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ISSUE #386
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A WGI PublicQ(;IHI
International Edition

Build An HF
All-Band Mobile

80/40 QRP Rig

What is

73 Reviews
Japan Radio's
Kilowatt Amp

Nye Engineering's
Digital Field
Strength Meter

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THE TEAM November 1992

Wayne Green W2NSO/l
Amateur Issue #386

Radio Today
Davi d Ca ssidy Nl GPH

50 Above and Beyond
73 Ad Index
SueJeweII QAP power and QAP cost.
60 Ask Kaboom
Joyce Sa wtelle ..............•..................G28ZQ 46 ATV
84 Barter 'n' Buy
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 12 The No ise Aemover 85 Dealer Directory
Mik e Bryce WBa VGE
A simple, effective way to 17 Feedbacklndex
David Cowhig WA1LBP 40 Ham Help
get rid of the static.... K8MKB
Mic hael Geier KB1UM 64 Hams with Class
Jim Gray Wl x un 56 Hamsats
Chuck Houghlon WB6IGP 18 An All-Band HF Mobile
34 Homing In
AmieJohnson N1BAC Antenna
6 tenere
Dr. Marc Leavey WAJAJ R Efficient and inexpensive.
4 Never Say Die
ArwJy MacAlliSter WASZlB ................ ........... ....KC4TMT 38 New Pr oducts
Joe MoeU KOOV 62 Packet &. Computer.
Carole Perry WB2MG P 29 Spread Spectru m Primer 88 Propagation
JellreySloman N1 EWO
What is spread spectrum, 66 ORP
anyway? KC6YJY 7 QRX
Dan Ha rpe r REVIEWS 80 73 International
Sue Colbe rt 68 Special Events
Judy Walker Linear Amplifier Bookshelf
1-603-924-OOSS A solid-state, no-tune 54 Updates
l.aoo.274-7373 kilowatt with very advanced
FAX: 1-603-924-9327
features WA48LC
Rachel li mper 42 The FS 73 Signal Cube
Digita l Fiel d Strength 11 ', like being lhere-rig hl
Meter here in our offICe,! How ?
JU' l lake advanl age of our
FilmWo rks. Inc. Measure both absolute and FEEDB ACK c~rd on page
Hancock NH relative field strengths. 17. You' lI noti« . feedback
..............................W89RRT number ill lhe be~ inn i ng or
TYPE SETTING each anicle and rol umn.
Wc'd like you 10 nile ..'Iw
Unda Drew you IUd SO tIw _ can
Alice Scofield Stephen Glowacki KC4TMT shows you how to build
prinl"lw Iypt' s of Ihinp
your own HF mobile antenna . . . see page 18. you like be>!. And ""'" "'"
CIRCULATION MANA GER .,11 drnr one: Feed'-k
Harvey Chand ler Cover. JaMi smith KK6CU with his mobile foxh unt array. It rota tes continuously at card eactl rrlOnlh for. fret'
slbscr1llion 10 73.
40 rpm and disp lays bearings on a storage oscilloscope. Find out more in this
To subscribe: '-800-289-0388 months "Homing In. ~ column on page 34. Co ver photo by Joe Moell KOOV.

WAYNE GREEN, INC. M"nu acrlpt. Conlnbutions in Il\t.1 lorm 01 man uscri pts wuh drawings and/or photographs are w\lk;ome and will be
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73 Amateur Radio Today· November, 1992 3

what's the dillerence, so we continued.
Number 1 on your Feedback card
I wrote do\Im the stun he was saying.
The story that emerged was 01 his
mother and lather living in the back 01
a cold , damp tactory building. His
mother had a bad cough, whiCh apoar-
ently was palntu! to little ore-ace. The
father said something about her stay-

NEVER SAY DIE ing with the 'amily next door, the Mur·
phys, unt~ she felt better,
Whether ltIis was all fantasy or real-
Wayne Green W2NSD/l ity I dOl' know, but it was intr9Jing.
Once we'd run through all this stun a
lew times Joe never again had to
cough when he was announcing.
SOmething worIIed.
A few weeks later Joe's mother vis-
ited lor a lew days. I took her out 10
lunch. armed with my noteboo k. I
asked her il she'd ever lived in the
cw In 1992 lorm a builcling maintenance service I'd ever seen who wrote long editoria ls back of a tactory. She was roen.llous.
A reader noIed this response when and oller it to the banks. For a reasco- about whalever was interesting him at Yes, not long before Joe was born.
he asked eccct ee code in ee milItary: able price I'd look auer the ir repos- the time . How many magazines have was she SiCk atll'le time? She thotJglt
"We don't train radiOmen 10 copy code sessed houses, keep ing the lawns you seen with inleresting editorials? It's lor a morrent and then said she'd had
any more. Why would we want to train mowed and watered, the bushes rare. I eventually gol to be good meoos a terrible cough . As far as she could
someone 10 copy code when we can trirrmed, the windows repaired, the in· with John. We·d get together for lunch remember this e xperience had never
move messages at 1,500 words per sides clean and dusted. The house every few weeks. Talking with him was been mentioned a fter Joe was born.
minute encrypled, download it, decrypt isn't going to sell il it looks ralty. I'll bel e xciting- like a mental roller coas ter, She'd forgonen about he whole thing
it, have it letter perfect and hand oejv- I could sign up the banks around wilh ideas on nuclear physics, cosmot- until I reminded her. Then I as ked jf
er me the addressee ? The Navy can't sou thern New Hampshire to let me ogy, quantum physics and so on going she'd stayed with some friends next
live w ith 35 wpm r espo nse times , handle at least a couple hundred by in rapid succession. He was iruer- 000r for a While. Yes! And did she re-
HeclI, even our tugs have high speed homes. HeclI, thafe are several just on ested in everything and never re o merroer their name? Was it Murphy?
communicabons.~ my little country road that have "For strained by sceoutc or religious dog' Yes, it was , and she was sure sre'e
Sure. manual CW is lun. But it's like Sale" s'9ns on them and are unoccu · ma o Alas, he smoked, so he died lar never even thou!tll of them since Joe
ue l un men have driving antique cars pied. They ~It need aneotco. too young. wasbom .
and preserv ing them . Should our motor Then there are families going on va- So here I am, sun an Analog sub- This did a lot to convince me thai
vencie departments insist that people cation. They need their homes scriber aner 58 years and still turning this was a real experience that Joe
prove their ability to crank a Model T checked, animals fed . and the j unk to their sc ience ta ct article the first was bringing up under hypnosis. 01
and drive a stlck-shjt in order 10 gel a mail taken in. All you need is 10 be rea- thing every month. They're usually out- course, there's always the possibili ty
driver's license to operate loday's acto- sonable , dependable and known 10 slanding. that he might somewhere have heard
mere shilt cars? It makes the same your lXllenhal customers . To be known The article they published on how abOut all this and torgotten it. but mars
kind 01 sense. you have to have some visibility and the brain worked made so much sense a remote po5SOlity since you don't lor-
that means small ads in the paper. an that I bought the book on the Sltl;ed:. I gel things under hypnosis . tl's alI lhere.
Making a Buc k occasional news item, perhaps a TV had to know more. Since I approach all Being a pragmatist I wasnl QUite as
The endless Whining jeners from re- i ntervie w. II you can organize it . It new ideas as a skeptic. I wanted to interested in whether mese were real
tired oId·timers who are Irying to make means mailing cards to the owners 01 give this new ccnoeot a try and see if il memories or lake, as tong as dredging
do on Social Security make me sick. cener homes. It means visne to the 10- really WOfked. The idea that painlul in· them up and "running" them would
The world is out there with to-ocner cat banks-and more visits. cidents happening to a baby before it's erase the patterns causing problems in
bills hanging from me branches 0' at- Any problem oilers opportunities- born could influence it all through life present time. tten I had hold of some-
most every tree and these old geezers it's all in how you think about it. My was rejected flat ou t by doctors and thing important, so I wanled to know
are too lazy to bother to reach up and wile Sherry rouceo how dllliCult it was psychiatrists, yet from a systems anal- mo"
pick 'em. Then there are the millioos of to lind good baby-sltlers. So she start- ysis View, it made perfect sense. The radio station owner was im-
people who are "out of work~ and can't ed a babY-Sllling service. She truer - I was a radio anoouncer at WSPB, pressed WIth my announcing and abi1i-
lind a job , If you can' lind a job. make v iewed p otential baby-sitlers and a radio station in Sarasota. Florida. at ty 10 ad IG morning shows. He onered
coer checked their references. She ran ads the time. I talked over the idea with a to let me have a three-hour morning
A chap stopped by to viSit the other and checked with the customers to see leliow announcer. He was skeptical, spot and share in the ad sales it woulcl
day, Out 01 work . Wha t can he do? how weU her sitters were do ing. She but game for us to give it a try and see generale. This was an opportunity that
Well, here we are in a recession. Here helped train them. The lirst thing you what would happen. We decided 10 many disk jockeys would kill for, but
we are in what looks like It's going to know she had dozens of sitters and a see il we could lind out why he had to while I enjoyed the work. I couldn't see
be a very long eecesece because the land-office business going, with her cough every time he was starting to myself devoting my lile 10 being a OJ. I
'actors !hat caused it haven't been ad· gelling a commission on every job. announce. He'd solved the problem by quit to learn more about how 10 help
dressed by the adminislration or And that was eeicoe corTllUlers, which instamng a small switCh by the nscc- repair minds . I fI'lOVed 10 New Jersey
Congress yet---f'lOf is lhefe any ray or would make it even easier to keep phone which would C\Jt it oil while he and a research IOUndation. This tumed
hope on the hofilon that they.. really track , do the billing 01 the customers out to be the wtsest decision 01 my
do anything about it, Well, one man's
catastrophe is another 's bonanza .
and handle the payroll lor al those in-
dependent contractor sitters.
So I put him into a light hypnotic
state and asked him to repeat the word
entire tile.
In a few weeks of ccncentratee
When Humpty falls you get busy and So what services are needed in cough. I men asked him to go 10 the work I learned how to lind and remove
ma ke omelets, you don't sland there your area? I can think of a bunch more, e a rnest lime he had to cough and to the causes 01 people's problems, Doc-
wringing your hands while hydrogen but let's get your lillie gray cells perk- say whatever ca me to mind. He said, tors today agree that all diseases have
sulfide develops. ing instead of silling there in a foop. "I've got to cough.~ I asked him to keep emotional components. What we dis-
Where are Ihe opportunities 101 repeating lhat and see what else came covered was how to find these and re-
Fixing The Brain
starting smeu businesses? Every· to mind. This developed i nto, "Every move the basic causes for most m-
wtere! For instance, wllh people losing It all staneo w ith an article in time I get nervous I have to cough.- nesses. We even discovered that an
their jobs ng-.t and left, many are also Analog When t was young I read a lot For about an hour I kepi 96lting him amaZingly high percentage 01 what
losing Iheir homes. Thi s presents a of science neucn. The best was in to come up with more words and seem li ke accidents have emotional
couple opportunilies. One is to start Aslounaing Stories, edited by JOhn phrases. I asked him his age and he causes.
making very low income housing lor Campbell W2ZGU. The magazine is said eighl. I asked ilthal was years, He My experience w ith Joe was re-
people who suddenty have to live on now Analog. said no, it was months. I said before or peated endlessly wilh other people I
well are or unemployment. But my ap- John had an enormous Inlluence on ane birth, He said it was before birth. worked with. I've been promising my-
proach as an entrepreneur would be to me. He was the lirst magazine editor Hmmm. Sure. Well, it it might help, ContinuerJ on page 74
4 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992
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iund conduc to r has less RF lo ss The followi ng is quoted from Technical Help: 800-647-TECH(8324)
-sistancc than a thin flat strip Electronic and Radio Engineering by • 1 ~ear unconclilional guarantee. 30 daV monev back
.md ucto r. You rad iate more power. F rederic k T erman. 4 th edition, page 22 : guarantee (less s/tl) on orders trom MFJ • Free catalog
~ I "J E~TERPRISES, rxc,

R eason 2. It's buill like a tank -- , . , .. with a conductor consisting o f a
801 494. MI) ) . Slate. MS 39762
_050 inch d iamete r. th ick wall th in fl at strip • . . , the c urre nt flow s 160IlJ2J·jll69; 8·4 XI CST, MOI'i.· Fn .
umi num radiato r, all welded primarily along the edges . . . . the true t'AX: 160 1) J2J·M51 : Add SI2 ,ih
mst ruction. no mechan ica l joi nts , o r e ffective resistance will be high JIFJ, . . making quality aff ordable
Pras iIflll ~,. IIItII"d kI dWQI I....! 'lfl ~ ...
Number 2 on your Feedback card to corporations going 'utt-shore" to
though I've hardly studied the thing all

From The Hamshack
that much, I haven't heard any very
convincing arguments on the hams'

Finally, one of the great th ings

manulaclure, thus depriVing millions 01
Americans 01 their Job s. A principal
cause of this excccs stems lrom the
cross purposes between govemmenl
about your editorials is the broadsides
you level from time 10 time at various agencies, namely the EPA under the
offenders. II wouldn't hurt if you would guidance of Director Reilly. Why
occasionally go inlo background so we should our lactories be lorced 10 align
Dn ld Ro sner VE4DAR , Win" acceptab le administrative burden, norKXlfl'lffiUr-.::ants might gel the drift eemsewes with the machinations 01
nlpeg, Manitoba, Canaea I am a rela- 'IIt1ile too long a period woulal't have For instance, I found your story in the Ihe environmentalists when foreign
tively new Canadian radio amateur, the purging effect we need . Purging February editorial about the variOus nations offer tax breaks. low interesl
having received my Basic QualifiCation would end any bogus license counting earty leaders of the AARL of consider-
IoaIlS and Iow-eost labor enticements?
{no-codel in Febroary 1992. Since lhal mghl be going on. and also give able interest; on the other hand, I've
Again, do poIitieians understand? 0b-
getting on the air on the 2 meter band. the manufacturers (and publisners) a heard a good deal about K1MAN and
his netarious activities, but never wtlal viously not. The EPA is an indepen-
I have tried to learn moJe lheory and more accurate estimate 01 what the
must be obvious background (to dent govemment agency within the
J)flICtice through discussion with more hobby needs. I don't feel like actually
experienced hams and by reading 73 $hOveling gold into the pockets 01 the hams) about exactly what II is he E xecutive BranCh, yet Bush still
and other publieations. manufacturers. but I would like them does. It's true, mostly hams read the scra tches his head wondering why
I enjoy your provocative editorials 10 stay in business so I can buy stull magazill8, of course. but good toumal- joblessness remains high, Hey Bush:
and remember your call lo r one million and get it fixed. tsts (storytell ers) should always try Look In your own back yard! (Remem-
new hams alld suggestions for ieam- We might even consider basing the to be complete so none of us slower
ber, Wayne, Reagan dismantled the
ing CWo I was delighted, therefo re , to license lee on the amount of spectrum listeners getlosl.
EPA; it was Bush himself who restored
win subscriptions to 73 and Radio Fun a license is authorized to use. The lair
et my lirst hamfesl lasl weekend at the market value of VHF ere UHF would Dean Bergmann KB5UVT, Arllng-
I appreciate your obvious concern
CanadalU.S.A. Peace Gardens. probably be higher than HF, since It Ion TX Concerning David Cassidy's
Please keep us thinking! has more competitive comme rcial vat- for the wellare ct this country; I trust
"Eventually, Morse code will be
ue and isn't as limited by Intemahonal you're concent rating your ettcrts
dropped I rom au license classes."
Larry J. Clark N2MOS, Pri ncet on agreements and treaties. where they'll etc the most good.
("Random Output: September 1992):
NJ Isn'llt about time that amateur ra- Partial andfor lull relief Irom lees
Since international agreements are
dio operators started paying their own could be provided by allowing credit to Ray J . Howes G40WY, Wey·
way around here? We 're facing a hams who participate in bona uee involved, it may be a long time before mouth, Dorsel, England Wayne, just
steadily escalating federal budget drills and exercises conducted by teo- Ihal is true. I suspect that in many thought I would drop you a short note
defiCit. and we expectlhe taxpayers to erally recogniZed (pertlaps by FEMA?) parts of the world it is Slill important regarding your editorial in the August
pay lor our hobby. Let's get real! public service agencies and orvaniZa- that CW rigs cost less ; that they are '92 issue.
Free Lunch Nothing is free. If you lions, This would have 10 amount to simple enough for an amateur 10 build; sunce it to say thai I agree with
want it. pay lor it We haY'Elll1 paid a something more than Ihe monthly thai they use less banetwidth; and that your incisive hypothesis ; as usual il
liCk for what we use, but Ihere are check-in on tne 2 meter net By main- was right on the button . Yes. the
they consume less power. As a newly
plenty of other people who woukI fike taining a data base of hams applying British education system sucks, and
licensed amateur. I am impressed by
more chunks 01 ·our" spectrum , .• lor lee Credits, we could linally show as you inler it parallels what is appar-
And they are willing 10 put up cashl II exactly how many hams really are wiB- ORP CW rigs that can work the wortd ently happening in America.
you want 10 use a National Palt(, you ing 10 support emelijel'lCy service 0p- wittl batteries that would orWy power a You won't be surpriSe<llo learn that
pay. You uceose your boat and you eratiOnS , , 01 COU~, we have 10 be handie-talkie in other modes. I have written numerous leiters to all
pay. II we don't pay for it, how can we prepared for an underwhelming reo Cassidy is right about one lhing : In- Ihose who possess governmental
daimit? sponse as well. rovaton is vital. Amateur race once power, but not arty that. I have actual-
PubliC service? This notion of all A rational jcense fee would show led, and commerce followed. Now the ly spoken 10 these people in an at-
hams just waiting in ranks 10 put their that we pay our own way, are Willing tempt to dissuade them from their al-
reverse is true. Oon't dream of copy.
radios into public service mighl just to pony up fhe bucks to support most maniacal desire to preserve the
contain a measurable amount of bunk. ing commercial modes; dream of en- sta tus quo tha i unfortunately exists
the FCC's enforcement efforts in our
What is the percentage of hams who bands, support ne w and disa- tirely new ones. within our educational system. Trying
really participa te in meaningful drills bled hams, and otte r that trained to get these so-caned elected "lead-
and exercis es? Most hams spend and equipped resource for emergency Dean-CW is, and always will be, a ers" to see the error of their ways Is
most of their time doing other radto ope ra fions we 'v e a lways ta lke d fun way to communicate. The gear is akin to resurrecting the dead.
stuff, some of it rewarding, some of it about. inexpensive, portable and simple 10 Perhaps I should mention the stran-
merely interesting, and (by an increas- There is ano ther advantage l or wol1f on. The fael s/ill remains met it is glehold the teachers union (N. U. T..
ingly vocal minority) some of it down- those of us in the hobby coming up quite an appropriate acronym) has on
an ineffICient way 10 transmit informa-
right destructive to the hobby (20 me- with a license fee scheme: II we etcn't the teaching profession here in the
ton and is quickly becoming a "nostal·
ters?). do it, and soon . someone else Iper- U.K. The union bosses appear to be
Policing We've gOI a few Bozos haps Congress) is going to ram it gia mode' like AM_ My prediction is more interested in preserving their
out there. Unfortunately, they take up etcwn our ttHoals. Trust me , • • when that the ITU treaty will drop this re - perks and large salaries than in eradi-
more than their lair share 01 domestiC these things come 011 the Hill they quirement someday-lhe sooner. /fie cating the cancer that pervades their
and international resources (radio Ire- usually ecn't work righl . The money beNer . . . David mGPH eerroers' flawed 'eaching" methodol-
quenc:ies) . What if we decicIe to reoe- would probably go into the general ogy. Whal a jungle.
line the term "sell-policing" as mean- lund instead 01 10 the FCC (perhaps Edwin S. Oxn er, Sin Jose CA As there are several leachers who
ing the willingness 10 pay lor compe. an FCC Amateur RadiO Trusl Fund are also hams in my inwTlediate area,
Wayne, you Nt the nail squarely on its
tent enlon::emen1 by a pruperfy staffed, needs to be established). Congress's I've been expounding the virtues 01
head--again ("'Never Say Die," August
equipped and lsained FCC? Idea 01 a lee scheWle could be pretty re -inventing the wheel, so far as
I be.e.-e fhal we should pay a fee strange. And it would probably lake us 1992). Both our educational system teaching is concerned, ever my local
upon inilial liCensing, upgrading and years to get Congress to fix things. and our prison syslem are a losl repeaters. etc. Guess what? For my
renewal. The lee should be sulflCient I think it is time to pay up. cause . And, none 01 our politicians are paos, an I hear Irom these supposed)'
10 cover administrative costs during aware 01 either Ihe problem or the "intelligent people" are pathetic ex-
rne perioel 01 the license, as well J . G . Owen, Fori Sl lo ng l NY cure. cuses and irrational (iiatribes , instead
as the cost lor a reasonable amount Greetings. I couldn't let thai churlish As I read your column I was hoping ot reasoned argumenl or construc-
01 enlorcement in the amateur bands. lellow's complaint in Ihe February tive remedies. It's a monster out 01
to see comments regarding the bur -
The one exception to fees should 1992 issue stand unanswered. I like control.
geoning interest in home schooling
be initial (but not renewal) lor Noviee your editOrials. Indeed, I have very lit· Hey, perhaps we need a Rupert
class licenses, However, I think that lie to do with ham raelio, so probably that many families are adopting, My Mu rdoch to do wha l he did 10 the
a substantial discount for those under the only reason 1 occasionally buy the daughter has tour youngsters receiv- British print unsons. which were noth-
18, the disabled and senior citizens magazine is lor the entonars. Ing their education at home. II works, ing more than constipated dinosaurs
would be in order .. . Which, 0 1 course, On another tcoc . Irom my reo-ham too. A year ago the Montana legisla- awaiting ex tinction. Murdoch w ent
would proportionate ly raise the fees viewpoint, the arguments about spec- ture planned to outlaw home school- through them like a dose of salts. You
of eon-crsccuntec hams, since w e trum usage are very convincing; why Ing, but throug h the insistence of my would not bel ieve the salaries 'pnet-
want the hoblJy to be pretty much self- should we give you guys all this stuff? ers" were earning before Murdoch cut
daughte r, who was priVileged to speak
lunded. I mean. ifyou want to talk to each em- to the joint houses of the Montana
off the gravy train.
The period between renewals will er, can't you just use a car phone? I Oon't lose heart Wayne, I'm doing
have to be determined, bul some- don'l want 10 be harsh, but as you've Sla te Legislature. home schooling not my level best here in the U.K. to per-
where in the neighborhood of every pointed auf again and again, hams only remained legal but was enccur- suade those people who malter that
two to five years will probably work have to appreciate how the rest 01 us aged! education just has to unclergo a trans-
out. Annual renewal would be an un- are going 10 see this issue. and at- Another topic you covered related tormatiOn • • • now. iii
6 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992
QRX • • • Number 3 on your Feoedbllck ca rd

number of stations automatically forward packet

SAREX Flies Again messages on the HF bands by permission of a
STA (special temporary authOrity). The current
on STS-47 STA expires at the end of the year and wiR es-
The space shuttle Endeavour lifted ott on sentially kill the HF packet forwarding network.
September 12 at 14:22 :59.974 UTe ca rrying This network has been in place lor a number 01
two ham astronauts (Mission Specialist Dr. Jay years and successruuy transfers many thou -
sands of messages each month between pack-
"Wayne Green's World"
Apt NSQWl and Payload Specialist Dr.
Mamoru Mohri 712NJY) among its seven-mem- et operators and BBSs across the country and Wayne Green W2NSDf1 is the latest addi-
ber crew. This was the first on-lime lillotl since around the wo rld. The League's recommenda - t ion to t he growing list o f ham radio celebri-
1985. ti on is for semi-automatic fo rw ard in g . This t ies taking to t he airwaves with a radio show
Due 10 the sleep and work schedule of the means that only a station with a control operato r of his own. "Wayne Green's Wor1d" was kicked
astronauts. most voice contacts took place over p resent may initiate a contact with an unatteno- o ff on Thu rsday, August 6 th, as a part of the
the Eastern hemisphere. Hams in the U.S. and ed HF packet station. new lineup on the revamped Let's Talk Radio
Europe did have ample opportunity to work the Lyle Johnson WA7GXD has come up with an Network. In his fir st outing, G reen touched on
shuttle via pack et radio. The shuttle's pa cket in trigu ing p roposa l in th e J u ly '92 issue 01 several subjects that included national politics,
callsign was W5RRR -1. This mission's high in- TAPR's Packet Status Register that would move the w elfare system , educational tra vel and
clination orbit (57 degrees) put it within reach of unatt ended automatic HF pack et operations to coo king. as well as amateur radio. According to
those living in the higher latitudes. segments in the WARC bands (30 , 17 and 24 LTRN PrQducerlOirector Frank Collins N6TAF,
Several schools in Aust ralia and the U.S. meters) to alleviat e crowding on the popu lar 20 th e re sp on se to G ree n 's new p ro gram wa s
were contacted directly by the shullle and ove r and 40 meter segments currenlty used. overwhelming. Collins says tha t he received nu-
8000 packe t and voice contacts were made It's hoped that a reasonable compromise or merous calls after the program to congratulate
during the meson. alternative can come about to keep the forward- the organi zation on bringing W2NSD to the
A aSL is available i1 you've worked the shul · ing network alive. Write to your ARRL Director satellite radio network. "Wayne G reen 's World"
ue or if you have a reception report. If you made with your opinion on these proposals or sugges- can be hea rd every Thursday at 9:00 p.m. East-
a packet contact with the shuttle, please include tions for a workable unattended HF packet tor- em time ove r LTR N 00 GTE Spacenet III, Chao-
your aso number. Send a SAS E (foreign sta- warding system. net 21 , 6.2 MHz audiO. TNX West/ink Report,
tions should indude at least $0 50 postage or #632, August 28, 1992.
equivalent IRCs) to Jay Ap t N50WL at 806 Founder of
ShOrewood Drive, seabrOOk TX n586 USA. Instant Licenses
Hallicrafters Dies
Earthwinds Update William J. Halligan W9A C, fou nder and re-
for Aliens?
Th e E arth winds aro und -tbe-wc r tc t ired chairmen of the Hallicrafters Compa ny, The FCC on Augu st 6th issued a Notice of
man ned b all oon flig ht is now scheduled to fly d ied J uly 14 at age 93 in Miami Beach. Th e Pro posed Rule Making in P,R. Docket 92-167
any time a tta r N o vember 15th. Inclement man whO started the firm in 1933 as a supplier to provide a wa y in which foreign amateu rs
w ea th er and wind patte rns p rev ented la s t of amateu r radio shortwave receivers, and then cou ld secu re 60-day o perat in g p ermission
yea r's attem pt from Akron, Ohio. developed it into a major manulacturer or elec- whil e visit ing th e U.S. The plan would include
This time the launch point has been moved tronic equipment for the home, industry, the mili - amateurs from countries with which the United
to Stea d Field near Reno, Nevada. Th is area tary and a eros pac e, resid ed in Bal Harbour, States has no recip rocal operating agreem ent
nea r Reno has some of the most favorable win- Florida, and lormerly in Chicago, Illinois. and would have volunteer examiners handle the
tertime ground wind con ditions in the U.S. and Halligan, a native of Boston, Massachusetts, mechanics of th e ap plicatio ns. The c omment
will give the launch team more opportunities for received a radio experimenter's license whil e d eadline for P.A. Docke192-167 is October 26.
a successful liftoff of th e complicated dual-bal- still in high school, and held the amateur radio The FCC proposes to have VEs examine the
loon system. call letters W9AC . He worked as a wireless op- loreign operator's amateur license and identili-
The amateur radio e xperiment will ope rate erator on excursion ships between Boston and cation, and d ete rmine the appl icant'S home op-
during the mission under pilot Larry Newman's other coastal cities, serving in WWI as a radio erating privileges, then administer a zc-quesncn
callsign KB7JGM. Twice each hour (at 30 and operator on the battleship ff/inois. e xamination -00 those aspects 01 ou r rules that
55 minutes past each hour) a digitized voice Halligan attended We st Point, but quit the are most applicable to the type of operation in
message will give the balloon's latitude, longi- military academy to instead become a newspa- which the visitor pla ns to engage wh ile in the
tude and ground speed on a fr equ enc y o f pe r reporter in Boston, end then later in New United States"
28.303 MHz. Transmissions at 15 and 45 mio- York. He left jou rnalism to become th e sa les The FCC suggests that VEs could co mpile
utes past the hou r are also possible . T his manager lor a radio supply company in Boston, the zo-quesucn examinations from ex isting
should give anyone with modest receive capa- then started Hallicralters in 1933 . question pools maintained by Volunteer Exam-
bili ties the opportunity to track the balloon's During WWll, Hancrett ers made shortwave iner Coordinat()(S.
progress as it flies non-stop around the world. radios for the military. After the war ended, the Upon passi ng the examination , the foreig n
The expected fligh! path should carry the bal- compan y took to productIon of home television applicant would receive a Certificate of Suc-
loon from Reno to Texas, the Midwest and the receivers and peacetim e ra da r. In the early cessful Completion of Examination, which would
East Coast during the initial portion of its jour- 1960s, the company's military contracts consti- serve as proof 01 the foreign operator's condi-
ney. Launch updates will be posted on the Bal- tuted 70% of its revenues. Hallicrafters helped tlonat license authorizing operation in the United
loon section 01the 73 BBS at (603) 924-9343. to develop the Air Force Ouick Reaction Capa- States, aCCOrding to the FCC.
bili ty (O RC ) pro gram , an d th en moved into The vol unteer examiners then wou ld notify
ARRL Kills Automatic HF space communications. their coordinating VEC, who would add the per-
A 1953 Chicago Tribune article said of Mr. tinent information on the foreign applicant to a
Packet Forwarding Halligan that due to his p rominence in the in- data base thai is maintained and forwarded to
At t he Ju ly b oard m eeting o f th e ARRL c l- dustry, he was sometimes referred to as "Wire- the FCC on a requla r basis. The fo reign opera-
rectors it w as decided to accept th e Digital less Will ie,w or "Radio's #1 Ham." tor would be allowed one maximum op-
Committee' s recommendation t hat u n et- Halligan, who served as President and CEO erating period in the U.S. at any time within 365
tended (a ut o m atic) HF packet forw ard ing of Hallicrafters, continued in that position even days of the issuance of the CSCE. TNX w es t-
sho u ld n o t be allow ed. Currently a selected after the company was acquired by Northrop in link Report, #632, August 28, 1992.

73 Amateur Radio rcaey »November, 1992 7

Number 4 on your Feedbac k ca rd

The QRP 80/40 CW Sender

ORP power and ORP cost.
by Richard Q. Marris G2BZQ

M y original plan was to home-brew a

simple CW transmitter for a daily, , "'"
early morning, point-to-point QSO with
a friend in Germany. using 3665 kHz.




70 0 0\

o •
* ~'
1'= .,.

