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Life’s Source

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2019 by Ian Beardsley



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Table of Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3

How They Both Encode And Function………………………………………4

The Structure They Have In Common……………………………………….7

What Makes The Structure Dynamic………………………………………..15

The Apparent Error in One of The Equations……………………………….26

What the Structure of their Dynamics Does………………………………..28

Amino Acids And DNA………………………………………………………..45

Nervous System, Skeleton, Skin, Estrogen And Testosterone……………55

The Activation Function……………………………………………………….59

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In order to understand biological life, how it might have originated and the mastery of how it
functions by looking at artificial intelligence (AI) we look at several factors:

1. How they both encode and function (binary and trinary, or energy).

2. The structure they have in common with one another (golden ratio).

3. What makes them dynamic (symmetry breaking).

4. What the structure of their dynamics does (molar mass, density, size).

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How They Both Encode And Function



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The mystery of biological life is that while we know what the different parts of a cell do, we
don’t now how they do it, or what drives them. The brain sends electrochemical stimuli along
the nerves to activates muscles in the arm to contract when the brain wants them to say, lift
something. But in cell production, where old skin cells die and and new ones form with
everything inside them, from DNA to RNA, a nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes, we know
for instance that the DNA is unzipped in the old cell, copied (zipped) , and becomes part of a
new skin cell after it forms in cell division. But what makes, and drives the ribosomes and RNA,
for example to know what to do to in order to form the new cells and their organelles? It is as if
each cell has a mind of its own. Yet nothing is there to suggest what might make it alive like
this, at least that we have been able to find.

What about computers? This is artificial intelligence (AI). We can compare AI to biological life:
AI is a series of switches that are either off or on, 0 or 1. In ascii code the STX key is encoded
with the number 2, written 10 in binary, a one and a zero, a switch that is one on, one off. So,

If I press the STX key, that is one on and one off, a zero at “A” and on, and a one, at “B” or off
in an OR gate, this will output a voltage at “Out” and this will give the electric impulse to carry
out what the STX key does.

OR Gate

But what is the mind that allows this electronic cell to


activate the STX key. It is the user. And there has to
be electric current sent through A (energy), and
ultimately it is humans who sourced the energy,
perhaps with windmills that created the electric
potential. We might say, then, that humans are the
source of electronic life, or AI.

We return to our original question: What is the mind


of the a biological cell? For computers it is the
human, might we say for the human it is what we call
God? That god is an external source bringing our cell
organelles to life.

While AI encodes its keys with binary expressions; a string of zeros and ones, such as above,
biological life encodes itself with chemical pairs made of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and
thymine (A. G, C, T). This occurs in pairs of three (codons). A always pairs with T and G with C.
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We should ask: If electricity is the driving force behind artificial intelligence because resistors,
diodes, and transistors are activated by electricity, then what is the nature of the driving force
behind biological life if its components are chemical in nature? Could it be light, because it is
massless energy. Are we light beings?

If we are to look at how AI works, since an external sentience (humans) sends energy
(electricity) through its wires to make it do things, then perhaps an external sentience (God)
sends energy (type unknown) through the organelles of the living cells that comprise biological
life. Further, since humans designed AI, did God design humans?

Since each character on the keyboard is characterized by 8 bits (eight zeros and ones) called a
byte. Then there are 2^8=256 AI codes. Since there are 4 nucleotides to make codon of three
pairs, then there are 4^3=64 biological codons.

256/64=4

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The Structure They Have In Common



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When we look at the ratio of the molar mass of one element to the to the molar mass of
another, it like comparing the mass of one atom to another, we just choose a large number of
them (avagadro’s number) so the mass is in the range of grams as opposed to some
extraordinarily small percent of of grams. As well we are considering the weighted average
between all the isotopes that exist in their natural occurrence. As such we are dealing with their
properties.

