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with Matched and Mismatched

Uncertainties

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan3 , and Hani Albalawi4

1

Faculty of Computers and Information, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

ahmad t azar@ieee.org

2

Universidad Tecnologica Centroamericana (UNITEC), Zona Jacaleapa,

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

serranofer@eclipso.eu

3

Research and Development Centre, Vel Tech University, Avadi,

Chennai 600 062, Tamil Nadu, India

sundarvtu@gmail.com

4

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

halbala@ut.edu.sa

trial and other kinds of applications. Thus, it is important to design

eﬀective control strategies for tracking precision for robotic manipula-

tors. In this work, an adaptive higher order sliding mode control for a

robotic manipulator with matched and mismatched uncertainties is pro-

posed. Matched uncertainties occur when they are found in the input of

the system and mismatched uncertainties are found in the system param-

eters. Hence, an adaptive higher order sliding mode controller is designed

when both matched and mismatched uncertainties are found. Consider-

ing that uncertainties yield unwanted eﬀects in the controller design, slid-

ing mode control provides a suitable control strategy for robotic manip-

ulators when extreme tracking precision of the end eﬀector is needed

especially in a reduced task space. The design procedure starts with the

dynamic model represented in the Euler-Lagrange form considering the

uncertainties of the system and then by implementing a Lyapunov stabil-

ity method and selecting an appropriate sliding surface suitable control.

Finally, adaptive laws are obtained taking into account the matched and

mismatched uncertainties in the system model. As a numerical exam-

ple, the proposed control strategy is validated for trajectory tracking

purposes of a ﬁve bar linkage mechanism.

Adaptive control · Mechatronics

A. E. Hassanien et al. (Eds.): AMLTA 2019, AISC 921, pp. 360–369, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14118-9_36

Higher Order Sliding Mode for Robotic Manipulators 361

1 Introduction

Robotic manipulators have been extensively used in diﬀerent kinds of applica-

tions such as industrial, aerospace and medical applications. Hence, the con-

trols for trajectory tracking of these mechanisms have needed a lot of eﬀort of

robotic and automatic control specialists since several decades ago. The preci-

sion of an eﬃcient automatic control system is necessary to drive the end eﬀector

of a robotic manipulator on the way of a pre-speciﬁed trajectory for diﬀerent

tasks such as welding, painting and screwing among other activities. In the last

decade some approaches involving strategies such as passivity based backstep-

ping and sliding mode control have been implemented to improve the accuracy

of the trajectory tracking of diﬀerent mechanisms (Mondal and Mahanta 2011;

Mobayen and Tchier 2018; Azar and Zhu 2015; Azar and Vaidyanathan 2015,

2016, 2018; Azar et al. 2018a,b). In this work, an adaptive higher order sliding

mode controller is proposed for robotic manipulators with matched and mis-

matched uncertainties.

Matched uncertainties are those kind of uncertainties found in the input of

a system while mismatched uncertainties are those that are found in the sys-

tem parameters. For this reason, we consider both matched and mismatched

uncertainties in order to design the adaptive higher order sliding mode provid-

ing a novel contribution in which a robust approach (Azar and Serrano 2017) is

needed to reduce to zero the tracking error of the system for diﬀerent kinds of

robotic manipulators and mechanisms (Gutierrez et al. 2018). We note that the

higher order sliding mode have been implemented in diﬀerent kinds of complex

systems. The higher order sliding mode technique consists in designing a sliding

surface and then ﬁnding a control law that makes the r − 1 higher order deriva-

tives to approach zero where r is the sliding mode order. For this purpose, it is

sometimes necessary to implement a super-twisting algorithm in order that the

sliding variable and its r derivatives approach zero. Some examples of adaptive

higher order sliding mode control can be found in (Han and Liu 2016a; Barth

et al. 2018; Thomas et al. 2018). Besides, some applications of higher order slid-

ing mode control in ﬁelds diﬀerent from mechatronics and robotics are found in

(Han and Liu 2016b) where this control strategy is implemented for trajectory

tracking of an air cushion vehicle. Another example can be found in (Tiwari et al.

2016) where this sliding mode approach is designed for the attitude control of

a rigid aircraft. Finally in (Tannuri and Agostinho 2010), a higher order sliding

mode controller is implemented in the dynamic position system of an oﬀshore

vessel. In (Mondal and Mahanta 2013; Khan et al. 2011; Mohamed et al. 2018),

some chattering reduction sliding mode strategies for multi-input multi-output

MIMO systems and single-input single-output SISO systems are shown consid-

ering the matched and mismatched uncertainties. One of the most important

conditions that are considered in this study for both kinds of uncertainties are

the norm bounded characteristics of them and so it is important to establish

some conditions as they appear in some studies such as (Köroĝlu and Scherer

2005; Battilotti 1996; Adrot et al. 2004).