" ' su P.1ln lIST
This wa s a di stance of 400 miles or so. I
figured that around 5 watts CW would
, 0/• ~ gOl .... C2 · .". N A' DuT
.,'"--- .

suffice. and decided to use sc mi-co nd uc-

BU v. lvE BU E
IU ~DE" vl Ew l
0.." '" "
tors . A look at so me recently published
designs indicated that this would involve
a printed circuit. seve ra l se mi-c o nd uc - f-t •
f" v"
~~~ ~ i . c ".'''5

lOTS. maybe 50 or more co mponent s, plus


:~ '"

"~. "
all the components for an AC power sup- "t ..
ply. - CAVSU l
"' "ee
I went back to the happy days when I, '" scc v
and many ot hers , used a single 6 L6 or ?
6V6 tra nsmitter and worked the world. 6 ... . 0
With these happy recollect ions in mind,
things reall y got out of hand--one thing
led to anot her. and the QRP 80/40 was Figure I. Schematic of the QRP 80140 CW transmitter.
This tra nsmitter is a person ificat ion of
simplici ty in circuitry, simplici ty in con- for the selec ted band. Do not try to dou- which al so shows the assembled layout
st ruction, QRP in power, a nd QR? in ble an 80 meter crysta l to the 40 meter of th e main components on the front pan-
cost. It covers bot h the 80 and 4() meter band. The purpose of Cl (3-33 pF trim- e l a nd chassis. Th e size of th e
bands. and is built into an ex isting me tal mer) is to pre-set adjus t for a clean CW cabi net/chassis is not c ritical and the po-
cabinet measuri ng about 8.6" wide x 4" note, which can be a problem with a sin- s itio ning of the major components can be
high x 4. 1" deep (that includes the built- gle tube TX. The power o f the TX could adjusted s lightly to accommodate the ac-
in AC power supp ly). It uses just one be increased by decreasing the value of tual component sizes used by individu al
tube and can be loaded to 5 warts o r so. R3. at the risk of a n {fS no te. constructors. The HT DC plate voltage
In fact . the result is less complex than so- CS is a s ing le-gang 365 pF air-spaced with "key down" was 115 volts DC.
ca lled " simp lc " se m i-c o nd uc to r jobs . good quality receiving type variable ca - L I is wound o n a len gth of I" diameter
The reliable. robust 6BW6 lube can be pacitor. C9 is a similar 2-gang 365 + 365 PVC o r plastic tube using 35 turns of 24·
quickly changed a nd the design does no t pF variable capacitor wit h both sections ga uge e namel copper wi re s paced one
requi re a printed circuit-all major com- wired in parallel to give 730 pF total ca- tum . The LI /C8 + C9 c ircuit should tune
ponents have solder tag co nnections and pacity. Both an external LC and "T ' type to the 40 meter band nea r mi nimum ca-
the sma ller components can be slung be- ATU have been used with success and no pacity. However. individua l coils and
tween them. By all means. toil away on a detectable harmonics . layouts may differ slightly. If necessary,
printed c ircuit board if it will make you The built-in AC power s upp ly half- a small number of turns can be removed
happy, but I have a lways believed that wave rectifier used was an o ld Westing- from L I to achieve 40 meters with the
" the simplest is the bcstcst." In addition. house ISRA which was in the junk box. CS plates about 15% enmeshed. and then
S5 % of the bits and pieces were in my but Radio Shack/fandy and others stock the SO meter band shou ld resonate with
j unk box. suitable low cost alternatives. CS plates about 65% enmeshed.
The c ircuit in Figure I sho ws a rela- The whole TX + AC power supply is To te st the TX . adjust C I and C9 to
tively conventional c irc uit using a 6BW6 enclosed in an exi sting metal c a bine t maximum capacity and plug in a 5O.ahm
tube ( V I). c rys tal-co ntrol led with a pi- 8.6 " wide x 4 " high x 4 .1" deep. onto dummy load. Next , insert an SO meter
output c irc uit whi ch is tunable over both which a new front panel was fitted . A band crysta l, press the key, and tune CS
SO and 40. by s im ply plugging: in an Ff'- simple ~ shape chassis was made and for minimum current o n the meter; then
243 c rysta l (ei ther 80 or 40 me ter band) fined to the panel as shown in Figure 2, increase the current by detuning to give a
8 73 Amateur Radio Today· November, 1992
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Distributed By NaV1eC 1303 Avocada Ave., Suite 193 Newport Beach, CA 92660 714-721·8085 FAX 714-721-8085
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --1
~--------- 8112 '
•• Check Us Out
. Iiil' WltfIn1y Sa'vice
o n o c:J
'o Iiil' $4 Airdwge -
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: I I

YAESU ... ,,
, ,
. 1 .~

... ---
, ., -
- ' " © C[j) • o o 3 !i/8 '

-- Figure 2. Pan el/chassis tlSsembly layout,

--_. 2 rnA increase in c urrent so thai the crys-
tal is oscillating smoothly. Increase the
rer crystal on 40 met ers.
Rcmcmber-higher voltages are used

--. antenna load by luning C9 for max.imum

current. Now listen on an RX and adjust
in lube transmitters than with se mi-con-
ductors, so TAKE CARE!

o - C I for the best keying note. Repeal all

the above with an ATU and antenna in
place of the dummy load. Readju st CI
With this little QRP one -tube trans-
miner I have been able to maintain the
regular early morning QSO into Ger-
ICOM for the best not e, II sho uld not be neces-
sary to readju s t CI again un les s the
many, a nd have met lill ie difficulty in
working a ll over Europe with an indoor

• ••
'~ : : 1 . . ,., 6BW6 tube is replaced. an ten na, providi ng a useful s t a nd by
"" " ,. ... Repeat all the above with a 40 meter tra nsmitter.
,, "l ....... ., -• •••• • • f" " band c rysta l-hut w itho ut any f urt her H a ve f un wi th "T he QRP 80/40
adjustment of C I. Do not use an 80 me- Sender." III

Parts List
R1 47k, 1/4 wan
A2 470 otms, 1/2 wan
R3 12k,1 watt
A4 10Cl11;, 1 watt
AS l OOk., 1 wan
C1 3-33 pF IrilTllY1ef

C2 0.01 IlFI300V working mifWnum
•• C3,C4,C5 0.001 IlFI300V
1000 pF • 1kV

_ .
50 IlF/350 volts electrolytic
365 pF Single gang airspaced variable capacitor

365 + 365 pF two gang a irspaced va riable in paranel-730 pF
3.5 & 7 MHz band crystals--FT243 with panel mounting socket
6BW61lJbe + B9A cera mic chassiS mounting socket

C"", p loloOLibf'lO ry iacl lldilll::

(Westinghouse 18RA used) any suitable type available
2.5 mH RF choke
9 wns cese-ecurc PVC hook-up wire WQ1.lnd on 3/16" diameter rod, and removed
Jacll socket /or Morse key plug
AU.L • 115GB . AIITSCI • WSYI L1 35 tums 24 gauge enamel copper wire, spaced 1 tum and wound on
1-800-426-2891 1" diameter PVC or plastic (paxQlin In the U,K.) tube
METRO: (612) 786-4475 N Neon panel light
FAX:(612)786-6513 SW1 z-pote onloll switch
2663 County Rd.1 71 'rranstcrmer-csecorcanes 1.) 250 VAC 0 60 mA (minimum)
2.) 6.3 VAC 0 1 arJ'll (minimum)
Mounds View , MiN 55112
Super Minnesota Watts 1-800-279-1503
10 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992
Simply connect one of our fully automatic phon e patches to
yo ur base station radio. Suddenly your mobile and HT radios
can initiate and receive telephone calls without any assistance.
MODEL CS-700: An economical simplex sampling patch. The operator is in
full control at all times. User selectable operating modes: VOX Enhanced
Sampling or VOX Controlled Sampling. Features include a 9 Phone number
Speed-dialer, Automatic Sample Window Set-up and more.

PRIVATE PATCH V: ONers tour user selectable operating modes:

1. Simplex VOx Enhanced Sampling 2. Simplex VOx
3. Semi-Duplex 4. Repeater Maker.
In the Simplex VOX mode. Private Patch V can be used straight simplex or
through remotely located repeaters and only requires Mic jack and ext.
speaker jack connections to the base radio. Featu res include a 90 Phone
Number Speed-Dialer, Remote Base operation and more. Thousands are in
use worldwide.

~~ MOOEl CS-800: A low cost patch that operates enher Full or Semi Duplex.
~\;.. Pl us has built-in Repeater Maker. Use with dual ba nder radios or connect to
your existing repeater for Full Duplex patc h. Al so turn s your radio into a
powerful repeater system if desired. Other features in clude 9 Ph on e Number
Speed-Dialer and more.

MODEL 8200 Includes all teatu res an d modes at Model CS-BOO plus 90
Phone number Speed-Dialer, Remote Base Mode, DTMF Selective Calling
(other tones are optionally available), remotely program mable access codes ,
and more. (Also available in desk top cabinet). This is the finest Full Duplex
Patch! Repeater Controller in the business!! •• • • • •• -.",-

All Models Also Include: Built-in user programming keyboard with digital

r· " _... . ':' ': --

. . . ...:.' I
readout display (All features and modes are user programmable) - Last
Number Redial - Line in use detect - Call Waiting - Automatic 1-800 toll
override - User programmable CW 10 - Single or Multi·Digit Access!
Disconnect codes - Secret Toll Override Access Code - Hooknash - Fully
Regenerated Tone or Pulse Dialing - Ringout sounds like a pnone - Remotely
controllable relay - Non-volatile memory - Lig htning protection and the
famous one year CSI Warranty. When you compare to brands Cor I you will " •••• •
... _-.-- _.
• e "
fi nd there's si mply no competition.

Call or wri te fo r brochu res and dealer information .


2064 Eastman Avenue #113
Ventura. California 93003
Phone (BD5) 642-7184 ' FAX (805) 642-72 71
Number 5 on y our Feedback card

The Noise Remover

A simple, effective way to get rid of the static.
by Gerald F. Gronson KBMKB

T he re ha ve b e e n a n umber of re -
marks as to ho w a really na rro w -
band CW fil ter becomes useless w hen
~ O J US '~ B l.f
.. '''''TER
-S P E EC ~ '
a ~ NO P ~ , S

" LTE"
" ~NCE

a lo t of "static" no ise is on the band . "INJ4 "°,"",-Y>T' ",".

OO. '~F
The source doe sn 't m atte r: the re su lt is ·1 <'lE-
the s a me . T he fi lter becomes a t one

generator and the signal you are trying OR 0 ' " 1:"
G 8 TO "'
". "',"" rc
to copy is lost.
f;;; N~ R "O w
NO " cTt R
T" " ,P,,,
O ne so lution is the no ise c ircuit de- • ca
scribed in thi s article. It is adj ustable ",", ,,,
' .f . ' p.,,_.."
0 0.'

C" ' oT
from "no effect" to " no s ignal out:' re- , ALL "ES'STORS _ II. W
q u ire s no specia l parts, and c an be
m ade small enough to be installed in FiXlII"e I. Noise-limiter schematic. Use this circuit if (J high level signal is available and )'011
an existing add-on CW o r SSB fi lter. have all "odd-on" narrowbandfitter.
It can also be used in o ne of the new
s imple recei vers, such as the S udden
(see the October '91 iss ue, p . 8), to O'
"' 000 '

g ive th e rece iver a bit more pe rfor- '00_

' . ' u T" ·
m anc e ,
OA ,. ' OJ
"" " AOJUSTABLE "o,er "" TI:~

, ". ~ <'{) T
NO' SE u "' "l:R
,n "
The Noise-Limiter C ircu it "0~7;:'" "'8 . "•
" ea cs
..," .. ~1
n . ' B'
I'" ' NJ . I" H I, 0 .0 0.' . '
--'-I , ,
The circ ui t th a t d o e s th e jo b is
shown in Figure J. Most noise-limiter
.NP UT ,•

1.0 w, R[ wRAP
G." '
B.< •
T1) "'

ci rcuits are of the sh unt type. T hi s one
. ,~ USED

f OP TEST lj, OU1 PU
T ~ OU B L E
i s a se ries limi t e r. T he b ias o n the SHOOTING '0 0 •
d iodes is adjusted by the 10k limi t ad- '. LSO.T BI
'0' • ce ce OUTPuT

"' . ' ~ .8V C" 'If

"aev.' .,
0 .047 'OJUST
j ust p o t. The resisto r marked 6.8 to
8.2k (a I Okj25 tu rn pot can he used • ca '" ,.
" ,' "'no_

he re ) is use d to adjust sym m etry. The

,oon J,
TO ., N 8
~ ..
· ·. DJ UST '-OR aES T N L " ESPOI< S E
c apacitor is a bias fi lte r: the 15 k resis- ;L og:. OF " '8
, C.. OQSE " 5
Sy .... E TRyA ' c . PO EN 11.· ,
tor is the output loa d. T he 220 o hm,
0 .047 J.l F, a nd 0.0047 J.l F c a pa c ito rs
fo rm a speech range fi lte r. The lOOk
Figure 2. Schematic of the noise-timuer with a pre-amp. For a low level signal if yo II have all

o utput a dj ust potentiome te r can be a "add- on" filter such as all MFJ CW rvpe.

tri mmer or a s t a n d a r d audio t a pe r
"volume control."
Putt in g th e noise li mi ter in the re-
."-. ."
~''' £''
."'''0.' '0 - "
•• ""
'., .-
' ' '0' 0 TO ' ' ' ' '.o ~
". '"
". OV'.'."'"O '"' "" ••,
ceiver ahead of any filter m ake s copy-
ing a signal e asier. II 's like closing the ". ( "" .,,,_- "'000,'
,. •. '"'TQ
s > ITi;'
-; ." •• , '0. '
, E-

,. <fO,

window a bit o n th e radio signals be -
ing received, b ut un like a volume con-
" en.
" Po' '"" •

...,. " •
. ~

fO A"O 'O
OM" " ". ""uT
tro l, sma ll signa ls get full amp lifica-
t ion and bi g s ignals get clipped. " .
, ., 100()

Three circuits are shown. W it h so

,. u" ," o
~O '$l VOICE m ' EO
m any d iffere nt s ituat ions ou t the re it ' s ,,," "'
GOO . o'
""' " .
• " ,
a hard call to make as to wh ic h circuit , , '''' , ". ".' • "'''0 "'.,., ,
". '0. ' "' 0 000 ' .>

.,. "
''0 " "'"
to recommend, but it is best to place , ,
, n ,, • 'f-8 ,
COw ' ' ' H
" ., •• ."
th e noise limiter ahead of any fi lter. In
the Sudden receiver, pl a c e the no ise
' N'U T

_.. ..
., .
,. "
""., - ., ~


,"''" "" ''' . 'OT

lim iter ahead of th e LM386. In fact, in
a simp le rece iver, use t he c irc uit in ~ 0' "'''' , c ..
,., P" "
"'"' •m ,
.;k ~ '
OC,o" ",.
-F ~
.,,, ""'.'''ON
F ig ure 3. T he c irc uit between t he X's co, <f.< • . "'0. '''.<'N'Ou
• sr." ,",
co u ld be omi tte d f o r f i r st - t i m e
bu ilders. A ll it d oe s is give stee pe r Figure 3. Schematic oj ttic noise-limiter with u built-in amplifier and f ilter.
12 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992


• 12 Volt 6.5 AH Powcrf'ack. • Modular mounts for accessories. • Built-in handle & strap.
• Boosts 11-T to 5/7 watts output. • Carries H-T & adapters in one. • Always ready. no overcharge.
• 15 times II-T nicad pack. • Standard cigarette socket. • For emergency. fi eld day. etc.

" Pump H-T 10 5 watts...gets lois of repeaters from "Helped maintain the L.A. a rea
ever y hilltop!" on the morning of the 7.6 earthquake."
- KD6KVH Matthew Rap;lpon Petalulna. C'A KD6IlQT Gregg M.lhll Huntington Beach. C'A


• •••

Be Pow cr Pack-c-Scaled lead acid cell.

rec hargea ble up to 1,000 times.
WI. 6.4lhs., size 7" x 3" x 10".
Powers other DC prod ucts too.
DC Chargee -c-Rec harges in ve hicle in I to 3 hou rs.
AC C ha rge r- Rec harges at home in 1:< to 10 ho urs.
' Iod ular Clip Hold er- Ho ld s II-T. or anyt hing
with a belt clip.
Mod u lar Slora~t' Pouc h---Carries accesso ries
& adapters.
.\ I odular Li~ht -Co n sta n t/Ila s hi ng light for
night o r emergency. Powers K watts up to K ho urs.
Double Socke t-c-Powcrs two 12 vo lt prod ucts.

- - M©DtUIl Optional Sola r C ha rger Kit

mnm Recharges in remote areas in 8 to 10 hours (sunny day).
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To order call toll Irec:

1-800-955-5014 lDep t. 732N/ 24h r.
-- DC Power Pack ! /l am Kit
Valued at S135,48
#06-3 11 0
Your Price $99;5
30 day money back guarantee. I year factory limited warranty. $ 9.95 S&W
For inquires call 71 4-24 1-6800 J M-F / 9-5/ CA time.
For technical info call factory 1-800-544-4 124 I M-F / 94/ CA ri me. Optio nal Solar Charger Kit #06-8191
ftI'WlA Power Produds Markeling- Valued at S151.40 Your Price
1:1:I1" 172'1 1 Ml. Herrman n Street. Fo untain Valley, CA 9270l\ $9.95 5& 11*
• S & II in continental USA. Ex tra cost for others. CA residents add tax 7.75%. Allow 2 to 4 weeks for delivery. 2nd day express available. ~;' 1 Y92 PPM
FiKIlrt' 4. PC board[oil pattern [or the basic
noise-limiter (ref er TO Figure J /. Figure 6. PC board foil pattern for the noise-limiter + fi lter (ref er to FiRII!"" 2,.


Figure 5. Ports placement f or rilt' bas !«

noise-limuer. Figure 7. Parts placement for the noise-limiter + filter.

skirts to t he bandpass re -
sponse . It is a definite im - KBI'IICB ..aI SC ~YEJI
'$- rn.T£ RI' .... C?
provement. but not really .flI} D
necessary. The output trim-

pol is adjusted. in any case, 1
10 keep from overdriving the
filter. U sing fixed resistors
that are about 35% lower in

value will allow operation of

th e lim iter on 9 vo lt s . II
could then be buill into one
of th e exis ti ng add-on fil -
lers, suc h as one of the M FJ
m ode ls.
Assem bly
The noi se lim it er can be
asse mbled on perf board. PC
bo ard s a re a lso a v a i labl e
(see the par ts list on page
16 ). Glass epoxy is preferred FiXllre X. PC board foit nanem for the noise- Figure 9. Parts ptacemem f or the noise-limiter +
to pape r pheno lic . Use a limiter + filter + preamp (refer to Figure 3). fi lter + preamp.
low-watt soldering pencil.
and heat-sink the diodes.
Quarter-watt resistor s are u sed 3) for initial adju s tments (you can limit adjust pot (R2 in Figure I. R6 in
throughout. Po ly -s ty ren e capacitors leave the pot in place when done or Figure 2 and R9 in Figure 3) to maxi-
are used in the filter circuits . as are measure its final value and replace it mum. Then adjust the output pot (R6
I % resi stors (you ca n get by with with a fixed value). in Figure I. R IO in Figure 2 and R I3
5%). The squares wi th dots are wire in Figure 3) for the optimal output lev -
wrap p ins . Wire wrap pins are handy " I believe that this el. Adjust the limit adjust control (R2
for making connections to pots. power in F igure I ) counterclockwise unti l
connections. an d input-output connec-
circuit can improve clip ping occ urs ( listen for a de finit e
tions . copying a CW signal in change in the q ua lity o f the sou nd).
Adjustmenls a high QRN situation Rock R I back and forth unt il you hear
a clean sound. From this po int on you
I used a pane l mount pot for the lim- by between 60-80%. o n ly need to adjust th e li mit control
it adj ust p ot (R2 in F ig ure I. R6 in Try it; you 'll like it. " for no ise red uction.
F ig u re 2 an d R9 in Fi gu re 3) so I 1 be lieve t ha t thi s circ ui t can im-
cou ld easily adj ust th e no ise reducer. T une in a sig na l with your recei ver prove copying a CW signal in a high
Hook up a 10k pot in place of the re- and set resis tor R 1 (marked R5 in Fig- Q RN si t uat ion by bet wee n 60-80% .
sistor marked 6.8 to 8 .2k {R I in Fig- ure 2 and R8 in Figure 3) to 2/3 of its Try it; you' ll like it. II
ure I. R5 in Figure 2 and RH in Figure maxi m um resi stance . Nex t . se t t h e Sa the parts list 0 11 paRe 16.
14 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992
New-Powerful-Breakthrough, All 43
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73 Amateur Radio rcasv »November, 1992 15
nLL ELECTROniCS CORP. The Noise Remover Continued from paRe 14
Mall Order Electron ic Part s And Su pplies
P.O. Box 567 · Van Nuys, CA 9 1408 Parts list.
Basic Noise-L.imiter (see Figure I J. 01 .02 1N34 diodes
LASER POWER SUPPL Y cr 2211F electrolytic Ul 1458 op-amp IC
C2 4.7I1F125Velectro/ylic Noise-limiler +- Amplifier and Filler (see Figure 3).
C3.C4 0.047I1F polystyrene Cl 0.47102.0 IIF e1ect.olytiC
C4 0.004711F poIysty.ene C2 10 IIF eleclrolytic
C5 2 10 20 IIF elecl.oIyIic C3 4.7 jJF e1ectro/ylic
Rl 6.8108.21< C4 22I1F electrolytic
R2 1011 potentiomete. C5 4.7 jJF eled fOlytiC
Epny ..-..,..-..:l ~ ~ lot l4)to
C6 0.047 poIysty.ene
2 mW - - . . 112" X 1 112" X 1 7/18".
R3 "'" C7 0.0047 polystyrene
"' 15k
q,ut: It YdcO 1 ~. 0uIpA ~ . . . . .' R5 2200hm C8 10 JlF electrolytic
7to8 kV. 0pet."liI . . . . .: 1.110 1.5 kV A6 lC1Ol< tnm pot C9.C10.C l1.C12 1000 pF polystyrene
OJ-0Il""" CUlT"': 4 10 5 rnA. R«.Md No ;se-Umiler with Preamp (see Flf}ure 2). C1 3 t to lOIlF e1ectro!yliC
0.250 qud< OOl" i8CI ~ tor 0I/1pUt. C1 0.47 IIF tantalum C14 100 jJF eleclrolylic
CoIof <::oded ...... leads lor i""'-'. C2 2.211F electrofyliC R1 47k (or lOOk potentiometer)
CAT.lPS-1 $35.00 ..,11
C3 2211F electrolylic R2 100k
C4 t OO pF R3 680k
RECHARGEABLE C5 0.0047 IJ.F polystyrene R4 1 MEG
Gell Cell Batteries C6 0.047IJ.F potystyrene AS 1 MEG
C7 4.7 to 10 jJF electrolytic R6.R7 220k
Iolaint" naoce free. feCha ,geab4e ball. .... 10-1tor p<M&I Of back-up powIlt for c:omrn.onic:alionl.
ca 4.7 IJ.Ff25V electrolytic R8 6 .8 to 8.2k
vdeo• ....,... 04c. Useab. in . n y pos ~ ion . C9 tOO jJF electrolytic R9 tOk potentiometer
Rt tOOk potentiometer Rl0 10k
8 VOLTS @1 .2AMPIHOURS R2 1.2 MEG R1t 15k
RJ.R4 220k R12 220 ohm
Si,.: 3.81· X R5 6.8k to 8.2k (choose for best R13 lOOk trim potentiometer
t - X or high. symmetry or use 1011 pot) Rt4 470k . 1% tolerance


tOll potentiometer
220 ohm
1.2 MEG. 1%
33k.l %
47 ohm
Rll 100 ohm 01 .02 1N34 diodes
T_ 6 volt 10 M-I Rl0 1001I potentIOmeter Ul LM3900 IC
~ _ . _ MM:OIOd

12 volt Note : Etched and drilled PC boards are available l or each verSiOn ct me NOise Limifer lrom FAR
Circuits. 18N640 Field Court. Dundee IL 6011 8. The basic NOiSe-limiter PC board is $3.00. the NOise
1Iile: 8" l( 3.IM" X 3 .75·
Limitier +- Filter is S3.75 and the Noise Limiter +- F~te. +- P.ea~ is $4.00. Please add $1.50 per order
CAT.GC-1210 S35.00 ..-:ll
for shippin¢landling.

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A "lIIdio»onde" . a _ I"« in-
" .........t. ......a1ly . . . .ed _ h igh
.U~ . cM.ig....:l to Iran,mi1
'8fT1)e/_ u'" humidity. "";nd. and - Autopatch - Patch Pe-er ccce Dialing
pr_ v,. at "llIioua!>eillht. above - Reverse Patch - User ProgrammableCWID
Ih. U,oond . -0-.. ar. MW un~ •.
diloonl inued !rom NOAA nOilionai & Codes- Intelligent CWJO - Remote Base
-'her ...... a . ConIai", lor. 04 - 3 Auxiliary Outputs - Complete Interlace
inl ,ing poItl.: .. solid . t..l. ',an." • •
mn t>amrr.lric~ ...... . . _ . - Control Rcvr Input - Programmable
h umidily ......... and " ~ voII bait.". Tailbeeps - DTMF Decoder w/muting
oorhicll il ach" a1ed .. hen . ~ 42 Page Manual w / SChematics
in _ ... a \of .et>oollCiencto
6&I.o•• I",ho Of . . " .....""" lot PA"-, AlsD - RC·1DD: BASIC REPEATER CONTROL RC·l000 Wired & Tested $239.95
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e--y J** MIl 4 AM nicl*-
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7009-62 Taylorsvile Road · Dayton. OH 45424
513 233 9675 '
• •
V/SII" ,

cadmium bIr.wo _ WI _ _ to
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\rOt J**. ~
lIIad .-.d ,..,."..

1'OU"ed 'dMifed. T. mif>aled

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ClRClf: 194 Of'! RU Df:R S-ERVICf:(:ARD CIRClf: 14 Of'! IIUOU! S-ERVIC£ CARD
16 73 Amateur Radio Todaye November, 1992

K E2A M's
COMPLETELY SElf CON TAIN ,O 1",1 aaa 'a<1oOS now'"
moe. ,.,.1(1\"OU r.ave a 'epea,,,, lleco<a ""y ~ "'10
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a,,,e 01 I[l SQUelch faol, arM1 l<ne our 'tn'lor"I\l M , ., ~ 101
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In our c o ntin uing effort to p re sent SQlJCl<:t1li011 COR 01 SQlJCl<:t1 acl",alC'd AI bulf~~ed VO

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SHF 12"O Compiete T~lIr
and columns, we recognize the need SHFSYUEMS '*'1IIIII ..... ~IIId" ••••••~
. "." k*tor
to go di rectly to the source--you, the 902, 12llll, 1296.~ . 2-loOO. 3456 MHl- AI_2mi.l.Ol3.8Y, ICa
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All-Band HF Mobile Antenna
Review: J RL·2000
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73 Ama teur Radio Today ' November, 1992 17

Number 6 on you r Feed back car d

An All-Band HF
Mobile Antenna
Efficient and inexpensive.
by Stephen A. Glowacki KC4TMT

T here are man y reason s why we build

antennas. Oft en we want so mething in
particular that we either can't buy commer-
larger inductance than base loading in order
to cance l out the increased capacitive reac-
tance (Xj (This increase is due to less an-
cially or can't af ford. tenna being available for resonance above
As the county 's Emergency Coordi nator the cc il.) This larger induc ta nce then re-
I needed a good mobile rnuniband antenna. q ui res a larger Q -fa ctor (to ma intain the
I initialed this design 10 favo r material s same comparative radiation e fficie ncy as a
ava ilable at loca l hard ware stores . T his base-loaded antenna).
tends to make repai r eas ier and helps keep This need for larger induc tance and Q-
thc overall cost down. The follow ing mo- factor forces the construction of physicall y
bi le design can be constructed for about larger coils. with placement o f the coil be-
$20. with subseq ue nt band coil s co sting ing higher. wind-loadi ng problems req uire
less than $3-$5 each. the use o f guy connections. (I hate to think
Much of the designing for thi s ant enna in terms o f guy wires when wo rking with
was done with the aid of thc ARRL Antenna my car.)
Book and the ARRL Handbook , Theore ticall y, if the coil is moved much
beyond the two-thirds mark . the size of the
T heory coil would become impract ically large and
The main idea behind an HF mobile an- make it impossible for mobile usc.
tenna is to maintain the e lectrica l length Mo st of the d imensions o f this an tenna
while shrinking the physical lengt h to a resulted from the materials I had on hand at
practical size. The way to do this is to in- the time. The numbers are on ly inte rnally
corporate so me sort of load ing coi l at ei the r significant and changes can be made easily
the base or the center. Eac h has its merits. w ith m inor adjust ments to the rest of the an-
Base loading has the advantage of physical. tenn a, i.e. if yo u shorten th e top antenna
Iy plac ing the we ight of the co il ncar the section. increase the number o f turns on the
car. This avoids the need fo r guy conncc- co il; if you lo wer the position of the coil
tions. along the antenna, use less turns on the coi l.
I' ll include some references 10 the math. (The oppos ite of these remedies is true for
but not man y. If yo u really wa nt the full reversed condi tions.)
outline o f the calculation process and for- To ac hieve optimum e fficiency you need
mul es. contac t me and I'll be more than 10 balance all the characte ristics of the an-
glad to QSO about it. tenna. The measure ments given will put you
RF current is maximum at the point im- in the ballpark, but fine- luning is always re-
me d iate ly above a loading co il. With a qu ired. Be patient in fine -tuning the an tenna
base-loading an tenna. the efficiency is less Photo A . Stephen Glowacki KC4TMT stands to you r car. A good way to ens ure a favo r-
because th is current tapers off quickly as it next to his mobile all1enlla. able outcome is 10 set plenty of time as ide
goe s towa rd the top of the antenna. Howev- and fo llow consistently whatever procedure
er. with center loading, the radiation effi- you devise 10 trim the coil.
ciency improves quite a bn. Optimum posi- The match ing system listed here is only
tioning is somewhere between 50q.·70% up "LAS,.,C O'l...-E R o ne o f man y. The general approach is to
'"Lv " el ~G • • S~ EftS
the total length of the antenna. "'" • "16 ' cause the antenna to be capac lrive: that is,
RF current varies with the cosine of the to have it resona te at a frequency slightly
height in e lectrical degrees at any point in • higher than what you want. This will also
the base section. In a ce nter- loaded antenna increase the impedance o f the antenna. The
this cha rac te ristic result s in more curre nt increased capacitance can then be cance led
being allowed to conduct higher up the an- "e'
H ~OE~
by an inductance in the matching portion.
tenn a. This is more e fficient, compared to a ".S ~E ~S
The opposite is also true. However, using
STO~OA~ O wA S ~ E ~
base-loaded antenna. The current then ta - • an i nducto r seems to be eas ier-it 's less
pers off above the coil no rmally, resulting L , "• . , "2 " "e'
~ E' ~ UO w ' T~ ' 6"' TC ~ sensi t ive to su rrou nding co ndi tions and,
in an overall increase in the efficiency of thu s, more predi ctab le than an air ca pacitor.
the antenna. The third approach is to use a cornbina-
U nfort unately, center loading requi res a Figure J. Antenna bracket. Continued on page 21
18 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992
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CIIICU. 41 ~ I UOll Sl llVtCl CAItO

Wayne is mad as hell ...

. . . and he doesn't want
you to take it anymore!


On Our Lousy Government
Fed up with the mess in Washington?
The mess in your state capital? 71'e tlie peopfe

Poverty, crime, our failing schools?

Wayne Green has solutions.
Clever solutions. War!
On OUf lousy Government
Wayne Green's unique reasoning is intriguing - even del ightful.
Whether you are horrified by his proposals or you embrace them ,
it is impossible to ignore the basic lesson he presents: It is time Wayne Green
10 bring logic - not emotions - to bear on America's dilemmas.
His spin on America in the 90's helps us to understand how

........--._- .--.__-. _-
simple the seemingly complex issues are. All it takes is look- I A Guerrilla Handbook For ~.:
f . ..... ... ........... _ _ ... _ . .

ing at them from an entirely new viewpoint.

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Yes !r~mada,;t;cli.loo ! Send me- - ~opies of Declare Warifor the- ' Special
ispec ial 73 price of only $ 10 each (plus $3.50 shipping & handling). i
I copies x $ 10 =$ + $3.50 shipping = $ I
I - Check Enclosed (payable to "WG I")
I 73
I _ Charge my: _MC VISA AMEX I
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only $10.00
I Name: I regular price: $12.95
I Address: I Order
ICity: State: Zip: I Toll-Free:
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800-234-8458 --'
------------------- --------
very helpful and a donation of a few pi zzas
, K 4 · O'YC COIL FOOl"
to the class can go a long way. Die cut a . !TH 'O'YC 001
3/8· 16 thread around both ends of the lower
• solid antenna port ion. (Reme mber to keep
in mind that TWO couplers are used on this
section and that the overall required length
is 63- 1/2".)
The top an ten na whip can be purchased
at most radi o shops or at Radio Shack; or, - ln 2 '
yo u may have o ne ly ing aro und that will , .s· (......uX!
wor k. T he ma j orit y w i ll u se a 1/4 - 20
thread. A coupler of the same thread will be ~;:;) ~u.::X=-II.· PLE"GL-US

used to attach this to the top o f the load ing

coi l. Figure 2. Ml1tchillK coil p latform.
1 suggest you use d ielectric for all thread-
ed connections . About a month after I in-
stalled the ant enna I began having problems
whi le tuning up. I fo und that this was be-
Photo B. Close-up I'il'w of 111(' '()(JJiIlK coil,
cause the threaded po rtions had some minor
corro sion due to we athe r. Pe ri odic a ll y
check these connections and. if necessary.
treat them with e lectrical sealer o r dopi ng.

lion of inductance and capacitance shunted M uunting Bracket

' ... . 20 . , ln.ftOLT-=~~
in parallcl 10 g round. Th is is mo st effective The ac tual mounting bracket design will , / 1H ' • , 1/2 ' ftOLT_

since it is basica lly a custo m-made an tenna depend on where yo u dee ide to place the
