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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security

,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for
Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division
Multiplexing Networks

N.Kaliammal G.Gurusamy
Professor, Department of ECE, Prof/Dean/ EEE, FIE
N.P.R college of Engineering and Technology, Bannari amman Institute of Technology,
Dindugul, Tamil nadu Sathyamangalam,Tamil nadu.
Email: kala_gowri@yahoo.co.in E-mail: hodeee@bitsathy.ac.in
Tel: +91 9965557267 Tel: +91 9791301662

Abstract—In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength amount of data at high speeds by the users over large distance
assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the [2].
routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast
routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for For the future generation internet, WDM is considered as a
maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for backbone which is the most talented technology. The data is
minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The routed through optical channels called light paths in WDM all
design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique optical networks. The light path establishment requires same
for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing wavelength and it should be used along the entire route of the
(WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming light path without wavelength conversion. This is commonly
traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate considered to the wavelength continuity constraint [3].
junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final
destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in B. Multicasting in WDM Networks
predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of A network technology which is used for the delivery of
intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the information to a group of destinations is called as multicast
destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into addressing. This simultaneously uses the most efficient
fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have strategy to deliver the message over each link of the network
the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of only once. Moreover, it creates the copies only when the links
fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be to the multiple destinations split [4].
generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in
WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that ther In recent years, multicast communication is turning out to
proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth be vital due to its efficient resources usage and the increasing
utilization with reduced delay. popularity of the point-to-multipoint multimedia applications.
Usually, a source and a set of destinations are included in a
I. INTRODUCTION multicast session. In conventional data networks, in order to
A. Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing (WDM) Networks allow a multicast session, a multicast tree which is rooted at
the source is constructed with branches spanning all the
The need for on-demand provisioning of wavelength destinations [5].
routed channels with service differentiated offerings within the
transport layer has become more essential due to the recent Recently, multicast routing in optical networks has been
emergence of high bit rate IP network applications. Diverse researched which is related to the design of multicast-capable
optical transport network architectures have been proposed in optical switches. For multicast in WDM networks, the concept
order to achieve the above requirements. This approach is of light-trees was introduced. Reducing the distance of
determined by the fundamental advances in the wavelength network-wide hop and the total number of transceivers used in
division multiplexing (WDM) technologies. Due to the the network are the objective of setting up the light trees.
availability of ultra long-reach transport and all-optical Nowadays, there are several network applications which
switching, the deployment of all-optical networks has been require the support of QoS multicast such as multimedia
made possible [1]. conferencing systems, video on demand systems, real-time
control systems, etc. [6].
The concurrent transmission of multiple streams of data
with the assistance of special properties of fiber optics is C. Routing and Wavelength in WDM
called as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength
WDM network provides the capability of transferring huge assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the
routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). This is the most

