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In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that the proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth utilization with reduced delay.

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Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

**Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for
**

Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division

Multiplexing Networks

N.Kaliammal G.Gurusamy

Professor, Department of ECE, Prof/Dean/ EEE, FIE

N.P.R college of Engineering and Technology, Bannari amman Institute of Technology,

Dindugul, Tamil nadu Sathyamangalam,Tamil nadu.

Email: kala_gowri@yahoo.co.in E-mail: hodeee@bitsathy.ac.in

Tel: +91 9965557267 Tel: +91 9791301662

Abstract—In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength amount of data at high speeds by the users over large distance

assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the [2].

routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast

routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for For the future generation internet, WDM is considered as a

maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for backbone which is the most talented technology. The data is

minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The routed through optical channels called light paths in WDM all

design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique optical networks. The light path establishment requires same

for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing wavelength and it should be used along the entire route of the

(WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming light path without wavelength conversion. This is commonly

traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate considered to the wavelength continuity constraint [3].

junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final

destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in B. Multicasting in WDM Networks

predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of A network technology which is used for the delivery of

intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the information to a group of destinations is called as multicast

destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into addressing. This simultaneously uses the most efficient

fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have strategy to deliver the message over each link of the network

the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of only once. Moreover, it creates the copies only when the links

fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be to the multiple destinations split [4].

generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in

WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that ther In recent years, multicast communication is turning out to

proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth be vital due to its efficient resources usage and the increasing

utilization with reduced delay. popularity of the point-to-multipoint multimedia applications.

Usually, a source and a set of destinations are included in a

I. INTRODUCTION multicast session. In conventional data networks, in order to

A. Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing (WDM) Networks allow a multicast session, a multicast tree which is rooted at

the source is constructed with branches spanning all the

The need for on-demand provisioning of wavelength destinations [5].

routed channels with service differentiated offerings within the

transport layer has become more essential due to the recent Recently, multicast routing in optical networks has been

emergence of high bit rate IP network applications. Diverse researched which is related to the design of multicast-capable

optical transport network architectures have been proposed in optical switches. For multicast in WDM networks, the concept

order to achieve the above requirements. This approach is of light-trees was introduced. Reducing the distance of

determined by the fundamental advances in the wavelength network-wide hop and the total number of transceivers used in

division multiplexing (WDM) technologies. Due to the the network are the objective of setting up the light trees.

availability of ultra long-reach transport and all-optical Nowadays, there are several network applications which

switching, the deployment of all-optical networks has been require the support of QoS multicast such as multimedia

made possible [1]. conferencing systems, video on demand systems, real-time

control systems, etc. [6].

The concurrent transmission of multiple streams of data

with the assistance of special properties of fiber optics is C. Routing and Wavelength in WDM

called as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength

WDM network provides the capability of transferring huge assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the

routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). This is the most

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important and basic issue in resource management. For are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these

maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By

minimizing the call blocking probability with certain number using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed

of wavelengths, the multicast routing and wavelength scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength

assignment (MC-RWA) problem is studied. [7]. assignment of multicast in WDM network. The Least

Influence Group (LIG) approach is used to provide the

The problem of finding a multicast tree and allocating

wavelength selection.

available wavelength for each link of the tree is known as the

Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment (MC-RWA) II. RELATED WORK

problem, which plays a key role in supporting multicasting

over WDM networks [8]. The problems involving in the Jingyi He et al [7] have proposed for the first time a

routing and wavelength assignment in WDM are as follows: formulation of the MC-RWA problem with the objective to

maximize the number of multicast groups admitted, or

• Improper wavelength assignment, especially for the equivalently, to minimize the call (or session) blocking

multicast connection, will cause wavelength probability given a certain number of wavelengths.. The

blocking, whereas the network resources may be still formulation is a nonlinear integer program, which in general is

underutilized. complex to solve so a near-optimal solution of the problem is

• The wavelength continuity constraint, i.e., that links proposed using a two-step approach based on linear

from source to destination shall use the same programming. The drawback in this work is that the focus is

wavelength to convey data in the same lightpath, on minimizing the user blocking probability instead of the

session blocking probability for single-source applications.

