajh yd tys md,kh ms<sn|j;a" udOHfha whs;sldrS;ajh tys
wka;¾.;hg u. fkd yeßh yels wdldrhlska n,mdk whqre;a wOHhkh lrhs¡ úúO iudc
wd¾:sl mka;s ia:r úiska yev.eiaiQ úúO YlH;d yd w¾:l:k udos,s f,i fujeks wjia:d
wOHhkh lsrSfï o jeo.;alula mj;S¡ udlaiajdoS udOH m¾fhaIK udOH m%ldYk
úYaf,aIKh lsÍfï o ksr; fjhs¡^foaYmd,k wdjrK yd iudc lKavdhïj,g wod< j& tu
úYaf,aIKj, oS iqúfYaIs; jQ oDIaájdo fy<sorõ lr .kshs¡ wmg ;ju;a udlaiajdoS
úYaf,aIK l%uh wjYH j mj;S¡ uka o h;a iudch ;=< n,h yd iïm;a fnoShdfï úIu;djla
mj;sk ;dla h:d¾:h ms<sn| úúO w¾:l:k ìys jk w;r tajdfhka we;eïjd jvd n,mEï iy.;
jk neúks¡ we;eï úfgl .%dyl m%;spdr m%;súfrdaë úh yels h¡ we;eï úfgl udOH
wka;¾.;h úIfhys .%dyl m%;spdrh Okd;aul úug o bv we;¡ udlaiajdoS úYaf,aIKh
fï ish¨ úNj;d w;am;a lr .ekSug W;aidy orhs¡

mßj¾;lf.a mdßNdIsl Yío ud,dj ^,smsfha fhoS we;s ms<sfj,g&

1.ksoyia nyq;ajjdoSka ) Liberal Pluralist

2.lD;H jdoSka – Functionalists

16
3.udlaiajdoS fkd jk – Non-Marxist

4.úo.aO mka;slhka –Elite Class

5.ix.%du N+ñhla –Site of Struggle

6.tl`. ùu –Negotiate

7.Wmß jHqyh – Super structure

8.wfOda jHqyh –Base

9.wd¾Ól jdoh – Economisam

10.lfGdar udlaiajdoh – Vulgar Marxism

11.m%mxp –Phenomena

12¡;dlaIKsl ksYaphjdoh–Technological Determinism

13.nyqck udOH – Mass Media

14.foaYmd,k wd¾:sl udlaiajdoh –Political Economic Marxism

15.W!Ks;jdoS – Reductionist

16.ixialD;sljdoS udlaiajdoSka – Culturalist Marxists

17.iudc meje;au – Social being

18.iudc ú{dkh – Social Consciousness

19.oDIaájdoh$u;jdoh – Ideology

20.ú{dkjdoh– Idealist

21.idjoH ú{dkh$jHdc ú{dkh – False Consciousness

22.iudc tacka;hka– Social Agents

23.jákdlï –Values

24.ñksia úIh ia:dmkh lsrSu – Constitution of the Subject

25.fmd,d mekSu–Interpellation

17
26.oDIaájdoS rdcH fuj,ï–Ideological State Apparatuses

27.mÁ;h–Text

28.wduka;%Kh– Hailing !

29.mGkh–Reading

30.iuld,Sk ixialD;sh wOHhkh i|yd jQ uOHia:dkh–Center for Contemporary Cultural


Studies.
31.ixfYdaOkjdoS – Revisionist

32.idr ix.%yjdoS – Eclecticism

33.nyq ck iudch –Mass Society

34.ixialD;sl l¾udka;h – Cultural Industry

35.iïm%odkh – Contribution

36.ksh;sjdoh–Essentianlism

37.udkjjdoh –Humanism

38.fycfudksh –Hegemony

39.idudkH oekSu$jHjydr {dkh – Common Sense

40.fok ,o lshúu – Preferred Reading

41.wdkqNúl – Empirical

42.wka;¾.; úYaf,aIKh–Content Analysis

43.ix{d¾:fõoh–Semiotics

mßj¾:lf.a mdol igyka(

1.fndfyda úg iïm;a ys`.fhka fmf<k ks¾Ok mka;sh yd my< uOHu mka;slhka fï .Khg
jefÜ¡udlaishdkq udkfhka Tíng fuu woyi ú.%y lrkafka kï mqreIdêm;H ;=< ia;%Ska o jd¾.sl
lshúï ;=< hg;a ck lKavdhï o wêm;sOdrS fkd jk j¾K yd wd.ï o tfuka u ,xldjg wkqj .;fyd;a
ixialD;sl iïm;a flakaø%.; j we;s fld<U w.k.rfhka mrsndysr j fjfik msrsia o fï msrsig we;=<;a l<
yels h¡

2.fudf.d,s;sl hkq mdIdKS N+;" ke;fyd;a .,a .eyqKq" taludksl" fkd fi,afjk woyiams<sn| oelaùug
fhdok jpkhls¡

3.fycfudks hkq u;jdoS wdêm;Hhs¡ fycfudksfha úIh jia;+ka ks¾m%N+ka fõ¡ .%dïiaÑf.a tu fhÿu
i|yd ,xldj ;=< úúO msrsia úúO isxy, jpk Ndú; fldg we;¡wdpd¾h ksõgka .=Kisxy ta i|yd Ndú;