362 A. T. Azar et al.

for robotic manipulators with matched and mismatched uncertainties. The con-

troller design is done by implementing a super-twisting algorithm in order to

obtain the control law and then the adaptive laws are obtained by a Lyapunov

stability approach. It is important to consider that some conditions are taken

into account for the matched and mismatched uncertainties, conditions that in

this case is by assuming decreasing uncertainties, so in this way the conditions

that the norm of the matched and mismatched uncertainties are upper bounded

is overcame. Finally, the theoretical results obtained in this study are validated

by a numerical experiment in which a ﬁve-bar linkage mechanism is used as an

example and then the results obtained in this experiment are compared with the

results obtained by (Zhao et al. 2018; Mujumdar et al. 2014).

2 Problem Formulation

Consider the following dynamical model of a robotic manipulator in an Euler-

Lagrange form:

where q(t) ∈ Rn is the position vector, τ (t) ∈ Rn is the torque vector, D(q(t)) ∈

Rn×n is the inertia matrix, C(q(t), q̇(t)) ∈ Rn×n is the Coriolis matrix and

g(q(t)) ∈ Rn is the gravity vector. By making the following change of variables

x1 (t) = q(t), x2 (t) = q̇(t) and X(t) = [xT1 (t), xT2 (t)]T , the following uncertain

system is obtained:

where

x2 (t)

F (X(t)) =

−D−1 (x1 (t))C(x1 (t), x2 (t))x2 (t) − D−1 (x1 (t))g(x1 (t))

0 0

G(X(t)) = n×n −1n×n

0n×n D (x1 (t))

0

U= n (3)

τ

and Ξ(X, t), P (X, t) are the matched and mismatched uncertainties that are

deﬁned in Sect. 3. The control and adaptive laws of the system are obtained in

Sect. 3 by considering some suitable conditions to overcome these issues.

In this section, an adaptive higher order controller for robotic manipulators

is obtained by considering the matched and mismatched uncertainties in the

input and system parameters respectively. It is important to note that these

Higher Order Sliding Mode for Robotic Manipulators 363

kinds of disturbance have not been studied well in the past for the design of

sliding mode controllers for robotic manipulators. As explained before, due to

the necessity of accuracy in trajectory tracking is important to take into account

some issues related to input uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics that are not

considered in previous studies. In this section, the control law is obtained by

a super-twisting algorithm selecting an appropriate control law and then the

adaptive gains are obtained by a Lyapunov stability approach dealing with the

matched and mismatched system uncertainties. Before deriving the control and

adaptive laws, we consider the following deﬁnition related to the matched and

mismatched uncertainties.

Definition 1. The uncertainties Ξ(X, t) and P (X, t) are class L functions, i.e.

they are decreasing functions for which their norms meet the following conditions

limt→∞ Ξ(X, t) = 0 and limt→∞ P (X, t) = 0.

Before deriving the higher order sliding mode control, the error dynamics of

the system and its derivative are given by the following equations:

e(t) = X(t) − Xd (t)

ė(t) = Ẋ(t) − Ẋd (t) (4)

where Xd (t) is the desired trajectory vector of the robotic manipulator.

The higher order sliding mode controller is obtained by using the super-

twisting algorithm (Zhao et al. 2018; Mujumdar et al. 2014) as follows:

Ṡ(t) = −K1 S(t)1/2 sign(S(t)) + Z(t)

Ż(t) = −K2 sign(S(t)) (5)

where K1 , K2 ∈ R are the sliding mode gains that will be adjusted by the

adaptive algorithm.

The sliding variable S(t) and its derivative Ṡ(t) are given by the following

equations:

S(t) = Ke(t)

Ṡ(t) = K ė(t) (6)

where K ∈ R2n×2n is the sliding variable gain matrix.

The error dynamics shown in (4) is deﬁned as:

ė(t) = F (X(t)) + G(X(t))[U + Ξ(X, t)] + P (X, t) − Ẋd (t) (7)

Substituting (7) in (6) and then in (5), the following sliding mode control law is

obtained:

U = −G−1 (X(t))F (X(t)) + G−1 (X(t))Ẋd (t)

(8)

−G−1 (X(t))K −1 K1 S1/2 sign(S(t))

Substituting (8) in (7), the following sliding mode dynamics is obtained:

ė(t) = −K −1 K1 S(t)1/2 sign(S(t)) + G(X(t))Ξ(X, t) + P (X, t)

Ż(t) = −K2 sign(S(t)) (9)

364 A. T. Azar et al.

The following theorem is needed to ﬁnd the adaptive laws for the adjustable gains

K1 and K2 by selecting an appropriate Lyapunov functional and implementing

the control law shown in (8).

twisting sliding mode control law (8) and the following adaptive laws:

1 T

K̇1 (t) = e (t)K −1 S(t)1/2 sign(S(t))

α

1

K̇2 (t) = Z T (t)sign(S(t)) (10)

β

Proof 1. Consider the following Lyapunov function:

1 T 1 β α

V (e, Z, K1 , K2 ) = e (t)e(t) + Z T (t)Z(t) + K22 (t) + K12 (11)

2 2 2 2

where α, β ∈ R+ are constants selected by the designer.