always makes the wavelength assignment inflexible

and causes wavelength blocking. Anping Wang et al [8] have proposed a new multicast

• The available wavelength can be maximized by the wavelength assignment algorithm called NGWA with

wavelength converter but this type of device is much complexity of O(N), where N is the number of nodes on a

intricate and cost is also high when compared with multicast tree. The whole procedure of NGWA algorithm is

the type of device which cannot perform the separated into two phases: the partial wavelength assignment

conversion. phase and the complete wavelength assignment phase. The

• The signal may also decay during the conversion. drawback of this work is that this method achieves only

satisfactory performance in terms of the total number of

Therefore, it is not possible to have all network nodes

wavelength conversions and the average blocking probability

be equipped with wavelength conversion capability.

• The problem of the node architecture is that they Nina Skorin-Kapov [10] has addressed the problem of

were designed without having into account power multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC RWA) in

efficiency, neither complexity of fabrication [9]. wavelength routed WDM optical networks. Multicast requests

• The two sub-problems of the routing and wavelength are facilitated in WDM networks by setting up so-called light-

assignment are the routing problem and the trees and assigning wavelengths to them. She has proposed a

wavelength assignment problem, which can be either heuristic algorithm based on bin packing methods for the

general MC RWA problem, which is NP-complete. These

coupled or uncoupled. In the case of uncoupled

algorithms can consider unicast, multicast and broadcast

situation, initially a route or a tree is obtained which requests with or without QoS demands. Computational tests

is then followed by the wavelength assignment where indicate that these algorithms are very efficient, particularly

the trees must be kept unchanged and is called as the for dense networks.

static RWA. In the coupled case, based on the state

of the wavelength assignment, the routes are decided Fen Zhou et al [11] have proposed a routing and

which is usually called as dynamic or adaptive RWA wavelength assignment for supporting multicast traffic is

[7]. investigated in WDM mesh networks under sparse splitting

In previous paper, a resource efficient multicast routing constrain. This problem is generally solved in two phases

protocol is developed. In this protocol, the incoming traffic is respectively with the purpose of minimizing the number of

sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction wavelengths required. Alternative routing is first proposed to

nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final route each session by pre-computing a set of candidate light-

destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in forests. Then wavelength assignment is formulated as coloring

predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of problems by constructing a conflict graph. Potential heuristic

intermediate nodes. Bandwidth required for these paths algorithms are proposed. The drawback of this work is that

depends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic split simulation should be done to assess the verification of the

ratios. The traffic split ratio is determined by the arrival rate of proposed methods.

ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate junction nodes Yuan Cao et al [12] have proposed an efficient QoS-

[13]. guaranteed Group Multicast RWA solutions, where the

In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelength transmission delay from any source to any destination within a

assignment technique in wavelength division multiplexing multicast group is within a given bound. They have formulated

networks is designed. In this technique, paths from source the QoS-guaranteed GMC-RWA problem as an in-group

node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths traffic grooming and multicasting problem, where traffic

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**streams from members of the same group are groomed in an D.
**

effective way before being delivered to their common 1.2 End if

destinations, subject to the following optical layer constraints. 2. End for

3. If {D} ≠ Null, Then

III. MULTICAST TREE FORMATION

3.1 Repeat from1.

A. Basic Definitions 4. End if

The node which cannot split the incoming message to the

outgoing ports is called as Multicast Incapable (MI) nodes. B. Multicast Routing

But it can utilize a small amount of optical power from the

wavelength channel while forwarding it to only one output A collection of point to multiple point paths from the

link. source node to each destination is considered as a multicast

tree. Choosing a suitable wavelength for its downlink is

The nodes which are capable of splitting the incoming flexible for a path in the WDM network which has sparse

message to all the outgoing ports are called as Multicast junction nodes. The main objective is to reduce the affected

