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IVY4

Pergamon Copyright 0 1994 Elsevier Science Ltd

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

03hO-5442194 $6.00+0.0l1

SOLUTION

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zaragoza,

ETSH, 50015 Zaragoza, Spain

GEORGE TSATSARONIS+ and JAVIER PISA

Center for Electric Power, Tennessee Technological University,

P. 0. Box 5032, Cookeville, TN 38505, U.S.A.

CHRISTOS FRANGOPOULOS

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Technical

University of Athens, P. 0. Box 64070, 15710 Zografou, Greece

MICHAEL R. VON SPAKOVSKY

LENI, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne,

Switzerland

(Received 18 May 1993)

1. FOREWORD

Developing techniques for designing efficient and cost-effective energy systems is one of the

foremost challenges energy engineers face. In a world with finite natural resources and

increasing energy demand by developing countries, it becomes increasingly important to

understand the mechanisms which degrade energy and resources and to develop systematic

approaches for improving the design of energy systems and reducing the impact on the

environment. The second law of thermodynamics combined with economics represents a very

powerful tool for the systematic study and optimization of energy systems. This combination

forms the basis of the relatively new field of thermoeconomics (exergoeconomics).

others conducted pioneering work in this field. However, the comprehensive effort to apply

thermoeconomics systematically to the analysis, optimization and design of energy systems did

not start until the eighties. New methodologies have flourished, giving rise to new concepts

with their own nomenclature, definitions and applications.

A. Valero, and M. von Spakovsky) decided to compare their methodologies by solving a

predefined and simple problem of optimization: the CGAM problem, which was named after

27’)

280 ANTONIOVALERO eta1

the first initials of the participating investigators. The objective of the CGAM problem is to

show how the methodologies are applied, what concepts are used and what numbers are

obtained in a simple and specific problem. In the final analysis, the aim of the CGAM

problem is the unification of thermoeconomic methodologies. This comparison is not a

competition among methodologies. Each methodology has specific fields of applications for

which it provides proven and efficient solutions.

Energy Systems (ECOS ‘92)” held in Zaragoza, Spain, June 15-18, 1992, a special session was

devoted to the CGAM problem. This paper describes and defines the CGAM problem and

presents a conventional solution to the optimization problem. The following four papers

discuss the application of four different methodologies to the same problem. We hope that this

effort will contribute to the understanding of thermoeconomics and to the unification of

nomenclature and methodology.

2. INTRODUCTION

For optimization purposes, it is necessary to specify the physical and cost models of the

installation as well as the objective function to be minimized. The latter consists of the total

costs of operation at a fixed demand. The models used in the CGAM problem are realistic but

incomplete from an engineering point of view since the object of this study is to present

distinct models of thermoeconomic optimization. Therefore, it would be unreasonable to use

an excessively complicated mathematical model to describe the performance of the plant.

The CGAM problem refers to a cogeneration plant which delivers 30 MW of electricity and

14 kg/s of saturated steam at 20 bar. The structure of the cogeneration plant is shown in Fig.

1. The installation consists of a gas turbine followed by an air preheater that uses part of the

thermal energy of the gases leaving the turbine, and a heat-recovery steam generator in which

the required steam is produced. The environmental conditions are defined as To = 298.15K

a.ndP, = 1.013 bar. The fuel for the total plant is natural gas (taken as methane) with a lower

heating value (LHV) equal to 50000 kJ/kg.

In the definition of the problem, the equations that describe the behavior of the system

(physical model), the equations for calculating the capital costs of the components (economic

model) and the equations of state used to calculate the thermodynamic properties

(thermodynamic model) are considered. The decision variables selected for the optimization

are the pressure ratio P,/Pr, the isentropic efficiencies of the air compressor (qAc) and the gas

turbine (qor) and the temperatures of the air at the air-preheater exit fr,) and of the

combustion gas at the gas-turbine inlet (T4). The following models are formulated as a

function of these decision variables.

assumptions are made: (i) The air and the combustion gases behave as ideal gases with constant

specific heats. (ii) For combustion calculations, the fuel is taken to be methane (CH,$ (iii)

All components, except the combustion chamber, are adiabatic. Finally, reasonable values are

chosen for the pressure loss of the air and gas flows in the combustion chamber, air preheater

and recuperator boiler.

