Taxonomy of Graph Types Idj.6.2.03

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RANKIN - Taxonomy of Graph Types Idj.6.2.03

Taxonomy of Graph Types Idj.6.2.03

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graph types

Classifications have a long history in scientific

endeavours. Often simply serving to neatly

store myriad characteristics of the subject be-

ing studied, they may also be applied in a more

ROBERT RANKIN active role. A carefully designed classification

can serve to show not only the full range of

available possibilities but also the relation-

A classification of the graph types

used throughout many scientific ships between these, and in so doing acts more

fields is presented in order to as an instrument rather than simply as a 'filing

show the range of possible meth cabinet'.

ods of graphically representing In the field of graphic communication, the

mathematical formulae and data. criteria used to sort illustrations are quite di-

The classification is presented in

such a way that inter-relationships verse and relationships between classifications

between the various graphic are difficult to find and often only tenuously

forms is clearly demonstrated. evident. Different researchers have used dif-

It is anticipated that such a taxon ferent criteria to organize pictures, and these

omy will assist in the graphic criteria not only arrange pictures into different

presentation of information by

providing a designer or author

groups, but actually suggest different ways of

with a wide range of options. looking at the same pictures. Classifications

aim to be exhaustive by attempting to encom-

pass all possibilities, and in so doing serve as a

valuable resource for intending authors, as well

as a basis for further research into communica-

tion using visual materials.

For some time, classifications of graphic

forms have been proposed to serve a variety of

functions, with each case attempting to cate-

gorise the full known range of visual structures

under one all-encompassing criteria. Very

broadly speaking, these taxonomies have either

been functionally or structurally based.

CLASSIFICATIONS Author's address

Rankin Publishers

PO Box 406

Functional analyses of pictures in general tend Toowong

to focus on the intended use and purpose of the Queensland 4066 Australia

this category include Fleming (1967),

MacDonald-Ross (1977a, 1977b), Duchastel

147

Information Design Journal 6:2 (1990), 147–159. DOI 10.1075/idj.6.2.03ran

ISSN 0142–5471 / E-ISSN 1569–979X © John Benjamins Publishing Company

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

(1978), Duchastel and Waller (1979), Waller As well, it is important that the two dimen-

(1979), and Tufte (1983). By their very nature, sions of the matrix be independent.

these classifications tend to use very broad

categories, each including a range of pictorial

forms. Their categories bear no unique rela- THE PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION

tion to the physical structure of the picture.

In contrast, a classification by Knowlton (1966)

The proposed classification discussed here

tends to include both functional and structural

belongs to the structural class and utilizes the

criteria.

two dimensional approach previously men-

Pure structural analyses focus on the type

tioned. Its scope is more narrow than those

or form of picture irrespective of how it will

already discussed in that it attempts to focus

be used. Two such classifications have been

only on those graphic forms which utilize a

proposed: by Doblin (1979) and Twyman (1979,

co-ordinate space. That is, the dimensions of

1982). In both, a two dimensional matrix net-

the picture are explicitly stated and numeric-

work has been developed as a rigorous method

ally scaled. The simplest example is the well

for generating categories of structural form.

known rectilinear cartesian co-ordinate graph,

Both taxonomies attempt to cover all presenta-

utilizing orthogonal X and Y axes, on which

tion methods of information for the visual

data is plotted or a line drawn to show visually

channel, and thereby include verbal, numer-

some trend or relationship between the X and

ical and pictorial material. Differences occur

Y parameters. In all the taxonomies previously

because of the parameters chosen for each

discussed, this type of graph and its relatives

dimension of the matrix. Twyman has used

have received little attention. In the case of the

method of configuration (7 categories relating

structural analyses, this has been because the

to the physical arrangement of the visual ele-

dimensions chosen for the matrices have not

ments) and mode of symbolization (verbal,

allowed enough resolution in this category of

numerical, pictorial, schematic) to produce a

picture to fully explore the vast range graphs

matrix with 28 categories. Doblin has produced

available.

a matrix by assuming his parameters of infor-

mation content and form of presentation (ver- In many scientific, engineering, medical and

bal, numerical and visual) are independent. commercial fields of communication, it is this

graphical category which receives major use.