Capable (MC) nodes. capacity. This can be done by selecting a suitable wavelength

for the downlink of the junction nodes which reduces the

The set which includes the multicast capable nodes (MC

influence on the potential request paths across it. The junction

node) and the leaf multicast incapable nodes (leaf MI nodes) is

node is considered as an end point of a wavelength within a

called as MC_SET.

fragment. According to the position of converters within the

The set which includes only the non-leaf multicast path, the path can be divided into uni-wavelength fragments.

incapable nodes, which are not able to connect a new As a result, paths from source node to each of the destination

destination to the multicast tree, is called as MI_SET. nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the

junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength

The set D includes the unvisited multicast destinations conversion capability.

which are not yet joined to the multicast tree.

A network G= (N, E) with node set N and (directed) edge

A constraint path between a node u and a tree T is a E set is taken,where each node in the network can be a source

shortest path from node u to a node v in the MC_SET for T, or destination of traffic. The nodes in N are {N1, N2…Nn}.

and this shortest path should not traverse any node in MI_SET

for T. And the constraint path with the minimum length is S

called the Shortest Constraint Path (SCP). R1 0

For one nearest destination d, MC_SET may have different

SCPs to the sub-tree. Let X and Y are the nodes for the sub-

tree in MC_SET. Without involving any node in MI_SET for 1 2

the sub-tree, both the shortest paths from X and Y to the R2

nearest destination d have the shortest length among all the

nodes in MC_SET. Here, the nodes like X and Y are named as Junction

junction nodes in the sub-tree. Node

3 4

Member only Algorithm

T = {s}

MI_SET = Null Figure 1. Multicast Routing Process

MC_SET = {s}

D = {D1, D2….Dn} The above diagram (Fig. 1) shows the routing process. A

1. For each Di, where i = 1, 2….n predetermined fraction of the traffic entering the network at

any node is distributed to every junction node. The

1.1 If dist (Di, N) = min, where N ∈

corresponding route from the source to the junction node can

MC_SET, then be denoted as R1. Then each junction node receives the traffic

1.1.1 Add Di to T to be transmitted for different destinations and it routes to their

1.1.2 Find SCP (Di, T) ∉ M, where respective destinations. The corresponding route from the

M ∈ MI_SET junction node to the destination can be denoted as R2.

1.1.3 Add SCP (Di, T) to T

1.1.4 Add all the MC nodes to Let Ii and Ei, be the constraints on the total amount of

MC_SET traffic at ingress and egress nodes of the network, respectively.

1.1.5 Add all the leaf MI nodes to The traffic along R1 and R2 must be routed along

MC_SET bandwidth-guaranteed paths. Bandwidth required for these

1.1.6 Add all the non-leaf MI nodes paths depends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic

to MI_SET split ratios. The traffic split ratio (δ) is determined by the

1.1.7 Delete the non - leaf MI node arrival rate of ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate

from MC_SET junction nodes.

1.1.8 Delete the destination di from

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**where Pij is the jth fragment of the potential path i, Si is the
**

The bandwidth requirement for the routing paths R1 and source node of the potential path i, and Di is the destination of

R2 is derived. Consider a node i with maximum incoming the potential path i. Basically, each fragment can be treated as

traffic Ii. Node i sends δjIi amount of this traffic to node j a reassignment domain of wavelength.

during R1 routing for each jєN and thus the traffic demand is

Fragments of a path are mutually independent from the

δjIi. Now, node i has received δiIk traffic from any other node

wavelength assignment point of view and may be with

k. Out of this, the traffic destined for node j is δirkj since all

different fragment capacities. The actual capacity of a path is

traffic is initially split without regard to the final destination.

basically determined by its fragment(s) with the least capacity.