tuner. I recently experime nted with this de- antenna on you r car. Like many cars, mine •
sign and found it to be very successful. To has rubber bum pers. This forced me to de-
make this addition. simply locale a variable sign a bracket using 1- 1/2" x 3/32" n at steel 1ft GAuGE w ' ~ E
ai r cap hav ing somewhere between 15 and th at wou ld be bent to mount aga inst the
600 pF an d moun t it ei the r d irectly on the body BE HIND the rear bumper. "
car or on an enlarged platform able to hold Firs t bend the steel to fi t as you wo uld •
borb. Wire the m in para llc l and yo u ' re like it. Then measure how far o ut it needs 'Ill · .. 2 ' COUPLE~--III
read y 10 go. to be cut to suppon the antenna. Ensure that
lve been able (0 tune the existing center the steel doesn 't rub against other pans o f
loads across each entire band wi th at least a the car-this would cause static and could
1.2; I SWR. Not bad for a $2 add ition! effect the tuning of the antenna.
Before you begi n. I'd like 10 note that de- After Ihe final placement and bend ing is
sign ing and bu ilding antennas is a learning co mp leted, drill two 7/ 16" ho les through Figure 3. Own ';ew of the mobile lllltellllQ.
experience. We've all heard the story o f the the stecl and body of the car. Temporarily
damaged antenna lyi ng on the g round that att ach the b racket and determine ho w fa r tance be tw een th e two co n nect io ns. It
worked bett er than when it was on the low- out to drill the hole for mounting the anten- shou ld be better than 10 meg . (I measured
er. Anten na performance is ne t always pre- na. Mark th is spot. almost 250 megohm s with my DMM .)
d ictable, so wat ch for unusual resu lts. The size o f ho le 10 drill here will depend O nce satis fied. use el ect rica l doping to
T here are many opinions and approaches on Ihe o uts ide d iamete r o f the ins ula ting insulate BOTH connectio ns 10 slo p mo is-
to wha t works or doesn 't work. w hat 's im- tubing you use around the mounting bo ll. tu re from gett ing into the coa x and from
po rtant to remember is that the ante nna is The tubing I used had an o .d. of 1/2". This crea ting a shon between the two leads. This
only as good as its SWR and RSTs. hol e shou ld allow Ihe in sul ating tubing 10 dop ing is commonly available at e lectrical
have a snug fit. so cut the hose to the thick- supply stores.
Constr uction ncssof the steel pl us 1/8". Use 7/ 16" hex-head bo lts and washers to
Preparation and asse mbly of Ihe antenna Drill a second hol e (1/4") about 1- 1/2" mount the bracket 10 the body o f the car. To
is straig htfo rw ard . First gathe r the mat e- from the fi rst, to ward the car. This will be ens ure a good gro unding co ntact. sc ratc h
rials. I strongly suggest Ihat Ihe low er por- for mounting the coax ial ground ing connec- off the enamel where the washers meet the
lion of the an tenna be made o f OIl least 3/8" tion. bracket . Conside r using Lock-tight on the
d ia me te r SO LI D a lum inum o r sta in less After all the bending and drilling is com- bo lt s if e xcessive v ibra tion s are a factor.
steel rod. Thinner d imension s will te nd 10 pleted , paint the bracket with as many coats These bolts should ex tend inside the trunk
break under the stress o f d rivi ng. of cl ear enamel as necessary to prot ect it about I " beyond the nul for attac hi ng the
T he length of th is rod (62- 1/2") wi ll be fro m Ihe weather. Set it aside 10 dry. ground ing strap.
an overall 63- 1/2" when the couplers are 011- Next, attach two elect rica l connectors to Finall y, dri ll a 3/8" ho le thro ugh the car
tached . T he upper whi p sec tio n measures one end of the 16-1 12" RG-58 coax; 3/8" to body next to the bracket and install a grom-
50- 1/2" overal l. This inclu des the coupler. the center lead and 3/16" to the shield ing. I mel. Feed the o ther end of the RG -58 coax
so measure appropriately. If you need to de- suggest sol dering the ground connector as through the grommet.
viate slightly from these figure s no recalc u- close as possible 10 Ihe coax. Be careful nor This completes the mounting bracket as-
lat ion will be nece ssary. j ust allow mo re to me lt the center lead insulation. se mb ly.
tu rns o n the loading coil. Later you can tri m Once the b rac ke t is d ry. assemble the
the coil to accommodate the chan ges. 3/8" coupler as sho wn in Figure I. When Matching Co il
At this po int you'll need a lap and d ie se t you tighten the coupler the plastic washers The matching coi l is designed to balance
(see the sidebar). If you don 't have one the will co mpress against the rubber hose and an 80 meter loading coil and higher. If yo u
loca l hardw are store w ill usuall y do Ihe electrically insulate the bo lt. decide to use a 160 meter coil you can add
work for a small fcc . O r vis it the local h igh T hen a tt ac h th e sh ie lde d s id e to the more turns 10 the matching co il.
sc hool meta l shop. T he teachers arc o ften bracket with a 1/4 " bolt. Measu re the resis- The coi l is bui It aro und a I" PVC pipe

73 Amateur Radio toasv»Novem be r, 1992 21

hex-head bolt. Again allow a bo ut I " extra through both disks at the same time to hel p
on the bolt len gth for the coil and j umper ce nter the antenna studs. Then drill one of
connectors. these to 5/ 16". Drill carefully to avoid chip-
Solde r th e two electrica l connect ors to ping or cracking. For added streng th, drill
the RG-58 antenna feed in side the trunk three holes in a triangular pattern thro ugh
AFTER IT HAS BEEN FED THROUGH both disks. The holes should be about 518"
THE G RO MM ET. (7/ 16" for the shielding in from the edge to provide clearance for
and 3/8" for the center lead.) the PVC tubing thickness (114"). The size
To mak e the jumper, remo ve the shield- of these hol es depends on the size of the
ing from a pi ece o f RG·58 about 6" to 7" plastic bolts you'll be usi ng. I strongly sug -
long and solder an alligator cl ip to one end. gest that yo u tap these holes to allow the
C UI a length of heat sh rink that will in sulate bolts to thread. P lastic bolt s a re n't very
all but 1/4" of thi s shie lding and shrink it strong and the added benefit will be need-
on. Slide the alligator clip 's rubber cove r 'd.
over the heat shrink to the cl ip. Finally, so l- Tap the center 3/1 6" an d 5/16" holes to
der a 1/4 " connector to the other end of the 1/4 "-20 and 3/8"wI6 thread, re spectivel y.
j umper where the ba re shield ing extends. Using fende r washers to help disperse the
Photo C. The compotlent parts of rile loading
coil fo rm are made of a slice of PVC pipe A ttach both the jumpe r and on e end of pressure, thread each bolt through to e nsure
the matching co il over the platform's 1/4" a clean tap.. Back the bolts out about 1/4 "
with plexiglas end pieces.
bo lt. Attach the ot he r end o f the coil to the and apply a generous amo unt of in s tant
Plexi glas s upport using a 318" bolt (see Fig- glue to the threads. Re-tighten to a snug fit.
about 4 " long . Fro m 1/4 " Plexigl as" c ut ure 2). Plac ing the threads outward, glue the two
3- 1/4" x 4" lengths 10 usc as spacers. With If yo u use 16 or 14 ga uge wire for the in- di s k s to a PVC s lic e wi th five-m inu te
PVC cement, glue these, eq ua lly spaced, ductor it will be ab le to support itself by its epoxy (clear type ) and let the m dry. An im-
aro und th e PVC form. Th is wi ll pro vid e leads. portant point when gluing is to have all the
room for an allig ator cl ip to be used later. To finish the ma tching unit, cut a 6" to 7" pieces under moderate press ure to ensure a
Wrap 14 to 15 turns of 14 or 16 gauge len gth of RG -58 co ax and connect a PI.- tigh t bond. To do thi s, th read the plastic
so lid bare copper wire around thi s for m. 259 connec tor to one e nd. Solde r an all iga- bolts through and tighten them before the
The width of the total tu rns sho uld be 3". tor clip to the other end's center lead. Insu- glue dries. DO NOT USE METAL BOLTS
With a d iameter of about 1- 1/2", thi s coil late th e shie lding with heat-shrink tubing, FOR T H IS-they wi ll interact with the
sho uld p rov ide approximately 3. 2 IlH of as before , w ith th e jumper a nd attach a load ing coi l and could dis tort the radia tion
matching induct ance. So lde r two e lectrical 7/16" electrical connector to the end. (Al- pa ttern.
connec tors to the leads of the coil. low these two leads to be long enough for Once dry, solder a 1/4" electrical connec-
Cons truc t a mounting platform , as shown the center lead to extend to both sides of the to r to one end of the 18 gauge enamel w ire
in Figu re 2, using thin sheet steel and Plexi- mat ch ing coi l when th e shie ld ing is con- that will be used fo r the co il. Bolt th is to the
g las. Use a 3/8" bolt to attach the coil to the nected to the 7/ 16" brack et mo unting bolt.) top part o f the coil form usi ng spacin g
Plexi glas portion a nd a 1/4 " to gro und the A t thi s po int yo u c a n add a variable washers and the 1/4 " coupler.
co il to the stee l portion. capaci tor. Remember to wire it in parallel With a flat iron tip melt a groove into the
Thi s platform can be moun ted almost and yo u' re all set. edge of the top P le xiglas disk . Press the
an ywhere inside yo ur tru nk provided it's enamel wire into the groove while it's still
with in reach of the RG -58 feedl ine . Drill a Loading Coil so ft. T his w ill stop the coil from unravel-
1/4" hol e and mount th is p latform w ith a Cut a piece of 4" PVC tubi ng into Slices, ing. Wra p wit h a n a ppropriate number o f
refe rri ng to Table I . tu rns for the band you've chosen. Try and
Make the se cuts as keep th e turns as tig ht as poss ible and
sq uare a s po ssib le . pressed togethe r.
This will determine Use plenty of electrical tape to temporar-
the straigh tnes s of ily hold the coi l wire in p lace. Mo unt the
the antenna. Because 3/8" connecto r to the lower side as yo u did
bolt s and washers w ith the top stdc. but don 't so lde r the
ex tend towa rd the in- enamel wi re-you ' ll need it loose for tun -
side of the coil , the ing later on.
PVC slice shou ld not
b e cu t le ss than I " Fine-luning
wide . A nach an SWR met er to the matching
On a sheet of 1/4" co il's PL-259 connector. H ook up your
Plexi g la s , outline radio as it would normally be and attach the
two di sks for e ac h feedline to the other side of the SWR meter.
loading coil by using T he feed line a lliga tor cl ip s hould be
on e of the slices as a attach ed to the ung round ed si de o f the
g uide. I ' ve had ex- matching coil where the antenna fee dline is
cellent re sults using c onnected . T he coil 's g ro und ing jumpe r
a s a be r sa w with a should be unconnected. (Yo u can cl ip it to
moderate tooth blade the end of the PVC fonn.)
( 12/inch) under mod- Assemble the antenna and attach it to the
erate pressure . This coupler on the mo unting bracket. (I added a
s ho u ld avoid chip- second support highe r up to allow the lower
ping but may create antenna to s ta y perm anentl y on the car.)
melt in g . Pliers can (See Figure 3.)
Photo D . The matching coil assembtv mOl/nrs inside of the vehicle. be used to pull off File the enamel off the tip of the lower
Grounding and feedtine alligator dips allow fo r fine tuning of the the melted excess. load ing coil wi re that isn't attached. Use an
resonance and impedance of the alllellna. Drill a 3/1 6" ho le alli gator clip to temporarily hold the con-
22 73 Amateur Radio Today· Novembe r, 1992
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73 Amateur Radio roaey»November, 1992 23
1/2" at a time . Each quarte r tum should in-
Table 1, Center Coil Dimensions crease the resonance by abo ut 50 kHz while
Band Tums Coil Length Form Length PVC Diameter ha lf-inch sn ips should be 10 kH z.
160 62 2.75' 2.875' 4,5' Once yo u arc sat isfied, remo ve the co il
80 23 .75 t- 1.125' 4.5' and solder the e na me l w ire to the lowe r
40 10.25 0.5' t- 4.5' connector. Reassemble and c hec k the SWR.
20 7.50 0.5' 2.5" 2.375' If there are a ny proble ms you'll need to
15 2.80 0.125' 2' 1.875'
resta rt the fi ne-tu ning from the beginning ,
10 No center coil necessary; join the two rods together With a coupler.
and possibly rewrap the coil.
Repea t th is process for eac h band coil.
nectio n for tuning. The clip should not ha ve the SWR . Don 't test by sho rting the loading Try no t to c hange the m atching un it. The
any wire attac hed to it. coil- this wi ll degrade the efficiency of the goal is for the coi l to be the o nly necessary
Check fo r the best SWR. 100 kHz down coi l and give false readings. change to switch bands.
fro m the center freq uency yo u want the an- O nce yo u get nea r the null (where the The matching coi l alligator cl ips are used
tenna to reso nate at. Adjust by clipping one SWR begins to dip) adj ust to you r desired for with in-band adjustments. These will al -
quarter tum at a time, each time checking frequency and continue by clipping 1/4 " to lo w for adj ust ing the SWR within a s mall
ra nge afte r the overall tu ning is complete .
The fcc dl ine cl ip is us ed to balance the
Tap and Die matching coil. while the jumper is used 10
adj ust the inductance. You' ll need to be pa-
If you're not familiar with Ihe mec hanics of a tap and die, no problem . The procedure tie nt to successfully tunc to diffe rent fre-
is straightforward. qucnc rcs.
First locate the proper size of die. (This is what cuts the threads into a rod 10 make il The resul ts could be ma rked by paired
resemble a bolt.) Using the 3/8"- 16 size as an e xample, the first number measures the colors, 1/8" j umpers could be soldered to
diameter of the outside of the threads, and the second numbe r tells how many threads the matching coil at these points for easier
there are per inch. These numbers appear on the die itse lf, whic h can be purchased indi- reference, o r a two-pole ro tary switch could
vidually for about $2. be used to ma ke band sw itching qu ick and
You need a handle to hold the die steady during the process. These cost about $8-$15, easy.
depending on the style. If you c hoose to incl ude the variable ca-
If you want to save money. Scars has a 20-piece Homeowners Set for unde r $20, paci tor in the matching system you' ll have
available through their catalog store. Whatever yo u buy, just make sure that the 3/8"-16 m ore le ewa y . ( T he groun d ing j u m pe r
and 14"·20 are part of the set. These arc common sizes used in amateur radio. wasn't necessary when 1 made this addition
The technique for cutting with a die is simple. Brace the rod steady either in a vise or later.)
with Vise-Grip pliers. (I used the latter, attaching the pliers ncar the base of the rod and Whatever you do, the shorter th e leads
then standing on them for bracing.) are the bette r. Everything effects the anten-
Placing the wid e side of the die toward the rod. tum slowly but with pressure. You'll na. Even the 16- 1/2" feed line is pan o f the
feel it cut into the aluminum almost immediately. anten na a nd wi ll effect the tun ing if it is
Make sure that the first two to three thread cuts are square so that the die remains per- changed.
pendicular to the rod. Hot g lue or five-min ute e poxy could be
The die needs to remain square to the rod while it is turning. This is the most difficult spread o n the ena mel wi re once all tuning is
pan of the whole process. Once the first two to three threads are CUI, the rest is easy. complete . I haven't been able to find hea t-
Now the turning technique: T um the handle clockwise 90 degrees, then reverse and shri nk tubing big enough 10 fit over the coil,
tum back until you feel the metal fi lings snap. (About 30-40 dcgrccs.) Then, tum clock- altho ugh this would be best. If you usc 2"
wise another 90 degrees and again reverse to snap off the filings. Continue this process PVC or smaller for the loading coi l form, 3"
until the proper length is cut. I find it easier if I imagine north, east, south and west and hea t-shrink tu bing is av ai lable from Elec-
keep to those points. tronic Surplus (R&D Electron ics) in Cleve-
It may be necessary to tum continuously for the first thread or so to help the die take land. Ohio.
hold. Don't be afraid to back off and stan again.
Once the cutting is started. have some lubricant avai lable and apply moderately. Ft nishlng
T here are certain lubricants preferred for some me tals. Generally. a light oil or kerosene TIle g uy connection I'll leave up to yo u.
is good for aluminum and stainless steel. High strength fishing line. thin rope, or ma-
son line a rc all good c hoices. Either way,
guys arc necessa ry to avoid da mage. I sug-
gest using two support lines.
I've had many S7-9 reports within a 400-
si: yoo, P,iJ. W" m ile rad ius of my Wes t Virginia QT H o n
the 80 and 40 meter bands. On the 15 and
74., Catt ..Si•• ,. p: To see your 20 meter ba nds I was able to QSO with sta-
Pi'n type (circle one) tions in France and Germany wh ile travel-
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Material: 14K! Gold Filled Sterling
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Although commercial designs may have
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Number of 14 Slerling Silver
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24 73 Amateur Radio Today· November, 1992
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_ s....,w......... 15... _ .... _ ~ .. Choftp

Inquiries (206) 869-8052 IIIi. . . . ,..,....

&f)4 ~ a. . ~ 1(: m12 f'lm!,fo\X 919--&l1~

. .-.. - ""'" -,_. _. - ......._,. - (


To build a transceiver wi th our kilS is a simple modul ar , ste p by step
approach. You ca n I l art with rne receiver, and then add on the t-enemuter
The HOWE S DFD4 is an add ·on Dig ital Readout l or analogue receiverl at a later date il you wish. Various accessory kits are ava ilable to increase
and transceive rs . II you have an FRG7, an analogue FTl01 or a similar the l acilities , these range from a simple signal meter lor me recei ver to
type 01rig, then the DFD 4 has been designed with you in min d. The DFD4 extra filtering and of cours e, dig ital readout. We ctrer a ma tching ra nge of
is a Irequency counter thaI can be programmed lor any IF offs et so it can "hardware packs· (case, knobs, etc.) to enable your station to look as good
be used with almost any radio, includin g the old Government sur plus sets. as factory equ ipment ! Whether you laney a sing le band CW transceiver,
It can al.o co unt down .1 well 81 up , so it is l uitable for "reve r.e luning" or more comple. dual band SSBlCW rig , all these kits are des igned to be
rigs 100. within the scope 01 the ordinary home constructor. The well thought OUl
des igns and ltIe backing 01 proleSl iona! AF lest facili ties mean you can
To make the DFD4 even more suitable, we now oller ltIe PMB4 Program - blJild with conlidence l
mable Matrix as an optional kit. This enables you to switch between si x
dillerent programmed offselS, so ltIe DFD4 can be used wiltl more man one Single band 40 or 80M CW transceiver:
radio, and 10 compensate lor IF Irequency diflerences when switching DcR. or DcR. 80 rIC
~o k. ._...__._ __ $28 .95
model. Also new is the CA4M -hardw are package .- This contains a CTX "O or CT X 80 " .... mill kil _.. ._....._ _._ $26.05
custom made case wiltl pre- punched anodized aluminum Ironl panel (see CVF 40 o r CVF 80 VFO tOt TX & RX _... .. ... __._.. _._ _ _ $ 19.95
drawing above). plu s switch, knob, BNC socket, nuts and bolts, ete. to CSl 4 300 HZ CW end nltTOW SS8 I ~ter ._ _._ _ ..•.._.._.._ $ 18.95
enable you to achie ve a high ltandard 01 finish for your project. CA 80 M e.-..& HlIlIwar. (40 or 110) _ _ _ ••_._._••_ •• _._ lli..!l:i
" order&<! saplrll." •••_ ••• ~ __••••_ ••.._•• H_••••• _ •••• _ ••• _ •••••••• ••••• _._ •••• _ •••• _ ••• S 111.10
DF~ 1<_ ••_....~ .._..._ ....._ ••••_•••••• H_ • • • • •••••• •• •••••• _ •• • • • • _ •••••• ••• _ $1 1.05
••• • • _ ••••• _ •• _ . as I unil (SIlt. bendl ••••• _.~ _ ••••• _~ •••••_ _ _ _ $
PMSt Kit •........_........•.•••••_ ••••_ H._ _ _
$ 11. 95 _ To order wrlle o r ca ll:
CM MCas. & Hardwar ~ " _ $35115
Ordered . eparal .l, ••••••••• _•.••••••.•••••••.•_..••••.....•••.........••......•••....•..•••.. .••••....••• ~. $ 125.85 1-800-944 ·3661 • VISAIM C ac cepl ed • Add $4.00 per o rd.r for S & H
Ordered as • unit .••. ....•~ ••••••••••••••••••~ S116 .115 •••• ASK FOR OUR FREE CATALOG ....
Include $1 .00 l or 1s1 c lass Posta e. $2.00 l or forel n cou ntrie• .
Number 7 on your Feedl)llck card

73 Review Japan Radio Co., ltd.
by Bill Clarke WA-IBLC 430 Park Ave., 2nd Floor
New York NY 10022
Telephone: (212) 355-1180

The JRL·2000F HF Fax: (212)319-5227

Price Class: $4,899

MOSFET Linear Amplifier

A solid-state, no-tune kilowatt with very advanced fea tures.

T he JR l-2000F is built by the

Japan Radio Co., ltd. (JRC). II is
a microprocessor-controlled solid-
push the 2000F's SET button to sam-
pie the frequency of operation (not re-
quired when using the JST·135, due to
state no-tone HF linear amplifier ca- the fee dback data line between the
pable of producing a solid 1,000 watts transceiver and the amplifier). Insse
output. mode it is necessary to say a word or
When the 2000F arrived it was in a two (ie: "ahhhhh!") so the amplifier can
single box and well packaged inside determine the operating frequency.
same. The weight of the box was a Once the frequency is determined, the
form idable 78 lbs. and you should 2000F will tune itself, based on prior
be torewemec not to attempt to place usage at that frequency.
this amplifier on anything less than a Once the band segments for my fa-
desk or surface designed for berne- vorite frequenc ies had been pro -
Ship pcrpcses. I used two heavy-duty grammed into memory, I lound the
milk crates. Due to its weight. this unit ICOM and Ten- 'rec to be nearly as
cannot be shipped by UPS. It arrived dexterous with the JAl·2OOQF as is
at my door via Federal Express the JST-l35, the only difference being
(FEDEX). the requirement lor pushing the SET
There is nothing \0 assemble with button and announcing yourself each
the amplifier. It is ready to go as soon Photo A. The JRL-2000F solid·state kilowaff amplifier. time you QSV.
as it is unpacked. No tuOO(s) or trans- The ease of the 2OOOF's automatic
former(s) to install. Strictly plug 'n gol tuning and an tenna selection brings
The 2000F comes with a remote hand control, power, or distortion. A single 3-500 (1 kWoutput) this HF linear amplifier into the realm of the in-
resembl ing a TV remote control, which can com- tube-based amplifier was used for on-the-air stant aSY we are all used to with solid-state
pletely operate the amplifier. comparison of signal reports. transceivers. I found th at when jumping from
Fan noise was not mentioned by anyone. 14.300 to 3.950, the amplifier tuning and the
Initial Testing Nevertheless, depending upon physical place- switching of the antenna line took about three
For initial testing I used the JST·135 (also ment of the amplifier, I believe fan noise could seconds when using the ICOM 751A. Just punch
from JAC) transceiver. Through an interconnec- prove to be a problem. However, the 2000F is the new frequency into the 751's keypad and
tion cable, the 135 converses directly with the not the only amplifier to suffer from fan noise. press ENTEA, then press SET on the 2000F eoo
amplifier for band/frequency info rmal ion and The problem applies to nearly all HF amateur say "ahhhhh: It really is that easy! aSYing with
0001"'. amplifiers. the Ten-Tee took slightly longer as its tuning
The 2000F is a complex and mcoem device, The typical efficiency of the 2000F appears to knob and band selector switch must both be
although from the operational point 01 view il is be aboul 60 percent. This is based upon meIer used when Changing frequency.
abou1 as Simple as you can gel. A pre-made ca- readings of 22A current at 80 VDC during key- Throughout the testing period I was always on
ble (optional ) is connected between the exciter down, with an output of 1 kW. the lookout for a g1ilch to rear its ugy head , yet
and the amplifier lor control (il contains a lew Antenna control is core by the 2OOOF. Manual none ever appeared. Performance was flawless.
more wires than the usual transmit relay control selection is made by push ing buttons on the front
line) and a coax jumper lor bringing (he AF input of the amplifier. Later recea of previous operation Po ints of Interest
to the amp . on the same (or nearby) frequency will cause the The 2000F can be used as an antenna switch;
The antenna system is connected to the four amplifier to select the originally chosen antenna swilch and tuner; or switch, luner, and amplifier.
antenna ports on the back of (he amp. In the automatically (this can be overridden by the Each section is separate in operation but they
case of this testing I utilized them in the following manual controls). are linked operationally via microprocessor con-
manner: 80/40 dipole, Cushcralt A5 vertical , 160
meter dipole, and 80-10 meter Windom. No ex-
After using the JST-1351JAL-2000F combina-
tion on several bands and enjoying the complete ''''.
S witch selections provide lor power on/off,
temal antenna tuner was placed in the line. ease of fully automatic tune-up and antenna standby, tune (automatic antenna tuner), anten-
My first operation was on 75 meters. II took change, 1 built connector cables for use with my na selection, and set (storage/selection of cur-
about 10 seconds for the amplifier to set itself up ICOM 751A and Corsair II. The cables must pro- rent operating parameters).
for the band segment being operated on. Later vide, in addition to the normal ALC and PTT Two fron t panel meters provide selectable
return to this segment required only an instant lines, a talk-back line. The latter forces the ex- monitoring of output power or VSWA and cur-
lor retuning . citer into transmit during tune-up or after QSY. rent, voltage, or Ale.
Signal reports were excellent. No mention was Tune-up is still super simple. For example, to LED indicators monitor drive levels and XMIT,
made 01 poor Signal , low audio quality. reduced Change lrom 40 meters to 75 meters you merely indicate antenna match, and show the selected

26 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992

antenna. A central display indicates the frequen-
cy in use and produces coded messages in case AMATEUR RADIO EQUIPMENT
01 trouble.
The amplifier is designed lor a 1 kW output
and typical readings of the output show that the
e I u te nco
For Your Best Price
2000F easily reaches this specification .
Although the 2000F is equipped with a "h91-
Authorized dealer for Icom, Kenwood, Yaesu,
speed arrestor" for protection against lig htning ASTRON, Belden, Bencher, AEA, Cushcraft, MFJ, RF
surge pulses. f would not trust this expensive oe- Concepts, Hustler, Kantronics, Wilson, Diamond,
vice to the whims of nature by relying upon any-
thing le ss than complete disconnect du ring Ham-tO, Larsen, Wm. M, Nye, B&W,ARRL, Ameritron,
storms . Epson, Farr Corner, DTK
Instruction Manual 1057 East 2100 South, Salt Lake City, VI 84106
The JRL-2000F's manual is rather stark when
compared 10 the volumes of paper typically ac-
companying a modem piece of HF equipment. It
is , just the same. very adequate. After all . the
2000F does nearly everything for you automati- ATV CONVERTERS· HF LINEAR AMPLIFIERS
cally. H' . .... p" ' "-"" 000 '1'0. 01.. , uu p '".
Once I understood the initial connections and """' •.r......
__ "0' 1'0_00.".... ._
.. II' e 7_. ....._ ",.. _r _
Il.!I.lV.Il'lAL ~ '''JA''
.....:0] . UIO
__ ..__.UIfOex
. IlAIlOu.l
. ~

settings , I only found it necessary to refer back 10 ...... _ ......

.... . u J',_ . n
'M' ,_ .....
I I ". _' U . II H u t Il"K ...", T U .....
the manual to decode alarm messages when .... .... _ Ill.. ..,.. _ t ..,n
. ...__ . .. .. ....... _ .... 11 _ ....... _, '.'.l __.._111 _
they appeared on the LCD readout (ve ry infre- ..". _ ...... ' ''S- I e - 50._1 ,/.'._1 U .
quent and always, in my case. indicative 01 an ..,"'" ' '!..l'''"n J_ .......... ... H _ .

N A TlUII T U IYIJIO!IJ CO" VU TU S . ' OW" VUTTlU .... co...". . .. e H '~ e... . _ ~ _ / nc
operator error). V) " . _ I U h K. ' __ '" ...... <CUD " ItA e". I_U_ ./ I._ •
Maintenance instructions lor cleaning the air " TVI " 1 _&$0
" TV_ '0> _1"
1"G.U_n 'I""'"
_ 01
m" ••• .

, " " llt n

I K;, - W.. , " , 1 _ f ..,
K. ,Nt W. " . , . , _ " "
__.. .• " .11
•• po,,"u T....'uISTon
" " " _ CO. C UIT MI ..
,no w." ~ ,.__ _ , ,l I t II 181 -111_ · 1 " .... ,•...,, . ....
filters and a troub leshooting chart are part 01 the UO'O SOY!!,t !! to " "O~ 'o. UV 1B1 _ ' ~ ~. -, 2i"..--........I 1.1.
I m.'.'..__ " " " 1 1' " h ~4:&!$;1 'lfV -~Y\l UlOI.... ....eo " I" Ell "' ~A J OU
manual. V~lM -lOIi ." •• c --., . 'lli

.. -,- ...... ..... _.... _ . -

I M llu VH f ~ "~LIOIfU M _I" _I _ . . • . . -• • .04 1OI
A publicat ion describing JRC's design theory
and operation 01 the 2000F is also provided. It is .- -............,... .. ......_---
n , ~IL .." " ..,
........ ............'" "..'
, I " " h
t" U
, .,

.. '
• lO . .
. " _ _ .. . T. _ _•
... . . J ... ... _

straightforward, easy to unde rstand , and is not

r.::Y:!1ICommunication .'
couched in technical language.

llI l M ;II••_ D_ · I l _. 00‫ס‬Oo U JU· 1111) l H _ _
FAX II:J-<I2',.<I-Il1
. . •• ",," ,.".0'
0' ·

Japan Radio Company describes the 2000F CIIl'Cl£ 9 9 ON RUOEII $£RVICE CARO
as using 48 MOSFETS in the PA section. which SPY ON THE EARTH
consists 01 four wideband 250W power amplifiers
(each has 12 MOSFETS). The PA circuits are
SEPP (single ended push-pull) design. providing
greater effic iency than standard bipolar trans is-
torltranslormer cou pled push -pull circuits. The
design of the PA focuses on ease of impedance
matching for input/output and linearity. ZOO ENGINEER ING
Bias control for the MOS FET SEPP design in Speciali sts in CA T V Hardline M atching
class AB ope ration requires a high gale voltage T ra nsforme rs. Power Dividers and aerated
and high d rain idle curre nt. Th is results in low R.F. Device s.
high.grder IMD and a non-critical bias volt age
setting. The bias of the 2000F is controlled par-
tially by the excitation voltage to achieve extreme
stability. learn how you can benefit greatty from !his elertJng
The COOling system for the MOSFET amplifie r new led mology. Send S25 ($30 air. $35 overseas)
is based upon heat-re si sta nt MOSFETS and for our fantastic 12 diskette set ot professional
