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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO.

1, MARCH, 2019

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION OF


PRE-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD
EDUCATION TEACHERS

AARON JED Y. TUMBALI


https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9181-7697
tumbali.ajy@pnu.edu.ph
Philippine Normal University South Luzon
Lopez, Quezon

ABSTRACT

Several studies revealed that entrepreneurship education affects the development of the intention of a
person to become an entrepreneur. Cognizant of the previous findings, this study examined the
entrepreneurial intention of the pre-service Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) teachers based
on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and determined its relationship to academic performance.
The descriptive correlation research design was used to come up with an objective description of the
relationship of the variables involved. The statistical treatment used was frequency, percentage,
Pearson correlation and formulas developed by Icek Ajzen in the TPB. The results showed that students
have satisfactory academic performance, very much favorable attitude toward becoming entrepreneurs,
moderately favorable perceived subjective norm, and very much easy perceived behavioral control. The
variables involved in this study revealed a negligible relationship. In light of these findings, the
researcher recommends that important people belong in the university should engage themselves to
entrepreneurial capability activities such as seminars, training, workshops, conferences, among others
to develop entrepreneurial mindset because they were influencers of the development of
entrepreneurial intention among students. Parents and other family members should be involved in
entrepreneurial activities to serve as role models. Collaboration between family and the university is
highly encouraged to make entrepreneurial programs effective. Moreover, by providing simulations,
practicum or authentic entrepreneurial activities, students utilize practical knowledge, skills, values, and
attitude; thus, these activities improve their academic performance.

Keywords: Academic Performance, Attitude, Behavioral Control, Descriptive Correlation,


Entrepreneurial Intention, Philippines

INTRODUCTION features of this curriculum reform is the additional


two (2) years in basic education, from the
Education in the Philippines is the top previous 10 years to 12 years of schooling. The
priority of the national government. Filipinos new curriculum comprises 1-year preparatory, 6
believe that education is complicated to years of primary, 4 years junior high school and 2
successful and better economic living. It helps years of senior high school. Senior high school is
people to identify, create or seize opportunities to designed to provide students the opportunity to
improve their standard of living. In 2012, major choose their career track in preparation for life
curriculum reform was implemented through the after basic education. The K to 12 Curriculum
Republic Act No. 10533, also known as the aims to produce basic education graduates as
Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum or K to 12. holistically developed and prepared for higher
This paved the way to enormous changes in the education, middle skills development,
curriculum and instruction. One of the salient employment, and entrepreneurship. The purpose
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of this curriculum transformation is evident that is, TLE teachers, part of their degree program is a
to equip students with competencies to become 3-unit course in entrepreneurship that deals with
competitive and productive citizens of the country the basic concepts and theories of
after high school. Basic education graduates are entrepreneurship, as well as, the springboard of
prepared to pursue their studies in higher exploring the differences between discovering
education institutions, to join the labor force, or to and creating entrepreneurial mindset, discipline
put up their own business. Likewise, K to 12 is and opportunities across the micro to macro level
designed for the development of personal, social of business venture that leverages growth and
and economic aspects of the country. Philippine development. Moreover, all their major courses
education is geared toward economic wealth and are entrepreneurship-based. In their major
prosperity in the country. This is evident in how courses, teachers give students opportunities to
the K to 12 curricula is crafted. In elementary write business plans, create innovations, sell
education, Entrepreneurship is being introduced products, or perform other entrepreneurial
as early as in the 4th grade. It continues to activities. The purpose is to give students
secondary education as it is integrated into practical learning experiences that would make
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). TLE their learning more authentic and meaningful.
is a subject that has four strands such as Home According to Mwasalwiba et al. (2010), teachers
Economics, Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts and who let their students do something practical, to
Information and Communication Technology. In question, investigate, converse, and discuss with
Grades 11 and 12, Senior High School, a 3-unit real-world entrepreneurs, give both knowledge,
course in Entrepreneurship is offered to all skills and attitudes essential to becoming
students regardless of their chosen track. These entrepreneurs. Therefore, students develop the
educational efforts would lead to students' entrepreneurial intention through their active
entrepreneurial mind setting. The attainment of involvement in entrepreneurial learning. TLE
the goals of entrepreneurship education lies in teachers, who will educate and develop
the hands of the teachers. According to Ikävalko, entrepreneurs of tomorrow, should possess the
et al. (2019), teachers play an important role in same knowledge, skills, and attitude of becoming
the delivery of curriculum which develops entrepreneurs. As the adage says: “You cannot
students desire to become entrepreneurs. Miller give what you do not have”. A TLE teacher will
(2002) stated that teachers should equip their not be effective if he or she does not have the
students with the knowledge, skills, and attitude competencies to be an entrepreneur. TLE
relevant to planning, developing, starting and teachers are not primarily prepared to become
running their own business. Haftendorn and entrepreneurs; instead, they are the ones who will
Salzano (2003) noted that competent teachers develop future entrepreneurs. This study was
play a major role in helping the students to conducted to determine the relationship between
develop enterprising personalities. Thus, teacher academic performance and entrepreneurial
education institutions should produce teachers intention of pre-service TLE teachers. Several
who are adept at teaching entrepreneurship. As studies and literature revealed that
part of its mandate to produce innovative entrepreneurship education and training promote
teachers and educational leaders, Philippine entrepreneurial intention. In this situation, if a
Normal University in South Luzon region of the student performed well in an entrepreneurship
Philippines offers a teacher degree program in course, it is more likely that this student would
Technology and Livelihood Education. The choose to become an entrepreneur in the future.
program aims to produce TLE teachers who are
competent to deliver curriculum and instruction in OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
the areas of Home Economics, Industrial Arts,
Agri-Fisheries, and Information and The main objective of this study is to
Communication Technology while integrating describe the academic performance of the pre-
Entrepreneurship. To prepare the pre-service service TLE teachers and their entrepreneurial

