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COMMUNICATIONS

September 2, 2010

Critical Communications Theories
Semiotics (symbolic interactions)
-The science of signs and symbols

Psychoanalysis
-Examines how mass media messages influence the audiences’ social
rules in order to suppress instinctive anti-social impulses.
-Controlling instinctive reactions because of the way society
interprets them; socially acceptable behavior.

Sociological Analysis
-The most common type of analysis done by critics
-Comes in many flavors that have evolved over the years
-Direct Effect Model
• Often considered propaganda
• Based on the idea that people are passive targets of
mass media messages that cannot help but be
influenced
• Points at such messages as advertising and
government propaganda that people will follow like
lemmings HAHA
• Denies that people are individuals
-Limited Effects of indirect effects Model
• Found that people may take in the messages, but will
turn to opinion leaders for how to interpret and follow
or not follow those messages
o People with strong opinions are unlikely to
change them
o People pay more attention to messages that
they already agree with
o The most persuadable don’t pay attention

*Basically, some one else will do all the thinking for you, you simply pick which
idea to follow

-Critical Culture Model
• Rather than effect, it looks at how people use and
construct messages
• The media control the flow of information and what
can be discussed
• Those who control the media control the message

interact with one another. Ironic. what things are.I’m copying down exactly what he’s saying because I’m too lazy to interpret it into my own words. how to think. society. they tell us what to think about o Different religious authorities/documents o Political leaders/POVs Uses and Gratifications -People actively seek and use those media messages that they personally feel gives them something -They use the media to get something they want Social Learning Theory -There’s no way a person can experience everything -The media provide information about the world and society that the individual can’t experience alone -Can create a person’s reality. Cultivation Analysis -Media messages tell people what the world is like and how people respond to what happens in the world • An example is the mean world syndrome: heavy users of the media think the world is a more violent. • Rooted in neo-Marxism – those who can control the culture control the media and. -Agenda Setting Model • The media don’t tell us what to think. *People too lazy to think for themselves. dangerous place than it actually is because so many media messages contain violence o news o cop shows o dramas Not one technique or theory has all the answers -All hypotheses start with assumptions • Scientific hypotheses start with assumptions about the world that can be empirically checked and falsified • Social science hypotheses start with assumptions about people that usually can’t be empirically studied and are taken as axiomatic )they’re true because I think they’re true and can’t prove it one way or the other) . thus. behave. Fun.

Neoaristotelian analysis -Based on Aristotle’s work Ars petoca -Six parts  Action. and thus ends the conflict . it shows that the problem has been solved and there are no more problems. either because the wrong solution made it worse. creating a • Complication • And obsticale solving the problem. • Character • The agents that carry out the action • Two words are vital to story telling • Conflict • Since every character wants something different.we’re back at an equilibrium. or something ne is added • Any story longer than 15 seconds has multiple crises and complications • Climax.the ultimate crisis o The protagonist has finally learned enough about the problem through the crises and complications to solve the problem and applies that solution o Denouement • A final part of the action that may or may not be necessary.what happens o Starts with an exposition  What you need to know to understand wht follows  Establishes an equilibrium or status quo  The Problem  Crisis • A point at which the protagonist thinks he or she knows enough about the problem to solve it • The solution is applied • It’s the wrong answer. this creates conflict • Without conflict there is no story o The problem starts with conflict o The climax is the resolution of the problem.

including setting. *Why is this important? Humans are not wise. ________________________________________________________________ September 9. etc. ourselves as a whole. o Thought • Why the story is being told o To affect the audience’s sense of what the world is and their role in the world o Can follow. lighting. angles.clay tiles “ink” each word Prior to this method. make-up.CHAPTERS 1.black death Survivors came out with a) money b) a desire to enjoy life -fun and games like fairs -fanciest clothes that could be afforded • underwear • sheets • linen products • PAPER! Once linen fabric was worn out they were used to be turned into paper. including music and sound effects o Spectacle= what we see. everything had to be handwritten 1347. costumes. 2010 TEST TUESDAY. etc.they must use stories to relate to everyday events/facts/history and the way we react to them. o Diction/Music/Spectacle • How the story is told o Diction= the words used and how they’re said o Music= what we hear. 2 & 3 1041. relationships. . and create rules of society. define.

1704 Lasted until the Revolutionary War Dull/expensive Advantage: subsidized by the government Oh. -contracts -record keeping -writing to one another Because of black death.rotary press Industrial revolution 100 double sided pages as opposed to one with a guttenberg Progression of press………….s: English news sheets started in 1641 *these would now be considered editorials 1690. printing was no longer expensive and put to use.With this new found CHEAP material. 1884.our current problem with society’s knowledge of real world issues! New-England Courant Popular/controversial Critical. there were no scribes -Johannes Gutenberg 1398-1468 goldsmith -created the printing press (but not the press in general) William Caxton First printer in England English spelling Images and drawings could also be printed “illustrated text:” 1863.scandalous libels (facts the government didn’t want people to know) . look. one page dutch news shees imported to England -diuma.mergenthaler’s linotype machine Typewriter used instead of placing letters separately Newspaper -Started early 1600s -corontos. ***Press all the water out of the ‘slush’ resulting in paper.Amerca’s first newspaper Benjamin Harris “Public Occurances” One edition Shut down because it was critical & no required license The Boston Newsletter.