CGAM problem 281

- Air

CHAMBER

- Comb. Prod.

- BFWISteam

Net Power

e POWX

To’y,

iv& 30 Mw

AIR COMPRESSOR

Here we present the equations that make up the physical model of the cogeneration plant.

These are the mass and energy balances for each component of the plant.

T,= T,

3’ =

1 To,

,

II

1

cl, = m, + lil, ,

tii7,h3+ $LHV = $h4 + 0, cc with LHV = 50000 @J/kg),

P4 = P,(l - AP,,) with AP,, = 0.05.

Air Preheater (APH):

Wp,, Cr, - ‘I’,) = $c,,~ V, - Q,

5 = Pz (1 - APa,APH) with AP,,, = 0.05,

282 ANTONIO VALERO et al

T, -%Jl

=T4(l -[pq},

w0-r= figcp,g

CT, - T,),

W”, = War - WAC with W,,a = 30 Mw.

Heat-Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG):

T,, = Tg - AT, with AT, = 15 K,

with m, = 14 kg/s and (h, - hsp) = 1956 l&kg;

temperature difference at the pinch = AT, = T,, - Tg > 0,

T, = T6 - rh, (h, - h,) / ($c~,~) with (h9 - h,) = 2690 Id/kg,

PO = P, (1 - AP,,,,) with AP,,,, = 0.05.

4. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL

To solve the physical model and to calculate the variables of state for the cogeneration

plant, a simplified model for calculating the thermodynamic properties of the streams was

Used.

Reference environment

Pressure: atmospheric pressure P, = 1.013 bar.

Temperature: atmospheric temperature T, = 25 “C.

Reference substances: air (relative humidity = 60%) with the mole fractions

0

xO*

= 0.2059, xi, = 0.7748, x&, = 0.0003, x,&o = 0.0190. In this reference

environment, the exergy and energy values are zero for each reference substance. For energy

balance calculations, this reference-environment definition is consistent with the LHV

definition.

The air streams 1, 2 and 3 have the same chemical composition as the reference environment.

The fuel (stream 12) is pure methane. Complete combustion is assumed in the combustor

according to the reaction

In this equation, f is the fuel/air molar ratio. The molecular weights of methane and air are

Mc”, = M, = 16.043 kg/kmol and M, = 28.648 kg/kmol, respectively.

CGAM problem 2x3

exew - T.

1

- T, - T, 1nTi + R,T,lnp,*i .

T0 I 0

Specific exergy and energy of the gas streams (i = 4, 5, 6, 7):

P. Xj'

exergy - +RTln-i +R,T,C,xj’ln :, j =4&WJW;

go P0

'j

5. ECONOMIC MODEL

When evaluating the costs of a plant, it is necessary to consider the annual cost of fuel and

the annual cost associated with owning and operating each plant component. The expressions

for obtaining the purchase costs of the components (Z) are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Based

on these costs, the general equation for the cost rate (ii in $1~) associated with capital

investment and the maintenance costs for the ith component is

ii = ZiCRl$/(N x 3600).

Here Zi is the purchase cost of the ith component ($), CRF is the annual capital recovery

factor (CRP = 18.2%), N represents the number of hours of plant operation per year (N =

8000 h), and p is the maintenance factor (p = 1.06).

Cr = cf m, LHV,

where the fuel cost per energy unit (on an LHV basis) is cf = 0.004 $/MJ.

The total cost rate of operation for the installation is obtained from

5

C:T = ct in, LHV + iC1 ii,

where CT is the total cost rate of fuel and equipmeit ($/s) and Z is the purchase cost ($)

of the ith equipment item (i = AC, APH, CC, GT and HRSG).

284 ANTONIOVALERO et al

Table 1. Equations for calculating the purchase costs (Z) for the components.