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important and basic issue in resource management. For are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these
maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By
minimizing the call blocking probability with certain number using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed
of wavelengths, the multicast routing and wavelength scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength
assignment (MC-RWA) problem is studied. [7]. assignment of multicast in WDM network. The Least
Influence Group (LIG) approach is used to provide the
The problem of finding a multicast tree and allocating
wavelength selection.
available wavelength for each link of the tree is known as the
Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment (MC-RWA) II. RELATED WORK
problem, which plays a key role in supporting multicasting
over WDM networks [8]. The problems involving in the Jingyi He et al [7] have proposed for the first time a
routing and wavelength assignment in WDM are as follows: formulation of the MC-RWA problem with the objective to
maximize the number of multicast groups admitted, or
• Improper wavelength assignment, especially for the equivalently, to minimize the call (or session) blocking
multicast connection, will cause wavelength probability given a certain number of wavelengths.. The
blocking, whereas the network resources may be still formulation is a nonlinear integer program, which in general is
underutilized. complex to solve so a near-optimal solution of the problem is
• The wavelength continuity constraint, i.e., that links proposed using a two-step approach based on linear
from source to destination shall use the same programming. The drawback in this work is that the focus is
wavelength to convey data in the same lightpath, on minimizing the user blocking probability instead of the
session blocking probability for single-source applications.
always makes the wavelength assignment inflexible
and causes wavelength blocking. Anping Wang et al [8] have proposed a new multicast
• The available wavelength can be maximized by the wavelength assignment algorithm called NGWA with
wavelength converter but this type of device is much complexity of O(N), where N is the number of nodes on a
intricate and cost is also high when compared with multicast tree. The whole procedure of NGWA algorithm is
the type of device which cannot perform the separated into two phases: the partial wavelength assignment
conversion. phase and the complete wavelength assignment phase. The
• The signal may also decay during the conversion. drawback of this work is that this method achieves only
satisfactory performance in terms of the total number of
Therefore, it is not possible to have all network nodes
wavelength conversions and the average blocking probability
be equipped with wavelength conversion capability.
• The problem of the node architecture is that they Nina Skorin-Kapov [10] has addressed the problem of
were designed without having into account power multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC RWA) in
efficiency, neither complexity of fabrication [9]. wavelength routed WDM optical networks. Multicast requests
• The two sub-problems of the routing and wavelength are facilitated in WDM networks by setting up so-called light-
assignment are the routing problem and the trees and assigning wavelengths to them. She has proposed a
wavelength assignment problem, which can be either heuristic algorithm based on bin packing methods for the
general MC RWA problem, which is NP-complete. These
coupled or uncoupled. In the case of uncoupled
algorithms can consider unicast, multicast and broadcast
situation, initially a route or a tree is obtained which requests with or without QoS demands. Computational tests
is then followed by the wavelength assignment where indicate that these algorithms are very efficient, particularly
the trees must be kept unchanged and is called as the for dense networks.
static RWA. In the coupled case, based on the state
of the wavelength assignment, the routes are decided Fen Zhou et al [11] have proposed a routing and
which is usually called as dynamic or adaptive RWA wavelength assignment for supporting multicast traffic is
[7]. investigated in WDM mesh networks under sparse splitting
In previous paper, a resource efficient multicast routing constrain. This problem is generally solved in two phases
protocol is developed. In this protocol, the incoming traffic is respectively with the purpose of minimizing the number of
sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction wavelengths required. Alternative routing is first proposed to
nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final route each session by pre-computing a set of candidate light-
destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in forests. Then wavelength assignment is formulated as coloring
predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of problems by constructing a conflict graph. Potential heuristic
intermediate nodes. Bandwidth required for these paths algorithms are proposed. The drawback of this work is that
depends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic split simulation should be done to assess the verification of the
ratios. The traffic split ratio is determined by the arrival rate of proposed methods.
ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate junction nodes Yuan Cao et al [12] have proposed an efficient QoS-
[13]. guaranteed Group Multicast RWA solutions, where the
In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelength transmission delay from any source to any destination within a
assignment technique in wavelength division multiplexing multicast group is within a given bound. They have formulated
networks is designed. In this technique, paths from source the QoS-guaranteed GMC-RWA problem as an in-group
node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths traffic grooming and multicasting problem, where traffic