The traffic that needs to be routed from node i to node j at R2

The fragment(s) with the least capacity of a path is named the

routing is given below:

critical fragment of that path. Let CPi and CPPi be the path

∑δ r

capacity (the least fragment capacity) of the path i of the

i kj ≤ δi E j . multicast tree, and the path capacity of the potential path i,

k∈N respectively,then

Thus, the traffic demands from node i to node j at the end (3)

of R2 routing is λiEj. CPi = min SCPR i j

1≤ j ≤ ri + 1

Hence, the maximum demand from node i to node j as a and

result of R1 and R2 routing is δjIi + δiEj.

CPpi = min SCPpi

j

Let M = [mij] = [δjIi + δiEj] be the fixed matrix which can (4)

handle the traffic variation. It depends only on aggregate 1≤ j ≤ ri +1

ingress-egress capacities and the traffic split ratios δ1, δ2 …. δn, Capacity of the path cannot be decreased by decreasing the

Thus the routing scheme is unaware to the changes in traffic capacity in a fragment whose capacity is larger than the

distribution. critical fragment of that path. A path may have more than one

critical fragment. Let Fi = {fi1, fi2 …} be the set of the critical

IV. MULTICAST WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT fragments in the potential path i. Then Fi can be used to

A. Grouping the Paths indicate whether the potential path is affected or not during the

wavelength assignment of the multicast tree. So, the critical

Assume the set Ri = {Ri1, Ri2 … Rij …} to represent all

fragment of a potential path is the fragment traveled by the

fragments of the path from source to the ith destination in the

multicast tree. The impact on the potential path can be reduced

multicast tree. Rij is the jth fragment of the path i. If AWRij is

by considering the wavelength assignment of that fragment

the set of available wavelengths of the jth fragment of path i,

carefully. Fragments which come from multicast tree with

then the number of wavelengths in AWRij is regarded as the

common links into groups are coupled using the concept of

capacity of this fragment. The capacity of the jth fragment of

grouping. Within a group, all fragments have common

the path i, SCPRij is obtained as

wavelengths. As a result a group is composed of fragments

⎧OL ( S , J k ) =| AWR j |, whose links are overlapped.

i i k = 1, j = 1

⎪

j ⎪ k k −1 j G = {G1, G2… Gm… GY} (5)

SCPR i = ⎨OL ( J i , J i ) =| AWRi |, 1 < k ≤ M i , j = k where G is the set of all groups in a multicast tree, Gm is

⎪ k j the set of all fragments in the mth group.

⎪⎩OL ( J i , D ) =| AWRi |, k = Mi, j = Mi +1

(1) The multicast tree with n destinations is treated as n

unicast paths from source to each destination. Paths are

where s is the source node of the multicast tree, Di is the ith fragmented with respect to junction nodes. Same group

destination of the multicast tree, Jik is the kth wavelength fragments have more than one available wavelength in

converter in the path i, and Mi + 1 is the number of fragments common. Let AWGm be the connection set of all fragments

of path i if there are Mi junction nodes being traveled by the existing wavelengths in the mth group. The group capacity,

path. The Overlap function OL(n1, n2) represents the size of CGm, is defined as the number of wavelengths in AWGm. If

the intersection set of all available wavelengths for all links links of a fragment and the links in the mth group are

from node n1 to n2. overlapped and no common available wavelength between

them, this fragment will be considered as a new group.

For the potential request paths, the set Pi = {pi1, pi2 …}is

defined to indicate all fragments of the ith potential request B. Total Network Capacity Estimation

path and the capacity of the jth fragment of the potential path i, The influence of network capacity is examined by