By ﬁnding the derivative of the Lyapunov function (11), the following result

is obtained:

V̇ (e, Z, K1 , K2 ) = eT (t)ė(t) + Z T (t)Ż(t) + βK2 (t)K̇2 (t) + αK1 (t)K̇1 (t) (12)

+eT (t)P (X, t) − Z T (t)K2 (t) sign(S(t)) + βK2 (t)K̇2 (t)

+αK1 (t)K̇1 (13)

1 T

K̇1 (t) = e (t)K −1 S(t)1/2 sign(S(t))

α

1

K̇2 (t) = Z T (t) sign(S(t)) (14)

β

By substituting (14) in (13), we obtain

Now taking the norm of (15) and by implementing Deﬁnition 1, the following

conclusion is obtained

Theorem 1 ensures that the closed-loop system drives the error variables e(t)

to zero while adjusting the respective parameters K1 and K2 implementing the

control law obtained by the super-twisting algorithm shown in (8).

Higher Order Sliding Mode for Robotic Manipulators 365

In this numerical example, the control strategy described in Sect. 3 is validated

for trajectory tracking purposes of a ﬁve bar linkage mechanism (Spong et al.

2006). The parameters of this mechanism are m1 = m2 = m3 = m4 = 0.5 Kgs,

l1 = l3 = 0.4 m, l2 = l4 = 0.8 m, lc1 = lc3 = 0.2 m, lc2 = lc4 = 0.4 m, I1 =

I3 = 0.3 kg.m2 , I2 = I4 = 0.4 kg.m2 and g = 9.81 m/s2 while the mechanism

is depicted in Fig. 1. The inertia matrix and the gravity vector components are

shown below (Spong et al. 2006):

2 2

d11 (q(t)) = m1 lc1 + m3 lc3 + m4 l12 + I1 + I3

d12 (q(t)) = d21 (q(t)) = (m3 l2 lc3 − m4 l1 lc4 )cos(q2 (t) − q1 (t))

2

d22 (q(t)) = m2 lc2 + m3 l22 + m4 lc4

2

+ I2 + I4 (17)

g2 (q(t)) = gcos(q2 (t))(m2 lc2 + m3 l2 − m4 lc4 ) (18)

It is important to note that the Coriolis matrix is zero for this experiment.

The matched and mismatched uncertainties used in this experiment are given

as follows:

P (X, t) = 0.1e−5t X(t) (19)

The controller parameters are α = β = 0.5 and the gain matrix K is given below:

⎡ ⎤

10000 0 0 0

⎢ 0 10000 0 0 ⎥

K=⎢ ⎣ 0

⎥ (20)

0 10000 0 ⎦

0 0 0 10000

The system initial conditions are X(0) = [0, 0, 0, 0]T . The reference variables

Xd (t) are shown below.

0.1sin(t)

xd1 (t) =

0.1sin(t)

xd2 (t) = ẋd1 (t) (21)

In Fig. 2, the trajectory of the variable X11 is shown. It is noticed that the trajec-

tory is tracked accurately by the action of the proposed control strategy in com-

parison with the strategies shown in (Mujumdar et al. 2014; Zhao et al. 2018).

366 A. T. Azar et al.

It can be also noticed in Fig. 3 that the error for the variable e1 approaches zero. In

Fig. 4, the input variable τ1 is shown where it can be noticed that the control eﬀort

yielded by the action of the proposed controller is smaller than the control eﬀort

yielded by the approaches shown in (Mujumdar et al. 2014; Zhao et al. 2018).

The theoretical results obtained in this study prove that even when matched

and mismatched uncertainties are found in robotic manipulators or another kind

of mechanism, this issue can be overcome by an eﬀective adaptive higher order

sliding mode controller. It is important to notice that the chattering eﬀect is

reduced to zero by the proposed strategy and this is achieved by the adaptive

gains that make the sliding variables to reach the desired value.

Higher Order Sliding Mode for Robotic Manipulators 367

In this paper, a higher order sliding mode controller for robotic manipulators and

mechanisms is proposed. A novel feature of our work is that the matched and

mismatched uncertainties are considered when they are found in the input and

the system parameters respectively. To solve these problems, some conditions for

these uncertainties were considered, and by using a Lyapunov stability approach

and implementing a super-twisting algorithm. In the future, this research study

will guide to design and analyze diﬀerent kinds of sliding mode controllers that

deal with other kinds of uncertainties.

368 A. T. Azar et al.

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