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streams from members of the same group are groomed in an D.
effective way before being delivered to their common 1.2 End if
destinations, subject to the following optical layer constraints. 2. End for
3. If {D} ≠ Null, Then
III. MULTICAST TREE FORMATION
3.1 Repeat from1.
A. Basic Definitions 4. End if
The node which cannot split the incoming message to the
outgoing ports is called as Multicast Incapable (MI) nodes. B. Multicast Routing
But it can utilize a small amount of optical power from the
wavelength channel while forwarding it to only one output A collection of point to multiple point paths from the
link. source node to each destination is considered as a multicast
tree. Choosing a suitable wavelength for its downlink is
The nodes which are capable of splitting the incoming flexible for a path in the WDM network which has sparse
message to all the outgoing ports are called as Multicast junction nodes. The main objective is to reduce the affected
Capable (MC) nodes. capacity. This can be done by selecting a suitable wavelength
for the downlink of the junction nodes which reduces the
The set which includes the multicast capable nodes (MC
influence on the potential request paths across it. The junction
node) and the leaf multicast incapable nodes (leaf MI nodes) is
node is considered as an end point of a wavelength within a
called as MC_SET.
fragment. According to the position of converters within the
The set which includes only the non-leaf multicast path, the path can be divided into uni-wavelength fragments.
incapable nodes, which are not able to connect a new As a result, paths from source node to each of the destination
destination to the multicast tree, is called as MI_SET. nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the
junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength
The set D includes the unvisited multicast destinations conversion capability.
which are not yet joined to the multicast tree.
A network G= (N, E) with node set N and (directed) edge
A constraint path between a node u and a tree T is a E set is taken,where each node in the network can be a source
shortest path from node u to a node v in the MC_SET for T, or destination of traffic. The nodes in N are {N1, N2…Nn}.
and this shortest path should not traverse any node in MI_SET
for T. And the constraint path with the minimum length is S
called the Shortest Constraint Path (SCP). R1 0
For one nearest destination d, MC_SET may have different
SCPs to the sub-tree. Let X and Y are the nodes for the sub-
tree in MC_SET. Without involving any node in MI_SET for 1 2
the sub-tree, both the shortest paths from X and Y to the R2
nearest destination d have the shortest length among all the
nodes in MC_SET. Here, the nodes like X and Y are named as Junction
junction nodes in the sub-tree. Node
3 4
Member only Algorithm
T = {s}
MI_SET = Null Figure 1. Multicast Routing Process
MC_SET = {s}
D = {D1, D2….Dn} The above diagram (Fig. 1) shows the routing process. A
1. For each Di, where i = 1, 2….n predetermined fraction of the traffic entering the network at
any node is distributed to every junction node. The
1.1 If dist (Di, N) = min, where N ∈
corresponding route from the source to the junction node can
MC_SET, then be denoted as R1. Then each junction node receives the traffic
1.1.1 Add Di to T to be transmitted for different destinations and it routes to their
1.1.2 Find SCP (Di, T) ∉ M, where respective destinations. The corresponding route from the
M ∈ MI_SET junction node to the destination can be denoted as R2.
1.1.3 Add SCP (Di, T) to T
1.1.4 Add all the MC nodes to Let Ii and Ei, be the constraints on the total amount of
MC_SET traffic at ingress and egress nodes of the network, respectively.
1.1.5 Add all the leaf MI nodes to The traffic along R1 and R2 must be routed along
MC_SET bandwidth-guaranteed paths. Bandwidth required for these
1.1.6 Add all the non-leaf MI nodes paths depends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic
to MI_SET split ratios. The traffic split ratio (δ) is determined by the
1.1.7 Delete the non - leaf MI node arrival rate of ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate
from MC_SET junction nodes.
1.1.8 Delete the destination di from

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where Pij is the jth fragment of the potential path i, Si is the
The bandwidth requirement for the routing paths R1 and source node of the potential path i, and Di is the destination of
R2 is derived. Consider a node i with maximum incoming the potential path i. Basically, each fragment can be treated as
traffic Ii. Node i sends δjIi amount of this traffic to node j a reassignment domain of wavelength.
during R1 routing for each jєN and thus the traffic demand is
Fragments of a path are mutually independent from the
δjIi. Now, node i has received δiIk traffic from any other node
wavelength assignment point of view and may be with
k. Out of this, the traffic destined for node j is δirkj since all
different fragment capacities. The actual capacity of a path is
traffic is initially split without regard to the final destination.
basically determined by its fragment(s) with the least capacity.
The traffic that needs to be routed from node i to node j at R2
The fragment(s) with the least capacity of a path is named the
routing is given below:
critical fragment of that path. Let CPi and CPPi be the path