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intentions. Specifically, this study seeks to 1.)
Independent Dependent
identify the level of academic performance of the
Variable Variables
pre-service TLE teachers in Entrepreneurship
course; 2.) determine the level of entrepreneurial
Antecedents of
intention of the pre-service TLE teachers as Entrepreneurial
measured by their attitude towards becoming Intention
entrepreneur, perceived subjective norm, and
perceived behavioral control; and 3. describe the 1. Attitude Towards
relationship between academic performance and Becoming an
entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneur
1.1 Behavioral
Belief
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Strength
This study is anchored on the theory of 1.2 Outcome
planned behavior of Icek Ajzen. According to Evaluation
Krueger, et al. (2000), the theory of planned
2. Perceived
behavior seems well suited to explain and predict Academic
Subjective Norm
entrepreneurial intention because engaging in Performance in
2.1 Normative
the entrepreneurial activity is a planned behavior.
Belief Entrepreneurship
Cognizant to the theory, becoming an
Strength
entrepreneur is guided by three kinds of beliefs.
2.2 Motivation
First, the beliefs about the likely outcomes of To Comply
becoming an entrepreneur and the evaluations of
these outcomes define the attitude of the person 3. Perceived
towards becoming an entrepreneur. If these Behavioral
behavioral beliefs are positive, the attitude to
Control
become an entrepreneur will become favorable.
3.1 Control
Second, the beliefs about the normative
Belief
expectations of people and the motivation to
Strength
comply with these expectations describe the
subjective norm of a person towards becoming an 3.2 Control
entrepreneur. The more positive these normative Belief
expectations are, the more favorable the perceived Power
subjective norm of a person will be. Lastly, the
beliefs about the presence of factors that may
promote or hinder to become an entrepreneur Figure 1. Research Paradigm
and the perceived power over these factors give
rise to behavioral control of a person towards entrepreneurial intention of a person. Finally,
becoming an entrepreneur. If these control beliefs given a sufficient degree of actual control over the
are positive, the more favorable the behavioral behavior, people are expected to become
control of a person to become an entrepreneur will entrepreneurs when the opportunity arises. The
be more favorable. In combination, attitude entrepreneurial intention is thus assumed to be
towards becoming an entrepreneur perceived the immediate antecedent of behavior. Kothari
subjective norm, and perceived behavioral (2013) revealed in his study that good academic
control lead to the formation of entrepreneurial performance and entrepreneurial intention are
intention. As a general rule, the more favorable likely to be associated positively; provided that
the attitude towards becoming an entrepreneur the individual wants to become an entrepreneur
perceived subjective norm, and perceived by choice. When an individual does not perform
behavioral control, the higher the level of well in academics, he/she is unlikely to get a good

