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Refresher Course on

Environmental Planning
Maria Veronica Arreza-Arcilla, M.A. URP, EnP
Objectives of the session
• Be familiar with the local economic development context:
functional sectors of the economy, and process involved in
formulating economic sub-sector studies: (a) agriculture and
forestry; (b) commerce & trade, (c) industry, (d) tourism

• Be acquainted with Case Snapshots to demonstrate the dynamics

and interrelations of planning issues across the various sectors.

• Be introduced with select tools for integrated economic analysis

 HLURB Guidebook Vol. 2, s. 2014. Sectoral Analysis and Tools for
Situational Analysis. Economic Sector Study: pages 329 – 397 (pages 68)

 HLURB Guidebook Vol. 2, s. 2007. A Guide to Sectoral Studies in CLUP

Preparation. Economic Sector Study: pages 143 – 192 (49 pages)

 Serote, E. Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines. Series of

2005. pages 125 – 132

─ National Framework for Physical Planning: 2001 - 2030
─ Philippine Development Plan 2017 - 2022
• Resource Mapping
• Climate Change & DRR
• Forest Ecosystems
• Coastal Planning
• Biodiversity


• Demographic Study
• Social Sector Study
• Infrastructure Sector Study


• Green Growth
• Urban Design & Development
• Heritage Conservation
• Ancestral Domain
HLURB: • Involves the assessment of the current state & growth
CLUP patterns of the local economy
• To build or strengthen economic activities in a
sustainable manner


embodies what the LGU’s courses of action to create a
favorable climate for investment to enable businesses and
industry to flourish – and to assure constituents of a
steady supply of goods and services and of jobs and
household incomes.


Manufacturing  Mining and Quarrying  Electricity, Gas & Water Production 

Construction  Printing, Publishing and Reproduction

Wholesale & Retail Trade  Transportation, Storage & Communication  Finance

TERTIARY (old) Insurance and Related Activities  Real Estate and Development  Personal and Community Services,

Redefined: Hotels and restaurants  Parlors, barbershops, spas and salons  Laundry and dry cleaning businesses 
(a) TERTIARY Vehicle maintenance establishments

Trading Services (wholesale & retail)  Transport Services  Communication Activities  Finance and
Insurance Business Transactions  Real Estate & Development  Tourism Development & Management 
(b) QUATERNARY Intellectual services such as scientific Research & Development  Professional Consulting  Planning,
computing, collecting, recording, arranging, storing, retrieval, exchange and dissemination of Information
 Information & Communication Technology

Services of top executives or officials of government, science institutions, universities and state educators,
non-profit organizations, healthcare, culture associations and the media
Gather & Current &
Data Analysis Analysis
Process Data Projected Needs


Commerce &

(Income &
economic sub-sector:
Agriculture & Forestry
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Minimum Data Requirements

AGRICULTURE (crop, livestock, fisheries & aquaculture):

1. Existing Major Agricultural Crops by Area, Production and Market
2. Comparative Agricultural Crop Areas and Production by year
3. Existing Livestock and Poultry Farms
4. Existing Fishing Grounds and Aquaculture Production
5. Water Irrigation Systems
6. Existing Agricultural Support Facilities and Services
7. Major and Minor Agricultural Occupations/Groups in Urban and Rural Areas
8. Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ)
9. Agrarian Related Concerns
10. Comparative Area Utilization of Significant Agricultural Activities
11. Agriculture Related Projects, Approved/Funded for Implementation
*Integrated Coastal Resource Management Plan (ICRM)

1. Area and Location of Forestlands by Sub-Category and Primary Use
2. Volume of Production by Forest Concessionaire
*Forest Land Use Plan (FLUP)
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

For data analysis, we

seek to answer why
economic behavior is
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

• Identify and discuss pressing development problems,

issues and constraints
- Decrease in agricultural area, volume of production
- Environmental degradation
- Insufficient infrastructure / support / market linkage
- Vulnerability to climate change / disaster

• Determine the needs for agricultural products of the

current and future population

Supply projection:
Volume of production =
total area planted with crop A x yield per hectare