qJahty COPY" 9'Ued programs (IBM \)l)e) that does
temperature actuated tans. The fans a re rear
satellite tl acking . data acquisition. image
facing and generally quiet. processin g, file conv ersion and much more . Buitt to fit 112, 314 and 7/8 inch hardfine, or
Diskette packa ge includes all progra ms. satellite can be custom built for other sizes 01hardline
Antenna Tuning and any frequency between 50 MHz and 1.3
views, C language source code for a popular
The antenna tuner is microprocessor-con - satellite image acquisition program , hald wa re GHz. When ordering. please include a 4 inch
trolled and consists of coil s , caoecncrs. and re- schem atics. catalog and $25 discount certificate. section o f you r hardline and specify the de-
lays (30 on the tuner board). Operation consists sign Irequency you need.
Reception guaranteed Worldwide 144 MHz units are $34.95 per pair. 222
of samplin g the output frequency of the excit er
Absolutely legal MHz. 440 MHz. 903 MHz and 1296 MHz
and checking lor previous operation on the same
No satellite dish needed units are $32.95 per pair.
For FRE E l1!ormaoon log on to our buMebn boald Add $5.50 per pair UPS shipping (U.S. only).
The 2000F has a memory matrix consi sting of
Wi th your MODEM at (71 8) 740.391 1 or caN(71 8) Ohio residents add 5.5% sales la• .
a possible four antennas and 455 HF subbands
468·2720. to place <M'l order. Buy With conLdence Cu s tom bui lt prices o n r equest.
( 70 of which a re indi cated a s within th e ham
We've been in business Since 1956.
bands in the manual). What this means is that ZD ENGINEERING
each band is split into small segments . VANGUARD Electronic Labs Paul H. Oarwactor, W8Z0
When operaling in a particular band segment Dept. A. 196-23 Jamaica Ave. 60S Ba lsley Avenue, Findlay, OH 4 5840
the un it will sea rch its memory for in formation
Hollis. NY 11 423 PHONE: 419-424·8765
matching the frequency. If the unit recognizes the

73 Amateur Radio Today · No vem ber, 1992 27


ICOM'" R7000 SWEEPING particular frequency (or another within the same for the control circuits. By USing a swrtching pow-
1300 CHANNELS/MIN. subband) it will set itself to the previous settings er supply, JAG claims enceocy of 90% or more.
and antenna selection. If not. you will be required The power supply is cooled by its own fan and is
to enter this information before operation (takes professed to be capable of continuous operation
DELTACOMM"" 1-7000 and. YOUT MS-DOS compo~ r
you • ~ iMerl_ inlq..-.:d _ idl ..,.;"'iud
toftlr<ve lbal ..ill not juot coauol but will _Umiu !be
only a lew seconds and is fully automated). at 2.4 kW.
",*",' ;'1 of)'OW' R1OOO.
Antenna seectcn is a part 01 the 2000F's tun- The AG line VOltage required for operation is,
ing as the four antenna inputs are microproces- according to the various manuals and information
• Spectnlm k>& IIl Ipeeda ill. e~ of 1300 , .... ·litIm.iIl sor-controlled. For example: On 14.300 MHz you sheets I received with the 2OOOF, ambigl.lOUS. In
wtUk . ... to ally I • .we .
~.- of
always use your trusty tribander and select that Ihe wrinen information an indication is made that
fRy"} ..v..ity.
antenna when tuning the amplifier. From that AG 01 5Ql60 Hz from 85 through 2£4V win coer-
point , until you tell the 2000 F otherwise, the ate the unit, yet attention is later drawn to re-
robanoer will always be selected when operating duced output power at lower input voltages fie.
14.300 MHz. tOO-12O VAG for 75OW). All testing al this station
The antenna selection relays are contained in was done at 220 VAG line voltage, which I con-
a separate shielded box on the rear panel of the sider the standard lor 1 kW and above amplifiers.
amplifier's chassis.
The important band information is written into Service
an EEPAOM (a AOM Chip that can be electrically I was concerned about service for the 2000F
re written) during the TUNE operation. This infor- since there is not a plethora of JAC dealer/ser-
mation will always be available and won't disap- vice centers and the unit is very complex (i.e. not
• CYBF.RSCAN"" allow . ocaa fik nc:kin, control of pear when the power is turn ed ot!. user-serviceable).
Iyllemt employ ine: f~ boppin. tcehniq~.
• Bird ie 101 durinJ frequcncy ocarch automatically The data for the various operating states of JAG informs me there is no problem in obtain-
,ba ~riua YOUT R7000. lbc:a 10xb Otlt tI..- the JAL-2000F (power, PA, meter sellings, an- ing service, as the Aaytheon Service Company of
fl'e<l~ia durin. frequmcy ocan:b opemioa.
• C...wm inlc rf..,., hM clectronKa "" aUow ...ftwaR
tenna switch sellings. frequency band setnncs. New York, service center lor JAG's commercial
control (by c hannel number) of exkmal tape ra;ordtt. etc.) are stored in battery-backed AAM. Memory and marine amplifiers, will service the JAL·2000F.
backup is provided by a rechargeable battery This is reassuring, as tne name Raytheon is rec-
ICOM'" R71 RECEIVER which will keep the AAM fresh for a period of two ognizable and the 2000F is based upon the com-
weeks if the unit is unplugged from AG power. mercial/marine amplifiers routinefy serviced by
COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER When the battery discharges your operation set- them.
DEl.TACOMM"" 1·71 Veniaa 4.0 offen rmdIwrik tings are lost; however, normal operation can be
CODlrol. of y R71 receiver'. freer ')'. mode IIDd restored by using the SET procedure. Battery My Recomme ndation
.........., r -h
Addm..-J I'fl'Intli r ~ ino;kdc
aulo lot frcquaq' .-rdl. _ pnin._ timer' clodt eva'll recharge is automatic during normal operation. The 2000F is a dass act that the competition
.....- . .s.ta " - -a:emmt. pu.lI-d _ wtlilind very difficult to follow. It does its job wen,
...inoIoo'ot1. ",iii tw;l'eC:Il for yOW' TerttliI.I Node Coatr'OlIer Power Supply
(TNC) com<r! '.",*Ooa ~ aDd !he llbilily 10 c:oacrol aD appears to be solid in design and manufacture,
_ _ ~ ')"IU:m Of loU ' " tape I"eOOtdtt. The power supply is designed to use 220 VAG and exemplifies the term stale-of-the-art. Would I
and provide 80 VDC at 30A for the PA. Addition· like to have a 2000F residing in my station? Yes,ff
• Data lIMe ........ cmmI.umr,...defmitioqoff ~.
<;a1l l ip, ~ ochoduk. mo:o:lc. larJet -.rca. ~ . ally, it produces 12 VDC (positive and negative) I had some easily earned dollars, I would immedi-
140 ~ ....... field. 69 ~ TN C convnlIIlI! ately purchase one!
f>tld . QSL fIoltoM. ooatrol relay ItIltui ...:I , in lIdditioCl, Specifications The 2000F amplifier does operate as intended.
d ioplaya ....,r d cfmcd opWnlUD oettin&. o f O'I\ICeivu Operating bands 160m
front,....,1 kDob pooitiona. In fact, it does it very well and includes many tea-
• Combined with your TN C . DELTACOMM'"' 1-71' . 60m tures not available on any other HF amplifier. Ad-
"""f defmcd oommand QOd", PTOIr-m Y(H,If TNC for
' Om ditionally, I experienced no problems whatsoever
rc«ption Uld Iouing of PACKET, AMTOR, RlTI'
and Potu, . Code (fu lly unIIttendcd and ... lonUIticlolly) . 30m while testing it for nearly two months,
20m I cannot compare the design of the 2000F to
17m that of models from competitive manutac -
16-DlGIT TOUCH-TONE'" 12m' turers, as none offer an amplifier as advanced
REPEATER PROGRAMMER ten- or feature-filled as the JAG product. There are
Input impedance 50<"''' good solid-stale amplifiers and auto-tune tobe -
DELTA TON ~ 2.0 ~ to your MS-DOS conlfl"~ r
viii !be prinlcr port. ltr. ib tu,;b ~ mode, DTMF 0Jtput impedance 500"'" type amplifiers currently available on the market,
d il_ an: ocat 10 yow ........'er c0atr01le, III • . - iD. 1 kW (SSS'CWIRTTY)
nee. of 500 pe' m.iD.~. """'" pcee r but none provide the overall features of the
VSWR less than 3.0 (16.7 · 150 otms} 2OOOF.
• DFl..TATONI:.- 2.0 k( pili P"OII .......... c::omn.ndI Unwarlfe<l radiation -60 dB Of less (below PEP) I cannot accurately say that JAG's design will
from • rile " led ...., )'OUl" f.v<>l'1le word P' Q If.
-35 dB 0( less (below PfPJ
'UD provide long and trouble-free service. There is no
• T. . .former ~ 600 obm to.lrr.Doed ~
"~Ie 10 - IOdbm• .m ..ttw.n: 0DDtn>l of .d.y Ed<!lion power lOOW (max.I history, yet, to base the assumption on. However,
com.cIII mKlCII inlafoo;'" q

COCIlnl1ler .
r:-y four (4) wire
~ 10 your trarIIoCeiver, b.IIadbdd or u p 'ff
- .......
Freq. change time coosumpIoon
Input power Iaclor
Less than 0_1 sec.
220 VAG 5MO Hz (see \ell)
2.5 kVA at 1 kW
Grealerthan 95% et t kW
I note that the company manufactures ccmrrer-
cial HF amplifiers of a similar design which ap-
pear to have a good service track record.
The 2000F is not an amplifier for everyone and
All DFl..TACOMJor ~ prod_ iDclude Temperature range -10 10 +4Odegrees C
_ iaIoerf_. UL Ii.Ied pawer oupply...a """'f"'OCII I can only leave the choice 01 such an expensive
for c:.l>linJ. Protec:lion aens ElCessive PA CUlTeni purchase 10 the individual. I would say, however,
PAovemeal that when contesting and/or chasing OX, the abili-
DELTACOMIor 1-7000 or 1-71 S299.00 e.cb
(1-71 ~uiJa ICOIor UX ·1 4 COCIverter)
Excessive exetter power ty to instantly aSY and make antenna selections
DELTATONE'" 2.0 includin, inlerfoo;e S'49 .00 PA abnormal load
automatically could be very valuable. Further-
Excessive ACvonage more, the hands-off coerancn is enhanced by use
VlSA, MC, AMEX IIlld 104.0 KCepIcd. ConlaCt \U fo,
diKoWlt pncin,lo ~. islercd DELTACOMM'" ...en. Power supp!y overheat of the remote hand con trol.
PA failure
Excessive VSWR Availability
DELTA RESEARCH Oimen sJons 430 x 300 x 420 cmI
The JA L·2000F is available from ham radio
lUX11 .7 x 16.4 in. (WHO)
Box 13677. Wauwatosa, WI 53213 Weight 28 k~62 bs.
suppliers. The suggested list price is $4,899;
FAX/Phon e (414) 353-4567 however, the street price is considerably below
'Con1act JAC rt New York fO( further rtformation.
that. iii
CIIl'C\£ 251 ~ RUDIiR SlRVlClE CAIlO
28 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992
Number 8 on your FeedNek card

Spread Spectrum Primer

What is spread spectrum, anyway?
by Randy Roberts KC6YJY (ex-WA6BFN)

pread spectrum uses widcband, direct sequence (OS) are pretty well
S noise-like signals. Because spread
spectrum signals are noise-like, they
kno wn, mature techniques today.
Other more exotic forms of spread
are hard to detect. Spread spectrum spectrum such as chirp. time hopping
signals are also hard to intercept or and hybrids of frequency hop and di-
demodulate. Further, spread spectrum rect sequence are not in general usc
signals are harder to jam (interfere in low-cost Pan 15 equi pment and
with) than narrowband signals. These will probably remain only in the mili-
low detcctability and anti-jam features tary province for several more years.
are why the military has used spread The following paragraphs will de-
spectrum for SO many years. Spread scribe freque ncy hop and direct se-
signals are imemionally made to be quence techniques in a little more de-
much wider-band than rbe information tail and show that pseudo-noise code
they are carrying 10 make them more techn iques prov ide the common
noise-like. thread through all spread spectrum
Spread spectrum signals use fast types.
codes that run many times the infor-
mation bandwidth or data rare. These Frequency Hop
special "Spreading" codes are called Frequency hopping can provide
"Pseudo Random" or "Pseudo Noise" the easiest method of utilizing spread
cedes. spectrum. Any radio with a digitally
Spread spectrum transmitters use controlled frequency synthesizer can
the same transmit power levels as nar- Photo A. Direct sequence spread sp ec trum signal (un-f iltered (theoretically) be convened to a fre-
rowband transmitters. Because spread BPSK ). Note the suppressed carrier. Center f req.= 52 MHz with a quency hopper. This conversion re-
spec trum signals are so wide. they 15 megahittsecond PN (3/ stage PN generator). Horit . scale = / quires the addition of a pseudo noise
transmit at a much lower watts-per- MH:/dil'. Vert. scale = / 0 dB/d;\,. code generator that is used to select
hem power density than narrowband the frequencies for transmission or
transmitters. Th is lower power density gives spread spectrum techniques on a shared frequen - reception. Most hopping systems utilize uniform
spread signals a big plus. Spread and narrowband cy basis in the Industrial. Scientific and Medical frequency hopping over a band of freque ncies.
signals can occupy the same band. with little or (IS M) frequen cy bands of 900, 2400 and 5500 This is not absolutely necessary if both the trans-
no interference. Th is capability is the main rea- MHz. These bands are also shared with amateur mitter and receiver of the system know in ad-
son for all the interest in spread spectrum today. radio operation s-so we hams have a direct vance what freq uencies are to be skipped. Thus.
stake in what happens with this kind of equip- a freque ncy hopper in, say, 2 meters could be
w hat's Spread Spectrum? ment Since 1983 the FCC has revised and clari- made that would skip over commonly used re-
Spread spectrum radio communication is ignit- fied the rules for spread spectrum operation un- peater input and output frequency pairs. A fre-
ing much discussion and speculation lately. In the der Part 15 of their rules. Hams have been able quency hopped system can use analog or digital
last few years there has been a lor of media atten- to legall y use spread spectrum under Pan 97 carrier modulation and can be designed using
tion, congressional interest (IEEE Spectrum, rules for a number of years, also. However, the conventional narrowband radio techniques. De-
"Spread Spectrum Goes Commercial," August FCC rules for ham spread spectrum have been hopping in the receiver is done by a synchro-
1990, by Donald L. Schilling, Raymond L. Pick- quite restrictive and have had the net effect of al- nized PN code generator which drives the receiv-
holtz and Laurence B. Milstein. pp. 40-45). FCC most eliminating ham radio experimentation in er's local oscillator frequency synthesizer.
rulemaking, commercial product announcements spread spectrum techniques. Recent commercial
and marketing hoopla about this exciting new developments with Pan 15 equipment and a new Direct Sequence
field. Several very good articles on spread spec- FCC Special Temporary Authority (STA) (R. A. The most practical. all-digital version of
trum (SS) have appeared in ham radio literature Buaas K6KGS request for STA, FCC file num- spread spectrum is direct sequence. A direct se-
and the ARRL's Spread Spectrum Sourcebook ber 7230-A, granted April 17, 1992) provide a quence system uses a locally generated pseudo
has been in print for several years now. With all renewed impetus to the amateur community to noise code to encode digital data to be transmit-
of this activity you may still have a few questions make more use of spread spectrum techniques. In ted. The local code is generated at a rate of 10 10
about spread spectrum. how it applies to hams, light of the possible awakening of a ham spread 100 limes the data rate to be transmitted. Data
how it works and in general what all this alpha- spectrum community, I hope [0 spur some inter- for transmission is simply exctusive-Ok'd with
bet soup (like PeN, PeS, COMA, TDMA and est in the ham builder/experimenter to put some the faster pseudo noise code. The composite
frequency hopping) is all about. See the sidebar of these ideas to practical use. pseudo noise and data can be passed through a
for a definitive guide. This article is intended to data scrambler to randomize the output spectrum
gently lead you through some of the practical de- More About Spread Spectrum (and there by remove discrete spectral lines). A
tails of today's modem commercial (and soon to Simply put, spread spectrum trades a wider direct sequence modulator is then used to double
be ham) radio spread spectrum technology and transmission bandwidth for bener signal-to-noise sideband suppressed carrier modulate (also
help you gain a basic understanding of the princi- ratio and reduced transmiued power density. Two called Binary Phase Shift Keying-BPSK) the
ples involved in SS. types of spread spectrum implementation are in carrier frequency to be transmitted, resulting in a
In 1983 lhe FCC issued a nonce of proposed fairly common use today: Frequency Hopped signal spectrum as shown in Photo A. Other
rule making authorizing the low power use of and Direct Sequence. Frequency hop (FH) and forms of carrier modulation are possible with di-
73 Amateur Radio Today · November. 1992 29
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- 1
reel sequence, however BPSK or differential recover a spread spectrum signal. 1be corretator
phase shifl keying (DPSK) are the simplest and actually tben "spreads" out a narrowband mter-
most often used techniques. ferer over the receiver's total detection band-
A spread spectrum receiver uses a locally gen- width and thus only the IOtal integrated signal
erated replica pseudo noise code along with a re- dcnsity or signal- to-noise ratio dete rmines
ceiver correlaror 10 separate out only the desired whether there will be interference or not. All
coded information or messages from all possible spread spectrum systems have a threshold or tol-
signals. A spread spectrum correlator can func- erance level of interference beyond which useful
tionally be thought of as a very special matched communication ceases. This tolerance level or
filler-it responds on ly 10 signals that are encod- threshold is related to the spread spectrum pro-
ed with a pseudo noise code that matches its own cessing gain, Processing gain is Ihe ratio of the
locally generated replica code. Thus, a spread radio frequency (RF) bandwidth to the informa-
spectrum ccrrelaror can be "tuned" to different lion bandwidth,
codes simply by changing its local eeoc. This Typical 55 anti-jam (AJ) radios have a pro-
corretaror does not respond 10 man-made, natural cessing gain of from 10 to 20 dB, depending on
or artificial noise or interference. II responds on- rhe data rate, They can tolerate total jammer
ly to spread spectrum signals with identica l power levels of from 0 to 8 or 10 dB (jamming
matched signal characteristics and encoded with margin) stronger than the desired signal. Yes, the
the identical pseudo noise code. system can .work at negative signal-to-noise ra-

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30 73 Amateur Radio Today. Nove mbe r, 1992 CIRCLE 229 ON READER SERV ICE CARD
freq uency or in the same freq uency band can be
accommodated through various techniques of
multiple access or diversity. The nature of PN
codes and correlators allow what is called C0-
MA (code division multiple access). lime divi-
sion multiple access is also commonly used with
spread spectru m. Frequency and space or polar-
ization are also used to increase the number of
users or network size of spread spectrum net-
work s. Someumes combinations of the above
multiple access techniques are used to achieve
special system characiensucs.
Mulliple access techniques can provide for
frequency re-use. elimination or reduction of in-
terference. increased system capacity. or 10 pr0-
vide for "private" channels. The newest methods
for digital cellular, micro-cell and worldwide
LEO satell ite mobile communications will use
55 and CDMA or TDMA to effic iently utilize
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l or absolule re llabtllty and funcllon .
doesn't it? Note. however. that above I described
how each type of spread spectru m worked when
each receiver was presumed to have PN synchro-
c·· ." nization with its companion transminer. This re-

--- w.... P'ool /lNol p,_

• CoftIKIs .0.
7 • • quirement for PN sync is what makes spread
" , ."
0 •
• Co_ely CoRl.,_
• S."'p'e J. W,r. Connec:bOn • OU19ul l .... Ad,
_ No Rf' 1
spectru m system design tough. There are three
- :r::- ... • w_ Opetel'''ll flonu- ~ 10 I&¥tl<:
• W>Oe Tempe,.,u'. Ran~ ·1'-'0 " 6(l 'F
• s... PP'_ ..,," 'n.!fuel.""•. sene_"c , tempi.'. & H I ,a .... .
major problems in spread spectrum PN systems:
acquisit ion , synchronization and tracking. All

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three problems are part of the general problem of
estimation and/or tracking of PN code phase
(timing) and frequency. These problems cause all
the complexity that is associated with PN system
operations. Sync problems are slightly different
with each type of spread spectru m. but the main
problem is the same. How does a receiver's PN
generator rapidly, wimout significant loss of 113·
The ta, lock onto and track changes in a transminer's
THE Texas c:OME}JI' PN code generator? A complete answer 10 this
HF Mobi.. Ani......... System
• Hi a .., .""Olnl coiI5

146122l1t'446 MHz
question is really beyond the scope of this intro-
ductory ankle; bowever. thc secretlies in the de-
sign of the receiver correlator and its related pro-
• Mi.....,(O'T1 SWR • excellent perlo<- lIOBIl.f T_OfJI'
cessing. Current commercial Part 15 equipment
mance on .. H F bands
PEAR • Easy assembly 10 meet almost any
TM Ii.... VHFNfiF
Tril>en_ .. ~h ",inl
uses both serial (sequential or trial and error) and
7 configu ration parallel digital correlarors. Many of these com-

' ,
• Fil S stan dard 318·24 SAE mounts
• Various length base maStS & whips
GAl.., UI MIU 2.15clB
112 Mfi.Ud8
mercial designs usc custom ASIC or LSI chips to
accompli sh the required PN acquisition and

Henry 41 1en WB$TV D ~ !of UN.II!I tracking operations.
aoD-LUV·BUG· ! Toll r ree on:\ef line _ _ ew.A
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T........ _
GLA Syslems

• 'II I! The latest generation of commercial Part 15
PO BOll 425 SS radios, some soon to be available 10 hams (in
Caddo Mills. TX 75135
a private correspondence with Mr. Dewayne
Hendricks WA8DZP, president of Tetherlcss Ac·
POW":H A .l\-t P L l t ' l t : HS vur ua r v
cess. Ltd., in February 1992, Dewaync stated
An _ !>.~ B _ r"" _ (\II . .. ....-U :T. Rll'l"U R I 2 \lrlfft . 1.1 GIlL MICROWA\"[ PRODUCTS that Tetherless radios will soon be available to
PDI "~ 1 " -1 .~... Ill I'fftIllp l lld. f M 4 ·"'a l1 , _ ll ll' T R 1129. hNntpfllWrs / Poowr AmplijlrrJ
I'D 144·) .4<l·IQ M h, . ~.",p 11Id. I '.... , • -h •• ,,, _lll'" r • 1J9,
hams through PacComm in Florida), are easily
PD ·I.......·U l l U4 """t,.-1.J Gilt.
. ·I". ," · flOW r a interfaced to any asynchronous communications
1'-' ·148 Mh. Pru mp ¥<> 'M P It to< repeale, 01' COInmllfl;... use. Qui.
I'll ,nON
I'D « ON
P[)· «ON
uz M h'
.l(l "'~ Mil, .
.l:O"' ~ "I ll ,

No I in<Of
'M . ·\Y.'oll . _JI \Oi r s
\Il or ' · IW . I ~W T,R
\Il 01 . _!w . U W f iR
". pUll: 1 5 wan to lha 65 walt rB"9" w.o ... ,1
cuSlom buIld il deSIred. PIlwer amp•. let
equipment at data rates up 10 several hundred
kB/sec, No special interface circ uitry is required.
I'IH40 N-1
• •
• •
\Il or . -,W - llW
V> "' . _W,'a ll\\' f iR
'h or 4 _1W . 601\: f i R
'" ". Ill, use In Iha 900 mhz. regoeo us'ng lha
" HOME VIDEO" system "ansmille.., h: The radio transmits and receives in half duplex
Pll_440N_J •

"'" j ·4 \\' . II<JI\ '"
J ·~ Il.-' · 60 1l.- TiR
,~ GEME NI VC·2000. ATV lir>e samp.... to,
ATV U5fI. ~r Melfii' loch.ld8d. Inlrnl. lI. 1
mode-s-mat is, it either transmits or receives data
PI) ·4.fONM • '0 V> Il.-' . 61l.-' at any instant of time. The terminal hooked to the
pO ·'l{OlN '101-918 Mill '" ~~,
'" w. mil.- "."
II> Il.- . 61l.- 'r •
Hll. n: 7O cm . & 3Jcm, Aluminum WtIkl·
ed 7 pole. S11000 and up. ANTENNA radio determines whether the radio is transmit-
PO 'lOON '101 -928 M.....
pOlll Hp 900_928 Mill '"
~ ~,

S<> l i.....'
'" ", . 10'"
1 w. " '"m
~ SWITCH BOXES : 2O-300*an" 2 '"'....
23Ghl , P,ie.. ,u""""bk. ~Ia<k In ,t..
ting or rece iving by selling the "Reque st 10

P[) -lll Hp 900-928 Mill •
pum p '"
'" • I "' .6.5 '"
I''''' "
1 ..... . 16'"
". U.S.A. lUI Pfocl",1' ... .....a..<d . .II", Send" li ne, Several options are available for
I'U·ll Hp

• '"
No Hl bn d ,.... "'. m.
6 "" .
IH_ " nt~ f", "".~ .... hardware/software handshaking with the "Clear

No linear V> ..... . 1.5 '"
" to Send" and " Device Carrier Detect" signal

- .''"'""
I'D-J) 0 . - 1O ... . JJ . . V> "" . , "'. M
pO-ll 0 . - 10 <•. • JJ . - lines, To summarize the typical SS radio capabil-
pf>.llOON ,,~
1'0- 1:0000 -1 1.1 Gtoz
...'" . 1 ()Ill
I "" . I' '''
I W.16" "."
= ity, lhe equipment can be thought of as a radio
pf>.llIlD"o-J 11Ulll_
1'0-1200"-1 [,2 Ghz _
~ 1" · '6" "r e m
J ... . )6.. 281
210 U ti ca 5 1.• Tona*anda. NY ' ·U SO
combined with a digital modem and a form of
P_."",~ 1 .'n. _2.J c•••. SI''' · I.MIO (716) 692-5451
packer-radio-like mc. Several of the commer-
dally available SS radios (some of the more
Packet + AMTOR = PACTOR!! commonly available commercial SS radios are
sold by GRE America, Symbol Technologies,
Proxim , Senses Data Co rporation, Cy link,
O'Neil Communications and Qualcomm) include
AX.25, X.25 or Tep/lp networking protocol s
soft ware or firmware. At the curre nt time these
radios can use small networks that can be built
up, entirely by software, with up to 32 or more
network nodes, thus providing limited PCN/PCS
capabilities. Typical SS radios in the network can
be designated to be a digipeater (a uore-and-for-
ward. single-frequency repeater) by software.
Several digipeaters can also be connected in tan-
dem 10 extend network communications well be-
yond simple "line of sight" radio ranges.

Continued 0 11 page 77
32 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992
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Num b« 9 on you, Feedback e.r d

Radio Direction Rnding

Joe Moen. P.E., KOOV manual for now.

POBox 2508 KK6CU's display unit is a Teklronix
Fullerton CA 92633 Mod e l 603 medical monitor. It write s
traces on the screen conte ucusfv until
What's That Whirl igig ? the ERASE button is pre ssed . Wh en
·00 yo u have a TV In your car?" evaluating a storaqe oscilloscope for use
Questions like thai trom passers-by are in lhis application, look for e ~ terl1al in-
common when hams gather lor hidden puts on bolh len-right (x) and up-down
transmitter hunts, usually called Ioxhunts (y) axes. Amplifiers for both axes musl
or T-hunts. The yagiS and quads that wo rk al DC and have the same scale
most ccrrcentcrs in my area use for 2 factors (\'OIls per division).
meter radio direcbon linding (RDF) look JaMi uses a DC-to- AC Inverter 10
a Iollike lelevision antennas, so !hey are powel\he CAT monitor, the motor, and a
big-t'me aneruco-ceuers. No one gets +1-15 volt DC power Sl4)pIy lor the inter-
more stares than JaM, SrTlIth KK6CU of face circuit. His 4 00 -wa ll Tripp lite
sasaoere. Calilomia. HiS quad is long, square-wave inverter is nol recorrmen<J.
tal, and conijnuously spinning at 40 rpm' ed Jar inWc\iIIe moIor loads. but the so.
Last month's column showed how a watt molor and l he 125-wal1 monilor
display .....ith a storage type cathode ray have worked are with it so lar,
lube (CRT) gives far more useful A DF
data IMn an s-meier when you're hunt- Electronic Trigonometry
ing with a beam. The ccrcept. originally A beam and receiver s- mete- give
used on the ham bands by the late Jim signal strength information as a function
Davis W6DTR has been updated and of pointing direction (azimuth). This data
improved by KK6CU. He motorized his is in "polar" fo rm. You may remember
antenna for continuous rotation and nom a math class that polar coordinates
bearing readout. are represented by an angle (signified by
This month youll see how JaM, bUitt the Greek leller theta) and the radius (I).
up hIS system from ine~pensive surplus The magrlliude 01 r is proportional 10 sag-
compoI eets and read some hints 10 help nal strength.
ambl\lous ADFers build \heir own. YOU To dISplay polar data on an cscno-
may no! be able 10 make an exact dupi- scope mOrlllor, il must be converted 10 x
Pnoto A. Heads lum when Ja Mi Sm./fl KK6CU goes on foxh/Jnts with this array. It
cate bul you can achieve \he same re- and y ans vcnaqes The value of x
spins al40 RPM and displays bearings on a storage oselloscope.
sults using Mrdware lnars readily avail- equals r teres the COSine of theta . The
able, plus your own ngenUlly value 01 y equals I limes the Sine of
theta, That means we need a device that (201) 335·1007, for a calalog, Prices 6) are connecled 10 s'!lnal ground. Yours
It', Not Covert outputs voltages proportional to the Sine range from $18.50 10 $69.50 each. Tile may have only One ground pin, or il
JaMI supports his stx-efement quad and cosine of the beam pointing angle. minimum order is $30. mighl have two separate sections, one
with an A·frame almost three feet high Such a device exists: the soe-ccsme If you can do so without damaging it. for Sine and one for cosine.
(see Photo A), The frame sits atop a bi- potentiometer. YOu won't l ind one at your peek inside your see-cosine pol to see if The s-rneter input level and the gain
cycle rack that is lirm ly attached to the local parts store because lhey are used it is designed fOI rotation in a scecae di- of U1 a are Such that Jami gets nn-srze
rain gutter, Pil low blocks hold the 3/4- only in specialized acoscerons such as recnon. Some units have the wiper arm scope patterns with signals fhat ba rely
inch c.o. mast in two places, 21 inChes servomechanisms and «cones.
But l ry configure<! 10 'pulr across the winding in move the receiver's s-meter. As he ap-
apart , wnn the drive mechanism in be- nearby su-ovs oullets-you might get one dlrecliOn. II you rotate in the ocoo- proaches the T and lhe traces go 011 the
tween (see Photo B). The AC gearmolor lucky, JaMI found a good one for less site dlrectiOl'l. lhe w1:ler "pushes" across scope face, he act» RF allenuation be-
lums al 12 rpm, coupled w~h a 1J..irldt than a dollar. the wi/ldmg and tee pot will wear out tween the antenna and ltle receiver to
belt to lhe 40 APM mast reese pots have special windings Q' It, shrink the pattern.
Parlung garage clearance ' No prob- thaI generale Voltages ploportlOnal 10 Use care mounllrlg lhe pol on your
lem. The A-frame lowers to the rear on the sine and ccsme of the shaft angle antenna mast. partICUlarly ~ it has a 118- A Cheap J oint
hll'lgE!S (see Photo C). The whole assem- when the polIS connected to equal post- inch diameler shall. AIow a IiItle sde-IO- The next dilemma is getting the ~
bly adds onlt about a foot of height 10 live and negalJIIS voltages. Several m0D- side play so mat damaging shear force is nal from the spinning antenna 10 \he sta-