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job and compelled to opt for a business career. In of planned behavior questionnaire by Icek
this situation, the entrepreneurial intention will be Ajzen. The survey questionnaire was distributed
negatively associated with academic to five experts of this field of specialization for
performance. This finding contradicts the study of validity testing. The questionnaire was
Siyanbola, etc. (2009) that the two factors – administered twice to thirty-five (35) students who
academic performance and entrepreneurial were not part of the study. The questionnaires
intention- are not related. Students would choose were collected and treated for reliability testing
or reject entrepreneurship as a career option done by a statistician. When consent to conduct
irrespective of their level of performance in the study was granted, the researcher met the
school. The result of this study provides school respondents for orientation and explained. The
administrator’s inputs relevant to integrating data obtained from the survey were analyzed by
entrepreneurship to teacher education program utilizing the descriptive data analysis procedure.
which will enable students to develop The statistical treatment used was based on how
entrepreneurial intention, thus promote the problems were stated. For the profile of the
entrepreneurial behavior. Also, it provides respondents, frequency and percentage
teachers a clear picture of how entrepreneurial distribution were used. On respondents' attitude
intention can be developed through an towards becoming an entrepreneur, perceived
appropriate curriculum which consists of lesson subjective norm, and perceived behavioral
content, teaching strategies, and assessment control, the formula formulated in the Theory of
methods Planned Behavior of Icek Ajzen and weighted
mean were used. Finally, the relationship
between academic performance and three
METHODOLOGY antecedents of entrepreneurial intention was
determined through Pearson correlation.
With the primary objective of finding the
relationship that exists between the academic
performance and entrepreneurial intention RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
through its antecedents, this study utilized the
descriptive-correlation research which is deemed 1. Level of Academic Performance
appropriate in gathering data to determine the
significant relationships between the variables of Table 1. Level of Academic Performance
the study. A descriptive-correlation study Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation
describes the degree to which two or more 85.88 Satisfactory
quantitative variables are related, and it does so
by using correlational analysis. It is done to Table 1 presents the level of academic
determine the relationship between two or more performance of the respondents. The computed
variables. The respondents of this study are the weighted mean was 85.88 verbally interpreted as
pre-service Technology, and Livelihood “Satisfactory”. It denotes that most of the pre-
Education (TLE) teachers enrolled in the course service TLE teachers were able to meet the
STLE 29 – Foundations of Entrepreneurship course requirements such as written and
during the third term of the school year 2017- performance tasks. In the study of Hanushek et
2018. Slovin’s formula, with a 5% margin of error, al. (2002), the academic performance of the
was used to compute and identify the samples. students relies on class size and the presence of
Random sampling was used to determine the qualified teachers in school. In School Year 2017
respondents. The researcher underwent a series – 2018, PNU SL recorded an average of fifty (50)
of steps in the collection of data which helped to students per class. This class size is by the
attain the objectives of this undertaking. Firstly, prescribed number of students stipulated in
the researcher prepared the survey questionnaire Article II, Section 5 of the CHED Memorandum
following the guidelines on constructing a theory Order No. 52, Series of 2007. The document
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stated that the ideal size is 35 students or less per Table 2. Level of entrepreneurial intention as
class, and the maximum should be 50. An expert measured by the attitude toward becoming an
of the field handled the course on Foundations of entrepreneur
Entrepreneurship. However, the workloads given Attitude Toward WM VI
to the professor was heavy. According to Becoming an
Entrepreneur
Gwambombo (2013), heavy workloads of
teachers made them exhausted, frazzled and Becoming an
demoralized which make them not effective and entrepreneur after I
creative in the classroom; hence, teaching and finish my studies would
learning processes are affected as well as the 1. improve my self- 20.43 EF
confidence
performance of the students. For Considine and 2. give me an extra 20.29 EF
Zappala (2002), the social economic status of source of income
parents affects the academic performance of their 3. be enjoyable work for 18.96 VMF
children. Because of limited financial resources, me
4. enhance my creativity. 18.96 VMF
parents cannot support the needs of the children
5. fulfill my dream to 18.39 VMF
which require monetary expenses. In the study of. manage my own
PNU SL as a state university of the Philippines business
has population comprises primarily of those who 6. enable me to showcase 18.19 VMF
belong to low to middle level social economic my skills and talents
7. enable me to build 17.54 VMF
status.
connections and
networks
8. be a challenging career 16.89 VMF
2. Level of entrepreneurial intention as for me
measured by the attitude toward 9. improve my standard of 16.69 VMF
living
becoming an entrepreneur 10. enable me to become 16.19 VMF
my own boss
Table 2 presents the respondents' level of Overall Attitude 182. 53 VMF
entrepreneurial intention as measured by their Score
attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur. This
antecedent of entrepreneurial intention refers to This result implies that students want to
the degree to which the individual holds a become entrepreneurs because they believe that
favorable or unfavorable evaluation about by becoming one has desirable outcomes which
becoming an entrepreneur. According to Ajzen are important for them. According to Ajzen
(2006), beliefs about the likely outcomes of the (2006), a personal attitude toward performing a
behavior and the evaluations of these outcomes given behavior is based on beliefs that performing
– determine the prevailing attitude towards the the behavior will result in desirable outcomes.
behavior. As shown in the table, among the ten This idea was also found in the study of Bae, et
(10) likely outcomes of becoming an al. (2014), the more a person perceives that the
entrepreneur, two (2) were rated as "Extremely opportunities from entrepreneurship can satisfy
Favorable" such as "improve my self-confidence" the needs and wants which are important for him/
(x=20.43) and “give me an extra source of her, the willingness to pursue an entrepreneurial
income” which got weighted mean of 20.43 and career is stronger, thus, the more favorable the
20.29, respectively. Eight (8) of the outcomes attitude towards the behavior. The opportunities
were rated as “Very Much Favorable”. The to improve self-confidence and give an extra
outcome “enable me to become my own boss” source of income are the greatest motivators
got the lowest weighted mean of 16.19, toward becoming entrepreneurs according to this
interpreted as “Very Much Favorable”. The study. The findings was supported the study of
overall attitude score is 182.53 which denoted Tam (2009), entrepreneurship education can
“Very Much Favorable”. help build confidence and promote self-efficacy.