SCPPij, can be stated as following checking whether the links of potential paths overlap with

those of the multicast groups. If the overlap occurs at the

⎧OL ( S , J k ), k = 1, j = 1

⎪ i critical fragments of the potential path and the assigned

⎪ wavelength is the one of the available wavelengths in that

SCPPi j = ⎨OL ( J i k , J i k −1 ), 1 < k ≤ M i , j = k (2)

critical fragment, the path capacity of the potential path will be

⎪ k affected. Let Cm(pi, λ) be the capacity of pi being influenced

⎪⎩OL ( J i , D ), k = Mi, j = Mi +1

when the wavelength λ is assigned in the mth group, and x be a

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**common link of the mth group and the critical fragment of the
**

potential path i. Then

TNC m ,λ = ∑C

p b ∈P '

m ( pb , λ )

**⎧1 if (λ ∈ xw ) ∧ x ∈ LS m , Fi 3. Assign λ which TNCm, λ is minimum in group m
**

Cm ( pi , λ ) = ⎨ (6)

⎩0 Otherwise V. SIMULATION RESULTS

where LSm,Fi = LGm ∩ LFi, LGm is the set of all links in the A. Simulation Model and Parameters

mth group, LFi is the set of all links in the critical fragments of

the potential path i. and xw is the set of all available In this section, the performance of multicast routing and

wavelengths on link x. wavelength assignment technique is simulated with an

extensive simulation study based upon the ns-2 network

The network capacity affected when λ is assigned for the simulator [14]. The Optical WDM network simulator (OWNs)

mth group, TNCm,λ , can be obtained by the summation of the patch in ns2 is used to simulate a NSF network (Fig.1) of 14

influence of all potential paths as nodes. Various simulation parameters are given in table I.

TNCm,λ = ∑ Cm ( pi , λ ) (7)

pi ∈P

The total network capacity (TNC) gets affected since each

group should assign one wavelength, and it can be obtained by

the summation as

TNC = ∑ ∑ Cm ( pi , λm ) − q (8)

All m pi ∈P

Figure 1. NSF network of 14 nodes

In the mth group, λm is the wavelength assigned and q is the

affected capacity that is counted repeatedly. This can be TABLE I: SIMULATION PARAMETERS

regained in the first term of (8). When the same wavelength is

assigned to the groups it leads to repeated counts and also the Topology Mesh

critical fragments of the path travels through the group. For Total no. of nodes 14

example, the available wavelengths of the critical fragment of Link Wavelength Number 8

potential path p1 are (λ1, λ2). G1 and G2 are the groups of the Link Delay 10ms

multicast tree. If λ1 is assigned to G1 and G2 and if the critical Wavelength Conversion Factor 1

fragment of potential path p1 travels through G1 and G2, then,

according to the first term of (8), the affected capacity of p1 is Wavelength Conversion Distance 8

calculated twice. In fact, the decreased capacity is only one. Wavelength Conversion Time 0.024

The other repeated count happens when the same or a different Link Utilization sample Interval 0.5

wavelength is assigned to the groups and more than one Traffic Arrival Rate 0.5

critical fragment of an individual path goes through these Traffic Holding Time 0.2

groups. Packet Size 200

C. Wavelength Assignment No. of Receivers 4

Max Requests Number 50

By using junction nodes the multicast tree is separated into Rate 2,4,6, 8 and 10 Mb

groups, so the wavelength assignments for groups are

independent of each other. The wavelength assigned in the Number of Traffic Sources 1,2,3,4 and 5

previous group has no effect on the wavelength assigned in the

current group. The wavelength assigned for each group can be In this simulation, a dynamic traffic model is used, in

easily selected since all of the available wavelengths for a which connection requests arrive at the network according to

group have been collected in AWGm. an exponential process with an arrival rate r (call/seconds).

The session holding time is exponentially distributed with

The Least Influence Group (LIG) algorithm selects the mean holding time s (seconds).

wavelengths for groups to maximize the network capacity.