Generally speaking, if the dimensions of the

What is proposed here is a comprehensive

matrix and the divisions within each of these

scheme depicting the various forms of graph

dimensions are well chosen, the resulting com-

and their relationships to one another. As a

bination can produce a fairly exhaustive set of

source, it draws upon the range of graphical

possible graphic forms. Biasing can, unfortu-

forms listed in a scientific illustration survey

nately, manifest itself in two contrasting ways:

conducted by Rankin (1986). The classification

1. All categories are given the same weight becomes, as discussed earlier, not only a conve-

irrespective of whether or not visual forms nient taxonomy but also an instrument. Pro-

in a category actually exist. spective authors have the opportunity to use

2. Some categories may not have enough reso- it to choose the most appropriate method to

lution. Many diverse forms may be classified present their data. Used in conjunction with

into one element of the matrix when it may a designing model, such as that described by

well be useful to sub-divide it.

148

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

Rankin (1989), an author's task of producing right, the number of dimensions used in the

an effective document is greatly facilitated. prime element is reduced by one per column.

To clarify the terminology used in the fol- The system can best be explained with refer-

lowing discussion, it will be necessary to ence again to Figure 1. Here, mathematical

define three terms. 'Figure' refers to the large functions with up to five variables are dis-

arrays (of which there are four presented here - played graphically. The number of variables

Figures 1 to 4), 'illustration' refers to one divi- in the function is listed in the left-hand margin

sion within the matrix of the figure (In Figure of the figure. In mathematical terms, the math-

1, there are 16 illustrations), and 'prime ele- ematical functions for the top row can be gen-

ment' is a graphic element within one of these erally written as

illustrations. Mostly, a prime element will v = f(t,x,y,z),

mean one set of x, y, z axes, of which there may meaning v is a function of t, x, y and z. That is,

be several making up an illustration. For exam- the value of the dependent variable v depends

ple, the top left hand illustration in Figure 1 on the respective values of the independent

has two prime elements. Explicitly, the prime variables t, x, y and z. Continuing down

element is defined as the most fundamental through the illustration, subsequent rows

graphic form appearing in the illustration illustrate the following simpler mathematical

which could stand alone and still be classed as functions:

a co-ordinate graph. t = f(x,y,z)

The basis of the classification centres on the z = f(x,y)

two variables used to produce the arrays of y-f(x).

illustrations in the four figures. The vertical The basic trend, therefore, in each figure, is

axis of each of the four figures depicts the num- for the same amount of information to be rep-

ber of variables of the mathematical function resented across the figure, while down the fig-

described in each illustration. In Figure 1, the ure, the information is becoming less by one

number of variables ranges from 5 in the top variable per row.

row to 2 in the bottom row. Many of the illustrations generated by this

The horizontal axis of each figure generally method are used frequently in published docu-

describes the number of dimensions represent- ments and have received common names

ed in the prime element of each illustration. which are accepted throughout the scientific

Looking at the top row of Figure 1, the first community. These names are listed in their

illustration has prime elements of three dimen- appropriate position within the array. Other

sions (X, Y, Z), while the second illustration illustrations or parts of them have no particu-

has prime elements of only two dimensions (X, lar established names. The term cylinder-like

Y). has been used to describe graphical surfaces

Using this scheme, the most complex math- which are similar to this familiar shape but

ematical functions (those with the most vari- may not necessarily be perfectly symmetrical.

ables) occupy the top row of each figure and the For the sake of simplicity and clarity, where

least complex the bottom row. The illustra- these surfaces appear in the illustrations, they

tions occupying each horizontal row describe have been drawn as perfect cylinders. The

the same mathematical function by using a same is true for the two-dimensional polar

slightly different illustrating method in each graphs where the radial parameter has been

division. Generally, progressing from left to described using the special case of a perfect

149

ROBERT RANKIN • A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

circle rather than some more complex or gener- prime element, and each discrete value of V

alised curve. represented by each trend surface within a

prime element.

Moving one position to the right in the fig-

D I S C U S S I O N OF THE FIGURES ure, the same information can be described

using prime elements of only two dimensions

(X, Y) by creating a two-dimensional space (Z,

Figure 1

T) of these elements. The fifth variable (V) is

As already mentioned, Figure 1 lists the scope described by a set of contour lines within each

of rectilinear cartesian co-ordinate graphs, prime element. With the mathematical func-

showing how they relate to each other for tion described in this form, data extraction is

mathematical functions of various complexi- straightforward and accurate. As a means for

ties, and how the same information may be dis- displaying the qualitative trends, however, it

played using illustrations of different forms. is much more limited than the previous case,

as the mathematical function now tends to

Row 1

be too dissected.