∑δ r
capacity (the least fragment capacity) of the path i of the
i kj ≤ δi E j . multicast tree, and the path capacity of the potential path i,
k∈N respectively,then
Thus, the traffic demands from node i to node j at the end (3)
of R2 routing is λiEj. CPi = min SCPR i j
1≤ j ≤ ri + 1
Hence, the maximum demand from node i to node j as a and
result of R1 and R2 routing is δjIi + δiEj.
CPpi = min SCPpi
j
Let M = [mij] = [δjIi + δiEj] be the fixed matrix which can (4)
handle the traffic variation. It depends only on aggregate 1≤ j ≤ ri +1
ingress-egress capacities and the traffic split ratios δ1, δ2 …. δn, Capacity of the path cannot be decreased by decreasing the
Thus the routing scheme is unaware to the changes in traffic capacity in a fragment whose capacity is larger than the
distribution. critical fragment of that path. A path may have more than one
critical fragment. Let Fi = {fi1, fi2 …} be the set of the critical
IV. MULTICAST WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT fragments in the potential path i. Then Fi can be used to
A. Grouping the Paths indicate whether the potential path is affected or not during the
wavelength assignment of the multicast tree. So, the critical
Assume the set Ri = {Ri1, Ri2 … Rij …} to represent all
fragment of a potential path is the fragment traveled by the
fragments of the path from source to the ith destination in the
multicast tree. The impact on the potential path can be reduced
multicast tree. Rij is the jth fragment of the path i. If AWRij is
by considering the wavelength assignment of that fragment
the set of available wavelengths of the jth fragment of path i,
carefully. Fragments which come from multicast tree with
then the number of wavelengths in AWRij is regarded as the
common links into groups are coupled using the concept of
capacity of this fragment. The capacity of the jth fragment of
grouping. Within a group, all fragments have common
the path i, SCPRij is obtained as
wavelengths. As a result a group is composed of fragments
⎧OL ( S , J k ) =| AWR j |, whose links are overlapped.
i i k = 1, j = 1

j ⎪ k k −1 j G = {G1, G2… Gm… GY} (5)
SCPR i = ⎨OL ( J i , J i ) =| AWRi |, 1 < k ≤ M i , j = k where G is the set of all groups in a multicast tree, Gm is
⎪ k j the set of all fragments in the mth group.
⎪⎩OL ( J i , D ) =| AWRi |, k = Mi, j = Mi +1
(1) The multicast tree with n destinations is treated as n
unicast paths from source to each destination. Paths are
where s is the source node of the multicast tree, Di is the ith fragmented with respect to junction nodes. Same group
destination of the multicast tree, Jik is the kth wavelength fragments have more than one available wavelength in
converter in the path i, and Mi + 1 is the number of fragments common. Let AWGm be the connection set of all fragments
of path i if there are Mi junction nodes being traveled by the existing wavelengths in the mth group. The group capacity,
path. The Overlap function OL(n1, n2) represents the size of CGm, is defined as the number of wavelengths in AWGm. If
the intersection set of all available wavelengths for all links links of a fragment and the links in the mth group are
from node n1 to n2. overlapped and no common available wavelength between
them, this fragment will be considered as a new group.
For the potential request paths, the set Pi = {pi1, pi2 …}is
defined to indicate all fragments of the ith potential request B. Total Network Capacity Estimation
path and the capacity of the jth fragment of the potential path i, The influence of network capacity is examined by
SCPPij, can be stated as following checking whether the links of potential paths overlap with
those of the multicast groups. If the overlap occurs at the
⎧OL ( S , J k ), k = 1, j = 1
⎪ i critical fragments of the potential path and the assigned
⎪ wavelength is the one of the available wavelengths in that
SCPPi j = ⎨OL ( J i k , J i k −1 ), 1 < k ≤ M i , j = k (2)
critical fragment, the path capacity of the potential path will be
⎪ k affected. Let Cm(pi, λ) be the capacity of pi being influenced
⎪⎩OL ( J i , D ), k = Mi, j = Mi +1
when the wavelength λ is assigned in the mth group, and x be a