The idea behind LIG algorithm is that the wavelength having The connection requests are distributed randomly on all the

the least effect on the potential paths is chosen for that group. network nodes. In all the simulation, the results of MRWA

The affected network capacity in (7) examines the influence of with the previous paper “resource efficient multicast routing

each wavelength assignment. The LIG algorithm is illustrated (REMR) protocol [13].” Is compared.

below: B. Performance Metrics

AWGm = {λ1, λ2, λ3….} In this simulation the blocking probability, end-to-end

1. Find all pb whose links overlap in the links of group delay and throughput is measured.

m

2. For each λ ∈ AWGm

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**• Bandwidth Utilization: It is the ratio of bandwidth
**

Rate Vs Utilization

received into total available bandwidth for a traffic

flow.

• Average end-to-end delay: The end-to-end-delay is 0.08

averaged over all surviving data packets from the

Utilization

0.06

sources to the destinations. MRWA

0.04

• Throughput: It is the number of packets received REMR

successfully. 0.02

C. Results 0

2 4 6 8 10

A. Effects of Varying Traffic

In the initial simulation, the traffic rate is varied as 2Mb, Rate(MB)

4Mb, 6Mb, 8Mb and 10Mb and measure the throughput, end-

to-end delay and bandwidth utilization. Figure 4. Rate Vs Utilization

**Rate Vs Throughput Figure. 2 shows the throughput occurred when the rate is
**

increased. From the figure, it is proved that the throughput is

1.5 more in the case of MRWA when compared to REMR.

Figure.3 shows the end-to-end delay occurred when the

1 MRWA rate is increased. It shows that the delay of MRWA is

REMR

significantly less than the REMR.

0.5

Figure.4 shows the bandwidth utilization obtained when

0 the rate is increased. MRWA shows better utilization than the

2 4 6 8 10 REMR scheme.

Rate(MB)

B. Effect of Varying Traffic

Figure 2. Rate Vs Throughput

In this simulation , the number of traffic sources is varied

as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and measure the throughput, end-to-end

delay and bandwidth utilization.

Rate Vs Delay

Traffic Vs Throughput

2000

1500 3500

Delay(sec)

MRWA 3000

1000

Throughput

REMR 2500

500 2000 MRWA

1500 REMR

0

1000

2 4 6 8 10

500

Rate(MB) 0

1 2 3 4 5

Figure. Rate Vs Delay Traffic

Figure 5. Traffic Vs Throughput

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**

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

**distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions
**

Traffic Vs Delay that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then,

paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and

70 the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction

60 nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength

50 conversion capability. In order to select the wavelengths for

groups to maximize the network capacity, the Least Influence

Delay

40 MRWA

30 REMR

Group (LIG) algorithm is used, i.e. the wavelength having the

20 least effect on the potential paths is chosen for that group. So

10 the affected network capacity influences the wavelength

0 assignment. By simulation results, it is proved that the

proposed technique achieves higher throughput(22% increase)

1 2 3 4 5

and bandwidth utilization (1% increase)with reduced

Traffic delay(420sec decrease)for varying rate & 9.4 sec derease in

delay ,0.3% increase in utilization and 480times increase in

Figure 6. Traffic Vs Delay throughput for varying traffic.

REFERENCE

Traffic Vs Utilization [1] A. Rajkumar and N.S.Murthy Sharma, “A Distributed Priority Based

Routing Algorithm for Dynamic Traffic in Survivable WDM Networks”,

IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network

1 Security, VOL.8 No.11, November 2008.

0.8 [2] Canhui (Sam) Ou Hui Zang, Narendra K. Singhal, Keyao Zhu, Laxman

Utilization

**H. Sahasrabuddhe, Robert A. Macdonald and Biswanath Mukherjee,
**

0.6 MRWA “Sub path Protection For Scalability And Fast Recovery In Optical

0.4 REMR WDM Mesh Networks”, IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In

Communications, Vol. 22, No. 9, November 2004.

