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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, o. 7, 2010

Blind Robust Transparent DCT-Based Digital Image


Watermarking for Copyright Protection
Hanan Elazhary and Sawsan Morkos
Computers and Systems Department
Electronics Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt
{hanan,sawsan}@eri.sci.eg

Abstract—This paper proposes a novel technique for grayscale degradation of host image quality. Unfortunately, the hiding
digital image watermarking using monochrome watermarks in capacity of secret data and the distortion of the host image are a
the DCT domain. The proposed technique combines the tradeoff since more hidden data always result in more distortion
contradictory goals of robustness against intentional and of the host image [2].
unintentional attacks with transparency in addition to blindness.
We propose the combination of three techniques: Torus Digital image watermarking is a method for ownership
Automorphism (TA) permutation, a pseudo-random number assertion and copyright protection. In such a technique, the
generator, and visual cryptography to achieve high degree of watermark is embedded into the host image such that the
robustness against intentional attacks. On the other hand, embedded watermark can be later extracted to make an
robustness against unintentional attacks is achieved not only by assertion about the host image ownership. There are two
watermarking the low frequency DCT components, but also by essential requirements for this purpose. The first requirement is
intelligently utilizing the more robust relative values of these low the invisibility or transparency of the embedded watermark. In
frequencies instead of their absolute values. Experimental results other words, the embedded watermark should not be perceived
using two test images prove the robustness of the proposed by human eyes and should not degrade the quality of the
technique against several types of unintentional attacks: median watermarked host image. The other requirement is the
filtering, blurring, sharpening, Gaussian noise addition, salt and robustness of the embedded watermark. In other words, the
pepper noise addition, and JPEG compression. Blindness is embedded watermark should be able to resist both intentional
achieved using only few keys and two transparencies or shares
and unintentional attacks. In intentional attacks, the attackers
for watermark extraction. In the literature, the size of the shares
is usually double the size of the host image and consequently the
try to extract the embedded watermark for subsequent
process of generating the shares is usually time-consuming. In the destruction. In other words, they alter some parameters of the
proposed technique, generating the shares is straightforward and watermarked host image to prevent legal owners from
fast. Also, their size is exactly equal to the watermark size. To extracting the watermark for ownership assertion. In
achieve 100% transparency, the proposed technique does not unintentional attacks, on the other hand, the watermarked host
change any pixel values of the host image. image is treated using image processing techniques including
compression and filtering. Digital image watermarking could
Keywords- watermarking; image processing; security be done in the spatial domain [3-5] or in a transform domain
including Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) [6-8], Discrete
Wavelet Transform (DWT) [9, 10] or a combination of such
I. INTRODUCTION
domains [11, 12]. Embedding a watermark into a transform
The Internet has become the most popular channel for domain rather than the spatial domain is more robust, and has
transmitting various forms of multimedia digital data. higher resistance to various attacks [13]. Digital image
Multimedia data in digital format can be modified and illegally watermarking techniques can be classified according to the
used with ease. Thus, the copyright protection of digital images watermark extraction process as follows [4]:
transmitted over the Internet has become an important research
topic in recent years. In the past few years, two research topics • Non-blind techniques that require both the secret key(s)
that are related to but different from the above topic have been for watermark embedding and the original host image.
proposed in the literature. One is image authentication and the • Semi-blind techniques that require both the secret key(s)
other is image data hiding. The goal of image authentication is for watermark embedding and the embedded watermark
to verify the originality of an image by detecting malicious bit sequence.
manipulations. Most of the earlier techniques in the literature
treated some practical manipulations such as image • Blind techniques that require only the secret key(s) for
compression and image enhancement as attacks. Lin and Chang watermark embedding. Neither the original host image
proposed an image authentication technique which can detect nor the embedded watermark bit sequence is needed.
malicious manipulations but allow JPEG lossy compression
In this paper, we propose a novel digital-image
[1]. Hiding data in images involves embedding a large amount
watermarking technique that incorporates the important
of secret data into the host image with minimal perceptible
characteristics discussed above (robustness, transparency, and