Taking the top row as an example, a five

In the third column, the prime element is

vari-able function can be displayed graphically

reduced to only two-dimensional single line

by producing a linear array (along one variable,

graphs (X, Y). To accommodate the same

T) of three-dimensional graphs (of three vari-

amount of information as the preceding case,

ables, X, Y and Z) each incorporating a set of

the array must become three-dimensional (T,

trend surfaces that describe the trends of the

Z, V). Being difficult to draw, and perhaps of

fifth variable (V). Each individual trend surface

dubious use, this example is not displayed

represents a single value of V.

here, but simply described verbally. It is antici-

A reader of such a graph would be able to ob-

pated that such a graphic would be of little use

serve changes in the dependent variable V with

both quantitatively or qualitatively. It could,

changes in the other variables. After selecting

however, be envisaged being spread over sever-

firstly, say, a value for T, then X, Y and finally

al pages of a book, with the dimensions of each

Z, a value for V can be read from the graph. A

page adopting the parameters T and Z and each

practical example of this would be the mea-

page representing a value of V. The thickness of

surement of, say, pollution levels (V) at a cer-

the book actually represents the V parameter.

tain position (X, Y) within a lake at a certain

Such an elaborate illustration would have uses

depth (Z) for varying amounts (T) of a pollutant

in organizing large amounts of inter-related

being added from an outfall.

data. The final illustration of the row requires

In practical terms, however, it is unlikely

the impossible situation of representing trend

that this complex graph would be used for ac-

surfaces of the variable Y in four-dimensional

curate data extraction. It is more likely to be

space (T, Z, V, X).

used qualitatively to show only rough trends

in the relationships between the variables. As Rows 2-4

well, both the variables T and V are not contin-

Subsequent rows in the figure are derived in

uously represented. Only several discrete val-

a similar manner, albeit with mathematical

ues of each are incorporated in the illustration,

functions of diminishing complexity. An inter-

each discrete value of T represented by each

esting feature develops in the second row as

150

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

| NUMBER OF | 1

VARIABLES

GENERAL CASE 1-D REDUCTION 2-D REDUCTION 3-D REDUCTION Rectilinear

AND IN PRIME ELEMENT IN PRIME ELEMENT IN PRIME ELEMENT

FUNCTION Cartesian

coordinate

graphs

151

ROBERT RANKIN • A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

2

Polar NUMBER OF

coordinate VARIABLES GENERAL CASE GENERAL CASE 1-D REDUCTION

graphs AND

FUNCTION (2 CYCLIC VARIABLES) (1 CYCLIC VARIABLE) IN PRIME ELEMENT

152

ROBERT RANKIN • A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

2-D REDUCTION 3-D REDUCTION In the final illustration, the prime element has

IN PRIME ELEMENT IN PRIME ELEMENT been reduced to a single point value in a three-

dimensional space, and hence has reverted to

the same trend surface graph form as in the

original illustration of the first column.

The bottom row of the figure is fairly sparse

but is included here to complete the picture. As

THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARRAY (T,Z,V) THE IMPOSSIBLE SITUATION discussed previously, the fact that some cate-

OF POLAR GRAPHS (0,R) OF A 5-D TREND SURFACE GRAPH

gories in the overall matrix are poorly repre-

sented or even meaningless is an artifact of the

matrix system for generating categories.

Clearly, using this system it is possible to

generate illustrations which describe even

more variables than the maximum number of

five described here in the top row of the figure.

The top left-hand illustration uses only a linear

array of prime elements. It would be possible to

extend this to a three-dimensional array and

hence incorporate more variables, but for prac-

tical reasons such an illustration would be

difficult to construct and read.

Figure 2

The illustrations of Figure 2 are similar to

those of Figure 1 except that they describe

mathematical functions which incorporate

some cyclic variables. As examples, these

could include such parameters as compass

bearing (0 to 360 degrees), time of day or season

of the year. The distinguishing feature of these

variables is that their range of values is finite

(for example, 0 to 24 hours) and cyclic,

although it is possible for their values to con-

tinually increase if each completed cycle is

added to the next.