Ihe vehicle when lowered. JaMi says ets are available from Servo Systems not applied 10 the shaft. But don't alloW llonary receiver wilh minimum lo ss.
he's eyeing worm gear drives to auto- ccrpcrencn. 115 Main Road. PO Box much rotalional play, as lhat will cause Prices for coaxial rotary couplers (soee-
mate the raise- lower turcuon, but irs 97, Montville NJ 07045-9299; telephone: bearing errors, JaMI supports the pot by times called ·rotary joints·) start at a
the wiring harness, as shown in Photo D. budget-busting $4 50 each at specially
'00' '00' Figure 1 shows lhe polar to x-y ceo- coax product suppliers like Pasternack
verson scoemauc. The op-amps operate Enterprises, Furthermore, they must be
, near DC, so compensation is not critical. mounted to the bottom end of the mast,

,•c'" ,,
A 14 58 dual op amp (RS 276-038) which is where the soe-cosoe pol also
~ I" • . '.J.lIZ should work line . JaMi used two sections needs logo.
"'~ pO
of an LM324C (AS 276-1711). KK6CU's solution was to make an in--
~, ~, /"1
S -"£H~ Each stage inverts the s-meter out - line rotary coupler out 01 a fWO.element
· '~ V
';);c put. so equal but opposite polarity· r continuous· turning polentiometer. Two
1I01Iages are applied 10 lhe sine-cosine elemenls are needed because an insu-
• ~

, .~
• , ~ I~· y. vtllT pol winclWlgs. USing rwo identical irlII8rter lated slip ring is required for the coa x
shield as well as for \he center conduc-
,! . ..< slages assures symmetrica l low

'" I impedance ewe.

On the pol JaMI Used. a COmputer rn-
struments Company model 106-1 , one
lor. If you take !he easy rene and try 10
couple the shield through the bearing
the pot. youl nave a very noisy system.
Ftgure 1. Bas.c polar to reclangular convener and pal/em generator. The sme-
~ ~
inverter outpul goes to pin 1 and the ern- If's simplesllo conve rt a pot having a
cosme pof is shown as a bridge of lour resistlVB sececos and two wipers, bul most er 10 pin 2. Sine and cosine outputs are 114-inch diame ter shaft. "Most continuo
units aCluaily have a single lapped winding on a square board Inside. pins 3 and 4 . Two pins on this pot (5 and ous-tum pots, including lhis one, have

34 73 Amateur Radio Today · November. 1992

....- ,

Have you been trawling the bounding main for a new product'! We have j ust
netted it-the TP-38 microprocessor controlled community repealer panel which
provides the co mplete interface between the -~~~~-:==---""'~==~"""""---"I::
repealer receiver and transmitter. Scuttle _ :; :-
individual tone ca rds, all 38 EIA standard .-
CTCSS tone s are included as well as time and hit accumulators. programmable
timers. tone translation. and AC power supply at one low price 0£$595.00. The $595.00 each
TP-38 is packed like a can of sa rd ines with features. as a matter of fact the only $59.95 DTMF module
additiona l option is a DTMF module for $59.95. This module allows complete $149.95 Digital CTCSS module
offsite remo te con trol of all TP-38 funct ions, including adding new customers or
delet ing poor paying ones, over the repeater receiver channel. with
Other feature s include CMOS circuit ry fo r low powe r consumption, non-volatile ailtlbte
memory to reta in programm ing if powcr loss occurs, immunity to falsing, pro- NoW (IV C1CSS
grammable security code and much morc. T he T P-38 is backed by our legendary ita!

I year wa rran ty a nd is shipped fresh dai ly. Why not set passage for the abunda nt waters Dtg
of Comm unicat ions Specia lists and cast your nets for a T P·38 or other fine catch.


~_.'4 26 West Taft Avenue , Orange, CA 92665·4296
, . Local (714)998·3021 • FAX (714) 974-3420 m4 :
_ Entire US.A. 1-800-854-0547
some kind Of insu-
lated slip ring as-
sembly bonded to
th e shaft : JaMi
sa ys. " I caretuny
d isa ss emb led it
and put Ihe shatt in
a vise. Then I took
a scribe and a little
ma ll et a nd ve ry
genily chip pe d
away the epoxy so
thai I could re move
the two slip rings
and their insulators
intact I rom th e
shaft, which is dis-
"I replaced the
shaft with a piece
o f 1/4-inCh o.d.
ho bby b ra s s tub-
ing, one 1001 long I
soldered a piece 01
7/3 2-lnch c.o.
brass tUbing inside
me 1/4-inch tubing
to reinforce it. I slid
one o r the sli p
rings on the tubing
an d b o nde d if i n Photo D. Close-up of the two-stage pot modified inro a coax
p lac e ; t nen I put rotary coupler (abo ve) and the special sine -cosine pot
the second one on, (below) on the mast bot/om.
sel to r Ihe s ame
spac ing as on the
original shaft, and bonded lt. The solder- system like this, keep salely in mind at
abl e connec tion po i nt s on the rings all t imes. Use ext ra care in design ing
should face each other. and building your motorized antenna.
PholO B. A gearmolor and bell drive the masl, which rolates on two pillow block "After the glue set up, I used a rat-tail Mount the beam high enough thai it can't
mounts. The antenna coax goes down the inside 01 the new brass shaft of the file to gently make a lillie slot in the strike someone standing next 10 the car.
rotary coupler. located between 100 PI/lley and the sine-eosine pot. IUDeS (forming an oval) between the slip Fasten the Irame securely to the vera-
rings, then ceou rreo it. The coax Irom cle---suclioo cups aren't good enough.
the antenna comes down the mast, mto Pay close attention to balance, distri-
this tube, and out to the slip rings. De- bution at weight, and center 01 gra vity.
spite the higher loss, I recommend RG- An ante nna that brea ks up or sheds
178 teflon-dielectric coax. You can use p ieces on the highway cou ld in ju re
RG-174 if you're very careful net to over- someone rollowing, or cause a serious
heat it. accident. Ja Mi says he arranged tor
"By cutting a square end on the coax someone to serve as a spotter, Ira iling
and curling it jusl a tiny bit, I could teec his car during initial tests 10 watch for
the coax down the hollow shaft and out mechanical instabilily in tne antenna
through the oval hole. Then I stripped system.
the shield and center concocter in me There is also potential danger in the
normal manner and soldered them to the 120 volt AC power syslem. Carelully
slip ring rotors. ground the chassis ot the slorage moni-
"j removed the windings to minimize tor and all otter equipment to the vehk:le
stray capacitance. Finally. I reasserrcled Irame. Do not leave AC terminals on the
the pol, making sure that the coax pig- motor. or any other equcment exposed.
tails didn 't protrude and mtertere with Cover or tape them up. Don't use the
anylhing inside Ihe enclosure. The sta- system in wet weare r unless you have
tionary coax connections (RG-58) go to a waterproof cover fo r the motor and
the rotor terminals 01 two stages, as other exposed AC-operaled ilems.
shown in the photo." A good engineer is never content with
JaMi has some additional sugges- his or her creetcns. KK6CU is no excep-
tions tor anyone duplicating this conver- non: he's trying out new bells and whis-
sion: "The orig inal shaft probably had tles constantly. He has incorporated the
one or more C-rings 10 hold tt in place. x and y outputs trom a Radio Shack flux-
You may have 10 stack washers or shims gale compass sensor through a switch
onto the hollow brass shaft to maintain 10 put a "north ocr on the CRT screen.
proper spacing and avoid end play. When his rotatable screen-mounted pro-
"Lubricate the wiper 10 prevent norse tractor is aligned with the norlh d ot,
and avoid excessive wear," he adds. bearings are relative to north instead 01
"You'll need 10 re-I ube it occasionally. so relative to vence heading. He is WQrking
d rill a 1I16-inch hole in the body. You on new offset circuits to subtract the
can spray tuner lube through the hole as noise toor from the scope Irace.
needed. The hole should be located JaMi and I welcome your letters with
where il will not allow easy water entry." questions on this unusual RDF scheme ,
buf please enclose a se ll-ad dressed
Photo C JaMi can told the entire antenna assembly down on the car top for Safety First
slamped envelope ir you want a person-
toe -cteea cce situations. When constructing ero u$Jng an RDF al repiy. iii
36 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992
For High Performance in Repeater
Technology, Go with the Leader-
S· 7R Basic Repeater SPECTRUM
• " St and Alone"
or use with
your controller


ICOM 2/4SAT. 24AT & W2A
BP-83S 7.2V 750mah • 10-40 Watt Units
$43.50 • 2M, 222 , 440 MHz
BP-84 7.2V 1000mah
$57.00 • Super SensltlvefSetective Recei vers For that new Machine-Spectrum
BP-84S 7.2V 1400mah • Unusually Good Repeat Audio makes 2 lines of Repeaters-the
$63.00 • Proven Performan ce throughout Deluxe SCR1400 and the new basic
BP-85S 12V 800mah t he World!
low cost S- 7R line.
The S- 7R Repeaters maintain the
BP-114S 12V SOOmah
S79.00 quality of design, components and
construction which have made Spec-
SAVE ON THESE POPULAR trum gear famous throughout the
PERIPHEX POWER PACKS world for years.
BP-7S 13.2V 1200mah • •• 565.00
BP-8S 9.6V 1200mah •.• $65.00 How ever, all of t he " bells & whistl es"
have been eliminated- at a farge cost
sa ving s to y ou! Th e S-7 R is a real
" work-horse" basic mach ine designed
f or t hose wh o want excellent, super-re -
FNB-210.8V 5D0mah liable perfo rma nce- but no frills! For
$22.50 use as a complete "stand-alone" unit ,
FNB-1 2 12V SOOmah
$45.95 or with a co nt roller.
FNB-14S7.2V 1400mah
$59.75 Of course, if you do want a Full Fea-
FNB·26 7.2V 1000mah
560.00 tured /Super Deluxe Repeater with
GREAT FNB-21S 12V 800mah Full panel metering and controls, and
VAESU VALUES! $65.00 a complete list of 'built-in' options,
then you want our SCR1400-the
new successor to the " Indu st r y Stan-
dard" SCRI000/4000.

Available with Autopatch/Reverse

KENWOOO Patch/LandJlne Control; TouchTone
PB-8S 12V 800mah Control of various repeater functions;
PB-13S 7.2V 1200mah SCR1400 'PL'; " Emerg ency Pwr.lID; High/Low
PB-25126S 8.4V 900mah REPEATERWflS0 WT. 2M AmIPp ,}~~:!t A TX Power; Tone & Timer Units; Sharp
$65.00 & 30A POWER SUPPLY. ... f,.""\ ?" RX Filters; Power Amps, etc.
(All Items available separately) tit ~N;:
Man ul.tlured in the U.S.A, with malt hed tells, t ~e s e • Complete Line of VHF/UHF Rcvr.
Supe, Packs le 'lure short t"C uit and overcharge protethon, & Xmtr. Link Boards & Assemblies
and a 12 momh warranty. AUinserts and pat ks rn Slock Shown in optional cabinet.
or a••ilable l,om authorized d " . I ~fS_ also available. Plus 10, COR, DTMF
CALLUS TODISCUSS YO UR BATT E~ Y ~EQ UlAEMEN TS_ Call or write today for details and prices! Control Bds. , Antennas, Duplexers,
Get your order in A.S.A .P.
~ ...
Cabinets, etc. Inquire.
Sold Factory Direct or through Export Sales
Add $4.00 S & Hf UHFI RST BATTE~Y. $100 fOR EACH AO D' L Reps. only.
BATT ERY- U. S ONLY. Co nnet ticut residents add 6%ta.

115-1B Hurley ~o.d,
Oxlo'd. C1 06478
In Connecticut 20N6403985 - FAX 203 026206943

InterFlex Systems has released the and KaGOlD support huge scroIlback
KaGOLD Dua lPort lor Kantrorucs buffers that are dynamically allocated
TNCs, lhe KAM and all KPC units; and (memory given to activities that need
Compifed by Hope Currier PkGOLD Enhanced lor AEA TNCs. it), with up to 250K of scrollback on
KaGOlD fully supports duat-port oper- most systems. They have fast installa-
ation, milled modes including AMTOR. tion and startup and run in Host Mode
RTT Y, C W and pac ket. T h re e lIIe lor high pe norrrence. The built-in Clip-
transfe r me thods are sup po rted, in- board editor's cuVpaste feature makes
clud ing remote send/receive as well traHic handling and me ssage storage
as text liles and brag mes. The packet and retrieval a snap. Both come with a
conference bridge is easy to use and ss-cece bound manual, an extensive
supports mulli-Ievel conterences and online help system for all parameters
cross-port conterences on two port and operating modes, and a quick rei-
umts . usetul for nets, emergencies ererce guide.
and group discussions. The built -in Each program is $79.95 plus ~­
logging teatore also handles automatiC ping and handling. For fllOfe mtorrre -
e xchange 01 name, QTH and QSl in- tion , contact In/orF/ox Systems , P.O.
formatiOn with other GOLD users , and 8011 64 18. Laguna Niguel CA 92607;
many more advanced features. In - (714) 496-6639; Fa ll: (714) 496-804 1.
stead of fixed-length betters. PkGOLD Or circle Reader Service No. 202.

EUR-AM electronics is ollering an either vertical (lenders) or horizontal
adjustable mount (up to 25 degrees) (rool) fashion. The N type is $36; the
lor Pl or N type connector antennas PL type is $33. For more information,
The Mode l SDP-600 aulopalch l ance dialing , And . unlike other low (l ike Diamond, COM ET, etc.). The contact EUR-AM Electronics, P.O. Box
trom J"Com is a low cost nsccorcces- cost autceetcres, the SDP-600 can be mount is ClJITenlly i~ed Irom WiMo 990. Meredith NH 03253-0090: Fax :
so r-cc ntrctled interface between a used in lui duple~ mode WIth a dual- (Germany) and comes with 12 feet 01 (408) 866-4311. Or circle aeeoer ser-
VHFIUHF transce iver and a telephone band transceiver, so both parties can RG-58 coax permanenlly connected in viCe No. 203.
line. allowing lhe user to make and re- hear each o t her at the same l ime.
ceive telephone calls from any HT or Simp lex mode can also be used. With
mobile rig within range 01 the base the reverse patch option enabled. in-
stalion. Installation consists of con - com ing calls will cause a short ring-o ut
necting the aulopatch to the rig's ml- ove r the air and the user can then an-
crconcne and speaker jacks and plug- swer the call using his access pass-
ging in an RJ·l1 telephone jacl<. con- word code .
trol and programming ct me autccercn The SDP-6OO's introdl.lC!ory price is
is done by OTMF tones issued lrom $199.95. ContaCljoCom. Boll 194. Ben
the rem ote . Separate use r-p ro- Lomond CA 95005: (408) 335-9120:
grammable access password codes Fall: (408) 335-9121. Or circle Reader
can be set up lor local and long dis- servce No. 201.
The new ISOBAR(R) Ultra surge sup- damage occurs , the ISOBAR Ultra and
pressor trom Tripp Lite has a revolution- connected equipment will be repaired or
ary new design, featuring diagnostic indi- replaced free.
cators and a new comp rehens ive war- Each ISOBAR Ultra also features ex-
ranty. Using multico~red indiCator lights, clusive isolated lilter banks to prevent in-
the ISOBAR Ultra can detect and display terference between connected compo-
wiring tacrts. loss 01 power and integrity nents, two or three UL listings, multIple
01 !he surge proteCllOfl cirClJltry, aiertlO9 filtering components and a rugged all-
the user 10 problems before equipment is metal case. They are available in 4 -, 6-
tumecl on. This series also teatures new and a-outlet mode ts . with optional
liIetime ummetee tnsureece. wh ich lax/modem crctecncn. For prices and
guarantees every Ultra model and the more information. contact Tripp Lite, 500
connec ted equi pment against su rge N. Orleans. Chicago IL 60610-4188;
damage (in cluding direct lightning (312) 329- 1777, Fall: (3 12) 644-6505.
strikes) lor life, up to $25,000. If surge Or Circle Reader servce No. 205.


( Midwe st Wood Products has intro- stained, and has a polyurethane linish.
duced a new clock made of solid oak and This clock is available in a 12·hour or
measumg 1G-314" by 19-.11 comes wilfl a 24-hour version lor $69.95 plus stupprIg.
HAMTRONICS frame lor either Size U.S. eceese and has For more informatiOn and/or a mmplete
non-glare tenses lor bolh the movement catalog, contact Ml(1wesl Wood ProdUCIS.
The TD-4 seeeuve caning Module set in the lield with wire jumpers. The and display frames. The quartz move - 1614/ 24th Ave., Ccoperwi.IIe M/ 49404:
t-orn Hamtronics is an economy touch- 2-314-inch·square PC bOard is easily ment is u.s.eece. MIS on one AA bat- (6 16) 6n-3706. Or circle Reader ServiCe
tone decoder with one latching output. packageclfor eustcrn installatiOns, and tery, and is warranted by the manulactur- No . 204.
This versatile module is primarily de- it operates on 12 VOC. er lor Six years. The wood and r----~~~==~.;;;;;:
signed to mute the speaker of a recelv- The TD-4 is $49 in kit torm or $89 display Irames are warranted
er or transceiver unt il someone calls by wired and tested. For more inlormation 'Of one year. The tenere on the
sending tour-digit DTM F signal. thus or a complete catalog, which also in· clock are sell-adhesive and are
making it unnecessary to listen to all eludes all Hamt roncs' VHFIUHF trans- easily changed il you upgrade
the activity on a channel just so some- millers, receivers, repeaters, convert- or move and change your call-
one can call you once in awhile The ers. preamps and accessories, contact sign-lhe oecessary Iellers and
TO-4 also may be used to I\Jm on an Hamtronics. /nc.. 65-E Moul Rd.. Hilton numbers wiI be ~ for $1 .
eutooatcn or olher device which re- NY 14MX!-9535: (716) 392-9430, Fall: The hardware is brass. ncIud-
qu ires a simple ground 10 aclivate it.
The Iour-digil DTMF address is easily
(716) 392-942Q. Or Circle Reader ser-
vee No. 206.
ing !he bezel. and !he dock is ;1E~~
available wiltI a nalural!ifliSh or , -_ - " ,
38 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992
HF Equipment Regular SALE Handhelds Regular SALE
IC-781 Xcvr/psltuner/scope * $6529.00 5298 o All prices subject IC-P2AT 2mHT... $419.00 3491\
to change without IC-P3AT 220MHzHT 419.00 3591\
ICOM notice ~ check
with salesperson
IC-P4AT 440 MHz HI 469.00 389"
IC-2A 1.5w2m HT . Closeout...... 199H
IC-2AT 1.5wzm HTmP * 269.00 219"
IC-1I2ATlHigh Pewer zm * 349.00 289!ll
IC-1I3AT 2.5w220 HTm p...329.00 27!r"
IC-2SAT 2mmP " 379.00 309"
......... $2859.00 2348 IC·2SRA 2m125-905 n. * 579.00 479!l
IC-24AT 2m/440MHzIllp * 459.00 37911
IC-3SAT 220MHz HTmp .... 359.00 29911
IC-4SAT 440MHzHTmp 39900 32911
IC-4SRA 440125-905 n.. * 579.00 48911
IC-2GAT 2mHTm p 399.00 3291\
IC4GAT 440MHzlTTP 399.00 329"
VHF/UHF Base Transceivers Regular SALE IC-12GAT 1.2GHzIllp" 519.00 429"
IC-751A 9-bandxcvrlSWn $1629,00 1348 IC-275H IOOw2m FM/SSB/CW * $1589.00 1298 IC·W2A 2m/440 HT... , * 589.1Xl 49ggg
PS-35 Interna l power supply 239.00 219!\ IC-475H 1001'1440 FMlSSB/CW 1819.00 1498 IC-X2A 44011.2 HT , ) 49.00 629"
IC-735 HFxcvrfSWrcvr/mic ,
PS-55 External power supply "
1149.00 9491\
239.00 219 ' 1
IC·S15A 251'1 6JlOm xcvr/ps 0 1455.00 1158 PS-70 2A powersupply fo r HT's
Aircraft band handhelds
* 79.00 6911
Regular SALE
IC·S75H 251'11001'1 6/l 0mxcvr ".. 1699.00 1398
AT-150 Automatic antenna tuner 469.00 39911 lC-1275A lOw l.2GHz FMlSSB/CW 0 1924.00 159B A-2 5WPEP synth aircraft HT $575.00 42911
A-20 aircraft HTwNOR 639.00 469 11
-,-- .. -..- -
"" >-"'"c'",,, .-
A-21 Navicom Plus Aircraft HT 680.00 499i l

0 -

0 --- -
• •
-0 - -
- ...
~ _

'" R-'

IC-725 HFxcvrISWrcvr/m ic $893 .00 729H

AH-3 Automatic antenna tuner 512.75 449" VHF/UHF FM Transceivers Regular SALE
IC· 728 HFxcvr/SW rcvr/mic * 1099.00 89911 IC-28H 45w 2m FMlTTP mic * $389.00 329 11
IC· 729 HF xcvrlSW rcvr w/6m .1419.00 1168 IC-228H 45w2m FMlTTPmic * 429.00 349 11
AT-160 Antenna tu ner 413.00 34911 IC·229A 25w2m FMlTTPmic 439.00 369$1
IC-2KL HF solidstate ampw/ps $2119.00 1768 IC-229H 50w 2m FMffiPmic 439.00 369$1 Shortwave Receivers Regular SALE
IC-4KL HF 1 kwamp w/ps * 7459.00 5998 IC-38A 25w 220 MHzFMrcvr. 439.00 369$1 a-t 100kHz-I.3GHzAMIFM pocket ... $539.00 44911
IC-449A 35w440FM xcvrffiP 529.00 439" R-71A 100kHz-30MHz rcvr * 1209.00 98911
COMBO DEAL! IC-1201 lOw 1.2GHz FMlSSB/CW * 849.00 71911 RC-11 Infrared remote controller 74.75
Until 11/30/92 SAVE on the purchase of a IC728 Dual band FM Transceivers Regular SALE FL-32A 500 Hz CWfilter. 72.25
or IC-729 along with the AT- 160 tuner. rC-24111A 25w2m/440 FMITTP micO* $889.00 729" FL-44A SSBfilter {2nd IF)... 187.00 16911
IC- 728/AT·16D Reg. $114990 • Combo $1129 IC-24111H 45w 2m/35w440 FM/TTP 939.00 76911 EX-257 FM unit.. 51.50
IC-729/AT·16D Reg. $1517 95 • Combo $1398 IC-3230A 25w2m/440 FMITTP mic 739.00 61911 EX-3111 Voice synthesizer 62.00
IC-3230H 45w2m/35w 440 FMffiP 839.00 699 11 CR-64 High stablifyoscillator rtal. 83.00
In addition, until 10/31/92, you can apply a Multi·band FM Transceiver Regular SALE R-72 30kHz-30MHz SWrcvr * 1109.00 929 i S
$60 ICOM Discount Coupon (below) to the IC-901 50w2m/35w 440 FMxcvr... * $1069.00 879$1 R-l110 100kHz-I .856GHz AMlFM * $729.00 599H
IC-728/AT·160 making your price only - $1 069 UX-R9IA Broad band receiver unit * 539.00 449$1 R-7000 25MHz-2GHz receiver 1439.00 1198
UX-19A lOw10m unit , * 319.00 269H RC-12 Infrared remote controller ,.. 74.75
UX-59A lOw 6m untt.... " , 369.00 319" EX-310 Voice synthesizer 62.00
IMPORTANT! You have only until N-R7000AN unit 184.00 16911
10/31 192 to take advantage of ICOM 'S UX-S92A 2m SSBlCWmod ule * 639.00 54911
UX-39A 25w 220MHzunit. " * 479.00 39911 SP-3 External speaker 68.25
"Back to the Shack Sale " DISCOUNT UX-129A lOw 1.2GHz unit 589.00 48911 CK-70 (EX-299) l2VOCoption 13.75
COUPONS on the following items R-7100 25MHz-2GHz receiver * 1479.00 1228
(also shown with a * in this ad). UX-49A 440MHz mod ulefor IC-900 * 369.00 31911
IC-970A 25w2m/430MHzxcvr/ps 2839.00 2348 R-9000 100kHz-2GHz all mode rec .* 5859.00 4898
$200 Off on : 781 , 4KL, RP4020 , IC-970H 45w 2m/430 MHzxcvr/ps 3079.00 2548
R9000 UX-R96 50-905 MHzreceive unit 419.00 34995
$60 Off on: 728, 735, Rl00, R-71A, UX-97 l.2GHz ba nd unit * 1059.00 89991
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Number 11 on your Feedback card

Your Bulletin Board

We are happy to provide Ham Help listings free on a space available basis. To
make our job easier and to ensure that your listing is correct. please type or
print your request clearly, double spaced, on a full (8-1/2" x t1 ") sheet of paper.
You may also upioad a listing as E-mail to Sysop to the 73 BBS Special Events
Message Area #11. (2400 baud, 8 data bits, no pa rity, 1 stop bit. (603) 924-
9343). Please indicate if it is for publication. Use upper- a nd lower-ease letters
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read as the letlers I or i, or even the number 7. Specificaliy mention that your
message is for Ihe Ham Heip Column. Please remember to acknowledge reo
soonses to your requests. Thank you for your cooperation

Bullet Electronics marketed several Wanted: Tube schematic for 3AP1

kits in the late '70's: among these CRT. Also, schematic suggestions for
were "Grandfathers Clock" and "Super building a simple o'scope using this
Music Machine," Construction instruc- CRT. Please send info by air ma il.
tions and schematics are desperately David K. Hanson KBOE VM, SAUDIA,
neede d. Will pay. Jac k Christila w P.O. Box 167 Cost Center 956. Jed-
KOBi, 38700 Ann A rbor Traii, Livonia asn 2123 1, Saudi Arabia,
MI 48 150.

The first choice in

'r- ansrru uers - Receive rs
Sell your product in 73 magazine.
Repeate r Co ntrollers
Call Sue Colbert or Dan Harper
Power Amp li f iers
VOice Ma ll Systems


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40 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992

Number 12 on your Feedback card

73 Review Nye Engineering

4020 Gall ocean Dr. #606
by Larry R. Antonuk WB9RRT
Fort Lauderdale FL 3330B
Telephone: (305) 566-3997;
Fax: (305) 537-3534.

The FS 73 Signal Cube™ Price Class: $159

Digital Field Strength Meter

Measure both absolute and relative field strengths.

F orward and reflected power measured at

the transmitter can tell you quite a bit , but
not always the whole story. You may have a
VSWR of 1.1:1, and 250 watts out , but for
some reason you're just not making the trip.
What's the problem? It's obvious thai what's
going into the coax isn't getting out of the an-
tenna. The flal VSW R is just there to fool
yo,-il could be caused by several different
problems. You may have moistu re in a con-
nector at the antenna that just happens 10 ap-
proximate 50 ohms. Your receive signal may
be fine, since t he connector may not break
down until it sees the high power transmit sig- INC.
nat. You may have had moisture in the con-
nector last year, and by this year the moisture " SJOPl/l.L CtlBS"
has crept down the coax, causing it to become PISLD STltSPIOTH
very lossy-not unlike a 5O-foot-tong resistor. DIOITAL
At any rate, you begin to wonder why people ps 7l
no longer talk to you, even though your trusty
wattmeter tells you that everything's OK.
At times like this, the tool to pun out of your
bag is you r field strength mete r. Short of a
QSL card, the only way to really measure the
effectiveness of an antenna system is 10 mea-
sure the field strength produced by the anten- The Nye Engineering FS 73 Signal Cube digital field strength meter.
na--how much signal is actually being thrown
off into the ether by that tangle of wires on the ry, making it easy-to-read and accurate, and To put thin'gs in perspective , relative read-
roof. Basic field strength meters consist of a giving it a rather high-tech look. Two collapsi- ings would be used to tune a transmitter. Your
small antenna, a diode and capacitor to rectify ble ante nnas pull out from each side of the only concern would be to watch your voltage
the RF, and a DC meter to display the leve1. Cube, making a dipole that can be adjusted to and current readings, and tune for a maximum
These meters are useful only for relative read- different lengths to change the sensitivity of ind icati o n on th e Sig nal Cube . It wouldn't
ings, and tend to be somewhat lacking in the the meter. matter what the readings were, just so you
sensitivity department. (In technical ci rcles, got the peak reading possible on the Cube.
they are referred to as being "deaf as a post.") Measurements Absolute readings would be useful to measure
The addition of absolute measurements to a the performance of, say, a 2m yagi antenna
The Signal Cube
meter of this caliber is quite an achievement. you just built. You could set the unit up to
Enter the "Signal Cube" field strength meter For those unfamiliar with the concept, an ab- transmit in t he open, then take readings a
from Nye Enginee ring. The Nye Engineering solute field strength measurement is one that fixed distance away at several points of the
fol ks have mixed some traditio na l f i eld is related to a given reference-in this case, compass. This information could be used 10
strength meter values with some new technol- the number of volts/mete r, derived from the plot a basic directivity graph. You could then
ogy, and have come up with a winner. The first voltage impressed upon the two antennas. In change the design and re-measure. or per-
traditional value you' ll notice is t he quality. actual operation of the Signal Cube, this value haps compare a commercial antenna to your
Built lnto a 2.5" x 2.5" x 2"-deep cast aluminum is calculated by taking a reading from the dis- desig n. (Comm ercial tes t ranges often keep
box, the unit is as solid as a rock . Anoth er play, and using a chart (found on the back of the field strength meter stationary and rotate
quality f eature is the unit's practicality-c-it the unit or on Ihe instruction sheet) to relate the anten na, but build ing a commercial tes t
makes relative as well as abso lute measure- the reading to the frequency of operation and range is beyond t he scope of th is artiCle.)
ments, from 100 kHz to 450 MHz. The Signal the lengths of the small collapsible antennas, Closer to home, you might record readings
Cube is sp lashproof (coffee ??) and has a producing a value in volts/mete r. On the other f rom your HF antenna at several key spots
range of 30 mY/meter to 30 vzneter. It's au- hand, a relative reading is simply one related aroun d town whi le yo ur buddy keys it up.
to ranging , and wideband-the only co ntro l to a previous reading. The actual value is not Once a year or so you might repeat the exer-
available is the onIoff switch. A large 3-1/2-clig- of interest -we only care if the second reading cise, and get a jump on things the next time
it display brings the device into the 20th centu- is better or worse than the first. you get that water in the connector!

42 73 Amateur Radio Today . Novembe r, 1992

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hig h-powe r radio transm itte rs . (80V- 264V) with power factor cor-
Featuring a heavy -duty power amp recti on to supress AC line currents.
tha t incorporates 48 RF power MOS- an a utoma tic a ntenna selector for
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Other Uses play. The display blanks in the event of exces-
Of course, coce you get your hands on the sive in put-simply collapse the antennas, or Enjoy !'lEVER 1
Signal Cube the uses for it muNiply. In addition
to the traditional applications, you can use the
increase the distance to the transmitter. Th e
two antennas form a dipole, so there is some CLiMBINC _.-1---'-, >


Cube to measure the lev els of RF floa ting directivity to the unit. For most situations, the
around the shack itself, perhaps caused by Cube is just rotated to give the high est read-
fau lty antennas , or maybe poorly sh ie lded ing, wh ich is then noted.
equ ipment. The Cube can be used to tune a This directivity and the high sensitivity make ACAIN
ground lead, artificial ground, or an antenna
counterpoise. Paranoid users will find it useful
a t w ork-th e hi gh sensi tivity of t h e S ig nal
the Cube of some interest to the foxhunter, es-
pecially during the end game. However, the
FS 73 lacks an external antenna jack, wh ich
Are vou reo scarer:l or f OO 0ICl to oeo- t«.'Yef ClI'!'()
rower ana eE\lilfO' tram SV5telTl
il9ilf1 'i>'Ttrl !JlIS
~ are 13 a-o 16 n:n frLilCQJlilr WI,.("'
uses Stado: ~OIl' to an~ neI9flt t11 " 1 , 8 314' or 10'
Cube makes it useful for ferreting out thos e might be used to connect a higher-gain, more
Sl'Ct1On Ien\ltns Easy to JlStilil hinge case, w.... (.(l
hidden transmitters bugging your offic e. How di rectional antenna than wou ld be necessary erecton,Ne:<t 0U'rCl tOWl'!' WItflllM'llng tlOItsll tese
m uch RF is c oming out o f your microwave
oven? How about the cellular phone on your
in most fo xnunts. In addition , the LCD readout,
while quite readable , ha s no bar graph-it's
~ rotc- ana .\iIl' neavv Dl'ilITIS en Hall'!' trilm
¥w:l wrtn one natlCl wn::n to tlXl o! toNe!' tor f1OfTT1iII
OPel at'9 DQ5ItO'l s.m.-tv 00 Mtem cce-eees 'M'llIl'
r-.g or iONe"*"'il At est a c:neao, CXlf'M:'OIeflt iI'IJ
tren t seat? How about that c olor c omputer designed mainly for measure ments, rather sale wav to n;:lIlI ¥w:l YO..C cee- TIllS 6 a
monitor? than peaks or dips. 08./l<l' tON!'!" SV5t\!lTl tf\r. VOU con etY:N tt:Il»Y
