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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security

,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

An Enhanced LEACH Protocol using Fuzzy Logic
for Wireless Sensor Networks
J.Rathi/Lecturer Dr.G.Rajendran/ Prof and Head
Dept.of.B.Sc(CT) Dept.of MATHS
K.S.Rangasamy college of technology Kongu Engg. College
Tiruchengode-637215 Perundurai, Erode-638 052,
Tamilnadu, India. Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract--The Wireless Sensor Networks consists of a large effectively decrease energy consumption, and enable
number of small and cheap sensor nodes that have very restricted efficient realization and routing protocols, data
energy, processing power and storage. They usually examine areas,
collect data and report to the base station (BS). Due to the
aggregation, and security mechanisms.
achievement in low-power digital circuit and wireless A cluster [6] [17] is a collection of interconnected
communication, many applications of the WSN are developed and nodes with a dedicated node called clusterhead.
already been used in habitat monitoring, military object and object Clusterheads are accountable for cluster management,
tracking. The disadvantage in this monitoring leads to clustering the such as scheduling of the medium access, dissemination
networks. The hierarchal network structures which are created by
clustering technique are called clusters. Clusterhead is elected by its of control messages, or data aggregation. Therefore, the
nearest networks. Clusterhead selection becomes a significant role of the clusterhead is critical for the appropriate
problem because of its dynamic environment. In this paper, the network operation. Failure of a clusterhead leads to
problem of suitable clusterhead selection in wireless sensor networks expensive clusterhead re-election and re-clustering
is analyzed. Appropriate cluster-head node election can significantly
reduce the energy consumption and enhance the lifetime of the
operations.
network. The fuzzy logic technique for clusterhead selection is In stagnant networks, the role of the clusterhead may
proposed in this paper based on three descriptors, namely, Energy, be assigned to any node in the cluster in a self-organized
Concentration and Density. The experimental results shows the way. Often, this role is assigned in turn to the nodes in
substantial increase in the network lifetime depends on network order to ensure fairness, as a clusterhead consumes more
configuration as compared to probabilistically selecting the nodes as
cluster-heads using only local information. energy than a regular sensor node. An essential criterion
for the clusterhead selection is the remaining energy
Keywords— Wireless Sensor Networks, Fuzzy Logic, sensor level of the node. However, for fault-tolerant clusterhead
networks, Cluster head selection in dynamic networks, some additional criteria
for choosing a clusterhead are required. For example,
I. INTRODUCTION considering node mobility, if a clusterhead is close to the
network partition border, it may disappear from the

W IRELESS sensor networks (WSN) are composed
of a compilation of devices that communicate with
cluster earlier than a more centrally located node. On the
other hand, a centrally located node should not be
each other over a wireless medium. Such a kind of selected as a clusterhead if its failure leads to cluster
sensor network forms spontaneously whenever devices partitioning.
are in transmission range. Joining and leaving of nodes The energy utilization can be minimized by allowing
occurs dynamically, particularly when they are like only a portion of the nodes, which called cluster heads,
mobile devices. Potential applications of wireless sensor to communicate with the base station. The data sent by
networks can be found in traffic scenarios, ubiquitous each node is then composed by cluster heads and
Internet access, collaborative work, and many more. compressed. After that the aggregated data is transmitted
Wireless sensor networks assemble and process to the base station. Although clustering can reduce
environmental data. They consist of small devices energy consumption [8] [9], it has certain limitations.
communicating through radio. Normally, data The main setback is that energy consumption is
processing in Wireless Sensor Networks occurs locally concentrated on the cluster heads [4]. In order to
and decentralized. The architecture of the model is overcome this demerit, the issue in cluster routing of
shown in Figure 1. how to distribute the energy consumption [10] must be
In wireless sensor networks [5] [7], clustering is one resolved. The representative solution is LEACH (Low
of the mainly popular techniques for locality-preserving Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), which is a
network organization. Cluster-based architectures localized clustering method based on a probability

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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