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It can also be noted that respondents favoured on Table 3 shows the respondents' level of
the outcomes that by becoming an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial intention as measured by their
creativity will be enhanced, work will be enjoyed perceived subjective norm. This antecedent of
and dreams to manage own business will be entrepreneurial intention refers to students'
fulfilled. Through entrepreneurship education, perception towards the social pressure to
one’s skills and talents will be showcased, become or not to become an entrepreneur. The
connections and networks of people will be built, overall subjective norm score is 139.31 which
and career will be challenging. Moreover, it will denoted “Moderately Favorable”. This result
improve the standard of living and it will be implies that those people important to the
possible to become boss of their own. However, respondents approve the decision of becoming
respondents are least attracted to the reward of entrepreneurs. This subjective norm is significant
becoming boss of their own. This is opposite to in predicting entrepreneurial intention (Kolveried
what Henderson, et al. (2000) stated that the & Isaksen, 2006). However, this approval of the
biggest motivator why people become an identified reference people is not strong enough
entrepreneur is that they want to be the boss of to convince and push the respondents to become
their own business. Entrepreneurship education entrepreneurs. The level of subjective norm
plays a significant role in the development of an affects the strength of this social pressure, the
entrepreneurial mind set among students. The higher the level of subjective norm, the higher the
effective curriculum is important to increase chances of pursuing an entrepreneurial career.
student entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, it can be inferred from the data that
Entrepreneurship education should focus on family which includes parents/ guardians (x̅
changing personal attitudes than providing =20.59) and relatives who manage business (x̅
technical knowledge about business. =17.74), has more favorable level of subjective
norm than the school which is represented by
3. Level of Entrepreneurial Intention in Terms Technology and Livelihood Education Professors
of Perceived Subjective Norm (x̅=16.89) and High School teachers (x̅ =15.76),
School Administrators (x̅=11.65), and Guidance
Table 3. Level of Entrepreneurial Intention in Counselors (x̅=11.98). This means that family
Terms of Perceived Subjective Norm inspires future entrepreneurs more than the
Perceived Subjective WM VI school. This is supported by Klyver (2007), the
Norm family is influential in the early stage of business
I believe that I would receive
venture creation. For Pruett et al. (2009), the
approval of becoming an family serves as the breeding ground for future
entrepreneur from my … entrepreneurs if it provides effective role
1. parents or guardians 20.59 EF modeling. If the members of the family, whether
2. relatives who are 17.74 VMF the parents, siblings, or relatives, are engaged in
businessmen and
businesswomen business, they were be good role models and will
3. Technology and 16.89 VMF influence entrepreneurial intention of future
Livelihood Education entrepreneurs. On the other hand, members of
professors the university who are expected to be the
4. brothers and sisters 16.84 VMF
5. Technology and 15.76 VMF
influencers of entrepreneurial intention are last in
Livelihood Education high the list. Philippine Normal University South Luzon
school teachers Campus, where the respondents belong, the
6. close friends 15.16 MF campus serves as the country's training center for
7. class adviser 12.70 MF TLE teachers. Respondents of this study are
8. guidance counselor 11.98 MF
9. school administrators 11.65 MF
being prepared to become teachers/ educators
and not become entrepreneurs. However,
Overall Subjective Norm 139.31 MF Entrepreneurship is integrated into the discipline
Score of TLE so they are exposed to entrepreneurial