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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blindness) for embedding a monochrome watermark into a Automorphism (TA) permutation for scrambling the watermark
grayscale host image. Since, as mentioned in Section I, it has [7, 14-16] before embedding into the host image. Using a
been shown that embedding a watermark into a transform pseudo-random number generator to select arbitrary host image
domain rather than the spatial domain is more robust, and has blocks and/or watermark bits for embedding has also been
higher resistance to various attacks [13], the proposed proposed in the literature [8]. The proposed technique
technique embeds the watermark in the DCT domain. This combines Torus Automorphism (TA) permutation and a
technique is discussed in the rest of the paper. pseudo-random number generator to increase robustness
against intentional attacks.
The paper is organized as follows: Section II discusses
related research in the literature and discusses the shortcomings To increase this robustness even further, digital image
that call for developing the technique proposed in the paper. watermarking based on visual cryptography [13], [17] has been
Section III describes the proposed technique in terms of the proposed. Visual cryptography uses a codebook to divide a
embedding and the extraction processes and emphasizes its watermarked host image into several different transparencies,
advantages. Section IV provides experimental results that shares, or sharing images. When the copyright problem needs
demonstrate the robustness of the proposed technique against to be resolved, the ownership verification information can be
unintentional attacks. Finally, Section V provides the obtained by stacking several sharing images. One or more of
discussion and conclusions of the paper. these shares could be registered to the Certified Authority (CA)
for additional security and protection against intentional
attacks. Because visual cryptography has good performance in
II. RELATED WORK
protecting copyright of digital media [18], it has gained much
Many techniques in the literature have been proposed for attention of researchers in recent years. The problem with these
digital image watermarking for copyright protection. It has techniques is that generating the shares is always time
been shown that embedding a watermark into a transform consuming. Besides, the size of each share is usually too large.
domain rather than the spatial domain is more robust and has For example, according to the Naor and Shamir scheme [17],
higher resistance to attacks [13]. Thus, most of these techniques each pixel of a given host image is replaced by 2×2 pixels.
embedded the watermark in the transform domain(s) to achieve Hence, a host image with M by N pixels can be divided into
robustness against unintentional attacks. The DCT domain is two sharing images with 2M by 2N pixels. This scheme is the
one of these transform domains that has been frequently used in predominant technique used in the literature for this purpose
the literature. In the DCT domain, embedding the watermark in [13]. This calls for developing a technique that can quickly
the insignificant components (high frequencies) makes hiding generate shares of much smaller sizes. The idea of our
the watermark easier, but the embedded watermark is less proposed technique is to quickly generate a different kind of
resilient to attacks. On the other hand, embedding the shares with much smaller size as long as they have the same
watermark in the most significant components (DC or low advantage: helping in obtaining ownership verification
frequencies) makes the embedded watermark robust against information. The proposed technique is described in the
unintentional attacks. But, this makes hiding the watermark following section.
harder, which may degrade the host image quality. This is
because low frequency components contain more energy than
high frequency components and the human perception system 0 1
is more sensitive to low frequency components. Saryazdi et al.
2 3
[6] embedded a given watermark bit in the five first low AC
coefficients. Similarly, Lin et al [7] embedded two watermark
bits in the seven low frequency locations. Patra et al. [8]
randomly selected a low frequency location for embedding a
given watermark bit. However, the disadvantage of these Figure 1. Possible embedding locations in a 4*4 DCT-transformed
block.
techniques is that they physically embed the watermark bits
which result in changing some pixels of the host image and
degrading its quality. Also, another disadvantage of the above III. THE PROPOSED TECHNIQUE
techniques is that they utilize the absolute values of the DCT The proposed technique can be described in terms of the
coefficients. Unfortunately, these values can easily change watermark embedding process and the watermark extraction
under unintentional attacks. Thus, some techniques in the process.
literature called for 100% transparent watermarking without
physical embedding of the watermark [3, 4]. The result is a A. The Watermark Embedding Process
watermarked image with no distortion. The proposed
technique does not change any pixel value of the DCT- The steps of the proposed watermark embedding process
transformed host image and also attempts to utilize the more can be described as follows:
robust relative values of the DCT coefficients instead of the • Step 1: Divide the host image into non-overlapping 4 *
absolute values. 4 blocks.
Several research studies in the literature aimed at • Step 2: Use Torus Automorphism (TA) permutation
developing watermarking techniques that are robust against [14] to disarrange the watermark bits using the
intentional attacks. This has been achieved by the use of Torus following equation:

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permuted watermark bit with value 0. It should be noted
 i*   1 1  i 
 =  *   mod m (1)
that the largest and the smallest values of the DCT
 j*   k k + 1  j  coefficients are relative values that are unlikely to
  change under attacks. This technique, thus, attempts to
utilize the more robust relative values of the DCT
Equation (1) indicates that each bit of the watermark at coefficients instead of the absolute values that can easily
location (i, j) will be moved to a new location (i*, j*). change under attacks. It should be also noted that we do
Parameters k and m are secret keys needed for not need to physically embed the permuted watermark
disarranging and rearranging the watermark bits. These bit. We only need to remember its embedding location.
permuted watermark bits will be embedded bit by bit This implies that in the proposed technique the
and line by line into the host image. embedded watermark is 100% transparent. Since there
are only 4 possible embedding locations, we need only
• Step 3: Arrange the host image blocks sequentially one two bits to represent each embedding location. For
by one and row by row. Use a pseudo-random number example, (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), and (1, 1) can be used to
generator to determine the sequence of host image represent embedding locations 0, 1, 2, and 3
blocks used for embedding the permuted watermark respectively. Thus, the permuted watermark bit is
bits. A pseudo-random number generator with a given replaced by two bits representing its embedding
seed always generates the same sequence of random location. Steps 4 and 5 are repeated until all the
numbers. Thus, the seed of the pseudo-random number permuted watermark bits have been embedded in the
generator is a secret key needed to embed and extract DCT-transformed host image blocks. Since each
the permuted watermark bits. Steps 2 and 3 offer permuted watermark bit is represented by its embedding
cryptographic protection against intentional attacks location and since an embedding location is represented
because the secret keys of the pseudo-random number by two bits, the final result is an array with double the
generator and TA permutation are necessary for size of the watermark array.
extracting and rearranging the embedded watermark for
subsequent destruction. • Step 6: After embedding all the permuted watermark
bits into the DCT-transformed host image blocks, the
• Step 4: DCT-transform the next host image block from resultant array of the embedding locations of the
the spatial domain to the frequency domain. Each block permuted watermark bits is decomposed into two arrays
is DCT-transformed using the following equation [6]: with the same size. The first array stores the first bit
representing each permuted watermark bit embedding
 −1  −1 location, while the second array stores the second bit.
DCT (i , j ) = C (i ) * C ( j ) * ∑ ∑ pixel ( x, y ) The two arrays are of the same size as the watermark
x =0 y = 0 array and are considered to be the watermark shares or
(2)
 ( 2 x + 1)iπ   ( 2 y + 1) jπ  transparencies [17]. For example, suppose that the
* cos
 2   cos  2   embedding location of the permuted watermark bit (a, b)
is location 1 as shown in Figure 1. This embedding
location is represented by (0, 1). Thus, the
corresponding value of the bit (a, b) in share or
1 for i , j = 0 transparency 1 is 0 and in share or transparency 2 is 1.

where C(i ), C ( j ) = One of the generated transparencies or shares is public,
2 otherwise while the other is secret and is registered to the Certified
 Authority (CA) for additional security and protection
against intentional attacks (that attempt to extract the
In equation (2), DCT (i, j) represents the value at embedded watermark for subsequent destruction) as
location (i, j) in the DCT-transformed block, while pixel mentioned before.
(x, y) represents the value at location (x, y) in the • Step 7: Finally, inverse DCT-transform each
original block. N is the number of locations (pixels) in watermarked block from the frequency domain to the
each block. spatial domain forming the watermarked host image
• Step 5: Embed the next permuted watermark bit into the using the following equation [6]:
low frequencies of the DCT-transformed block. To
increase the robustness of the embedded watermark  −1  −1
against unintentional attacks, as explained in Section II, pixel ( x, y ) = ∑ ∑ C (i ) * C ( j ) * DCT (i, j )
i =0 j =0
the locations for embedding the permuted watermark bit (3)
are restricted to the low frequency locations 0, 1, 2, and  ( 2 x + 1)iπ   ( 2 y + 1) jπ 
* cos
3 as shown in Figure 1. The embedding location with  2   cos  2  
the largest DCT coefficient is selected as the embedding
location for a permuted watermark bit with value 1,
while the embedding location with the smallest DCT
coefficient is selected as the embedding location for a