Because of this repetitive characteristic, it is

often desirable to plot data relating to this type

of parameter on a circular graph. These graphs

are said to utilize polar co-ordinates since the

values of the variables are measured with

respect to a central pole. The position of a point

on the graph is determined by the length of the

INF. DES. J. 6/2 (1990) 147-59

153

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

radius vector from the pole and the angle this The final three illustrations describe the sit-

vector makes with a fixed line through the uation for one cyclic variable where the dimen-

pole. sions of the prime element are reduced by one,

Again, functions with a maximum of five two and three dimensions respectively. These

variables (up to two of which are cyclic) are illustrations could describe the two cyclic vari-

represented. It is possible to conceptualize the able case if either T, V or Z was assumed to be

display of functions with a greater number of cyclic. However, this cyclic property would not

variables, but in practical terms these serve be visually evident as the cyclic variable would

little use. They are too complex to reproduce be plotted along a linear axis. Quantitatively

on the flat page, hence of limited use in most little is lost in doing this, but qualitatively, it

communication modes. An example of a five could be anticipated the cyclic trends may be

variable function with two parameters cyclic more difficult to comprehend.

would be the measurement of the temperature The third illustration is formed by simply

(V) at a certain depth (R) at a certain position removing the Z variable from the prime ele-

along a river (Z) at a certain time of day (0) at ment and incorporating it as one of the major

a certain time of the year ( ) . illustration dimensions. The fourth illustra-

tion is derived in a similar way by removing

.Row 1 the V variable from the prime element and cre-

The top row displays five-variable functions in ating a three dimensional main illustration

which one or two variables are cyclic. In the composed of an array of two dimensional polar

first illustration, the first cyclic variable (<>

| ) is graphs. This would be a complex and confusing

measured as the angle with the horizontal illustration and no attempt has been made to

made by the position on the circular array of represent it here. The final illustration requires

prime elements. Similarly, the second cyclic the impossible situation of representing trend

variable (0) defines the angular position within surfaces of the variable (0) in a four-dimension-

each prime element, while the variable R mea- al space (T, Z, V, R).

sures the distance out from the centre of the

prime element in the direction of (0). The vari- Rows 2-4

able Z indicates the position along the Z-axis, Subsequent rows in Figure 2 are derived in a

while the variable V is represented by concen- similar manner to those of the first row with

tric cylinder-like trend surfaces. V, together mathematical functions of diminishing com-

with the cyclic variable (), are not represented plexity. An interesting situation develops in

continuously. Only discrete values are repre- the second row as the number of variables rep-

sented, one for each prime element in the case resented in the prime element are reduced to

of ( ) and one for each trend surface in the case one. Here the prime element collapses to a

of V. point representing one value of the fourth

With the reduction of one cyclic variable, parameter in the three-dimensional space of

the circular array (parameter ) of the first il- the illustration created by the remaining three

lustration is reduced to a linear array (T param- parameters. In actual fact, the illustration has

eter) in the second illustration. This does not reverted to that shown in the second column

necessarily imply that the variable T cannot without the cyclic parameter being represented

be cyclic. In some circumstances it may be as such.

desirable to present a cyclic variable in a linear

fashion.

INF. DES. J. 6/2 (1990) 147-59

154

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

The illustrations of the top three rows of Figure The lower section of Figure 3 (Rows 4 and 5)

3 relate directly to those of Figure 1 except that describes similar quantitative information for

it is assumed the data plotted is not a continu- cases where the mathematical function

ous mathematical function but simply a num- includes some cyclic variables. The treatment

ber of data points. is similar to Rows 3 and 4 in Figure 2.

Row 1

For presentation purposes, it makes sense to Figure 4

describe a maximum of four variables in the The illustrations in Figure 4 are produced by

one illustration with a prime element of three matrixing the number of variables and number

dimensions. This is shown in the first illustra- of independent variables of the mathematical

tion of the top row. These conditions relate to function (vertical dimension) with an assort-

the first illustration of the second row of Figure ment of conditions (horizontal dimension).

1, although in this earlier case, the variation The first and second columns incorporate illus-

with the variable T is compressed onto a single trations using prime elements of three and two

prime element by superimposing trend sur- dimensions respectively, while the third col-

faces. In Figure 3, one trend surface is described umn lists special cases where some of the

in each prime element, but since we are dealing parameters are constrained by special condi-

with discrete data, bars are drawn instead of tions, namely a constant summation.

the surface. In actual fact, these bars are simply There is overlap between some illustrations

the 'posts' which would hold up the trend sur- in Figures 1 and 4. This is desirable as it shows

face which could be draped over them, interpo- where one system of classification deviates

lating the mathematical function in the spaces from another due to differing horizontal

between them. dimensions in each figure. A top row for cases

The third column shows the result of reduc- of four variables with three independent vari-

ing the prime element dimensions by one. An ables is not included as it is represented in

array of two dimensional bar graphs results Figure 1 and presents nothing new here.

which gives direct access to quantitative infor-

Row 1

mation displayed in it.