18
fldg we;af;a wdêm;Hh" hk fhÿuhs¡ ^.=Kisxy ksõgka"wkaf;daksTZ .%dïiaÑ flá ye|skaúula"
1986" lïlre f.dú wdh;kfha m%ldYkhls"ms(9&¡X lKavdhu ta i|yd Ndú; lf<a "fycfudksh" hk
jpkhhs ^.=Kr;ak oSma;sl=udr"mD:súlrKh iy fycfudksfha kj iajrEm"1999,X lKavdhfï m
%ldYkhls& ¡ta i|yd "wKil" hk mqrd;k jpkh u Ndú; lsrSug iixl fmf¾rd we;=Ω úoaj;=ka msrsila
W;aidy orhs ^fmf¾rd iixl"oikdhl yrSkaø%" mÁ; bx.%Sis-isxy, isxy, -bx.%Sis mdrsNdIsl mo
ud,dj"m<uq ixialrKh"2006" m%ldYkh" iudc ixialD;sl ;Sj% wOHhkh i|yd jQ fld<U
wdh;kh"ms¡20&¡wd{dpl%h hk ixialD; mofhka th ì|S ths¡ wd{d pl%hg mqoa.,hd olajk m
%;spdrh ìh fõ¡ tfy;a wkq.; úu je<| .ekSu jeks m%;spdrhla fycfudksh flf¾ olajhs¡

wdYs%; .%ka:(

1. Allen, Robert C. (Ed.) (1992): Channels of Discourse, Reassembled. London:


Routledge.

2. Althusser, Louis (1971): 'Ideology and ideological state apparatuses'. In Lenin and
Philosophy, and Other Essays. London: New Left Books

3.Alvarado, Manuel & Oliver Boyd-Barrett (Eds.): Media Education: An


Introduction. London: BFI/Open University

3.Bennett, Tony (1982): 'Theories of the media, theories of society'. In Gurevitch et


al. (Eds.), op. cit.

4.Berger, Arthur Asa (1982): Media Analysis Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
(Chapter 2, 'Marxist Analysis')

5.Boyd-Barrett, Oliver (1992): 'The Social Science Tradition'. In Alvarado & Boyd-
Barrett (Eds.), op. cit. [section from pp. 174ff]

6. Curran, James, Michael Gurevitch & Janet Woollacott (1982): 'The study of the
media: theoretical approaches'. In Gurevitch et al. (Eds.), op. cit. [b;d jeo.;a]

7.Fiske, John (1992): 'British Cultural Studies and Television'. In Allen (Ed.), op. cit.
[includes summary of Hall's account of 'preferred readiná' and alternative reading
strategies: pp 292-3]

8.Gramsci, Antonio (1971): Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence
& Wishart

9.Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran & Janet Woollacott (Ed.) (1982):
Culture, Society and the Media. London: Methuen (Part 1, 'Class, Ideology and the
Media')

10.Hall, Stuart (1980): 'Encoding/decoding'. In Centre for Contemporary Cultural


Studies (Ed.): Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchinson [important paper,
though not initially an easy read]

19
11.Hall, Stuart (1982): 'The rediscovery of "ideology": return of the repressed in
media studies'. In Gurevitch et al. (Eds.), op. cit. [fyda,af.a jeo.;au ,smshla]

12.Hall, Stuart, C. Critcher, T. Jefferson, J. Clarke & B. Roberts (1978): Policing the
Crisis. London: Macmillan.

13.Lapsley, Robert & Michael Westlake (1988): Film Theory: An Introduction. Manchester:
Manchester University Press (Chapter 1, 'Politics': pages 1-17 offer a very useful account of
Althusserian Marxism)

14.Marcuse, Herbert (1972): One-Dimensional Man. London: Abacus [not for the faint-hearted]

15.McQuail, Denis (1987): Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage (Chapter 3, 'Theory of
Media and Theory of Society'; Chapter 4, 'Media Theory Applied: Power, Integration and
Change')

16.Murdock, Graham (1982): 'Large Corporations and the Control of the Communications
Indñtries'. In Gurevitch et al. (Eds.), op. cit.

17.Murdock, Graham and Peter Golding (1977): 'Capitalism, communication and class relations'.
In James Curran, Michael Gurevitch & Janet Woollacott (Eds.): Mass Communication and
Society. London: Arnold

18.Stevenson, Nick (1995): Understanding Media Cultures: Social Theory and Mass
Communication. London: Sage (Chapter 1: 'Marxism and Mass Communication Research')

19.Strinati, Dominic (1995): An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture. London: Routledge


(Chapter 4: 'Marxism, Political Economy and Ideology', pp. 127-76)

20.White, Mimi (1992): 'Ideological Analysis and Television'. In Allen (Ed.), op. cit. [useful
overview pp. 163-170,with good bibliography]

21.Woollacott, Janet (1982): 'Messages and Meaning'. In Gurevitch et al. (Eds.), op. cit.
[fyda,af.a jeo.;a u ,smshla et al. 1978]

*uydpd¾h vekssfh,a pekaâ,¾ Aberystwyth úYajúoHd,fha rx. l,d Ñ;%mg yd


rEmjdyskS wOHhk fomd¾f;ïka;=fõ uydpd¾hjrfhls¡ ì%;dkHfha isák ms<s.;a oDYH
ix{d¾:fõÈfhls¡

**iuka tï¡ ldßhlrjk úYajúoHd, lsysmhl lÓldpd¾hjrfhls¡ mßj¾:lfhl= yd m¾fhaIlfhls¡

20