Demand projection:
Actual demand / Required food intake =
per capita food requirement x pop. at a given year
Lands with 0-3% slope that can be cultivated safely and extensively to crops and requires only
Class A Very Good Land simple but good management practices
Lands with 0-3% slope that can be cultivated safely and requires easily applies conservation
Class B Good Land practices

Moderately Good Lands wit 8- 15% slope that can be cultivated regularly for crops in rotation; requires caution,
Class C careful management and intensive conservation practices.
Lands with 3-8% slope - must be cultivated with caution and requires very careful management
Class D Fairly Good Land and complex conservation practices for safe cultivation; more suitable for pasture or forest


Level to Nearly Lands with 0-3% slope that are too stony or very wet for cultivation and thus is limited to pasture
Class L or forest use with good soil management.
Level Land
Land with 25 – 40% slope which easily eroded and too shallow for cultivation and therefore
Class M Steep Land requires careful management to be used for pasture or forest
Lands with 40% slope and above which are shallow and rough or dry for cultivation and very easily
Class N Very Steep Land eroded; can be used for grazing or forestry with very limited management required


Lands with slope of 0 -1 % which are very often wet, cannot be drained and is suited for fishpond;
Class X Level Land Examples are mangrove swamps and fresh marshes

Very Hilly & Lands with slope of 40% and above which are generally barren and rugged and suitable for
Class Y recreation or wildlife
Special Area: Forest Land Use Plan
• Vital in climate and water regulation
• Provides protective function for DRRM
• Key in maintaining ecological balance – provides environmental
services essential to human survival
• Major source of food, fiber, raw materials, water, inputs to
pharmaceuticals, etc.
• Contributes to preventing soil erosion & downstream sedimentation
and controlling pests & diseases

DENR-DILG JMC 98-1: DENR and the LGUs (w/ other agencies)
shall undertake forest land use planning (FLUP) as an integral
activity of comprehensive land use planning to determine the
optimum and balanced use of natural resources to support local,
regional and national growth and development

DENR: Framework for 1. Data Gathering, Mapping & Validation

Forest Land Use Planning − Socio-economic: population, tenure, mining rights, CBFM
1. Data Collection − Biophysical: biodiversity, condition of watershed &
2. Watershed Delineation vegetation
3. ID of current uses: ID 2. Situational Analysis
protection and production − How are forestlands being managed?
areas − Are land uses compatible?
4. ID conflict / opportunity − Are resources sustainably utilized?
areas 3. Forests & Forestlands Zoning
5. Selection of best option − Protection Forest: strict (critical habitat) & multiple use
6. Land use planning (tourism)
7. Report Preparation
− Production Forest: agro-forestry development, industrial
8. Plan Legitimization
tree plantation, settlements, etc.
4. Strategic Direction Setting & Investment Planning
Special Area:
Integrated Coastal Resource
Management Plan (ICRM)
1. Delineate watershed boundaries
(between LGUs)
2. Delineate municipal waters
(local vs. national waters)
3. Delineate coastal boundaries & layers
4. Make an assessment of resources
5. Integrate coastal management into CLUP
Case Snapshot: Ibaan,

Pop: 55,000+
TLA: 6,796 has. (75.68% agro-industrial)
26 barangays; 7 urban & 19 rural

Land is suitable for agriculture, BUT
• Urbanization of Lipa & Batangas City (econ)
• Youth not inclined to farming (social)
• Unpleasant smell of 480+ piggeries (envi)
economic sub-sector:
Commerce & Trade
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Minimum Data Requirements


1. Inventory of Commercial Areas
2. Historical Data on Commercial Areas
3. Business Permits Granted for the Past Five Years
4. Inventory of Commercial Establishment by Economic Activity
5. Employment by Type/Classification/ Type of Business and Trade
6. Existing Programs and Plans for Commerce and Trade
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis
• Commercial Business District (CBD)
• Public market
• Commercial strips / talipapa (wet/dry neighbourhood commercial
• Commercial complex (range of dry goods store, boutique shops,
recreational/entertainment establishments and service shops such as
food chain branches/establishments)
• Malls (with department stores, supermarket and various shops in one
• Others
Case Snapshot:
Bonifacio South
TLA: 1,198,438 sqm. BCDA
property for planned for
mixed use development