The first row introduces two new types of

The fourth column describes the data using

illustration. The transformation grid or two-

one dimension in each prime element that is

dimensional conversion scale converts two

not spatially related. This dimension is simply

independent variables into two others. The tri-

a list of values of the fourth variable laid out in

linear chart presents a method of representing

the space created by the two remaining dimen-

sions of the prime element. For the extraction four parameters where three sum to a constant,

of actual data, this design is accurate, but quali- which is the case when dealing with, for exam-

tatively only poorly displays the trends in the ple, mixtures of three substances in varying

mathematical function. proportions. These proportions influence the

value of the fourth parameter which, if quanti-

Rows 2 and 3 tative, can be plotted as a trend surface on a

Rows 2 and 3 show the illustration of functions three-dimensional graph, or as contours on

with less variables, namely 3 and 2 respectively. (or more simply, as areas within) a two-

155

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

3

Cartesian and

polar graphs

for discrete

data

156

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

4

NUMBER OF

Graphs for VARIABLES

special cases AND 3-D GENERAL CASE 2-D GENERAL CASE 1,2 or 3-D SPECIAL CASE

and conditions FUNCTION

(INDEP=

independent

variable)

157

ROBERT RANKIN ■ A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

often used if the fourth parameter can only or number of parameters.

be measured qualitatively. Some of the graphs displayed here are visu-

ally quite complex and may not necessarily

Rows 2 and 3 lend themselves to useful presentation or con-

The first illustrations of both the first and struction on the printed page or static video

second rows show the case where a trend sur- screen. However, with the availability of

face is reduced to a line when the indepen- sophisticated computer graphics, these com-

dence conditions become more restricted. In plex illustrations may be better utilized within

the third row an alignment nomogram is repre- the computer environment.

sented. Not strictly a spatial presentation of The figures would be of great use during the

information, the nomogram is more a compu- design stage of a scientific document. An

tational tool for calculating the values of inter- author, having data or a mathematical concept

related variables. to illustrate, can choose what he or she consid-

ers to be the most appropriate graphic form

Rows 4 and 5 from those available in the four figures. The

Finally, the third column of the last two rows choice will depend on the intended use of the

represent functions of three and two variables illustration, be it for efficient access to data, to

with the special additive condition. In the describe a mathematical concept, or one of

three parameter case, the trilinear chart has many other graphical functions.

collapsed to an inverted conversion scale repre- What the classification does not do, of

senting one axis of a two dimensional line course, is provide guidelines for this choice,

graph displaying the third parameter. In the especially from a communication viewpoint.

two dimensional case, only the inverted con- In the communication environment, there

version scale remains. needs to be a balance between the most appro-

priate illustration to accommodate the data,

and the most appropriate illustration to convey

CONCLUSIONS the intended message to the anticipated audi-

ence. Decisions such as these lie in the domain

The four figures bring together a wide range of of the skilled communication practitioner who

commonly used types of graph by using a rea- is relying on experience, or guidance from com-

sonably exhaustive matrix method. As such, munication models for choosing the most suit-

they maybe useful as a resource for intending able illustration.

graph users. As well, they demonstrate the

inter-relationships among the graphic forms.

Generally, within one figure, the proximity of

one graphic form to another is a measure of

their similarity. Horizontally, across one row

within a figure, the matrices generally display

alternative methods for presenting the same

mathematical function. Vertically, the

columns display similar graphic forms for

158

ROBERT RANKIN • A TAXONOMY OF GRAPH TYPES

REFERENCES

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Wrolstad M and Bourna H Educational Technology

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Tufte E R (1983)

Duchastel P C (1978) The visual display of

Illustrating instructional quantitative information

texts Educational Technology Cheshire, Connecticut:

November: 36-39 Graphics Press

(1979) A schema for the study of

Pictorial illustration in graphic language. In Kolers

instructional texts, P Wrolstad M and Bourna H

Educational Technology 19 (eds) Processing of visible

(11): 20-25 language Vol 1 New York:

Fleming M (1967) Plenum Press

Classification and analysis

of instructional illustration, Twyman M (1982)

AV Communication Review The graphic presentation of

15 (3): 246-256 language Information Design

Journal 3 (1): 2-22

Knowlton J Q (1966)

On the definition of picture Waller R (1979)

AV Communication Review Four aspects of graphic

14: 157-183 communication: an

introduction to the issue. In

MacDonald-Ross M (1977a) Jonassen D (ed.) The

Graphics in text Review of technology of text

Research in Education New Jersey: Educational

5: 49-85 Technology Publications

MacDonald-Ross M (1977b)

How numbers are shown

AV Communication Review

25: 359-409

Rankin R (1986)

Communicating scientific

concepts through the use of

graphs and diagrams

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