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C. The Secret Keys
1 for i, j = 0
 Several kinds of secret keys are utilized in the proposed
where C(i ), C ( j ) = technique. These secret keys are necessary in the proposed
2 otherwise watermark embedding and extracting processes. They should
 be preserved well for watermark extraction and ownership
verification and to increase the robustness of the embedded
It is worth noting that in the proposed technique, this watermark against intentional attacks (that attempt to extract
step does not need to be explicitly performed. This is the embedded watermark for subsequent destruction). These
because the watermark bits are not physically embedded secret keys are as follows:
into the host image blocks as explained above. • The two shares or transparencies needed for
reassembling the embedding locations of the permuted
B. The Watermark Extraction Process watermark bits. The size of the transparencies is the
The steps of the proposed watermark extraction process are same as that of the watermark.
the reverse of the steps of the watermark embedding process.
They can be described as follows: • The seed of the pseudo-random number generator
needed for determining the sequence of host image
• Step 1: Divide the watermarked host image into non- blocks used for embedding (and thus extracting) the
overlapping 4 * 4 blocks. permuted watermark bits.
• Step 2: Reassemble the two transparencies or shares to • The k and m parameters of Torus Automorphism (TA)
generate the permuted watermark bits embedding permutation. These are needed to disarrange the
locations. Remember that the two values in each two watermark bits before embedding and thus to rearrange
corresponding locations in the two transparencies are the extracted permuted watermark bits.
the two values representing the embedding location of
It is clear that the proposed technique is blind. This is
the corresponding bit of the permuted watermark. For
because the watermark extraction process requires only the
example, suppose that the value of bit (a, b) in share 1 is
secret key(s) for watermark embedding in addition to the two
0 and that of bit (a, b) in share 2 is 1. This implies that
transparencies representing the embedding locations of the
the embedding location of bit (a, b) of the permuted
permuted watermark bits. Neither the original host image nor
watermark is that represented by (0, 1), which is
the embedded watermark bit sequence is needed.
location 1 as shown in Figure 1.
• Step 3: Arrange the watermarked host image blocks IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
sequentially one by one and row by row. Use a pseudo-
random number generator (with the same seed as the This section provides experimental results that demonstrate
embedding pseudo-random number generator) to the robustness of the proposed technique against unintentional
determine the sequence of host image blocks used for attacks. Two host images have been used in the experiments.
embedding (and thus extracting) the permuted These are the boat image and the baboon image shown in
watermark bits. Figures 2 and 3 respectively. Each of these images is of size
256*256. The rose watermark shown in Figure 4 is of size
• Step 4: DCT-transform the next watermarked host 128*128. It has been used for watermarking these two host
image block from the spatial domain to the frequency images.
domain.
Figures 5 and 6 show the extracted watermarks from the
• Step 5: Extract the next permuted watermark bit from boat image and the baboon image respectively under different
the corresponding embedding location in the low types of unintentional attacks: median filtering, blurring,
frequencies of the DCT-transformed block. The sharpening, Gaussian noise addition, salt and pepper noise
corresponding bits in the reassembled transparencies are addition, and JPEG compression.
used for specifying the embedding location in the DCT-
transformed block as explained above. If the embedding It is clear that the watermarks, embedded using the
location has the largest value among the four low proposed technique, are robust to these different types of
frequency locations shown in Figure 1, the embedded attacks. This is not only due to embedding the watermark bits
permuted watermark bit is a 1. Otherwise, it is a 0. Steps in the low frequencies of the DCT-transformed blocks of the
4 and 5 are repeated until all the embedded permuted host image, but also due to intelligently utilizing the more
watermark bits have been extracted. robust relative values of the low frequency components instead
of the absolute values as explained in Section III.
• Step 6: After extracting all the permuted watermark
bits, use Torus Automorphism (TA) permutation to
rearrange the watermark bits (using the same keys used
for disarranging the watermark bits before embedding).