model. The main idea of LEACH procedure is that all result. For a cluster, the nodes selected by the base
nodes are chosen to be the cluster heads periodically, station are the nodes that have the higher chance to
and each period contains two stages: become the cluster heads using Fuzzy Logic based on
• Construction of clusters their battery level, node density and distance.
• Data communication
Cluster heads are selected according to the probability II. RELATED WORKS
of optimal cluster heads determined by the networks.
After the selection of cluster heads, the clusters are Handy et al., [1] proposed the Low Energy Adaptive
constructed and the cluster heads communicate data with Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head
base station. Because LEACH is only depend on Selection. This paper focuses on reducing the power [11]
probability model, some cluster heads may be very close [13] consumption of wireless microsensor networks.
to each other and can be located in the edge of the WSN. Therefore, a communication protocol named LEACH
These disorganized cluster heads could not maximize (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is
energy efficiency. To overcome the defects of LEACH modified. The author extend LEACH’s stochastic
methodology, a cluster head election method using fuzzy clusterhead selection algorithm by a deterministic
logic has been introduced. This method proved that the component. Depending on the network configuration an
network lifetime can be efficiently prolonged by using increase of network lifetime by about 30 % can be
fuzzy variables (concentration, energy and density). In accomplished. Furthermore, a new approach is presented
this proposed method, a part of energy is spent to get the to define lifetime of microsensor networks using three
data of the three variables especially concentration and new metrics FND (First Node Dies), HNA (Half of the
density. The experimental show that the proposed Nodes Alive), and LND (Last Node Dies).
approach increases the network lifetime significantly W. Heinzelman et al., [2] presented an Energy-
when compared to LEACH approach. efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless
Microsensor Networks. In this paper, the author looks at
communication protocols, which can have significant
impact on the overall energy dissipation of these
networks. Based on the findings that the conventional
protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-
energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not
be optimal for sensor networks, the author propose
LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a
clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized
rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to
evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in
the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to
enable scalability and robustness for dynamic net-works,
and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to
reduce the amount of information that must be
transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that
LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reductions
in energy dissipation compared with conventional
routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to
distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the
Fig. 1: WSN Architecture sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the
networks we simulated.
In this paper, a method based on LEACH using Fuzzy Shen et al, [3] suggested the Sensor Information
Logic to cluster heads selection is proposed based on Networking Architecture and applications; this paper
three variables - battery level of node, node density and introduces a sensor information networking architecture,
distance from base station, and this method will be called SINA that facilitates querying, monitoring, and
introduced based on the assumption that the WSN can tasking of sensor networks. SINA serves the role of
get their coordinate. Although this method has the same middleware that abstracts a network of sensor nodes as a
drawback as of Gupta’s method, it presents a better collection of massively distributed objects. SINA's
execution environment provides a set of configuration
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

and communication primitives that enable scalable and
energy-efficient organization of and interactions among Where, λ is the path loss exponent and λ ≥ 2.
sensor objects. On top the execution environment is a The model of fuzzy logic control consists of a
programmable substrate that provides mechanisms to fuzzifier, fuzzy rules, fuzzy inference engine, and a
create associations and coordinate activities among defuzzifier. The most commonly used fuzzy inference
sensor nodes. Users then access information within a technique called Mamdani Method is used in the
sensor network using declarative queries, or perform proposed approach due to its simplicity. The process is
tasks using programming script performed in four steps:
• Fuzzification of the input variables energy,
III. METHODOLOGY concentration and density - taking the crisp inputs from
each of these and determining the degree to which these
In this paper the cluster-heads are elected by the base inputs belong to each of the appropriate fuzzy sets.
station in each round by calculating the chance each • Rule evaluation - taking the fuzzified inputs,
node has to become the cluster-head by considering and applying them to the antecedents of the fuzzy rules.
three fuzzy descriptors: It is then applied to the consequent membership function
• Node concentration (Table 1).
• Energy level in each node • Aggregation of the rule outputs - the process of
• Node Density unification of the outputs of all rules.
In the proposed approach, the better cluster-heads are • Defuzzification - the input for the
produced by the central control algorithm in the base defuzzification process is the aggregate output fuzzy set
station. This is because the global knowledge about the chance and the output is a single crisp number.
network is contained in base station. In addition, base During defuzzification, it finds the point where a
stations are many times more potent than the sensor vertical line would slice the aggregate set chance into
nodes, having sufficient memory, power and storage. In two equal masses. In practice, the COG (Center of
the proposed approach energy is spent to transmit the Gravity) is calculated and estimated over a sample of
location information of all the nodes to the base station. points on the aggregate output membership function,
Considering WSNs are meant to be deployed over a using the following formula:
geographical area with the main purpose of sensing and
gathering information, this paper assumes that nodes
have minimal mobility, thus sending the location Where, μA(x) is the membership function of set A.
information during the initial setup phase is sufficient.
The cluster-head collects n number of k bit messages Expert knowledge is represented based on the
from n nodes that joins it and compresses it to cn k bit following three descriptors:
messages with c ≤ 1 as the compression coefficient. The • Node Energy - energy level available in each
operation of this fuzzy cluster-head election scheme is node, designated by the fuzzy variable energy,
divided into two rounds each consisting of a setup and • Node Concentration - number of nodes present
steady state phase similar to LEACH. During the setup in the vicinity, designated by the fuzzy variable
phase the cluster-heads are determined by using fuzzy concentration,
[14] knowledge processing and then the cluster is • Node Density – density of node in the cluster
organized. In the steady state phase the cluster-heads The linguistic variables used to represent the node
collect the aggregated data and performs signal energy and node concentration, are divided into three
processing functions to compress the data into a single levels: low, medium and high, respectively, and there are
signal. This composite signal is then sent to the base three levels to represent the node density: sparse,
station. medium and dense respectively. The outcome to
The radio model used here is with Eelec = 50 nJ/bit as represent the node cluster-head election chance was
the energy dissipated by the radio to run the transmitter divided into seven levels: very small, small, rather small,
or receiver circuitry and εamp = 100 pJ/bit/m2 as the medium, rather large, large, and very large. The fuzzy
energy dissipation of the transmission amplifier. rule base currently includes rules like the following: if
The energy expended during transmission and the energy is high and the concentration is high and the
reception for a k bit message to a distance d between density is close then the node’s cluster-head election
transmitter and receiver node is given by: chance is very large.
Thus, 33 = 27 rules are used for the fuzzy rule base. In
this paper, the triangle membership functions are used to
191 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