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common link of the mth group and the critical fragment of the
potential path i. Then
TNC m ,λ = ∑C
p b ∈P '
m ( pb , λ )

⎧1 if (λ ∈ xw ) ∧ x ∈ LS m , Fi 3. Assign λ which TNCm, λ is minimum in group m
Cm ( pi , λ ) = ⎨ (6)
⎩0 Otherwise V. SIMULATION RESULTS
where LSm,Fi = LGm ∩ LFi, LGm is the set of all links in the A. Simulation Model and Parameters
mth group, LFi is the set of all links in the critical fragments of
the potential path i. and xw is the set of all available In this section, the performance of multicast routing and
wavelengths on link x. wavelength assignment technique is simulated with an
extensive simulation study based upon the ns-2 network
The network capacity affected when λ is assigned for the simulator [14]. The Optical WDM network simulator (OWNs)
mth group, TNCm,λ , can be obtained by the summation of the patch in ns2 is used to simulate a NSF network (Fig.1) of 14
influence of all potential paths as nodes. Various simulation parameters are given in table I.
TNCm,λ = ∑ Cm ( pi , λ ) (7)
pi ∈P
The total network capacity (TNC) gets affected since each
group should assign one wavelength, and it can be obtained by
the summation as

TNC = ∑ ∑ Cm ( pi , λm ) − q (8)
All m pi ∈P
Figure 1. NSF network of 14 nodes
In the mth group, λm is the wavelength assigned and q is the
affected capacity that is counted repeatedly. This can be TABLE I: SIMULATION PARAMETERS
regained in the first term of (8). When the same wavelength is
assigned to the groups it leads to repeated counts and also the Topology Mesh
critical fragments of the path travels through the group. For Total no. of nodes 14
example, the available wavelengths of the critical fragment of Link Wavelength Number 8
potential path p1 are (λ1, λ2). G1 and G2 are the groups of the Link Delay 10ms
multicast tree. If λ1 is assigned to G1 and G2 and if the critical Wavelength Conversion Factor 1
fragment of potential path p1 travels through G1 and G2, then,
according to the first term of (8), the affected capacity of p1 is Wavelength Conversion Distance 8
calculated twice. In fact, the decreased capacity is only one. Wavelength Conversion Time 0.024
The other repeated count happens when the same or a different Link Utilization sample Interval 0.5
wavelength is assigned to the groups and more than one Traffic Arrival Rate 0.5
critical fragment of an individual path goes through these Traffic Holding Time 0.2
groups. Packet Size 200
C. Wavelength Assignment No. of Receivers 4
Max Requests Number 50
By using junction nodes the multicast tree is separated into Rate 2,4,6, 8 and 10 Mb
groups, so the wavelength assignments for groups are
independent of each other. The wavelength assigned in the Number of Traffic Sources 1,2,3,4 and 5
previous group has no effect on the wavelength assigned in the
current group. The wavelength assigned for each group can be In this simulation, a dynamic traffic model is used, in
easily selected since all of the available wavelengths for a which connection requests arrive at the network according to
group have been collected in AWGm. an exponential process with an arrival rate r (call/seconds).
The session holding time is exponentially distributed with
The Least Influence Group (LIG) algorithm selects the mean holding time s (seconds).
wavelengths for groups to maximize the network capacity.
The idea behind LIG algorithm is that the wavelength having The connection requests are distributed randomly on all the
the least effect on the potential paths is chosen for that group. network nodes. In all the simulation, the results of MRWA
The affected network capacity in (7) examines the influence of with the previous paper “resource efficient multicast routing
each wavelength assignment. The LIG algorithm is illustrated (REMR) protocol [13].” Is compared.
below: B. Performance Metrics
AWGm = {λ1, λ2, λ3….} In this simulation the blocking probability, end-to-end
1. Find all pb whose links overlap in the links of group delay and throughput is measured.
m
2. For each λ ∈ AWGm

