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Was the Chinese Communist Revolution a Good Thing?

Collapse and rebuilding of the empire

The country, after the fall of the Qing dynasty, was in
complete disarray. There was no official ruler, and
country, large as it was, was starting to be taken over by
warlords, who were slowly becoming ever more powerful
(especially in the North), and it was becoming harder
and harder to feasibly come and take control of the
country. This is known as the age of warlords.

There was one party, though, which felt prepared
enough to try and take down these worlds, the national
unificationist Kuomintang party leader and one-time
president of the people’s republic of China, Sun Yat-Sen.
He realised that within China too much power was in the Sun Yat-Sen
hands of the warlords for them to be brought down internally, so he did something
which is probably a first and definitely a last for China – he sought the help of
foreign countries. Unfortunately, due to the proximity of this to the First World War,
Western countries were not prepared to mix themselves into another huge foreign
war, and so Sun received little help from them. Instead, he decided to turn to the
USSR, people who he is known to have been rather frightened of doing dealing with,
as a matter of need.

The communist USSR then began a join-allegiance, to both the Kuomintang party of
Sun’s, and the newly founded Communist party of China. These two parties were,
however, opposing, so the situation with Russia started to become tricky. Russia
was openly hoping for Communist consolidation, but it seemed that they were
prepared for it to go either way. And thus the struggle for power between the KMT
(Kuomintang) and CPC (Communist party of China) began.

In 1923, Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin arrived to aid in the reorganization and
consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front. Adolph Joffe declared Soviet
assistance in the uniting of the Chinese empire, and so the empire started to be
rebuilt.

Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek out to be trained in political and military leadership in
1923, and in 1924 he became head of the Whampoa Military Academy, and he then
rose to fame in 1925 as leader of the KMT, after Sun’s early death.

The Soviets provided supplies and military training for soldiers, and fairly soon there
was a reasonable amount of power under Sun’s belt in the form of well-trained

and after calling a meeting of KMT leaders. however the CPC was ordered by the USSR not to help them. which would allow him to defeat the warlords militarily. whereas the KMT has almost 60. while Chiang was away in 1926. When Chiang had defeated one of the most powerful warlords.soldiers. now ruled by Wang Jingwei. The CPC and left wing (communist) KMT moved their headquarters from Guangzhou to Wuhan. and as a result he restricted CPC interference in the KMT affairs. Communist members were allowed to join individually. and so they rejected his demand.) The massacre widened the already large rift between the Kuomintang party and the CPC. which was purged of leftists and CPC members residing there. Unfortunately. Sun Chuanfang. This was. and so it is difficult to know if it is truly correct. an army that marched north into the lands of the warlords in order to try and unite China under the Kuomintang banner. he moved eastwards towards the city of Jianxi. So doing. In 1927. he emerged as the leader. He requested their permission to pass through and have their army resupplied in the city. known as the ‘Shanghai massacre. This came to realization when Chiang narrowly escaped a Communist-based kidnapping attempt on himself.’ So it was that on April 7. by the CPC who now rule China. which was at the time occupied by the CPC. by the arrest and execution of huge. Chiang Kai-shek left on the Northern Expedition as the leader of the National Revolution army. He then denounced and condemned them for breaking Sun Yat-Sen’s Three Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union. the split between the left and right Chiang Kai-Shek ranks of the KMT became official.000 members by 1924. Chiang sprang an attack on April 12 on the CPC in Shanghai. to attract support as a new and perfect society. The CPC decided to prove their might by making . the KMT party divided into two factions – a left and a right wing. This meant that the Communist section was starting to grow. he is said to have ‘decreased in tolerance of the CPC as his power increased.’ (The exact details are hazy on quite how this happened and if it truly happened to the indicated extent. because the only available information is that of the Communist party now ruling China. and it was decided that in order for the general good of the country they must be undone. where the communist influence was felt much more strongly. Sun Yat-Sen’s Death and the Northern expedition When Sun died. and he was determined soon to create an ‘army of the party’. Chiang and his fellow KMT leaders held a meeting to discuss the disruptive activity of the communists.000 members. as the tiny CPC part had only 1. In a quote from Mao Zedong.

however. and Guangzhou. KMT and the Long March The remaining Communist activists. and started to foment a military uprising. including Nanchang. known as the “Ten Year’s Civil War”. where the KMT were holding very few soldiers. quickly realized this. This allowed for them to be seen as the official leaders of the country by foreign powers. fighting the Warlords. led by Mao Zedong. Soon. however it was unsuccessful. and rapidly established control of large areas of Southern China. KMT armies became occupied with suppressing rebellions. . soon capturing Beijing. the CPC were expelled from Wuhan by the KMT.attempts on several cities occupied by the KMT. which eventually became the Nanchang Uprising on August 1. who had been hiding out for a few years. and Beijing as the capital. known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising. 1927. The force comprised a mixture of peasant rebels and new recruits. This is the beginning of the ten year’s struggle. began to gain power back. There were now three capitals in China: the internationally recognized republic capital in Beijing. and began to divert large numbers of their soldiers Southwards. later to rise to fame. an armed rural insurrection. which would remain the KMT capital for the next decade. though. Changsha. Shantou. CPC vs. During this. and the right-wing KMT regime at Nanjing. and the right-wing KMT resumed their assault on the warlords. The KMT. due to the huge number of soldiers in the North. the CPC and left-wing KMT at Wuhan. was started by peasants.