These la st three exa mples are all "cut of
range· of the FS 73, either below or above th e
100 kHz to 450 MHz range, bul th ey still pro-
Mo st of u s are n't to o fam iliar with fi eld
strength measurements, but the sensitivity of
30 millivolts per meter is quite good. Translat-
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duce usable read ings on the instrument. They ing th is to reality, it means you can pick up a 1 @ too~, $1'741.15.
just can 't b e converted to absolu te fi eld watt, 440 MHz handheld at aboul 150 feet.
strength readings. The read ings are still useful Holding the Cu ba in your hand tends to distort ~R 2 t:J' Jlr;t'Il ~ I1JtV ».m 12sa It
from a relative basis, however. For instance,
what's the best position of this computer moni-
tor EM I shield, in order to red uce the amount
the pattern, so two tapped holes are provided
to att ach you r own oon -conducting pole .
The FS 73 Signal C ube is a great tool for
Ioio\lEJl 3 to' Jlr;t'Il 2'i-5ta !Ik.rTI asa It
o-II.ZER 4 for I;l:Iton 2S-nvv ~ Stl1 6 sa If
~"' eec

::::: ~ I

of RF bombardi ng my cranium? antenna experts, and for anyone who's inter- T8'2S Balltrrusr Dearing 2* - max mast oe 1485 ~

ested in finding out where the invisibl e (and ...... .,...... _ , ..... tal ' <><*Oy _ . . - /.~ I
sometimes insidious) RF is in his or her liIe.

....... .. 'l; " ' <1'Ir'¢Il om" .... _ ....
Far f rom being a specialized instrument, you'D
Operation of the Signal Cube could only be
simpler if it had an aulo-sensing onIolf switdl! fin d more and more uses for it on a daily
,.,. .
(;I.., 11U"tln fnogl"'"""'V, InC

You simply tum the unit on and read the dis- basis. iii
. . J . 80. 122.
_ _. "'0 6S2n
8 16-882-2734
~AX 816-882· 7200
111 1 •

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44 73 Amateur Radio Today· November, 1992

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Number 13 on your Feedback card

Ham Televis ion

Bill Brown WBBELK group the know-how and experience to

do 73 Magazine design pa yloads to withstand the e x-
70 Route 202 North tremes at the upper atmosphere, launch
Peletborough NH 03458 large cencate (and expensive) balloons
and the ability to successfuuy track
High-Flying ATV in Utah down and recover the payloads wherev-
Quite a lew groups have sent up er they landed (usua lly in remote and
ATV-equipped high-attitude balloon ex- rugged terrain) using directiOn-linding
periments this past year. One of the equipment The loIowing is an accou~
more prolific (and ambitious) groups is of their Ialest effort (the ninth flight), as
!he Bridgefland Amateur Radio Club in d 1 bed by Hall GoodseI W7LTH.
Logan, Utah. the past year BAAC
has I10wn nine balloon experiments (t'M) The Super ATY Bal loon
were tethered ) carrying amateur radio The BARC group decided to attempt
equipment. Every payload on these a flight using a newly designed super-
flights has been successfully recovered. pressure balloon don ated to them by
These initial flights carried a reo-cren- Winzen Internatio na l, rnc., makers of
nel Radio Sha ck VHF receiver, a 250 large high-altitude balloons and f9C(N-
miliwatt 2 meier beaoon and a lone ee- ery parachutes. A sucer-oressure bal-
coder thai would activate a release looo is designed 10 go to a fiXed altitude
mec hanism on co mmand fr om the and re main there lor long periods 01
ground. The early flig hts used a stan- Iime_ II is c:onceivable that it could re-
dard rubbef _alhDr balloon thaI burst main at a ltitude lo r monthS. trave ling
immediat ely upon rea ching maximum thousands 01 m iles in the jet streams.
altitude. The seventh and eighth Ilighl (Ed. Note; Imagine an AT\! (Of VOiCe're-
used a spec ial zero-pressure balloon pealer er 65,000 feet periodiCally floal·
(made out of a prastc lilm) that could al- ing across the country! Two-way con-
low the payload 10 float at peak altitude lacts over 600 miles apart could be reli·
lor as long as a day. ably established with P5 pictures from
These initial tI~hts helped give the socii a syslem.]

Photo A Inflating /he zerrJ-Pre~re balloon lor payload 1851 f/¢I #8. Photo by
Gil Moore NrYTK.

The BARe Prog ram thin clear nylon material. As Gi Ialer put
One 01 the goals ot this program is to it, 1 just couldn't say no."
interest high school and universily sfu-
dents In science by flying their e xperi- The Payload
ments as part 01 a balloon payload. This One of the goals was to have ATV on
allows them to see the results in real- board and to have a means of sending
lime as !he tlight progresses. real-lime and delayed information down
The lilth !light carr ied the first 01 \rom the payload . Stan Wellard N7UXC
these student experimen ts : a sotar- took over as profed coordinator and Ihe
driven motor Ihat cou ld be used l or new payload Slatted 10 come together. h
maintaining a deviee in relation 10 the contained a Motorola P50 2 meter FM
sun. The Sixth flight carried several hun- radio, a tone decoder board. a GampbeI
dred paper gliders thai were released at ScientifIC data-tower. a P.C. Electronics
aboul2,OOO Ieet as part ot a CUb Sooul KPA-5 one-watt ATV transmitter on 434
event. The glider lhat went the farthest MHz, an Olda Ante nn a Labs "mlni-
received a prize. wheel," a Micro Video Products minia-
Gil MOOJe N7YTK, Adjunct Proiessor ture black arld white CGD camera and a
01 Physics at Utah State University and High Technology Flight video overlay
a representative of the Rocky Mountain board fOI the callsign 10 (N7YTK). A
NASA Space GIani Consortium. has three-inch 1I0 nt surface mirror was
bee n the driving loree beh ind these fTlOlXlted at a 45 deglee angle in front 01
balloon fl igh ts . He has been ab le to the TV camera and rotated by corrmand
obtain the special ball oons and has USing a one-RPM motor to allow a l ull
also ~ with mati)' of !he expenses 360 deglee view. A PacComm UMPAO-
incurred. Many of the Ioc:al hams have 4 micro powered TNC sent down oeoet
put in long hOUf S designing, building telemetry on 144 .290 MHz via the Mo-
and tes ting lhe circuits used in the 10 rOIa 2 meter F M HT. Kelly Vini ng
payloads. KE7WI b uilt a separate 250 mllliwaU
During a conference on balloons, Gil beacon transmitter that 10ed lor 20 sec-
met the folks from Wlnzen and showed onds every three minutes on 145.550
them a videotape 01 the BARC experl· MHz to aid in tracking the balloon.
ments. He was asked ~ the BARC group There were sensors 10 measure in-
would like to fly one 01 thei" newly ee- side and outside temperature , as well
Signed super-pressure balloons. They as battery condition. There was a Mag-
Photo B. Liftoff 01 fI/gIlf #7 using a zerrJ-Pressure balloon. Ph% by Harf G00dselI even ottered to come out and show ellan GPS (Global Positioning System)
W7lrn. them how to handle this specia l very receiver board that 'MMJId give the bal·
46 73 Amareur Radio Today · November. 1992
nthe world at mulli-mode SSW 9600 bps K9NG/G3RUH for

I contollers, nothing tops the

DSP-2232 or DSP-1232 from
AEA When youchoose either the
Multi-Mode Controller
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terrestrial and satellite use. Each
also offers internal RAM for up-
loading modems, up to 36

dual port DSP-2232 or single .AMTQIl FtC

. _,
simullaneous packet connections,
port DSP-1232, you'll have just . ...SCH Id •• '~"'''"'''' EPROM up to 2Mbits, software
what you need to couple HF or
selectable radio ports, Mailbox
VHF/UHF (or both) transceivers accessible through both ports,
withapersonal computer or dedicated printer port, RTTY digi-
computer terminal. Each converts tal noise gate, ARQ tolerance
incoming analog signals into dig- 9600 bps G3RUH/K9NG command, etc.
ital data by means at a12-bit, , The DSP-2232 adds even
high speed converter r 2400 bps DPSK I
more control with its dual port
Developed by AEA - with Mi~lmum Shirt K.y!~g Modems r gateway, front panel LCDshowing
over 10 years at mutti-mode con- connect and packets status,
troller development experience - the DSP-1232 as no new hardware or retrieval, call sign connected to, last call
DSP-2232/1232 are Ihe most advanced modilications will be needed as new monitored and "marquee" display of
and versatile controllers available any- modes become available. received RTTY signals.
where.They give you thecapabilily to Whatever you've thought about Get control at your digital operat-
control all legal Amateur digital modes doing inAmatuer radio, it's here in the ing position with the DSP-2232 or
popular onboth HF and VHF New DSP-2232 /1232. All PK-232 M8X DSP-1232 from AEA. You'll be ontop of
modems only requirenew software modems (Packet, AMTOR, etc.).All the Amatuer radio wortd,too.
which can be installed with an EPROM satellite modems (PSK, 4800 bps
chip, or downloaded tromatelephone PACSAT, G3RUH 9600 bps, U022equal- To connect with the AEA dealer
88S binary file intothe DSP's RAM. You ized,400 bps OSCAR-13).Analog nearestyou or tor product sheets,
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there il could stay at thai the GPS p osition data came In and
} ailltude fo r we eks or tlelped steer the crew in the rigtll direc-
montl'ls. tion. At dayligtlt Hugh N7KW took 011
from Itle Log an airport followed by a
The Flight second plane piloted by Carl Howlett

, Early on tIM! morning

ol August l Si, G~ N7YTK
ca lled the FAA Irom his
with Jamie N7XLH riding along as oc-
The balloon stopped at 45,000 feel
cellular phone and re- and remained alltlat altitude . A look at II
ceived clearance lor with the ATV camera revealed ttrat il
urtcu. At euclly 4 ;00 was not completely in the sunUght yet
a.m. local lime the bal- and had not fully expanded . Reception
loon was released. It be- repools came in as tar away as Kemmer,
gan slowty moving 10 the Wyoming. In additiOn, N7POZ in Rawl-
north but was NOT ris- ins, Wyoming. had 0V'l:lf an hour of pack-
ing' II tumed out thai the et 1ta1dcopy. At about 7:15 a.m. the sun
payload weight had been shown fully on the balloon and within
misca lculated ana nol minutes it rose to its peak altitude 01
enougI'I helium had been 64,000 teet and tM:tId steady. The ATV
pu~ into the balloon. picture revealed the balloon was now
The balloon was quiCkly fuly e~. Brian N7aAR iSSued the
captu red and brought cutdown command and a cheer went up
back to the launch site as the ATV down link displayed tne
lor some additiOnal he1i- parachute blossoming out above me
~o C. Stan W66aro' N7UXC (f) ChfK:Jls out the payload tor the super.pi8SSiJf6 ba.llool'l expe';' um. Al 4 :07 a.m. the bal- payIood.
metlI (flighll9). The rolating TV mtfTOf system is on the left and the GPS antenna (egg-sIlaped)
is shown stidUng out on the right siOe of the payload. The radiometef is located ifISide with the
rest of /he eIectrotIics. Photo by Marf W7LTH.
loon was again on it s
way and finally began its -.....
journey. Alter the payload landed . the chase
......,." The launctl was planned tor thiS earty crew closed in on the tanding Si'B near
hour so lhallhe radiOmeter could look at Ihe lown of Evanston, Wyom ing (75
the ozone layer as the sun came over miles from the launch Sile). As the re-
the horizon. Also. one 01 the goals was CDIefY leam drove down a lirI road lhey
to see how the new super-pressure bal- came 10 a fence that had a sign reading
loon would react whefI the sun hit it and "No TrespaSSing-Hunler Conlrol Area.
expanded the helium 10 stfeldl the bal- Cyanide PoiSOn Charges SeL· Since the
loon $lIin tighL ATV was used 10 observe Signats were so strong, ttley knew me
the balloon as it reached Its maximum package was Just over the next rise.
taoeess and to see if the ctlldown sys- After a call to me local Stleriff, the
tem funct ioned properly and the recovery team was escorted ttlrougtl
parachute deployed. the area and quickly found the payload
M systems perlormed well wrth good and parachute in good snece. The baI-
data coming down on me packet down- loon envelo pe was eve n found [ us!
link as reported by AC70 In Clayton and two miles away by Randal N7YSV and
Dan KA0EOF at their portabla stations. SOL emp loye e s w hi le riding In I tle
Joe N7NJR was receiving me ATV pic- Space Dynamk:: LaboralOl'YIUSU recov-
ture (wl l h so me snow) and Bri an ery !rud e
N7aAR and Dic k K6KCY were busy The actual landing sue was wil tlin a
sending commands 10 downlink the data mile of the predidion as given by Stan
and tarn on and rotate the TV came ra 'rom updated data. The night had tasted
mirror. Members of t he cnase le arn, three hours and 50 minutes. 'rne iotar
Mark N7 EVJ , DeAnn KB7LLG, Mike lime from lil1011 to recover y took six
KG7FZ (and tlls brother Jeff N7UWW), hours and 47 minutes. The radiometer
all headed out 10 Ihe projected landing dala is currenlty being analyzed and ap-
slle. Kavln N7RXE and Tyler N7 UWX pears 10 valid.
headed lor the lop 01an 8,000 loot pass Over 25 hams, and many more who
that was hallway to the landing zone. Gil were moniloring, were involved in this
and Stan updated the aircraft map as very successful ftigtll iii
Photo D. The super-preSSUffJ balloon payload (flight #9) is found just eigh t miles BARC
Ilridgertend Am t&ur Radio Club_
northeast of Evanston, Wyoming. (/ to r): Jeff ~, Mike KG7FZ and Marle loge". Uten
NlEVJ. Photo by N7UWX.
loon's ccrrent position 10 within 300 me- just over 27 pounds. {Ed. Note: A pay-
ters (latitude, Il:ln{;lude and the altilud8). load oIlhis Size requires a special FAA
waiver (four to six pounds is the /mit tor
A l our-dlalv1el radiomeler was obIaned
10 study the ozone layer. Tho data logger
stored aata lrom the radiometer, sensors
and lhe GPS receiver and I»wnlinke<l
ffee-flight balloon payloads unless a
waNer is iSSued}j. In adliIion, two slrobe
igIts were on the system eece the bal-
the inlormation via packet on 144 .290 loon would be launched during dark-
MHz on command or aulomatieally al ness. The payload wa s enca sed in a
two-minute intervals. Ttle lirst mree rigid nylon Irameworll about 12 ecres
packets gave the GPS position data and square and coYered with 314-fl:h styrO-
the ku1h packet gave the sensor data. toam with an outside layer of metalled TV Xmmw

A cutdown system consists 01 two mylar fa act as a radar rellector. There

electric pyre Igniters eonlJolled via the were Itlree separate battery supplies
lone decoder. an activation, it would
bum a large V in the top 01 the baloon
and also sever the Ina ~ the paY'"
load with its tz-tcot perecbute. There
useo to power <tIIerent parts of the paY'"
T1'Iis super-pressure baloon when lui·
Iy inllated has a 26-fooI diameter and a
was also a laJ-safe ~ Just in case al 'tOIume of 9203 cubic feel It can cany a
else tailed. The payload weighed In at Xl-pound payload fa 64,000 teet Once FIf}Uf6 I . Block diagram of the BARe payload. Drawing by Stan We4aro' N7lJXC.

48 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992

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VHF and Above Operation ..---- 1/4 - 28 8RASS SCREW

C. L. Houghtoo WB6IGP
San Diego Mio'owall9 Groc.p
modem transceivers. By comparisoo.
earty receivers were wide open, consist- 1_----.-
Badgei' Lake Ave. ing of only a deledOf, and would receiIIe
San DiegoCA 92119 everything. Ifs just like a sifT1lle aystal
de tector or "potato" recei ver-you re-
Filters for Am ateur Use ceive everyllling that is stfong In your
Last manit! I briefly discussed 10
GHz Gurm oscillators and the ccmpc-
llents used wilh WBF M systems. This
month I would like 10 gel into another
area (a potato receiver Is very similar 10
a crystal ootector). Th e same allalogy
lor low Irequency is true lo r both our
VHFIUHF and microwave bands.
I 2 112 "

subjecl altogether: different RF lillers For exarrp&, When you take an HT tl

aod coaxial and .....aveguide systems. I a lavorite O'oertook or mountaintop. why
have a<:aJmulaled questions from read- ooes your HT seem dead? Is your HT
ees on this topic for Quite a while. These OK or is the band dead? Wen, the band
questions vary from prob~ms on very Is not dead arid your HT is OK. What is
low frecuences (60 kHz) to very high up goi ng on is that th e same probl e m a
into the rercoweve spectrum. simpl e crystal receive r experiences is
I usually orient each of my coIulMS to happening to your HT, but in a slighlly
some oIlhe topics brought up In IetletS I different manner. The HT is being de-
reoeiYe !rOm our readers. I IeeI that this sensitized by operating near a hi{1l p0w-
is \tie best way ~ present material 01 n- er transmrtter. Your Hrs Iront end is
terest. I appreciate your feedback on 5hutling down 0Je to the high power RF
these and Similar topes. Most specific that is being thrust upon it. The cure lor
qcestons Invoke a more general discus- the HT is a row-pass @or that will pass Ftgura I. 1296 MHz BPF by N6CA; 30 dB attenuation at 800 MHz and 1BOO MHz,
sion of applications and materials that 148 MHz with low loss and provide high insertion loss is 0.05 dB.
call benelil our amateur ende avors. loss at 150 MHz and higher. This will
Sharing the information has always been minimize the etlect on your HT and allow
paramount 10 me. normat operatiCln to be restored, as at-
lenuation is given the I'Iigtlef frequency
Tranamlssion PfIlh a RF as presented tl your flfSl stage a~
Let's start 011 with a Simple premise. in the receiver. The same would be true
"WtIy don't we move some 01 our radio- lor other UHF Ireqi.l91'1Cy bands.
based systems to a closed coaxial or On microwave the problems are the
waveguide environment? In that way we same. Filters can be used to minimize
would reduce qurte a bit 01 interference oul-ol-band influence and aid operation.
and congestion on much ol our frequen- Wrth basic systems operating wideband
cy spectrum." I think this question has FM (W9fM), Ihe addition 01 Mars would
been asked in various ways ever since not be 01 much use but would be rather
spark ran king. Why don't we use coax cumbersome 10 the basic systems. The
or waveguide to contain communieations basic systems provide enjoyment and
paths instead 01 USing almospheric-type easy contacts. While !hey could be mod-
transmission paths? ilied, I !eel !hat a point is reached where
Belore we get lar afield, let me say relinemen ts do not give apportioned re-
t ha t we don't use coaxIal cable or sults for the etlort put forth. When you
waveguide for systems covering great have reached this point, as I did some
distances because the cable losses be- time ago, \lie necessary SWiICh to a re-
come too Large 10 pass signals as the duced baud....idth and mode 01 transmis-
distance gets greater and greater. Loss sion would yield higher e"ieiency 01 0p-
in the atmosphere is great also bu t eratlcn-c-tcr starters. red ucing band-
nowhere near the loss encountered in widlh improved operation several orders
coaxial systems. Antennas perform bet- 01 magnitUde. Changing from FM to sin-
ter in transmitting and receiving energy gte sideband wilh less than 3 kHz band-
at very great distances. width eisc made improvements. Fitters
Fillers also enter into a major aspect again play an important part in the se-
of our lives: They help to separate the ries of improvements in circuit pertor- FREO
multituOe 01 signals and help prevent mance and operating practiCeS. ADJUST
overload ... some 01 the very Sin1:lte sys-
tems. Mdrtionally. litters can be used to Types 01 Filter.
prevent out-ol-band image product sig- This month I will describe a few new F;gUff12. Coleman Microwave RF cavity filler for 1296 MHz.
nals trcm reaching the antenna when types of naers and discuss some of the
mixing low frequency IFs for 144 MHz or methods and materials used to ccestnct that will tune the cavity and the 718" pipe gol came from the Coleman Mcrowave
432 MHz. 01 course, we want the de- them. The lirst filter is one that was de- section to resonance. Co. of Lebanon, New Jersey. rrs a tun-
sired frequency signal 10 pass and the sIgned by Chip Angle and presented The tuning screw is made out 01 1/4" able cavity adjustable trom 1.3 to 1.4
IiIter does just lhaL quite a few years ago lor 1296 MHz. aa- rod that is tapped 1/4·28 to thread into GHz. I have just enough room to make
The trend lor advancement in com- sicaly, irs a copper pipe 3" In diameter the bottom cavity plate. PrOVide a lock 1296 MHz in its tuning range before !he
rruniCations has brought along a corre- and 2-112" long. See F~re 1 for details. adjust to make the tuning tight but not slOPS take etfect The fitter has a window
spending reduction in banttwldth and im- The filler is constructed with a 718" IXlP'" bound up. Then , when the cavity linal and lilm catibration settlng knob con-
provement in signal-ta-noise ratios due per section fixed to the top lid 01 the cev- adjustment is made, you can lock the ad- trolled wilh 1 MH z calibration marks
mainly to filters. The re are oth e r ad- ity, Two coupli llg links are sotde red to justment in. Typical specifications are 6 about lIS" apart. with real easy frequen-
vanced wide-based systems employing this 718" pipe section, di rec~y to the cen- MHz bandpass, 30 dB isolation at 800 cy selling. See Figure 2, the Coleman
spread spectrum and frequency hop- ter pipe section 0.600" up from ground. and 1800 MHz, insertion loss less than cavity. These are available in surplus in
ping: I am not going to get Into them These coupling links are 180 degrees O.OS dB, and relum loss greater than 30 multitudes 01 frequency ranges covering
here. Belore we get on to S9V9fal diller· apart from each other and connected to dB several hundred MHz to just about 6
enl Mer types and discuss them, jet's their respective i'lpuV0U\pU1 coaxial con- The conslJUction 01 !his filler is quite GHz. Usua lly at the higher micro....ave
see hoW they help to solve part 01 the nec1OI", type "'N"'''' this case. The bottom Simple .".im hand tools and a lillie pa- eeqoerces. 12 GHz and ~ , \lie cavity
problem. 01 the cavity. also made out 01118- brass tience. Commercial litters can be ob- designs stop and waveguide-based de-
First, fillers to me are the doorways 01 like the top section, has a l uning screw tained for this same range and one that I signs take over.
50 73 Amateur Radio Today · Nove mb e r, 1992
~ Real-Speech Voice ID Option Available With
~ DVR-1 Digital Voice Recorder Shown At Leftl
ONLY $59
A mtcroprocessor-ccntrctted repeater with autopatch
FEATURES: and many versatile dtmf co nt rol features at less than you
• Very low ncree: O.7dB IItlf, a.8dS uhf
• High g ain : 13-2QdB, depends on lreq might pay for a bare-bones repeater or controller alone!
• Wide dynamic ran ge - resist overload We don't skimp on rf modules, e itherl Check the features on R144
• Stable: low-feedback dual-gate FEr
>Speclfy WtlJng range. 2G-JO. 46-56, 137-152, Receiver be low, t or instance: GaAs FET front-end , helical rescna-

152·172, 210-230,4fXH 70, 800-960MHl
NEW RECORDER Modu le tors , sh arp c rystal filters , hysteresi s squelch .
Primarily a voice !D'er
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Kit $1095; w&t only $1295/
Voi ce ID Option $189.
~:'i\ i@;1 MINIATUR E ~ra djo nole pad M
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~~, PREAMP inslanl recall. As a repeat er 10'er, it will
record your voice, using either the buill-
ONLY $29k~,$44 _&tnte<l in microphone Of an external mic. It can
• GaAs FET Preamp similar to LN G, ex- be used with almost any repea ter COR
cept designed lor low cost & small Size , module. As a contes t c alle r, you can
Onty 5/8W x 1-5/8"L x 3/4"H. Easily record a message or even several mes-
mounts in many radios. sages and play them through your
' Specify wnIr>g rMfJ" 2$-35, 35-55, 55-90. transmitter at the press of a switch As
9Q.12C, '2/}-150, 150-200, 200-270, 400-SOOMHz. a radio notepad, you can keep it wired Other m odels available :
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LNS-(*) . you might want to recall later. Play it COR·4 Controller w ithout DTMF control or autopatch. Kit o nly $795, w&t $1095.

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back as many times as you like throug h
a small external speaker, (Call for more
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REP-200N Repeater with no controller. For use w~h extemar controller,
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lor the 50-54, 143-174, 213-

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• GsAs FET Preamp will1teatures similar Designed es pecially for repeate rs, _FCC fype accepted for commercial access lor repeater or autopatch, and
to LNG series, except aUiomallcally with remote control act ivate/deactivate
swi tches out 01 Une durin g tra nsm it.
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pro visions. kit $29, w ired & tested $69 .RuggOO exc iter and PA, designed for chunk M er, see alarm, au.x rcvr, and
Use wlth base or mobile transceivers up
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' Tuning range: 12/}-175, 200-240, or 400-500. Features adjustable tail and time-out - Power out 20W SO-54MHz: 15W (25W - cw speed end tone, beep delay, tail
timers, SOlid-state relay, courtesy beep, option even) 143-174MHz; 15W 213- timer, and courtesy beep type can be
HELI CAL RESONATOR and local speaker amplifier .... kit $49 233 MHz; l OW uhl; lOW 902-928MHz. changed at any Ilm e by owner pass-
CWID. Diode programmed any lime in _Available add-on PA's up to l00W. word protected dtmf commands.
PREAMPS the field, adjusta ble tone, speed , and . Slx court esy beep types , including _Auxiliary receiver Input lor control or
• GaAs FEr pr eamps with 3 or 4 section limer, to go with COR-3 " kit $59 two pleasant multi-tone bur sts , crcea linking repeaters
helical resonators re du ce intermod 8< -open or ciosed access autopatch , • Many built-In diagnostic and testing
cross-band interlerence in cnncar COR-4. Complete CO R and CWID all
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142· 150,150- 162, 162-174, 21~233, 420-470,
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device .. .." kit $49, w&t $89 FCC type accepted for com" ; I lit

AP-3 AUTOPATCH . Use w ith above for h igh band & uhf.
Low noise converters to receive vhf and repea ter autopatcn. Reverse patch and
uhf bands on a 10M receiver. phone line remote control are stc MHz kit $109, w&t $189 '" q
• Kltlesll cue $49, kit w/ case & BNC kit $89 , wired s tested $149 • TA451 420475 MHz ~
jacks $74, w8<t In cas a $99. AP-2 SIMPLEX AUTOPATCH Tim ing kit $1 09 w&t $189 ~~ . 0
• Input rang es avail: 50-52, 136-138, • TA90 1 902-928 MHz, ~ -
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144·146, 145-1 47.146-148,220-222, ope ration uSing a transce,ver ... , kll $39 • VHF & UHF AMPLIFIERS, ~
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Ffutter-proct hysteres is squelch: ale
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your model, especially to hit a desired board is e xcellent 'or micro-
r 3 /4" COPPER PIPE CAP frequency without re-aclusureot. Grem-
lins always seem 10 enter inlO the math
wave but there are esunct differences
between different board materials.
stage and exact operation is nol always Micro wave circuitry constructed on
~ P RO B E 0 .200 INCH HT proper. Whal I do wilh a particular PC Teflon malerial tends 10 be bigger when

t board substrate is to have my stock 'jig-

g1ing" or "ludge' teeter to multiply by lor
compared to the ceramic material. In ei-
ther case, you can vary the malerial to
0 .200 each material 10 accounllor my particu- suit your construction needs. For exam-
ple, a 10 GHz type amplifier using ce-
I" lar construction lechniques. This seems


10 work out OK. II you try some you will
have 10 develop your own factor as it
can vary quite a bit, depending on ire
board material you use.
ramic can reach sizes 01 a quarter 01 an
inch SQUIlle lor a push-pun comrneteial
amplilier, while with Teflon the size
nears one inch square lor a single-stage
2 SMA OR SIM ILAR RF CONNECTOR COULD BE A prime consideration when ccn- circuit. The point to make eere is that
INSULATED PROB E SOLDERED TO INPUTI QUTP UT structing these nners is what type 01 micro positioners and gold bonding
STRI PLINE . 3 4 in. PIPE CAP GOOD FOR 5.7 GHz substrate you construct your lilter on. equipment are mandated when workng
I 1/2 FOR 1296 . L ENGTH ADJUST WITH SHORT For instance, lhe dielectric constant 01 with some ceramic materials at 10 GHz.
SECTI ON PIPE. 112 in. NEAR 10 GHz the material has a lot to do with how and star'ldard soldering techrliques are
I2r9O )'OUr litler wilt be. low dielectric used with the Tellon ooard . This makes
F9Jro 3. ~ CiJP liners courtesy of WASVJB tI North Texas MICrowave Society. material like Tellon'" has a dielectric Tetlon quite a bit easier 10 work with , at
constanl of 2.5 (Er =2.5), and as such least at 10 GHz. Choose your board mao
DeSignS lor M8fS thaI can be used In lions) are Interleaved and spaced with will produce larger filters than ceramic teriaI carefuly.
frequency ranges from 1296 MHz to 6 close coupling 10 allow the AF to flow (Er -.10) , where the Mer's length d be Tl1e converse is Irue when the Ire-
GHz can come from lMlUSUal materials. through them , by nature of !heir reso- quite a bit smaller. Well then, why did quency is reduced, say, to 1296 MHz. An
Reports of filters from Kent WA5VJB nante. A smal adjust screw is positioned ee PC board makers use G·l0 epoxy ampliflOr constructed on G·10 (Er = 5)
show that p(le caps lor o:oppei pipe can above !he high impedance end 01 each when they designed these kitS lor their and Teflon (Et = 2.5) tends 10 make Cir·
be seled:ed to Size and i'lYetted and fit· &'lger 10 permil: adjus!ment to 1llll oosil'ed nc-tcne designs? Well, ceramiC and cuitry Large, as we staled belore. In this
led wittI .. adjust screw on the lOP of \he !Tequency. See FlgWe 4 tor typical inter· Tetlon PC board material is quite expen- case, with G-l0 material at 1296 101Hz, a
cap. The cap Is soldetecllO a copper or digitallilter construction. sive and I'l()( a common everyOay shop single stage striplne design would be
PC board material ground surface to The size limits coosnuctcn 01 this stock material. Board cost is quoted by two ilches wide and lour to live inCheS
....nich probes are added on the opposite type Iiltef from 400 MHz, Of lTlOfe typical- the inch. However, high quality epoxy Icng_ WIil1 ceramic this would be reduced
side of the gr<Mm su1aallor inpuVoul- Iy 1300 MHz. to over 12 GHz In most FtlergIas'" G-l0 PC board material has to less #laO one inch wide and aboutlWO
put coupling. F~ters of thiS nalure have c:onmercial applications. A fillet Iof 1300 a Er :5 and is a good cost/performance inches long. This is quite manageable