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• Bandwidth Utilization: It is the ratio of bandwidth
Rate Vs Utilization
received into total available bandwidth for a traffic
flow.
• Average end-to-end delay: The end-to-end-delay is 0.08
averaged over all surviving data packets from the

Utilization
0.06
sources to the destinations. MRWA
0.04
• Throughput: It is the number of packets received REMR
successfully. 0.02

C. Results 0
2 4 6 8 10
A. Effects of Varying Traffic
In the initial simulation, the traffic rate is varied as 2Mb, Rate(MB)
4Mb, 6Mb, 8Mb and 10Mb and measure the throughput, end-
to-end delay and bandwidth utilization. Figure 4. Rate Vs Utilization

Rate Vs Throughput Figure. 2 shows the throughput occurred when the rate is
increased. From the figure, it is proved that the throughput is
1.5 more in the case of MRWA when compared to REMR.
Figure.3 shows the end-to-end delay occurred when the
1 MRWA rate is increased. It shows that the delay of MRWA is
REMR
significantly less than the REMR.
0.5
Figure.4 shows the bandwidth utilization obtained when
0 the rate is increased. MRWA shows better utilization than the
2 4 6 8 10 REMR scheme.

Rate(MB)
B. Effect of Varying Traffic
Figure 2. Rate Vs Throughput
In this simulation , the number of traffic sources is varied
as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and measure the throughput, end-to-end
delay and bandwidth utilization.
Rate Vs Delay
Traffic Vs Throughput
2000

1500 3500
Delay(sec)

MRWA 3000
1000
Throughput

REMR 2500
500 2000 MRWA
1500 REMR
0
1000
2 4 6 8 10
500
Rate(MB) 0
1 2 3 4 5
Figure. Rate Vs Delay Traffic

Figure 5. Traffic Vs Throughput

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distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions
Traffic Vs Delay that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then,
paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and
70 the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction
60 nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength
50 conversion capability. In order to select the wavelengths for
groups to maximize the network capacity, the Least Influence
Delay

40 MRWA
30 REMR
Group (LIG) algorithm is used, i.e. the wavelength having the
20 least effect on the potential paths is chosen for that group. So
10 the affected network capacity influences the wavelength
0 assignment. By simulation results, it is proved that the
proposed technique achieves higher throughput(22% increase)
1 2 3 4 5
and bandwidth utilization (1% increase)with reduced
Traffic delay(420sec decrease)for varying rate & 9.4 sec derease in
delay ,0.3% increase in utilization and 480times increase in
Figure 6. Traffic Vs Delay throughput for varying traffic.
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[12] Yuan Cao and Oliver Yu, “QoS-Guaranteed Routing and Wavelength
Assignment for Group Multicast in Optical WDM Networks”,
VI. CONCLUSION Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2005
In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelength [13] N.Kaliammal and G. Gurusamy, “Resource Efficient Multicast Routing
assignment technique in WDM networks is developed. In this Protocol for Dynamic Traffic in Optical WDM Networks”, European
Journal of Scientific Research, 2010
technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast
[14] Network Simulator: www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns
source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from
the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

N. Kaliammal received the B.E (ECE)., M.E(Applied pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Optical Networking, under the guidance of
electronics), degrees from the Department of Electronics Dr.G.Gurusamy, Dean and Head/ EEE Department, Bannariamman Institute
and Communication Engineering ,from Madurai Kamaraj of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu.
University , Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu , in 1989,
1998, respectively. From 1990 to 1999, she served in the Dr.G.Gurusamy, received his BE, ME and PhD degree from PGS college of
PSNA College of Engineering & Tech, Dindigul, technology-Coimbatore. He has 35 years of teaching experience in PSG
Tamilnadu, as Lecturer. From 1999 to 2009, she was in College of technology-Coimbatore. He is currently working as a Prof &
RVS College of Engineering & Tech, Dindigul, Tamil Dean/in EEE Department of Bannariamman Institute of Technology-
Nadu, as assistant professor and Associate Professor. Currently she is working Sathyamangalam.
as Professor in NPR College of Engineering &Technology She is currently

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