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activities. They are expected to teach perception of the easiness and difficulty in the
entrepreneurship as they integrate into the four fulfillment of becoming an entrepreneur.
areas of TLE such as Home Economics, According to Ajzen (2006), beliefs about the
Industrial Arts, Agri-Fisheries, and Information presence of factors that may facilitate or impede
and Communication Technology. They will the performance of the behavior and the
become effective TLE teachers and advocates of perceived power over these factors – determine
entrepreneurship education if they practice what the prevailing perceived behavioral control. The
they preach. They can be teacher-entrepreneurs. overall behavioral control score of the
It is crucial for students to have dedicated support respondents towards becoming an entrepreneur
from people or groups they valued their approval. is 168.63 which denoted “Very Much Easy”. This
Supportive environment towards result implies that respondents are confident that
entrepreneurship will help students be motivated they can be entrepreneurs. The identified factors
to become an entrepreneur. important to venture entrepreneurship are easy to
be possessed and acted based on respondents’
perceptions. According to Basu and Virick (2008),
4. Level of Entrepreneurial Intention in this perception is possible because those
Terms of Perceived Behavioral Control students who have prior experience in
entrepreneurship have more confidence in their
Table 4. Level of Entrepreneurial Intention in ability and this leads to higher entrepreneurial
Terms of Perceived Behavioral Control intention. The greater the feeling of behavioral
Perceived Behavioral WM VI control, the stronger will be the intention to
Control perform the behavior. The perceived easiness to
To become an entrepreneur
become entrepreneurs by the students could be
after completing my studies, attributed to the syllabus is used which is effective
I must have … in imparting entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and
1. the determination to 19.33 VME attributes. Ismael (2010) said that perceived
achieve goals easiness of behavioral control could also be
2. the support from my 18.73 ME
family to start a attributed to the teaching methods being used by
business the teachers to teach entrepreneurial attributes.
3. innovative skill to 17.12 VME In this study, the determination to achieve goals
create new products to is the easiest to possess (x̅=19.33). The
sell in the market
4. skill in decision making 16.85 VME
determination is one of the identified personal
5. connections to my 16.67 VME entrepreneurial competencies (PECs). The
prospective customers. integration of values in teaching entrepreneurship
6. knowledge in 16.61 VME is effective to instill a positive attitude towards
organizing a business facing uncertainties. Values integration is
7. skills in promoting 16.46 VME
products and/or
embedded in entrepreneurship education.
services Moreover, the respondents are confident that
8. time to run a business. 16.26 VME their family will support (x̅=18.73) them to
9. the skill in writing a 15.33 ME become entrepreneurs. This positive view is
business plan another benefit of integrating values in teaching
10. money to use as capital 15.27 VME
for my business entrepreneurship, specifically, trust in the family.
Overall Behavioral 168.63 VME Also, it can be noted that aside from
Control Score entrepreneurial knowledge acquisition, skills
development that focused on innovation
Table 4 shows the respondents' level of (x̅=17.12) decision-making (x̅=16.85), business
entrepreneurial intention as measured by their planning (x̅=15.33), sales promotion (x̅=16.46),
perceived behavioral control. This antecedent of networking (x̅=16.67) and time management
entrepreneurial intention refers to student's (x̅=16.26), increases the level of confidence to