next twenty years Keys to success -rapidly growing literacy rate -lower printing costs -spread of social movements like abolition and labor reform -made for compelling reading -the use of specialty writers rather than general reporters or book authors Growth of Magazines 700 1200 33000 -rise of women’s magazines that advertisers loved -postal act of 1879 that lower mailing rates for magazines -railroads crisscrossing the entire country -made magazines the first truly national medium ..of lies Cannons of Journalism and statement of principles.seditious libel Truth is a defense against libel Courant/gazette/journal are the backbone of today’s paper.Brother was instituted to take place..1923 “The right of a newspaper to attract and hold readers is restricted by nothing but the consideration […]” -Don’t print lies in order to make money Saturday Evening Post 1930. -a news paper with popular support could challenge authority -financial independence can lead to editorial independence -government should not control the pres because it can stifle the truth IN CONCLUSION. affordable for everyone and intended for everyone Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Journalism competition! .the first amendment The daily sun.penny papers.Benjamin Franklin Sold advertising space-> financial independence-> editorial independence John Zenger’s trial.

myths.PRINT AND SOCIETY -Before printing -Lascoux cave painting -kids spent 12 years in scribe school -just to learn how to write -lead to conservative society -Egyptians wouldn’t change anything for the sake of society -Phinetians made alphabet with letters for all sounds -Greeks added vowels and this created the alphabet as a whole -Library of Alexandria (burned down) -I copy every book in the world -For 600 years it was the center of research in the world -The Dark Ages -476 bc Roman Empire fell -This led to plummeting of literacy -Patch Roman ends “virgin walking” -Compelte safety ends -everything from the past led to stories. they are living records -because no one would read or write -Memories were prejudice -no reading or writing=remember -poetry is easier to remember than prose due to rhyme and rhythm -ring around the rosie (black plague) -poetry was the language of memory -Troubadours . superstitions -Knowledge of people’s minds -history -law -knowledge was oral -courts held hearings -Old people were vital -testify from their memory -young looked up to old.

the news.in music/singing -could remember thousands of words in a sitting -VERY good memory -New books were rare -most everything was copied -copying was a form of prayer for monks -didn’t care what it was. legends. etc -went to hell if took part in it -Printing led o all these problems -easy to get out words of your own -broad sheets and large posters were invented and put out -people saw these broad sheets and wanted to learn because of it -The modern contract -writing enabled this . -telling stories. did it for the process -this caused errors -no written history -The Black Death -killed 1/3 of the population -railed all the old fogies -caused loss of memory and oral traditions -writing importance came back -banking became vital -Arrival of printing -Gutenberg -within 50 years over 2 million books came out -catholic church used printing press -indulgence “get out of hell free” card -had to pay to get one -Martin Luther -didn’t like catholic church’s practices -nailed a list of 95 theses to front door of church -gave to friends who printed tons of copies to spread throughout Europe -The protestant Reformation -catholic church didn’t like this -first real propaganda -Catholic church went against printing -burned books. writers.

-Declaration of independence -Prints greatest effect on society -knowledge -Printing revolutionized knowledge -Aldus Manutius (1450-1515) ________________________________________________________________ -Galileo countered Aristotle’s belief that the world was the center of the universe. in conclusion the book Galileo wrote proving this was banned and he was placed under house arrest. which was unacceptable at the time. Galileo’s new discovery disagreed with the church. printing allowed for different religious beliefs such as protestant Christian and the creation of new ideas etc etc GO PRINTING John Adams and TJ died within hours of each other Jackass symbol developed from Andrew Jackson’s nickname Benjamin Gey? Opened The Sun… first penny newspaper RADIO Next invention 1876-telephone Radio= telephone without wires Bell and Gray Samuel Morse=wires Heinrich Hertz 1886 gets rid of wires -builds spark gap generator -creates electric current with gap in wire -current needs to jump that gap creating spark -receiver picks up spark *Demonstrated the electricity traveled through air at specific frequencies just like it did with wires . -Corpus Juris Civilis -publication of Roman laws William caxton.first printer to use English Latin disappears as universal language 1476 Apparently printing is the cause of EVERYTHING.

when it went up.. signal went further (vise versa) Tesla -built earthquake machine -tesla coil (1891) -first amplifier -raised voltage on an electrical current. stronger the signal -higher/lower voice change in signal -could be carried by radio waves -voice broadcast in 1900 -short range -poor quality -no wires -needed more power Ernst Alexanderson (more power) -Alexanderson Generator -1000000 hertz -1906 first broadcast. simply put together bits and Pieces Edwin Howard Armstrong -figured out how the audion tube worked -tried to improve it -developed regeneration -invented a way to feed the signal back into the tube about 20 .1894 Guglielmo Marconi -put ideas together to make the radio -increased the powerI Ionosphere -air expands when it’s warm>ionosphere goes uo -radio bounces through ionosphere -thus. a lot Reginald Fessenden -louder the voice. 100s of miles -Bible readings -Opera -Violin Christmas carol Lee de Forest -“father of radio” -pieced everything together> forest -put together audion tube (1904) -English vacuum tube with added bent wire (flemingvelle) -amplified signal -had no clue how it worked.

he cranked the cylinder around while shouting -created one that could record and play back 2-3 minutes of sound 1885 Bell -wax -couldn’t make copies 1887 Emile Berliner -disc instead of cylinder -could copy/duplicates -gramophone Shalack -rubber -1890>jukebox Elridge Johnson used motor instead of wire . kind of Radio was portable 1930s -created music listening base -talk shows Thomas Edison -Tinfoil phonograph 1877 draw sounds. thousand times a second -amplifier -superheterodyne David Sarnoff -idea man>saw the possibilities of radio -radio=mass medium instead of point to point medium -“music box” -combination created RCA -Sarnoff was commercial manager -success! -new stations opened up everywhere 1922 radio started -Fred Allen>comedy -Abbott and Costello -who’s on first The advent of television VIDEO KILLED THE RADIO STAR Not really.

Win Columbia’s Eagle> Columbia Records Light weight and cheap Mechanical recording needed to be switched to electrical recording valdemar poulsen 1897 record on wires MICROPHONE .