loss lhat is deterTTWled in part by probe MHz can measure 4" x S'. For 10 GHz, allemative, (Note: The upper Irequency and standard soldering can be em -
IengIh and spaCing. These filters lend 10 !hat equates 10 less than 2'Iong and 314" lor Go10 epoxy board is 3 GHz, where rt pIoyed. With Teflon PC board material
exhibit a little excess Joss but do work square lor a Six-element filter. These fil- gets lossy bul is stiU reasonable.) While bulk components such as adjustable ca.
wei from 2304 MHz to 6 GHz. This de- ees can be reluned quite far i'l fTequen- the Te'lon and ceramic types nave ex- pacitors and abQo,oe-board inductors can
pends on the size 01 pipe cap: 314'lof 6 cy, namety 10% to 15%. For an 11 or 12 cellent RF loss factors and are highly make Tellon a good choio:e it al comes
GHz and 1-1/2" lor 2304 MHz. see
Fig- GHz finer it usually can be retuned to to recommended 'or mcrowave construc- together in one simple statement Use
ure 3 lor cetaus. GHz without too much difficulty. tion, the G·tO Fiberglas board shows what you nave and make logical choices
good lOSS characteristics to 2 GHz. It to maintain PC board circuitry, particular·
Waveguide Finers
Waveguide filter designs usually start
The Hairpin Fitter
Another lype of Mer that is becoming
gets a little b4t0' high loss near the lop
end 01 the Irequency, l>ullhis problem is
Iy stripline circuitry, small and workable
to your application.
at 5 GHz and work up in frequency,
were ltIey provide very high qual ity fil·
very popular is the hairpin liller. This is a
printed circuit type 01 filler where each el-
offset by ue convenience 01 the easy 0'
Make use the engineering program
availability 0' G-10 type PC board mate- PUFF I described in the May 1992lssue
ters. A difficuny with them is thatlhey re- ement of lhe liiter, or hairpin, is a nan- rial, Teflon, and especially ceramic ma- 01 73 Magazine. This program will give
quire tlghlly controlled coostruction tech, wavelength long. The actual length that terials, are a lot more diffiCult to obtain. you some very good design information
niques because the dimensions lire quite can be construc ted depends on what ceremc materialS at nus time are oul 01 not only lor amplifiers but tor generating
critical. I have not tried to construct one type 01 dielectric matertat it is construct· reach 01 amateur construc tion budge ts. 'iller designs as well. I don't know what I
yet but when I do I will present this mtor-
mation and describe any troubles I en-
eo on, the velocity lactor the material,
and what frequ ency you plan your lilter
The high dielectric constant of 10 or so would do withoul it PUFF is a very pow-
ma kes circuitry ve ry small when using erful tool in e ngineering circuitry ' rom
countered. lor. Most 'illers 01 this type became very th is type of high dielectric constant stri~ine techniques.
I have tried to re-adjust waveguide fil- popular with the aoveot 01 the MMIC am- (E r =10 or greater) type ceramic board nars
Well, it lor this month. It you lell
ters obtained 'rom commercial sources plifier ro-tere design for 1296 MHz and material. we lett out the 2 meter Mer lor your HT,
to amateur bands. In both the 6 and 10 a variety 01 other frequencies , Printed 'tenon dielectric PC board material, well, we did, buti'll cover some 01 those
GHz waveguide tillers I did nol have very circuil board labrication 01 this type 0' tn- by comparison, also has excellent designs next month. I will get into some
much success wilh retuning most filters ler demands thai accurateness be tightly low los s al microwave treq ue ncie s-e- simple effective ones and some inexpen-
'Mlen the designed 'requency was over controlled or else the liller will be reso- 10 GHz and even highef, due to its low- sive types tha t work quite well. As al·
500 MHz higher than where I wanted to nant ott frequency, high or low, depend· er dielectric constant, which can vary ways, I will answer your questions ceo-
use them. They did nol have much 're o ng on the coostruction techniques. You lrom about Er =2.0 to Er =2.6. This de- cerning this and similar topics. Please
quency range in luning or reluning, As can use math to a large degree, but be pends on who manulactured the board send an S ASE lor a prompt reply. 73
they tuned downward !hey seemed to sure to ack! a little jigging to make it lit and how they constructed it. All Tetlon Chuck WB6IGP. II
get balky and have high loss low·
ering a 11.5 GHz waveguide lilt9\' to 0Uf
10 GHz band. I also eocounlefed trOlbIe
n tryng 10 lower II lrequenc:y 6 GHz fi1-

I ,,
ters to 5760 MHz. ThiS did I'l()( work ei-
ther. ThiS is nollO say it is al k'IllOSsible, I
just lhat the filters I tried would I'l()( U'le
low enough to make them usable. My
recommeodatoon on waveguide fillers is 2114-
10 stay away from Ihem ISMess !hey are

cul lor your lTeQuenc:y or you make one

lnterdigital Flhers
There reman two basic types oIli1ters ,
10 be OO\Iered: ee interdigital Nter and a
tl I;l 112 WAVElEJlGTH

more recent appIicatio"l 01 il!he hairpn

filter. First the kllerdigitallilter. This is !he
last of !he "great bloclI 01 metal" fihers, or
fillers constructed out 01 or uSing sub-
!i 1/4 - .I
stantial metal, lorrnng a cavity. In !heir Figure 4. 1540 MHz IfIlerdigital filler WIth SIX adiuslabJe eJements. This filter has 20 MHz ba/ll:PIlss 0 3 dB points. Inservoo
construction, lingers (quaner-wave sec- .oss is 0.4 dB. A 1/2 wa~de"gth hairpin shown for comparison.
52 73 Amateur R adio Tooay - November, 1992


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dem showing the jumper wires as wen as the new paa assignments
(shown in rea), Using tIlesa new oea assignments, just follow the wiring
hookup cIlart ln Agure 4 In the original article for the proper cemnecfions.

Figure f. The COffeded schematic diagram 01 the PackelMac Modem. Changes are 10 /tie TxD and RxD swapping lhe IfIIires on \he mini OtN-8 u ec-
wiri'lg. pin nunbel5 on the a:n tedOt" and the ·2,51101t cOfl ledior l$. Ncle. however that el'8/)'l'fWJg eJ(cepl t1JB intosh cable where il. allaches to the TJO+
Ioopbadl: lest MI work as Originally -.tiled. aoll Tx[). pads on ee modem. You coold
also dlange the modem by swappK1g the
" Packet on the Mac" 2) The bit asserted sense 01 the TxO+ wires goilg 10 \he AxD+ ancI Ax[). pads.
since the NAZI encoding assef1s a bit by
Reier to Ihe above artiCle on page 8 01 and TxO-lnes are ee same as their name, changing state. it does nol rnajter it the 4)Co-alllhors: The sedion on SoItKiss
ee October 1992 issue. The following COf· not ee opposile as Slated in the article. stale slarts high or Iow_The only indication was written by Aaron WOOl N3UW Aaron
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73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992 55
Numbeor 16 on your Feedback card IIIllI iIs IlSCIIn. inslAahon peneI$ peel from Ihe ng system liar-. The aIIituOe of .., poirt
S11UClu.e kke tree leaves 'alkl'lg away III a on 1he ooeen can be a:x:uraIety ~ed to
HAMSATS strong wond. AlIIough the paneb -..ete I'W:II •
eYIdenIlt.lrrog ee laIe "'"0 _ 9 IIo..n::tl oflTll$-
SIOr'I52, the $pedao.' Barnes !rom 1he kquid
wrthin ., i'll;h.
Two au...,., palllage,s were .... wrtn
Amateur Radio Via Satellites and Solid boosters lll.l on QUle a show. and IifIOlI'Ier smaI satelkle aIrno$t idenlIc:aI in
The flawless ~ was toloWed by a shape to Kilsat, caJIed S&Vf, The two smel
Andy MacAllisler WA5Z1B to complemeo1lhe amateur radio devices. For perlec1IBl.f'lCh. spac;ecrait we.e mounted on a large ring k).
14714 Knightsway Drive hams, though, great pictures 'rom the wide-
Houston TX n083 and narrow-angle cameras and the irlcreditlly
strong downlink signals nave been a de'gltl.
Korean Star in Orbi t!
Just alter 2300 UTe on Augl,l$! 100h, I
Complete details ot the satellite were de-
scnbed in the JUy 1992 "1iamsats' «*.mn.
"For hams, though, great pictures
was senllo~.
..-lmiIleu"ado sa1ellrle
KlTSAT-A. no", known as KJlsal 0sclI,·23.
from the wide- and narrow-angle
bruugI'll: anolher p o . the I\amsal rom-
S& 10 For those .. ttl satell,te TV dIshes or a cameras and the incredibly strong
fI'Ilnly. 0... tongl1lUabons ID !he u-s.ty qua~1y cable TV system , the NASA·SeoIect
01 Surrey leam in EngIIInd .-.:llhe Kcr-. AcJ. chamel oovered the lantI 01 K.().23 Bnlthe downlink signals have been a delight. "
....-.:ed Insblule 0/ TeJ."*>;jy (KAlST). The DIher PBY'oeds sen! 10 space on AIIanespace
prOlect manager 10' the payload was Jell IIIgIlt 52. Trvs was arty the second \me an At-
Ward G(liK8KA JetI has been extremely fIC· iane 4 rocke1 was Iao.n:hed WIth two strap-on
t,ve with lhe Suney group tor several years solid-luel boolSlers. The rocket Os typieely con- NASA and Pentagon .ep.8lIeoliltives W!lre COled below the main payload ceeee the AS-
and is now leadIng some 01 the mcee amb;· IU
1ured WIth more e.<lemal tloosters for heavy present wi th a keen eye on me proqrese of AP (Ariane Stl\lClure lor Au~ ili ary Payloads).
hous prog rams. commu.-.ealioo satellite payloads to be sent to the ope.ation. Futu re joint veotcres are ex- The sateUites were put in place two weeks pri-
KrTSAT·A incorporates many oIlhe belte<
features of uessr-osco- te and 22. The
geostallOnluy transfer orbrts.
lJIt-oH was jusl alter dark. from Kcorco.
p.,,,' Of to lal.f'lCh.
S&Vf WilS blJk by Mat'a Marc:oni SpIce
system provideS. high-speed (9&00 bps l FrerlCh GUIana. Kourou is located on ttle The PaytOllos 101 1he a-n:S and was deslgled to SIUdy the
padIel: BBS lrom ortIl with • new and greally nortIleasl coast 01 South Amenea just above The p.incipa l passengel. TOPEX! U5e ol1he VHF o.nd from 137 to 150 MHz tor
omproved C3m&r1 system. The satelll1e his the equatOf. Dayt'me Ariana launches are POSEIDON. was a Jo,nt NASA/CNES (the mobite communicahons . On-board power
... compuIers and an array at expenmenl$ ~e <"eCliIO .... Wl'iIe !he rocQI 1$ begin- FrtnCt1 space agency) soentollc payload. The av8lIable IS 26 wMI$, WIIIl ., e........-:llilellme
sat., was buill by Falld'Jjd Space. l.ftder 01 one year.
CO.. a:l to NASAlJPl (Jet Propulsion labOfa- K-o-23 we;ghs in at 50 kg. substar(IaIly
tory) . II weicjls 2.0C00 kg and hes an expected less than TOPEXIPOSElOON. AI Iao.nch. 1he
life 01 five years. Dunng that time rt wiNsurvey S81el1rte is appIO~UTletely one fool by one fool.
ocean circulat ion on a global scale. The by two teet tall. The fIrl1icipated Idetime '5 love
spacee,ak includes SophtstlCOted radar l.flils, years. Stabilizal ion is achieved by a gravily-
a laser ,euollecto. ar.ay and a ~obal pos ibOflo gradient boom and compuler--eontrolled mag-

Pnoto A. Kitsat-oscar 23 was launched on an Ariantt 4 rocket. (Pholo oy CSG ana Photo B. The August 10. 1992, early evening launch of KO-23 from French
Arianespace.) GiJI8lla. (Photo oyCSG ana ArianespaaJ.)
56 73 Amateur Radio tcaev »November. 1992
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73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992 57
netic lorqoor. When deployed, It\e boom is al- MHz with 1.3 watts out (B kHz below TXO. the several devices described, a new 9600 bps TAPR TNC·1. The instruction manual with the
most 20 feet long. low-power unil ). modem kif has been announced by TAPR kit eescntes the TNC-2 hook up,
On August 1Bth. efforts began to ccmme- (The Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corpora- Experiencing is believing. Digital commu-
The Orbit
sion the CCO camera experimen t. This sys- tion). Kits are avai lable from TAPR for S70. nicatians via satellite at 9600 bps works ex-
Due to the m issia n req uir eme nt s af tem includes 11'10 CCD cameras: one with a Since the initial release, several bugs have ceptionally well. Actrvifies that are tedous at
TOPEXJPOSEIDON, K-0-23 is in an arbit un- lens system capable af 4 km resalutlon, and been found and corrected . The July 1992 is- 1200 bps flash by at 9600, Messages. pro-
like an y Of her amateue radio sateane. Most another with 400 meier resolution, The cam- sue of the 'Packet Status Register" I rom grams and images can be downloaded and
space shutt le missions have an inclinatio n eras are connected 10 an BOS1 microcontroller TAPR describes the iatest moddications to the uploaded with ease K-Q-23 has added aneth-
(angle of the mtlital plane relative 10 the equa- and from there to two transputers. board and interface procedures for the AEA er fine sateliite resource to the bamsat com-
tor) between 28 and 57 6egre~ and an am- The first image was taken at 1740 UTC on PKBB. AEA PK232MBX, ORSI PC·PA and the munity, iii
tude of less than 500 km. MOSllow-ort>if ham- Augus t 191h while the satel lite was ov er
sats have orbits thaI fake them over the pales. Antarctica, Satellite controllers were delighled
Their inclinalions are near 90 degrees and al- 10 see an excellent picture of lhe edge af me
titudes are usually less than 1,000 km. K-Q.23 earth shawing doud formations with an inter-
has a 66 deg ree ircunetcn and an aMude esting lighting effect cau sed by the low sun
near 1,325 km, Mosl Northern Hemisphere angle, Some software bugs caused d ropped
stations will find it diffarent 10 track because frames in the transpoier-tc-o ac (on-board
fh e sateliife doesn' t appear fa travel in a compu ter) path, Ihus carruptong later encts.
sl raight line. The path la kes some getting but the system is currently producing excellent
usedto , but the langer access limes for data views with both wide- and narrow-angle cam-
do wnloads per pass (jusf over 20 minules) eras. Due to the orientat,on of the satellrte, the
have been great. cameras are always painted earthward.

Spacecralt Commis sio ning Working K-Q-23

Only 24 minule s atter launch KITSAT·A xnsat's
uplink ( 145,900 MHz) and down-
was released into orbit and 14 hours tater the link (435, 167 MHz) both use AX.25 FSK at
KAtST ground station HL0ENJ in Korea was 9600 bps for normal cperauons. A typical
uploading software to the satellite. Many re- earth station has 100 watts ERP (effective ra-
porters witne ssed K-O·23 execute the very diated power) on the uphnk and a sensitive re-
forst command seqllllnce sent by KAIST. Up- cerver on the ooWlllink. Antennas range from
load activities and tests continued WIth few omnid,rectiona l turnstiles to circularly-polar-
problems, iZed yagis, A sligh~y modified TNC (terrnmal
During me
first few days, hams noted that node controller) with modem ceccmect head-
the K-O-23 signals were relatively weak and er, a 9600 bps modem and a PC-type comput-
Photo C. The first image taken by KO-23 used the wide-ang le camera. (Received
experienced severe fading. The satenne had er runnin g · PB" software compl ete the sys- and formaffed by NK6K and piolted by KB5UST.)
not yet been stabdized and only It\e few-power tem. Any station currently active on U-O-22
transmitter was on. Wilhin a week of launch can work K-o-23.
the craft was complelely stable with virtually Information on the ccroonenrs that make
no tumbling or spinning, The gravity-gradienl up a UoSat or Kitsat-ready station can be
boom was deployed and the TX1 transmitter fou nd in th e October 199 1 and Dece mber
was activated with a downlink on 435. 167 1991 ' Hamsars" columns. In add~ion to the


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Interoal K.....I• • r Squolrh p"",."ing Ca, doCago design

Palomar Telecom, Inc. Photo E. Narrow-angle camera shot of the southern Africa coast from KO-23.
300 [nlerprise St, Suil e [ • Esrondido, Ca_nll25 • ( ~ 1 9) 7%-79911 • ro> (619 ) 746-- 16 111
(Rece ived and tcoreuea by NK6K and plolted by KB5UST.)
58 73 Amateur Radio Today · Novembe r, 1992
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73 Amateur Radio Tcdey » November, 1992 59

ASK KABooit 17 00 '00' , ..... " u" more. The micro's port conn ects to
where the re sistor meets the switch.
in duced VOltages on the re mo te
switch's wires (such as from your trans-
When the switch isn't bein g pressed, miller) and the wires' inductance kick
the connecnon point will be high. When atso can damage the micro. And you
The Tech Answer Man you pr ess me switC h, i l goes lo w can't put a capacitor across the wires
(to grou nd). By making the micro's to smooth things out because it inter,
soltwa re e xamine the val ue of the teres with the scanning pulse, making
MicIlaeI J. Geier KB, UM lew? Well, eere just aren't l hat many port, the switch's state can be de ter- the switch appear to be continuously
c/o 73 Magazine things to be coded. And speed is not mined. Actually, ifs almost that simple, pressed. II your remote switch is more
70 Route 2()2 North an issue fike it is on the PC so, if multi- b ut nOI cune . swacnes l e nd 10 than a few inches 01 wire away, it is
Petert>orovgh NH 03458 ple bytes are needed 10 re pre sent a 'bounce ." or h ave rapid -cns- and besllO use either a relay or a 4066 or
partieular piece of jnrorrratcn, it's no "offs," for a fraction 01 a second when Similar type analog switch chip. Multi-
Micro Power big deat yo u press or release them. To avoid plexed switches can be a real pain to
ThiS month we're going to explore terse readings, the sottware is rraoe remote.
rricro power. NO. nol QAP. I'm IalUlg tn Conlror 10 wail a lew milliseconds and l hen
Small microprocessors wi lh their l est Ihe SWitch's stale again. II the My Friend Fl ick er
about the microprocessors whiCh are
the brains 01 ;ust about all ol our gear own RAM and ROM buill in are known two readings match, Ihe computer By the way, Ihe multiplexing teen-
these eeys. Sure. you know what they as miOoco,troIe1s because they're in, knows lhat a valid press or release has rjque werts lor displays as wei . If you
do lor you. but how do they do if? tended to be used to con trol thi ngs, _..-. have lots and lois of LEO segments 10
rather than to be ee centers 01 large Hey, wait a minute, my '940 has an control, as you do in a frequency dis-
Just A Bit inlormatiOn systems. You can find 1Ti, awful lot of butlons on it! Is there a sap- play, you sure don't want a wire lor
I doubt there are very many hams ccccurceers in lots 01 things , from mi- arale port for each one? wen, probably each one. You can multiplex lhem in
out there who have no idea what a mi- crowave ovens t o VC Rs, and cam- not That would require a big chip With exactly the same way, thanks to the
croprocessor (e rs eee it a "miCro1 is. corders 10 hard disk drives. The chip's lots of wires, and remember, hardware eye's inability to see very rapid flash ·
JUS! about al 01 us have had some ex' architecture is essentially the same as costs lOOfIey, while software is free' To i'lg . The reSlJIt is that orlt1 one segment
pererce WIth desktop computers, and that 01 larger systems, but the nurrtlefs read lots of switches, an old ted1nique, in the enure display is on at anyone
many 01 us have them in our shacks. are smaller. A typical microconlroller used lor evetything from calc:ulator and time, but they get scanned so fast that
And if you have a computer, )'OU know might have anywhere from 256 bytes cornpuler keytloarOs to elecboilic tele- they aU appear to be on at the same
what nns, bytes, ROM and RAM are . to 2K ot RAM . You sure wouldn't want phones, is employed. Irs called multi· time. The technique reduces power
so I'm not going 10 wnte an eoee c0m- to type a documenl into it! pleJling Here's how it works: consurnplion, 100. Of course , the dis-
puter primer here. But What does lhal The ROM, which stores the operat· play doesn't appear as bright as it
mysterious little miero in yOU( walkie or ing program, also is typically in the 2 K Drive A 4X4 would if they were ail on together, but
HF rig have in common with your PC to 4 K range. Small as that sounds , it Let's say you have a t e-euucn most displays are more than bright
Clone? Well, more than just a bil . usually is enough to handle a pretty ke ypad, like the one found on most enough anyway. LEO lunction indica·
In tact , several bits! While your complica ted radio's 'unctions. In some waucee. To read each SWItch individual- IOfS, such as the ones used IOf filler
desktop machine reads and writes to cases , e xternal ROM an d A AM are ly requires 17 connections: one for and mode selections on some rigs, at-
disks and outputs characters to its used to increase the data capacity each switch and a common ground, If so may be muniplexed.
screen and printer, the micro in your rig Many HF rigs use murupie-ctup sys- instead, though , you wire them in an If you want to see if your display is
reads tne rad io's knobs and buttons tems, although some do it all on one X!Y grid, you can do it with only eight multiple xed. try this: Turn the rig on
and wrrtes to the display screen . It also chip. Most watk ies use one or tw o wires. Try it on paper. Draw rour rows and shulthe room lights 011. Now, stare
outputs control signals to the frequency chips. of 'our boxes each, Now, connect them at the display and move your eyes
synthesizer Whi ch pu ts your rig on together horizontally and vertically, II rapidly in a circle, It you see interrupted
whatever frequency is shown on the Take It For A Spin you connec t lour wires at. say, the left bars or light, the display is multiple xed.
display. So , ho w many bits does It When you spin the tuning knob on and four at the top, no matter which
butt on you press, you'll make a con-
If all you see is a bunch 0' solid
take? one of today's typical HF rigs, an opti- smears, there's no multiplexing in use.
We ll , desktop PCs t ypicall y use cal encoder (a scneo disk with an ar- r ecuon between a wire on the top and And, if you do it long enough, you may
eigh t or more bits. Why? Because it ran gement of LEOs and detecto rs) a w ire on th e si de so me where. get to see Nirvana.
takes at least six to represent all the sends pulses to the micro. Its software 0 1 course, mu ltiple ke ys pres sed at LCOs usually are multiplexed, tOO,
upper- and lower-case cha racte rs. It reads the pulses and changes the Ire- the same time can cause all kinds 01 but their inherently slow response time
you raise two {the number of possible quency by rewri tin g the display and ccoruston . The way to avo id it is to makes the segments stay set between
bit states-con and off} 10 the power 01 sending the proper codes to the fre- scan the ro ws Bnd columns, looking scans, so they really are all on, or
the numbe r 0' bits, that tells you how quency syn thesizer, It may fee/l ike 'or connections. That way, i' you find nearly so, at the same time.
many possible combinations you can you're tuning a VFO, but you're really more Ihan one set, you can ignore
make 'rom those bits, Two to the Sixth JUS t alterin g da ta! ( For th at matter. them all. By the way, if you're trying to f!.to D, Where Are You?
power equals 64 , so you can use six these day s a "VFO" is nothing more discern the grid pattern on a bunch of SOme micros, particularly the ones
bits to cover the alphabel and num -
bers. But just barely. By the time you
than a piece 0' data in memory any- SWitcheS, keep in mind that the electri-
cal arrangement is not necessarily re-
in walkies, display s-eerer readings in
the lorm 01 LCD bargraphs. Some also
wa y.) Many other con trols work Ihe
add punctuation, -ccetrcr' characters same way. Usually, the AIT, modulatiOn lated to the physicat layout 0 1 th e show battery voltage. To do Ihis, the
(so named ceeeose they let you oontrol rrode (AM, FM , SSB, etc.), filter selec- switches. SOmetimes they match, but ana log voltage represe nli ng the re -
the machine Instead of producing any- tion and IF shift or PBT are controlled sometimes swacnes on unrelated ar- ceived signal strength or bauery volt-
thing on the screen) and cerecs some via the rrsco. Some lunctiOnS, like vol- eas of lhe rig may be connected in a age must be digitized and converted 10
graphiCS blocks and such, you are way ume and SQuelch, are just regular old grid . Ultimately, w hat ever costs me bargrapll steps by the micro for display,
over 64 ccces and you need more bits , analog controls, but they too could be least wi. be used. It sounds messy but. luckily, most eee-
Eight bits gives you 256 characters, made to be part 01 the computer srs- em microconlrollers have buin-in ana-
whiCh are more than enough . tern and probably wi. be in the Mure. Where In The Wortd Is Common Iog-t~igital (AID) converters, making
SO, why use more than eighl bits? Why bother? Well, wouIdn1 it be nice to Groundiego? the job very easy. There is one tunc -
Wei , for word proceSSing. there's really have the SQuelch "remerri>er" ns prop- Please notice that. in the scanned teo. however, where the rigs coeet. All
no point. But for graphiCS and higrt--pre- er setting on FM but return 10 the wide arrangement no SWItch has a ground! the walkies ree seen which have bar·
cision math, having more tilts per byte open position on SSB? Scanning ports are specially construct- IJ'aph RF power output d'.splays Simply
jets you f1'IOYE! more informatIOn arOUnd ed to provide a voltage pulse on one show a preset number of bars which
faster. Essentl8ny, a computer's archi- Getting Wired set ol connections and 10 look for it on oeoeocs only l4)On the power level you
tecture is that 01 a senar device With SO how does a rt'iero read a switch, the other; mat's how the scann ing is have chosen. I've never seen one that
parallel La nes, much like a multi,lane anyway? Actually, irs prelly simple. Mi- aCCOlT'lPliShed. I've seen more than a actually shows a rear measurement
ex pres sway. You can move ju st as eros have "ports: which are just con, 'ew cases ol damaged chips because of the power coming oul ol the trans-
many cars with lwO lanes as lour, but it rectons used lor inputs and outputs, someone wanted 10 connect a remote mitter.
takes twice as long . So, many PCs or "110," as they say. In rrcst cases, the swilch and put it between the mic ro Well, there 's lots more to d is-
now use 16 or even 32 bits. switch will have one end lied to ground, and ground. If you need 10 connect a cuss, but I've run out 01 room . We'll
In co ntra st , the m ic ros in mosl WIth the other end tied to the posiliVe remote SWIICh, you must connect it continue nan month, 'Tit then, 73 de
radios use lour Of eight bits! Why so supply via a resstce 01 a lew k ohms or across the original one. Unfortunately, KB1UM. iii
60 73 Amateur Radio Today . November, 1992
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and retransmits u. T he idea is very (PARC), Etherne t is a net working

PACKET & COMPUTEiis~'d similar to a voice repeater, but is not

fUll duplex. AX.25 allows up to eight
intervening "dig is," which are speci-
scheme that uses 10 M Hz radio
transmissions on RG-58 cable. It is a
CS MAfCD-based system, and is
fi ed in the conn ect request to the quite similar to packet radio in opera-
TNC. Stations seeing the dig ipeat re- tion. Ethernet is used throughout the
quest will handle the packet in the or- Internet.
der in which the list is specified. Even fEe Forward Error Correction is
Jeff Sloman N 1EWO CRC See: Error Detection and if the destination can hear the origi- a scheme which allows broadcast
do 73 Amateur Radio Today Correction. nator directiy, it will ignore the packet messages with very low error rates.
70 Route 202 North CSMAlCD Carrier Sense Multiple until the digis handle n. Ail packet Unlike AX.25, which uses retransmis-
Peterborough NH 03458 AccesS/Collis ion Detection is the ac- stations are digipeaters by defaulI- sion to correct errors, FEC modes
cess method used by the AX.25 pro- this function of the TNC must be ex- send the error-correcting data along
Digital Radio Glossary tocol to allow simultaneous use of a plicitly turned off if it is not desired. with the original transm ission. This
Many 01 the letters you've sent singl e channel by multiple stations. DSP Digital Signal Processing is redundan t information can be used to
(thanks for writing!) have had ques- This differs from, say, land-line mo- a relatively new technique which us- reconstruct data that is damaged up-
tions about basic packet and digital dem connecuons where the conver- es general purpose or specialized mi- on arrival. This method is very similar
radio lenTIinology. Instead of answer- sation is be t ween a pair of croprocessors to do the job that ana- to QSZ-sending each word or group
ing them individually, I thought I modems-one on each end of the log filters normally do. Since OSP- more than once-in CW traffic han-
would give you a digital radio glos- line. CSMNCD is easy to understand based filters can be programmed for dling. II QSB-fading-or QRM/QRN
sary. This Is by no means an exhaus- if you think in terms of a typical group all sorts of different behaviors, they - inte rference- make copying one
tive effort, but it answers all the ques- discussion on a repeater. Each sta- are e xtre mely fle xible . M ulti mOde attempt impossible, it can probably
lions I have received and provides tion listens to the channel and waits units based on DSP are becoming be reconstructed from the repeated
related inlormation. I hope you all for the curren tly transmitting station available and have the advantage of vers ion.
lind this useful, and maybe some- to finish (carrier sense). being ready for any new mode that Frame AX.25 uses data packets
thing worth saving and relerring to in If one (or more-multiple access) might appear by simple reprogram- cal led frames to transmit data and
the future. Please let me know what of the listening stations wish to make ming of the DSP chip. link management information. There
you think-and 01 any questions you a comment, they will wait for an arm- DWAIT Digipeater Wait is an im- are three basic AX.25 frames:
have about items d iscussed here. trary period of tim e to make sure portant TNC parameter which deter- I Frames Information-Transmis-
Thanks for the wonderful response to "th ey've got it. " They don't key up mines how long a station will wait af- sion Frames transmit user data-the
the column by US Mail, and various right away because others might do ter the last transmission before at- text of messages and bulletins, etc,
email. 7:3 de N1EWQ. the same and cause a double. But, tempting to acquire the channel for S Frames Supervisory Frames
AMTOR Ama teur Teleprinting even if the stations wait to see if the its own use. Digipeaters should have are used to establish and main tain
Ove r Radio is an enhanced form of channel becomes busy, two can de- smaller settings than users, s ince the link between two stations. They