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become entrepreneurs, thus, entrepreneurial or reject to become entrepreneur irrespective of
intention is strengthened. Money is seen to be the their level of performance. In this study, members
least among the factors (x̅=15.27) to engage in of the family have favorable subjective norm
entrepreneurial activities. Many people believed towards becoming an entrepreneur very much.
that to start a business, money is a basic The school members have only moderately
requirement. This hampers potential favorable subjective norm. This shows that family
entrepreneurs to venture creation. It is important influenced students' formation of a favorable
that in teaching entrepreneurship, sources of attitude toward entrepreneurship more than the
funds and programs that support novice school. It means that learning entrepreneurship
entrepreneurs should be presented and as a career does not only take place in the four
explained. In the study of Ahmed et al. (2010), corners of the classroom but there are also other
appropriate business knowledge acquired from conducive places such as the home. A student
entrepreneurship education minimizes the might have a low level of academic performance
perceptions of barriers and risks such as financial in TLE but has developed either a high or low
capital was stipulated. level of entrepreneurial intention. On the other
hand, a student might have a high level of
academic performance in TLE but has developed
5. Correlation of Academic Performance and either high or low level of attitude toward
Entrepreneurial Intention becoming an entrepreneur. This happened
because according to Gupta (2009), aside from
Table 5. Correlation of Academic Performance school, the formation of an attitude toward
and Entrepreneurial Intention entrepreneurship is also taken place at home
Attitude Perceived Perceived especially if parents and other immediate family
Towards Subjective Behavioral
Becoming an Norm Control members are entrepreneurs. The role of family is
Entrepreneur
Academic r -.06 -.03 -.15
indispensable in the formation of entrepreneurial
Performance p-value .49 .71 .08 intention as they are more effective than school
in preparing, encouraging, and cultivating
Table 3 shows the correlation of the entrepreneurship as a career among students.
academic performance and antecedents of Therefore, there is no relationship between
entrepreneurial intention. It can be noted from the academic performance in TLE and the level of
table there is a negligible relationship between entrepreneurial intention in terms of attitude
academic performance and antecedents of toward becoming an entrepreneur.
entrepreneurial intention. This indicates that the
respondents' academic performance has no
significant relationship on the attitude toward CONCLUSIONS
becoming an entrepreneur (r=-.06), perceived
subjective norm (r=-.03) and perceived From the findings of this study, it was found
behavioral control (-.15). This contradicts the out that the pre-service TLE teachers have
study of Kothari (2013) that performance and satisfactory academic performance, very much
entrepreneurial intention are likely to be favorable attitude toward becoming entrepreneur,
associated positively; provided the individual moderately favorable subjective norm, and very
wants to become an entrepreneur by choice. much easy behavioral control. Moreover, it was
However, it supports the study of Siyanbola, et al. also revealed that there is no significant
(2009) that performance has no significant relationship between the variables involved in this
relationship on students’ entrepreneurial study. This implies that the Entrepreneurship
intention. It was also supported by the findings of course has no impact on the entrepreneurial
Osakede et al. (2017) that students' engagement intention of the respondents.
in business activities has no significant effect on
academic performance. Students would choose RECOMMENDATIONS

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AUTHOR’S PROFILE

Aaron Jed Y. Tumbali is a faculty member at the


Faculty of Teacher
Development of
Philippine Normal
University (PNU)
South Luzon. He has
a master’s degree in
Business Education
and is completing his
doctorate degree in
Development
Education. He authored several modules and
textbooks. He served as a resource person of
Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA) in crafting the evaluation
mechanism of the Diploma Programs under
Philippine Qualification Framework Level 5. He is
a regular reviewer/ lecturer for the Board
Licensure Examination for Professional Teachers
at PNU.

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commons.org/licenses/by/4).

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