0.2 [3] Vinh Trong Le, Son Hong Ngo, Xiao Hong Jiang, Susumu Horiguchi

and Yasushi Inoguchi, “A Hybrid Algorithm for Dynamic Lightpath

0 Protection in Survivable WDM Optical Networks”, IEEE, 2005.

1 2 3 4 5 [4] Multicasting: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multicasting

Traffic [5] Fen Zhou, Miklos Molnar and Bernard Cousin, “Distance Priority Based

Multicast Routing in WDM Networks Considering Sparse Light

Splitting”, IEEE 11th Singapore International Conference on

Figure 7. Traffic Vs Utilization Communication Systems – 2008

[6] Xiao-Hua Jia, Ding-Zhu Du, Xiao-Dong Hu, Man-Kei Lee, and Jun Gu,

Figure 5 shows the throughput occurred when varying the “Optimization of Wavelength Assignment for QoS Multicast in WDM

number of traffic sources. From the figure it is proved that, the Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 49, No. 2,

February 2001.

throughput is more in the case of MRWA when compared to

[7] Jingyi He, S.H. Gary Chan and Danny H.K. Tsang, “Routing and

REMR. Wavelength Assignment for WDM Multicast Networks”, In the

Figure.6 shows the end-to-end delay occurred when proceedings of the IEEE GLOBECOM 2001.

varying the number of traffic sources. It shows that the delay [8] Anping Wang, Qiwu Wu, Xianwei Zhou and Jianping Wang, “A New

Multicast Wavelength Assignment Algorithm in Wavelength-Converted

of MRWA is significantly less than the REMR. Optical Networks”, International Journal of Communications, Network

Figure 7 shows the bandwidth utilization obtained when and System Sciences, 2009

varying the number of traffic sources. MRWA shows better [9] G. M. Fernandez and D. Larrabeiti, “Contributions for All-Optical

Multicast Routing in WDM Networks”, 16th International Congress of

utilization than the REMR scheme. Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Systems, IEEE INTERCON,

2009

Name of Effects on varying Effects on

[10] Nina Skorin-Kapov, “Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment in

performance rate varying Traffic WDM networks: A Bin Packing Approach”, In the proceedings of optics

metrices REMR MRWA REMR MRWA Infobase in the optical networks, 2006.

THROUGHPUT 0.49 0.71 1520 2000 [11] Fen Zhou, Miklos Molnar and Bernard Cousin, “Multicast Routing and

DELAY 1440sec 1020sec 48.6sec 39.2sec Wavelength Assignment in WDM Mesh Networks with Sparse

Splitting”, The 5th International Workshop on Traffic Management and

UTILISATION 0.0325 0.041 0.456 0.7 Traffic Engineering for the Future Internet, Dec- 2009.

[12] Yuan Cao and Oliver Yu, “QoS-Guaranteed Routing and Wavelength

Assignment for Group Multicast in Optical WDM Networks”,

VI. CONCLUSION Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2005

In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelength [13] N.Kaliammal and G. Gurusamy, “Resource Efficient Multicast Routing

assignment technique in WDM networks is developed. In this Protocol for Dynamic Traffic in Optical WDM Networks”, European

Journal of Scientific Research, 2010

technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast

[14] Network Simulator: www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns

source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from

the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is

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**

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

**N. Kaliammal received the B.E (ECE)., M.E(Applied pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Optical Networking, under the guidance of
**

electronics), degrees from the Department of Electronics Dr.G.Gurusamy, Dean and Head/ EEE Department, Bannariamman Institute

and Communication Engineering ,from Madurai Kamaraj of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu.

University , Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu , in 1989,

1998, respectively. From 1990 to 1999, she served in the Dr.G.Gurusamy, received his BE, ME and PhD degree from PGS college of

PSNA College of Engineering & Tech, Dindigul, technology-Coimbatore. He has 35 years of teaching experience in PSG

Tamilnadu, as Lecturer. From 1999 to 2009, she was in College of technology-Coimbatore. He is currently working as a Prof &

RVS College of Engineering & Tech, Dindigul, Tamil Dean/in EEE Department of Bannariamman Institute of Technology-

Nadu, as assistant professor and Associate Professor. Currently she is working Sathyamangalam.

as Professor in NPR College of Engineering &Technology She is currently

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**

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