RT TY, including error correction cide to transmit at precisely the same they need to be able to repeat users are responsible for ACKs (ACKnow l-
(called Mode A or ARQ for Automatic time , causing a double any way.
ReQuest for reception) and FEC
(Mode B) modes. It is well suited to
Whe n this happens, th e sta tion to
whom the transmission was directed
"I hope you all find this useful,
noisy HF channels and reliab le,
though very slo w. AMTOR avoids
will say some thing Hke. "You guys
just doubled, K9Hltry it again"-colli-
and maybe something worth saving
QSB (fading) and QRM/QRN (noise)
by sending very small data packets,
slon detection.
One other access method which
and referring to in the future. Please
two characters at a time, giving an will also be familiar to repeater users let me know what you think-and of
AMTOR QSO its Characteristic stac- Is called Token Passing. In this
cato sound. AMTOR Mode B is ex- scheme a "token" is passed amon g any questions you have about items
cellent fo r bulletins and a version nodes on the net. When the node re-
called NAVTEX is used to communi- ceives the token, it can use the chan- discussed here. "
cate with ships at sea. See: FEC. nel-though It may not want to. It
AX ,25 Amateur X.25 is a version makes its transmission-or not-e-and packets. This very simple method edgements) and NAKs (rejections), in
of the CCITT X.25 protocol with en- men passes the token on to the next has not been effective for busy LANs, addit ion to establ ishment and termi-
hancements for operation over radio, node. You may have already recog- and has been-or should be-re- nation ot the link,
It is the set of rules which is used by nized this as tne scheme used in placed by the Slot Time parameter, U Frames Unnumbered Frames
the packet TNC to establish, main- round-table QSOs: "WN9T and the which is more random. are used when there is no connection
tain, and terminate a link between group, this is N1EWO: the token is Error Detection and Correction to another station. They may also be
t wo staucns. and to transfer data passed. Packet radio has an advantage over used during a connect ion for miscel-
back and forth . AX.25 defines the DCD Data Carrier Detect has two olde r digital modes like RTTY be- laneous housekeeping.
structure of valid data lrames and tne meanings. It is the designation of pin cause it detects and corrects er rors Hidden Transmitter Because
behavior of the sending and receiving 8 of th e RS-232D pinout slandard, in transmitted data packets called AX, 25 uses a scheme called Carrier
stations. See: CS MNCD; Error De- and it is a function of the TNC which frames. AX.25, the packet orotoccr. Sense Multiple Access/en (CSMAI
tection and Correction; Frame. determines if there is incoming da- uses a technique called CRC (Cyclic CD), all stations operating in a LAN
Backbone A network connection ta-or another station on the air. Be- Redundancy Check) to determine if (Local Area Network) must be able to
among LAN s. Packet radio beck- cause pac ket radio uses CSMNCD, the frame ar rives intact, A CRC is a be heard by all other stations-this is
bones are usually used to connect it is important for the TNC to know if mathematical operation which is per- the carrier sense part. tf not , some
LANs for PBBS message forwa rding, there is another station on the air. formed on all data in a frame . The stations will attempt to transmit while
although some allow user traffic. DCD comes in two basic types. The resu lt is transm itted along with the others are on the air. This leads to
Baud Named for the French engi- s implest ma kes no distinct ion be- frame and must match the resu lt co llisions- l ike doubli ng on re-
neer J. M.E. Baudot (Baw '-doe), a tween actual data and anything that the rece ive r gets using the same peaters. Though the COllision detec-
baud is a discrete transition of a sig- opens the squelch-noise. voice, operation-a misma tch indicates a tion part of CSMAlCD will reject the
na l which can carry information , whateve r. Th e second, ca lled De- detected error. The receiver then re- garbled frame and acts for a retrans -
Baud is not necessarily equal to bps riv ed DCD , actuall y determines if quests a retransmission, called a mission, the hidden transmitte r will
(bits per second) since fancy modula- there is data present. Since this type retry, of the frame and the process is continue to interfere until both it and
tion schemes-using signal phase of DCD allows the squelch control to repeated until the data arrives with- the station it is interfering with "retry
and trellis encoding, for example- be left open at all times, it can be ad- out error to the retry count-the num- out" (give up and disconnect). The
can stuff more than one bit in each vantageous for older radios and high- ber 01 attempts the transmitting TNC only way to prevent this problem is to
baud. These Schemes are common speed transmiss ion where the lim it- wi ll allo w-is exceeded. The retry insure that everyone can hear ali sta-
in land-line applications, but general· ing factor is the speed of the squelch coun t is a settable TNC parame ter tions operaling in the LAN and, since
Iy are not used in radio since proper- circuit. which de faults to 10, it is impractical to expect ali stations
ties li ke phase-on which they de- Digipeater A DIGital rePEATER Ethernet Developed by Xerox at to erect antennas capab le ot this, a
pend-are hard to preserve. is a station which receives a packet the ir Palo A lto Research Cente r repeater-almost identical to a voice

62 73 Amateur Radio Today · N ovem ber, 1992

(;afOIe Perry WB2MGP stuutron. The AWA has gained ollicial
MeeJa MentOIS. Inc. recognitiOn in past years when ~ was in-
PO Boll 131646 Yited 10 hokI ns amual hiSlorical conler-
Sialen Island N Y 103 1:J.0006 eoces at three 01 the nation's leadllg mu-
seums: The Ford Science Museum in
The Antique Wireless Associa- Dearborn , Mich igan : The Benjamin
tion: A Heterodynamic Group Franklin Institute in Philadelphia; and The
This past summer I had lhe privilege Smith so nian Institu tion in Washingt on,
of ~ ng a guest speaker al a hamfasl in D.C.
Batavia. New York, My gracious host for By 1970. Kelley's bam was overflow-
the weei<.end was Tom Rosica W2GIR, a ing and t he AWA le ase d h all ol lhe
productiOn tectne:ian in racio and televi- Bloomfield Academy Building. Following
sion at Genesee Com munity College. renovalion oIlhe 1837 buildng.lhe AWA
Tom was a as-veer employee of the Ior- Il'lUSelm InOYed in alongside the muset.m
mer GTE·Sylvani a plant in upstate New 01 the Historical Society 01 the TOWIl 01
'0<1<. East Bloomfield. wt'idl ceo!pie5 the oIher
II was a pleasure to be taken on a tour half oIlhe former sdlooI. II you are ceo- Phoro A Q:1efaling a 1923 amateur phone station at the AWA E1ocIrooic Commu-
of l hi s most scenic area 01 New Yor1l: sidering viSlllog there. or laking a dass nication Museum, East Bloomfield. Ne w YorlI'.
state. Tom took greal pride in lelling me trip 10 \his wonderful place . you should
aboul lhe good works of the Genesee Ra- know thaI the Aadio Museu m in East houses more than 25,000 hisloricaJ nere. have lound a place n lhe AWA Electronic
dio Amate urs, who a re ve ry active in Bloomfield is aboul 20 miles socrteast 01 trc m early Mo rse t eleg ra ph key s, re - Communication Museum. The museum's
community affairs and are prepare d to oownlawn Rochester and 10 miles west peaters, relays, and other equipment . 10 resources include a comprehensi ve li-
help oul in emergencies. This region of of Canandaigua. the eartiest commercial wireless appara- brary of books. periodicals. photographs
New York is known for severe winters and The Radi o Museum is a teacher's Ius (vintage 191 0 and earnen and radio and documents basic 10 ils research and
blizzards thaI can devastate an entire reo dr eam . Not enough museum s otter receivefS-Which are considered 10 make the sharing or lhi s kncwreoqe with ctn-
gion . Tom spoke of several Such ceca- youngsters. Of cesters for thaI up one 01 the finest collections in lhe Unrt· ""."
SiOnS where the communicalions 01 ham oppoclunily 10 touch. leel and even smell ad Slates. In addition to race and wire- Many of us enjoyed ,he recent show-
radio operators were the only thing lhe lhelr embils. Most ctee displays al this less gear, the museum contains slld1 vi- ing of ee PBS ~'e of The Air." This
comrmmy had to rely on. museum are out in the open to be eKam- sual equipmenl as l he early RCA and Ken Bums doctP1enlary covered the kves
I had a wonderftA lime speaking wilh ined and enjoyed. According to Broce Finch lacsmile machines. and scarYling oflhree controversial radio ccoeers: De-
marry 01 the hams and teachers wOO at- Keley. most 01 their l our groups consisl disk-type leleYiSiOn receivers. Forest. Armstrong. and se-en The story
tended my Ioru'n. V"lSilors 10 !tis part of of school easses. SCoullfOOPS, reI ired Many ollhe exhibifs have been 00Nl· stayed dose 10 the excelent Tom lewiS
our state gat 10 ef10y a special kind 01 1oIks, and artique aticionaclos. Mrission ed by privale institutiOns or are on loan book 01 the sa-ne litle. A laf99 ilIllCUlI of
hospiIaMy. Tom kepl assuring me thaI no 10 the museum is free. from cerer-mereere. There are today the IooIage was photographed or recon:t-
Yisillo !tis cortmIXIily WOtAd be complete Exposing youngsters to artifacts and more than 3 .600 members in lhe AWA ed in the AWA Musetn1. including the Sig.
without a lour of the wol'ld·l amous An- reliCS 01' lI'le past is a terriliC leaching 1001. world wide. Among t hem are lea ding nals from lhe Associaliorfs rotary spark
tique Wireless Assodalion Radio Muse- The Radio Museum provides lhe visitor scroere. slalesmen, scienlisls and indus- transmitter.
um in Bloomfield. New York. My interest with a "feet" lor what went betore. This is trial eaoers. and many oId-lime pcoeers The AWA Museum is open from May
was really piqued when Tom lntrodcced how we come to know where we are now: in te lec om mu nica tion s. Acco rdin g to through October. I hea rtil y recommend
me 10 Bruce Kelley W2ICE. the museum's by experiencing the enrichment of lhe Bruce , "Mem bers hi p in cludes Marc oni that you put this museum on your "must
curator. For the iongesltime, Frank Gun· things mat make up our history. In lhis she-to-snore ope rators 10 hundred s of see" list when you have the time. I also
ther W2ALS {friend and colleague of Ma· museum you will "experience- one or the amateur radio operators who earned their recommend lhat you bring a t least one
jor Edwin Armstrong) had been telling me largesl collections ot ean y radiO appara- expertise in the days or the spark gap and young person along with you.
lhat I musl get in touch wit h Bruce Kelley lus-aelu at equipment associ ated With ee coherer. In add,tion, mere are scores Fo r more eeune about the Antique
and visit lhis most impressive museum. Ma rconi, De Forest. Armstrong . Edison 01 knowing anliQuarians who have saved Wireless AssociatiOn or the Radio M use-
My only regret tu rned out to be th at I and OCher pcoeers. MlId1 of rt st,. works . from oblivion literally thoosands 01 ern- um, wme 10 Bruce Kelley W2ICE, Main
lfIOO' have more lime 10 spend there on The AWA MIJS9l,m in East Bloomfield sects Irom earliest wireless days which Stroot, Holcomb, New YorIl l 4469. iii
this visil . Jl is delinitely on my list 01
places 10 reYisiI as soon as I ca'\.
---- -
Bnxe Kelley
In 1936. Bruce Kaley began c:olIecting
radio Ilbes and old gear wNIe he was jv-
ing i1 Rochesler, New YorI<. When Bruce
was 34, in 1948, he set up a museum in
h is ba rn in Spencerport. Br uc e, wh o • •••
worked ror Eastman Kodak, became well
known in lhe area lor the extraordinary ••••
euoe p resentation s and equipment o.s-
plays l hat he brou ghl to meelings and
harntests. After awhile, u ese acnvmes
took up so much of his time lhat. in 1952.

he fOUl"lded the AIlIique Wireless Assoda·
tion with Geor ge aane rsce W2GB and
lilc Cl.nctaI W2LC.
The AWA began to grow in member-
ship, and Kaley and hs museu-n moved
10 a new home and a new bam in Hol-
comb, New York. The "Old TImer's Bul-
letin" was lOlIlded in 1960,lhe AWA Na-
Iional Conlerence debuted in 1963, and in
1972 the AWA was charlered by the stale
of New York as a nonprofit educational in· Photo B Curator Bruce L. Kelley W2ICE with a group of school childre n.

64 73 Amateur Radio Today · November, 1992

repeater-must be used, Unfortu- Read-Only Memory}-also known as SLOTTIME An important TNC pa- thing to the universal solvent of the
nately, this is still rare--due mostly to a ROM, hence the name. NetROM rerneter that works in conjunction nelworlling world, and is being adopt-
cost. nodes constantly exchan ge informa- wifh the PERSIST parameter to more ed by amateurs as an alternative to
Hi erarchi c al Add r ess i ng A tion about other NetROM nodes that thoroughly randomize attempts to ac- AX.25. While il has some distinct
scheme which allows stations that can be heard and worked from the ir quire the channel. On busy channels, tecrmtce t advantages, it is much
forward packet messages to easily location. Use rs co nnecting to it is important that transmissions oc- more difficult to get running than a
decode the final destination of the Ne tR O M nodes can get a list of cur at highly random intervals after TNC-based AX.25 station. A suite of
message. A hierarchical address reachable nodes and connect to the channel is quiet, to avoid colli- software, including Phil Karns '
runs from specific (callsign) to gener- them, avoiding the time-outs and oth- sions. SLOTTIME and PERSIST (KA9Q) implementation of the utilities
al (continental region). We don't yet er limitations of digipeaters. work like this: needed to run TCPflP, can be found
Include plane t in a hierarchical ad- Packet The general name given SLOTTIME specifies the amount on many BBSs. The best way to get
dress. to amateur computer nefworking via of time the TNC will wait before qen- started in TCPflP is to find someone
Intern et An enormous Ethernet radio, it is derived Irom the use 01 da- erating a random number between 0 already running it.
network with tens of thousands of ta "packets" to provide data integrity. and 255, which will be used by PER- Term inal Em ulat i on Using a
government, educational, and com- See: AX.25; Frame. SIST. computer program to emulate a
mercial computers connected. The PACLEN An important TNC pa- PERSIST se ts tne threshold (0- dumb ferminal. Digital's VT series is
resources of the lntemet are used by r amete r wh ic h determines the 255) which wi ll be checked against the most common choice.
amateurs running TCP/IP to create length-in characters-of an I the random number each time SLOT- Th eN et Another automatic net-
'wcrmnores' that route transmissions Frame. Larger va lues will increase TIME specifies one should be gener- worlling scheme, similar to NetROM.
originating on radio through the land- throughpuf on quiet channels by re- ated. See: NetROM .
line Intemers high capacity network. ducing overhead, but will drastically The exact settings of these values TN C A Terminal Node Controller
This makes It possible to connect al- reduce effic iency on channels thai re- is a matter of LAN management and is a box containing a modem and the
most Instantly from the US to Aus- qui re retries. The default size is usu- should be dete rmined by a technical "brains" to run AX.25 protocol. Be-
tralia, for examp le, and end up on the ally 128. committee of the local packet organi- cause of the intelligence built in, it
local Aussie AX.25 network. PACTOR An experimental mode zanon. needs only to have a terminal and ra-
KAnode A proprietary networking for HF digital communications, oever- SSID A Secondary stancn Identi- dio connected to work. Some sott-
scheme found in Kantronics TNCs, it oped in Germany. It takes the best fier is a number following the call- ware implementations of TNC intelli-
is similar to NetROM networlling. parts of packet and AMTOR and sign tnat allows a station to have gence are available for use with inex-
LAN Local Area Networks are combines them into an excellent sys- multiple connections active without pensive modems.
groups of nodes-usually user termi- tem for the condi tions found on tne cotuston of the packet address. TN C Parameter s Sellings used
nals, like packet steucns-cmat are HF bands. Its legality lor use by US SSIDs up to and including 15 are by the TNC to determine how it will
connected in such a way as to direct- hams is questionable, given the am- valid. An SSID of 15 is usually at- behave. Because of varying channel
ly share the networll channel. In Ihe biguity 01 the rules concerning digital tached to a user's cali when they are conditions, there is no single "ideal"
case of packet, LAN nodes are those modes. There is hope, however, that being heard through a network node set of values. Other things like call-
slations which directly participate in this will change. like a NetROM node. sign and text messages are also
the CSMA/CD sharing of a frequen- PBBS A Packet Bulle tin Board TCPIlP Transport Control Proto- in the set of parameters, See:
cy. This is distinct from WANs (Wide System is a computer program which colflnternet Protocol is the protocol MAXFRAME; PACLEN; SLOTTtMfi"",
Area Networks) which are used to allows amateurs to exchange mes- used on the Internet. It is me closest WAN See: LAN. III
connecl LANs together. The ensure- sages and provides automatic store
lion is rot necessarily tied to geagra- and forward facilities for bulletins and
phy-a LAN could just as easily cov- messages a ddressed to distant TALK WITH THE KNOWLEDGEABLE PEOPLE AT
er more area than a WAN-but to ar- hams. It Is similar to a land-line
chitecture. The interaction of LANs BBS-like FIDO and other systems
on a WAN is similar to the interaction that forward messages.
of nodes on a LAN. See: Backbone. Protocol A set of rules that speci-
MAX FRA ME An important TNC
parameter that determines the num-
fy the structure of transmitted data
and handshaking (signaling used to
ber of outstanding (unacknowledged) communicate over a oata channel). A
frames that will be allowed . This protocol is something like the rules
number should be lowered on busy used on voice repeaters to prevent FEA TURING AN EXTENSIVE LINE OF YAESU PRODUCTS
or noisy channels; high values of confusion and Interference, fhough
MAXFRAME In these cases will much more formal since computer ALL MOD E HF
cause a reduct ion in throughput. programs don't thin k. See AX.25 ; B ASE STATION
Mode m From MODulate-DEMod- TCPfIP.
ulate, a modem is a piece of hard- Retry A request for re-transmis- $3699 00
ware that converts digital information sion of a damaged frame, or the re-
#FT1 000D
into analog signals in the audio fre- fransmission of the frame. See: Error
quency range to permit their trans- ceiecton and Correction.
mission over VOice channels. In a Ro s e Yet another networking
TNC, the modem is the subsystem scheme prevalent in the eastern half
which is connec ted to the radio. Most of the US. It has some fechnical merif YAESU U.S. A .
TNCs are delivered with 1200 baud and wide support.
modems but permit the connection of RTTY Radio Teletype Is the origi- • FT33Rm p 220M HZ HT $328.00
other, faster modems to the digital nal form of digital communica tion via • FT411E 2MHT $299 ,00
section that hand les the AX,25 proto- radio. In its original form it uses a • FT81 1 440 MHZ HT $339.00
col. simple 5-bit code called Baudot • FT470 2Mf440 HT $404.00
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• FT5200 2M/44 MOBILE $629,00
a terminal unit (TU) lor RTTY, AM- the figures 0-9. See: Baud.
TOR, FAX, etc. The exact capabilities Ser ial Port A communications • Fn57GXII ALL MODE HF PORTABLE $929.00
of mult imode units vary from manu- port found on a computer or terminal.
fac turer to manufacturer. Multimode Serial ports and other serial devices
units are-of ccurse-c-oonstderabty send and receive their data as a
more expensive than simple TNCs,
string of bits, one alter the other. This
but are worth considering if the extra is opposed to a parallel port, which SAN JOSE, CA 95128
functionality is interesting to you, transm its two or more bits in parallel.
Call us at (408) 998-5900
NetROM An automatic network- Serial ports a re tn e most common
ing scheme that is stored on an connec tions to TNCs afld other com- Since 1933
EPROM (Electrically Programmable munications devices.
73 Amateur Radio Today· November, 1992 63
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73 Amateur Radio Today · Novembe r, 1992 65

Number 21 on VOlA" Feedback card

Low Power Operation

Michae/ Blyce WB8VG fO terent mold.

2225 Mayflower NW
Massillon OH 44646 The New Argo II
uive me a call aner the Hamven-
The Argonaut II lion and I'M gel a new Argo II k:tf you IOf
What separates one c:orJl)any ITom Fteld Day,- Now, I might be a bttle slow
anolher is how that ~ny changes on the uptake, but reviewing a radiO
or ~es a product. based on input during FI8ld Day is asking lOt trouble .
lrom tts CUSlomers. Ten-Tee is a good FJeld Day has to be the au-urre worst
exarroe. Teo-Tee began as a company place 10 test a new reco. You gel es
producing ORP equipment and lheir kinds of critters flying about on Field
Argonaut ttne has become the worl d Day. lrom no antennas to weak batter-
standard in low power amateur radio ies. Don'I forget all the other stations
transceivers. When Ten-Tee introduced all trying to be on the same band at the
th e Argonau t 11 at the '91 Da yton sa me time. The Ten·Tee Argonaut 1/.
Ha mv enncn . there were some rough Well, several days before Field Day,
edges. The unit I initially reviewed re- the Argonaut II arrived. The lirsl thing pOI"1 S include receive audio. TIR line changes I really like. Firs!. in the older
vealed some 01 these rough edges and that gol my attention when I opened and transmit audiO, as weR as TIA line vllfSiOn 01 the firmware, when the Argo
other people noticed the same lhing5. the box was a tull-blowo manual with to key an external amplifl(lr. Ten- Tee did II went into transmit the frequency was
Most companies would have just schematiCs lor the A1gonaul II. AU my not incIode the band-line outputs on the locked. You eeoen move the frequen-
weathered lhe storm and let the rain first unit had were some inslJUctiOnS lor rear ol the Argonaut II to aulomatieal- cy around the band with the main tun-
roll 011 their backs. Not Ten-Tee! Altha memory prograrrming and some con- Iy select the proper band on the am- ing knob. Now this problem has been
'92 Dayton HalTlllen!ion I cornered Tom densed operabng instructions. pillier. Remember, you pu rchased a hed. I guess it's not the best thing to
salvetti KC3NF, viCe president ol Ten- This lime around, me Argonau l Jl ORP transcei\lef in the fIrSt place. Yes, do on the bands, but band swebers
Tec markehng. Tom mentioned Ihal seems to have a better Iii and linish O RPers do use amplifiers, just ask are a part 01 life. II nothing else, it's
Ten-Tee made several changes in sub- than the first urut I testec . The silk· Randy KD8JN but hoolting up an Arg- great to swish around to lind the res-
sequent production runs, most in the screening seemed much dearer on the onaut II 10 your S6220 is, well, diller- onate point ol your antenna.
summer and fall of 19 9 1 . T he fi rs t front panel. Gone are the Torx screws errl! If you want to run 100+ watts and Second, the first Argo II did not like
dozen or so prototypes were the ones holding me covers on. In their place, tnen use an ampnuer. get the Delta. operating on battery power. When the
that got out as review units. A prototype Phillips scre w heads. Now you can You can turn the Della's RF po wer battery voltage dropped down to 12
was the one I received for the original open the case withoul a lrip to Sears down. too. volts, things went kinda weird. By nash-
review. Tom cnerec a second Argo II for tools. On the back there is a jack for Many of the improvements to the ing Ihe disptay on and off, the new
lor me 10 review. Tom assured me the an e_Iemal sceaeer (114" jadI) and an Argonaut II were done 10 the firmware firmware lets the user know the batt6l)'
next ~ of Argo lis wouk:l be ITom a 01- a-pin DIN jack lor 1/0 ports. These controlling the CPU. There are two vott age is 100 low to operate. There

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66 73 Amateur Radio Today . Novem ber, l992
w ere more chang es done to the aoo-cnm TV twin lead and some 450 · not, All in all . the Argo II rea lly did level to save my hearing.
fi rm wa re con trolling the A rg o II, bu t ohm open ladder line . I ran out of TV super on Field Day, The g oof that I am. I worke d both
these two I really think help the most. lead wire. The Argo II received its pow- CW an d 5SB during FD. Switching
The first Argo II I reviewed showed er from an 80 amplhour battery. solar- Sugge st ions l or Impr o vement Irom SSB tc CW is no big deal. only a
diHerent arrcunts 01 transmit current for charge d 01 course. Are there still some rough edges? couple of b ullon pushes. But. I sure
the same amount o f RF output. T his Our club had a CW station, too. An Well, nothing is cenect and yes. there miss the automatic mode selection tee-
time around, the current lor the trans- old Trifon 4 was pressed into dUty this are some things that I leel need to be ture most modern transce ivers have.
nstter is wit hin a tew hundred mn- year f or the C W srauon. Both tne looked at Going from 75 5SB to 40 CW and not
liamperes 01 each other. Transmif cur- phone and the CW staten were run- With the lu ll ma nual, ma ny o f the p ushing the buttoos caused me no end
rent ranged from a low or 2.51 afT1C)s 00 ning 100 watls output. l iner points in selting up the Argo II are of grief. I'd ke y th e rig, then get a
80 rreiers to a high 012.84 amps 00 17 Anyone wor1ting the event this year lully e xplained. I would like to see a sicetcoe but no RF. Alter lOOking lor
meters. RF power was 5 watts into a can lell you the band conditioos were drawing on the settlOQ 0 1 the bandwidth loose wires, downed antennas and ev-
50-0hm load No sig\al receive current the pits. Everyone started out on a dif- control and adjustable li lter cont rol. erything else in between, I noticed that
is 832 rnA on rece ive with the back- lerent band. Aner a lew hours went by. T his drawing should show the approxi- the rad io w a s in th e wro ng mode .
lighting ott, and 888 rnA with the back· we all knew how bad the bands really mate locations IOf bandwiCllh. Put the RATS!! II wou ld (should) be a simple
lighting 00. were . Toward the late part of the night. b an dw id t h co ntrol he re for 50 0 Hz change to the firmware 10 tlave the ra-
In the past, keying the radio with a we somehow all managed 10 be on the wide, here for 1200 Hz, etc. As sid as dio switch modes as you change Ire-
transistor·switched keyer seemed to same band at the same time. The band the variable bandwidth control is, Ten- quency. GoIng !rom 7.040 CW to 7.200
cause some trouble . I was able to key happened to be 80 meters ; D on Tee would really have a radio II I could 5SB would then be automatic. Moving
the Argo II using anything I had in my W08DEA on 75 meter phone , the CW tlave the best 01 the digital slUff and the Irom 40 meter lower sideba nd 10 20
shack. A fill? rm not sure, but the !if$! station on the one end and me in the crystal l ilters from my Argo sy II. Yes, meter upper sideband would also be
ones off the tine had trouble WIth some . -. the COS! 01 all the !lIters would be ex- automaoc. As it is. the Argo II worn do
keyers, When the CW stance was on, me pensive and yes, you wou ld lose the this si f11)le taSk .
For the times when you want 10 es- phone station got na iled. T urn ing on advantage 0 1 the variable ba ndwidth The Argo II has many pluses. too.
ten to the BBC 00 5875 kHz . the AM me aueeuatcr. I was not onl y able control, but iI's a thought. With the LCD backlighting. the display
aUCiO response rolls off at 1600 Hz (as to work stations. but I was also able to I found it hard 10 keep a station cen- did no! tire out my eye s. even at 3 a.m.
reported by OSJ) is ~ bed. Adjust nudge up as cl ose as 5 kHz to t he tered in the passband 0 1 the rece ive r 5hulbng off the backlighting saves only
the NOTCH conlrol so it is 100 percent CW stabon without getting nailed. Oh whe n I tightened up the h iler ban d- about 50 rnA so I just kept it 00 all the
001 01 the circuit (Iully counterclock· yes, I cou ld tell when the CW station width. I hed this problem by myse lf by time.
wise). The Argo II is not a Drake A8, was transmitting. but I could still coer- setting the f~ter con trol at the 11 o'dock The semi-QSK (slow QSK) worked
and it was not designed to be , but it al- ate! On the other hand. Don threw up oul quite welt under the aRM aFteid

position and then adjusting the PBT
lows lor good shortwave liStening. Mosl his hands and headed lor the f ood tuning cont rol 10 cente r the statio n I Day. I like to work aSK with the best
01 the QRM fighting controls, however, wanled , Leaving both controls alone, I of them, but FD is really hard on me
are olfline when in AM mode. rcc e myoid Argona u t 509 with
I used the main tuning knob 10 fune the ears.
me and swapped out the pair. I never station in to my IilterlPBT settings. This I have to hand it 10 Ten-Tee for get-
Field Day Testing made it to the front 0 1 th e rad io as seemed 10 work t he be st under FD ting many 01 the problems worked out
The real acid test came during Field the CW staucn na iled the 50 9 right CRM. or the Argonaut II. You don't see this
Da y. I set the Argo II up beside our lhen. I QUiCkly unplugged the 509 and Using the scot lunctioo to get a sta- too many limes nowadays . So . next
phone station. Don Wade WD 8DEA replaced it wit h the Argo II. I thought tioo property tuned in was dllficutt dur- t ime you work a stalion and he tells
was using our ICOM 735, His antenna the 509 , having a tu ne d front end. ing the FD CRM. It worked , but I had to you . "Rig here is Argo II," he has a
wa s a G 5A V. I used a center-feed ve r sus the Argo II's brceoeanoec run up the eieetcoe level so high to wc nocte ss a AP transcei ve r on his
zecc and fed the antenna with a run 0 1 tr e nt en d. mi ght be better. I guess overcome the CRM. then reduce the de sk. He has an Argona uf II. iii
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