represent the fuzzy sets medium and adequate and
trapezoid membership functions to represent low, high,
1.0
close and far fuzzy sets. The membership functions
developed and their corresponding linguistic states are
represented in Table 1 and Figures 2 through 5.
0.5 vsmall small rsmall medium rlarge large vlarge

1.0
0.0

0.5 low med high 0 10 30 50 70 90 100

Chance

Figure5. Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable chance
0.0
TABLE1: FUZZY RULE BASE
0 50 100
Energy S.no Energy Concentration Density Chance
1 low low sparse small
Figure2. Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable energy
2 low low medium small
3 low low dense vsmall
4 low med sparse small
5 low med medium small
6 low med dense small
1.0
7 low high sparse rsmall
8 low high medium small
low med high 9 low high dense vsmall
0.5
10 med low sparse rlarge
11 med low medium med
12 med low dense small
13 med med sparse large
0.0 14 med med medium med
0 2 6 8 10 14 16 15 med med dense rsmall
Concentration 16 med high sparse large
17 med high medium rlarge
Figure3. Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable concentration 18 med high dense rsmall
19 high low close rlarge
sparcity medium density 20 high low adeq med
1
21 high low far rsmall
0.8 22 high med close large
Degree of membership

23 high med adeq rlarge
0.6
24 high med far med
25 high high close vlarge
0.4 26 high high adeq rlarge
27 high high far med
0.2
Legend: med-medium, vsmall-very small, rsmall-
rather small, vlarge-very large, rlarge-rather large.
0
All the nodes are compared on the basis of chances
and the node with the maximum chance is then elected
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 as the cluster-head. Each node in the cluster associates
Node-density itself to the cluster-head and starts transmitting data. The
Figure4. Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable density
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

data transmission phase is similar to the LEACH steady-
state phase.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The different experimental are conducted on the
proposed system and the results are discussed in this
section.
The reference network consists of 100 nodes randomly
distributed over an area of 400X400 meters. The base
station is located at 200, 450. In the first phase of the
simulation each node has a random energy between 0
and 100. The base station computes the concentration for (a) Energy Consumption
each node by calculating the number of other nodes
within the area of 20X20 meters by considering its
density as well. The values are then fuzzified and passed
to the fuzzy rule base for rule evaluation. After this,
defuzzification gives the cluster-head election chance. If
the chance is large or very large, then that node is chosen
as a cluster center. This techniques shows better finding
of cluster than the conventional methods such as
LEACH, etc,

(b) Nodes

Fig. 7: (a) Energy Consumption (b) Nodes

This results in a situation where the BS can receive at
least 9000 more messages from the network before all
Fig 6: Cluster formation of the simulated network energy is consumed. The energy consumed in the
using 4 clusters and a network size of 400x400 meters. network is evenly distributed among the nodes in AROS.
Clusters far away from the BS in the proposed system
Figure 7(a) shows the energy consumption of the will survive until the end and continue to gather
proposed system compared with that of LEACH. The information.
increase rate of energy consumption of the proposed
system is much lower than the rate of LEACH. When V. CONCLUSION
LEACH has used all of its energy and demises, the
proposed approach still has 54% of its energy left. The new approach for cluster-head election for
Figure 7(b) shows the nodes alive of the proposed Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is presented in this
system compared with the nodes alive of LEACH. paper. Cluster-heads were elected by the base station in
Besides, both the dead time of the first node and the each round by calculating the chance each node has to
dead time of the last node of proposed system are later become the cluster-head using three fuzzy descriptors:
than those of LEACH. Thus it is clear that, compared to node energy, node concentration and node density. The
LEACH; the proposed has approximately 88% of its energy is the most important factor in designing the
nodes alive. So WSN can get longer life and enjoy protocol for WSN. The propose approach achieved
longer receiving of integral data by using the proposed better reduction in the usage of energy for finding center
method. of cluster. The simulation result shows that the proposed
approach has good energy consumption when compared
to LEACH methodology. By the proposed method, the

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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better network life time is accomplished when compared
to LEACH.

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