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It all started when I found a connection between the golden ratio and AI
by way of the the central AI element silicon, Si, and the central doping
agents phosphorus, P, and boron, B:

Which can be written:

And, of the central biological elements to the golden ratio conjugate:



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Leading to the connection between artificial intelligence and the


biological:

And, can be written:

Writing in the arithmetic mean:

Which is nice because:


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Where:

Where ZnSe is zinc selenide, an intrinsic semiconductor used in AI and


Ge is germanium, the other central AI element and, As is arsenic and Ga
is gallium, the other two central doping agents

A similar thing can be done with Germanium, Ge, and Gallium, Ga, and
arsenic, As, this time using CHNOPS (C,H,N,O,P,S) the most abundant
biological elements by mass:

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The factor by which our original equation has near-perfect equality uses
H20, CH4, and NH3 water, methane, and ammonia, the primordial
precursors to amino acids, the building blocks of biological life:

We find there is an equivalence to the precursors of the primordial AI


and primordial biological life in that tungsten, W, is the filament of the
first crude AI for making switches by housing it in silicon dioxide, SiO2,
or glass for vacuum tubes:

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What Makes Them Dynamic



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The complete set of equations is



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Which result in:


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Zinc selenide, ZnSe, an intrinsic semiconductor bridges the gap between


the lower limits (Boron, B) and upper limits (gallium, Ga) of positive
type semiconductors for silicon (Si) doped with phosphorus (P) for
negative type semiconductors:

Thus the dynamics is in symmetry breaking



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The Apparent Error



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What The Structure of their Dynamics Does



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In my book Dynamic Structure Between AI And Biological Life, I outlined a dynamic structure
between artificial intelligence and biological life and suggested that we can understand
biological life by looking at artificial intelligence, and perhaps even, by doing so, discover the
origins of biological life. In that work we looked at molar masses, and in this one we look at
molar masses, atomic radii, and density and begin to lay a groundwork for a theory.

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Amino Acids And DNA



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It is now March 17, 2019 and I guess if the Universe is to be sublime, it


should be elegant, exciting and, designed with sublime aesthetics, which
is what I have always done in this project, and it has always panned out,
that if

has perfection in the precursors of the amino acids as

Then,…

should have perfection for some aspect of biological components. Since


Ga/Ge+As/Ge+1 is approximately three, and Ga/Si+As/Si+1 is
approximately 6, it is in other things. One might hazard to guess, since
the former is in the amino acids, the latter will be in the sugars and the
monomer of the sugars, that are a big part of the biological, ribose,
deoxyribose, glyceraldehyde, and formaldehyde used to make
glyceraldehyde, ribose, and DNA and RNA, the instructions for
biological life. It turns out it is:

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Thus, where silicon is associated with the amino acids, germanium is


associated with the DNA and RNA.

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We talked about the primordial precursors to the amino acids and the
precursors to the sugars of RNA and DNA In their connection AI, but
what about the amino acids themselves, the building blocks of life?

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It becomes important to look at air as a mixture. It is about 25% oxygen


gas (O2) and 75% nitrogen gas (N2) by volume, giving it an accepted
value of 29.0 grams per mole

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Nervous System, Skeleton, Skin, Estrogen And Testosterone



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The Activation Function



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I would like to suggest that the prebiotic chemistry might have been
passed through an activation function that disappeared after life was on
its way to evolving.
The problem, then, of answering the question of how life began is one of
finding the activation function and its mechanism by which it takes
prebiotic chemistry and activates it (makes it alive) so it can now self-
replicate, and evolve. We assume that as this mechanism activates the
molecules, its mechanism depletes as it activates from what is available.
In this sense the mechanism is a limiting reactant, so it determines how
much material is activated before it depletes completely.
Logically, the way to determine what this mechanism is, and how it
serves as an activation function is to look for the by products of the
reaction that are left over, and from that, deduce its nature.
To do this, we have to look for that thing in our knowledge of the Earth’s
history that does not make sense. This would be in the faint young star
paradox. We know that five billion years ago, when the Earth and Sun
first formed, that the sun was 0.7 times its present output and so, the
Earth should have been frozen over, yet, we know it was not. That it had
water in its liquid phase. Thus something was there that is not present
today. That something must have been the mechanism for the activation
function that “turned on” prebiotic chemistry.

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I have presented it like this because 1) Life has not been created in the
laboratory from scratch 2) New life does not seem to be originating on
earth in present times. Therefore, the activation function is probably not
present on Earth today and more than likely disappeared, or depleted
after activating prebiotic chemistry. Life exists, yet we do not know how
prebiotic substances organize into self-replicating systems that evolve.
Therefore, we must look for something concerning the Earth that does
not make sense. I suggest that would be the young star paradox. If the
Earth had water in its liquid phase when it should have been frozen over,
then something could have existed then that was a limiting reactant, or
something like it, that activated prebiotic substances, in that it was
responsible for warming the earth (perhaps a heat retaining substance).
Also, we do not know what dark matter is. Could it be the prebiotic
material, x? Or, could it even be responsible for the activation function?

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The Author