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remembering the embedding locations within the low
frequency coefficients and not on changing the pixels values of
these coefficients.
The robustness of the proposed technique against
unintentional attacks is demonstrated using two test images
under several attacks: median filtering, blurring, sharpening,
Gaussian noise addition, salt and pepper noise addition, and
JPEG compression with different quality factors 30, 50, and 70.
Figure 2. The boat image.
In summary, the paper has the following contributions:
• Combining the contradictory goals of robustness against
intentional and unintentional attacks with transparency
in addition to blindness.
• Achieving 100% transparency of the embedded
watermark.
• Achieving high degree of robustness against several
types of unintentional attacks.
Figure 3. The baboon image.
• The technique is blind and requires only 3 keys and two
transparencies.
• Using three techniques to achieve high robustness
against intentional attacks.
• Unlike other techniques in the literature, generating the
transparencies is straightforward and fast.
Figure 4. The rose watermark.
• Unlike other techniques in the literature where the size
of each share is usually equal double the size of the host
V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS image, the size of each share in the proposed technique
This paper is concerned with digital image watermarking is exactly equal to the watermark size
for ownership assertion and copyright protection. A novel
technique to achieve high degree of robustness with blindness REFERENCES
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Vol. 8, o. 7, 2010
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AUTHORS PROFILE
[12] S. Bedi, A. Kumar, and P. Kapoor, "Robust Secure SVD Based DCT-
DWT Oriented Watermarking Technique for Image Authentication," in Hanan Elazhary received her B.Sc. degree in Electronics and
proceedings of International Conference on IT to Celebrate S. Communications Engineering and her M.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering
Charmonman's 72nd Birthday, 2009. from the faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. She received her
Ph.D. degree in Computer Science and Engineering from the University of
[13] D. Lou, H. Tso, and J. Liu, "A Copyright Protection Scheme for Digital Connecticut, USA. Currently, she is working as a researcher at the Electronics
Images Using Visual Cryptography Technique," Computer Standards & Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. She is also working as an assistant professor
Interfaces, vol. 29, pp. 125–131, 2007. at Akhbar Elyom Academy, Cairo, Egypt. Her research interests include high
[14] G. Voyatzis and I. Pitas, "Applications of Toral Automorphisms in performance computing (HPC), software engineering, artificial intelligence,
Image Watermarking," In proceedings of the Image Processing and computer networks. Elazhary has supervised several graduation projects
International Conference, 1996. and is currently supervising one Ph.D. student in the field of high-performance
[15] C. Chang, J.Y. Hsiao, and C.L. Chiang, "An Image Copyright computing.
Protection Scheme Based on Torus Automorphism," in proceedings of Sawsan Morkos received her B.Sc. degree in Electronics and
the 1st International Symposium on Cyber Worlds, pp. 217–224, 2002. Communications Engineering and her M.Sc. degree and Ph.D. degree in
[16] M. Engedy, V.N.K. Munaga, and A. Saxena, "A Robust Wavelet Based Computer Engineering from the faculty of Engineering, Cairo University,
Digital Watermarking Scheme Using Chaotic Mixing," in proceedings Egypt. Currently, she is working as a researcher at the Electronics Research
of the 1st International Conference on Digital Information Institute, Cairo, Egypt. Her research interests include image processing and
Management, pp. 36–40, 2006. artificial intelligence.

Median filtering 9*9 Median filtering 3*3 Blurring 9*9 Blurring 3*3 Sharpening

Gaussian noise Salt and pepper noise JPEG Compression 70 JPEG Compression 50 JPEG Compression 30
addition addition
Figure 5. The extracted watermarks from the boat image under different attacks.

Median filtering 9*9 Median filtering 3*3 Blurring 9*9 Blurring 3*3 Sharpening

Gaussian noise Salt and pepper noise JPEG Compression 70 JPEG Compression 50 JPEG Compression 30
addition addition
Figure 6. The extracted watermarks from the baboon image under different attacks.

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