• Claims by Makati,
Pateros, Taguig (insti)
• Traffic congestion (infra)
• Informal settlements
economic sub-sector:
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Minimum Data Requirements

1. Historical data on industrial areas
2. Inventory of Existing Industrial Establishments by Intensity,
Capitalization, and Employment
3. Inventory of Existing Industrial Establishment By
Manufacturing/Industrial Process; Raw Material Input; Production
and Markets
4. Local Revenue and Industrial Establishment
5. Product flow
6. Existing hazardous and/or pollutive industries
7. Natural resources with potential for industrial development:
mining, manufacturing, logging, etc.
8. Inventory of Local Policies Relating to Industrial Development
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis
• Capitalization
• Employment
• Intensity
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis



 Impact on the Environment

 Impact on the traffic and
provision for utilities, i.e. water,
 Proximity an access to transport
 Measures and safeguards against
pollution and compliance with
sanitation requirement
Case Snapshot:
Nueva Vizcaya
•Province TLA: 409,049 has. (51 mun., 275 brgys.)
•Resource Rich: 12 watersheds, 9 rivers
•Very high in biodiversity conservation list
•Disaster Profile: susceptible to Eq, Fl & Ln
•Metallic Resources: gold, silver, nickel, copper,
manganese, lead, molybdenum

ISSUE: 3E of Sustainable Development

•Balancing Environmental Protection with Economic
•Equity: who benefits?

PIEP NatCon 2017: EnP Edgardo D. Sabado, PPDC

economic sub-sector:
“luxury good” that brings opportunities, but demand is elastic
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Minimum Data Requirements

1. Inventory of Tourism Establishments
2. Accessibility of Existing Tourism Establishment
and Tourist Attraction
3. Inventory of Tourism Establishments and Support
Facilities and Services
4. Local Revenue and Employment
by Tourism Activities for the Past Five Years
5. Inventory of Tourists by Country of Origin for the Past Five
6. Cultural and Tourism Activities/ Festivals
7. Potential Tourist Attractions in the Locality
*Local Tourism Development Plan (LTDP)
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis
DOT: What are the steps in Formulating the LTDP?
LTDP STEPS Guide Questions
What is the tourism situation in your locality at the
Analyze the situation
present time?
What do you want to achieve for tourism in your
Formulate goals and
locality in the future?
When do want to achieve this?
What paths do you take?
Develop strategies How do you get from the present tourism situation to
the future state you desire?
Identify programs &
What will you do to implement the strategies?
Develop a monitoring
How do you measure progress?
& evaluation strategy
Case Snapshot: Bohol

Clustering of 12 Tour packages across the province

as a BIG LEAP Poverty Reduction Strategy
- Culinary & delicacies (oyster, carabao dairy farm)
- architectural (old churches, ancestral houses)
- Local culture (IPs, loom-weavers, metal-smiths,
rondalla, fishing village)
- Cave, beach, tree park & river tours
- Biodiversity: butterfly alcove, tarsier sanctuary

PIEP NatCon 2017: Atty. John Titus Vistal, CPA, EnP, PPDC
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Tools for Integrated Economic

Sector Analysis

• Location Quotient: way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry is in a region as

compared to a larger area; reveals what makes a particular region “unique”

• Analysis of Share & Shift: determines what portions of regional economic growth or decline
can be attributed to national, economic industry, and regional factors.

• Scalogram: analysis which uses the presence or absence of specific types of economic activity
in a place

• Others: SWOT, Minimum Requirement Technique, Centrality Index, Economic Base Analysis
Gather & Process Data Data Analysis Current & Projected Needs Analysis

Location Quotient
Employment Shift and Share
Summary: Economic Sector Planning
National Economic Development Planning Context
• NEDA as prime economic planning institution, National

Framework for Physical Planning, Philippine Development
Plan 2017-2022
Local Economic Development Context
• Definition of terms, functional sectors of the economy

(primary, secondary, etc.), general process and activities
involved in sectoral planning
Agriculture & Forestry, Industry, Commerce & Trade, Tourism:
data requirements, criteria for site suitability, categorization, 
special area plans (FLUP, ICRM, LTDP)
Tools for Integrated Economic Analysis:

Location Quotient, Shift Share Analysis, Scalogram