Compressor’

11 + E=YC,,T, - C24)l

Combustion Chamber’

Turbine’

Air Preheated

Heat-Recovery Steam

Generato?

h,, rh,, fiti are the mass flow rates of air, gas and steam, respectively; h, and h, are

the specific enthalpies of streams 5 and 6; ATLM is the log mean temperature

difference; &., and Q, represents the rate of heat transfer in the preheater

(economizer) and evaporator, respectively. _I

Table 2. Constants used in the equations of Table 1 for the purchase cost

of the components (Table 1).

Combustion Chamber

c, = 0.018 (K-l) C, = 26.4

Gas Turbine

C,, = 0.036 (K-l) C, = 54.4

Generator

C,, = 658 $/(kg/s)‘.’

CGAM problem 285

The physical and cost models of the CGAM system have five degrees of freedom

represented by the decision variables chosen (PJPi, qAc, qoT, T, and T4). The optimization

problem consists of minimizing the total operating costs of the cogeneration plant assuming a

fixed rate of electricity production of electricity for process steam. Thus, the optimization

problem can be expressed as the minimization of the objective function F, which is equal to

CT, i.e. of

F = cf m, LHV + i,, + i,, + i,, + iGT + in,

subject to the constraints imposed by the physical, thermodynamic and cost models of the

installation.

Tables 3 through 6 present the optimum values of the CGAM system variables. These

values were obtained through conventional optimization techniques. It is apparent that this

solution to the CGAM problem is unrealistic from the practical viewpoint since it require,

among others, a minimum temperature difference at the pinch of only 1.64 K (Table 5). The

mathematically optimal solution is presented here to facilitate the comparisons and discussions

in the following four papers.

In these papers, different procedures for optimizing the CGAM system are presented. They

all have in common the definition of the physical, thermodynamic and cost models plus the

objective function, which means that the same problem is solved with different procedures of

thermoeconomic optimization.

REFERENCES

InternationalConferenceAZHENS ‘91, pp. 305-318, D. A. Kouremenos, G. Tsatsaronis

and C. D. Rakopoulos, eds., ASME, New York (1991).

of the decision variables and pressures for the streams in the

for the CGAM problem. optimal design of the CGAM problem.

wp, 8.5234 1 298.15 1.013

2 595.51 8.634

0.8468

7]AC

3 914.28 8.202

4 1492.63 7.792

T3 914.28 K

5 987.90 1.099

7 400.26 1.013

T4 1492.63 K

8 298.15 20.000

9 485.52 I 20.000

ANTONIOVALEROet al

Table 5. Values of selected Table 6. Gntimal cost values in the CGAM problem.

thermodynamic variables

Total Cost Rate 0.362009 $/s

in the optimal design

of the CGAM problem. Fuel Cost Rate 0.325489 $1~

Cost of HRSG 0.1202 x 10’ !§

of l7wmal Systems,pp.

41-47, AES-Vol. 7, W. J. Wepfer and M. J. Moran, eds., ASME, New York (1988).

3. R. W. Foster-Pegg, ChemicalEngineering 93, No. 14, 73 (1986).

NOMENCLATURE

C cost per unit of energy rlcc first-law efficiency of the

CP specific heat at constant combustion chamber

pressure rlcr gas-turbine isentropic

C constant in cost equations efficiency

C cost flow rate (P maintenance factor

CRF capital recovery factor Subscripts

e specific exergy 0 reference environment

F objective function a air

h specific enthalpy A temperature approach

m mass flow rate AC air compressor

N number of hours of plant APH air preheater

operation per year cc combustion chamber

P pressure f fuel for the total plant

Q heat transfer rate combustion gases

R gas constant :T gas turbine

entropy HRSG heat-recovery steam generator

; temperature j substance

W power 1 heat loss

X molar fraction pinch pinch point

Z capital cost associated with a st steam

component T total plant

Greek letters Superscripts

Y specific heat ratio 0 reference environment

VAC compressor isentropic i ith flow stream

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