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An application of forward-backward difference approximation method on the optimal

control problem in the transmission of tuberculosis model


Z. Rahmah, B. Subartini, E. Djauhari, N. Anggriani, and A. K. Supriatna

Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1825, 020020 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4978989


View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4978989
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/1825/1
Published by the American Institute of Physics
An Application of Forward-Backward Difference
Approximation Method on the Optimal Control Problem in
the Transmission of Tuberculosis Model
Z. Rahmaha), B. Subartini, E. Djauhari, N. Anggriani, and A.K Supriatna

Department of Mathematics, PadjadjaranUniversity


Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor 45363 Indonesia
a)
zainarahmah@gmail.com

Abstract.Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is infected by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The World Health
Organization (WHO) recommends to implement the Baccilus Calmete Guerin (BCG) vaccine in toddler aged two to
three months to be protected from the infection. This research explores the numerical simulation of forward-backward
difference approximation method on the model of TB transmission considering this vaccination program. The model
considers five compartments of sub-populations, i.e. susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, and recovered human
sub-populations. We consider here the vaccination as a control variable. The results of the simulation showed that
vaccination can indeed reduce the number of infected human population.

INTRODUCTION
Tuberculosis has spread both into the human and animal populations. In the record of the World Health
Organization (WHO), about a third of the world's population has been exposed to infection by Mtb (MOH, 2011).
Indonesia is among the five countries with the highest TB burden in the world. The number of TB deaths estimated
61,000 deaths annually (Setiawan, 2012). Direct transmission of active patients to uninfected individuals initially
only leads to the spread of Mtb bacteria to the targeted individuals and it is not directly followed by the symptoms of
the disease. The infected individuals are becoming latent and in fact most of people infected with TB are in the
latent phase, which means not show TB symptoms. The TB disease prevention recommended by the WHO is the
Baccilus Calmete Guerin (BCG) vaccine given to infants aged two to three months. The results of the BCG vaccine
to the population are it can protect to approximately 70% -80% of TB infections (Crofton, 2007). The previous
research of Nainggolan et al. (2012) discusses the TB disease spread model by considering the compartment of the
population that having vaccination. The optimal control discussed in their work was shown to be able to decrease the
number of infected individuals while minimizing the cost of the disease and the treatment. Their model is solved
numerically by forward-backward sweep method using C # program. The results of the numerical solution shows
that the decline in the number of individuals latent and growing number of people cured from TB. In this research
we discuss the same model with the same optimal control problem, but it solved numerically using forward
backward difference approximation method which is implemented in MATLAB program. This numerical method
shows a faster convergence of the infected population. The initial value of parameters used in this paper is obtained
from Nainggolan et al. (2013) and Hattaf (2009).

ASSUMPTIONS AND THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL


Here we rewrite the mathematical model of nainggolan et al. (2012) with the following symbols and notations:
S = Susceptible compartment (population of individuals who are susceptible to TB)
V = Vacination compartment (population of individuals who were given the vaccine)

Symposium on Biomathematics (SYMOMATH 2016)


AIP Conf. Proc. 1825, 020020-1–020020-7; doi: 10.1063/1.4978989
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1493-8/$30.00

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E = Exposed compartment (populations of individuals infected but not yet infectious)
I = Infected compartment (populations of individuals infected and can transmit the disease)
R = Recovered compartment (population of individuals who recovered and can be reinfected by the disease)
ᖴ= Recruitment rate (the number of susceptible individuals born)
ߠ = Rate of vaccination of S
ߤ= Natural mortality rate
c = Contact between S and I
ߪ= Effectiveness of vaccination
d = Number of deaths from the I
ߚ= Chances of contracting
p = Natural healing rate of I
k = Natural active development rate of TB
ߜଵ = The rate of transition of individuals from E(who are in contact with I) to I
ߜଶ = Passive infected individual opportunities of R
f = The rate of transition of individuals from S to E
݂ଵ = The rate of transition of individuals from R to E

The model has the following assumption:


The population of individuals is divided into five compartments:
x The population of people who prone to illnessܵሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
x The population of people who infected with but still passive (non-infectious)‫ܧ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
x Populations of individuals infected and can transmit the disease‫ܫ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
x The population of individuals who recovered and can be reinfected by the diseaseܴሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
x The population of individuals who were given the vaccineܸሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
The model also assumed the following:
x There is a constant birthrate or recruitment rate to enter the S compartment
x There isa proportionate rate of vaccination giving to the S compartment
x There is a recovery rate from E to R and from I to R compartments
x Taking into consideration the rate of re-infected from R toE and from R to I
x There is a proportionate deathrate caused by the disease
x The state variableS,V,E,I,R൒ Ͳand are bounded
x All the parameterᖴǡ ߠǡ ߪǡ ݂ǡ ݂ଵ ǡ ߚǡ ܿǡ ߜଵ ǡ ߜଶ ǡ ݇ǡ ݀ǡ ‫ݎ‬ǡ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ǡ ߤ ൒ Ͳ

From the above assumptions, a schematic diagram of dissemination of TB can be expressed as follows:

FIGURE 1.schematic diagram of dissemination of TB.

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Based on the schematic diagram and the assumptions, the mathematical model is given by

݀ܵ
ൌ ᖴ െ ߣܵ െ ሺߤ ൅ ߠሻܵ
݀‫ݐ‬
ܸ݀
ൌ ߠܵ െ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ሻܸ
݀‫ݐ‬
݀‫ܧ‬
ൌ ݂ߣܵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ݇ሻ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݂ଵ ߜଶ ߣܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
݀‫ܫ‬
ൌ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣܵ ൅ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݇‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ ݌‬൅ ݀ ሻ‫ ܫ‬൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣߜଶ ܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
ܴ݀
ൌ ‫ ܸݎ‬൅ ‫ ܫ݌‬െ ߤܴ െ ߣߜଶ ܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
(1)

ఉ௖ூ
where ߣ ൌ .

OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM


As in Nainggolan et al. (2013), to minimize the infected population, we formulate an optimal control problem.
Here we seek an optimal effort to decrease the amount of infected people and maintaining treatment costs as low as
possible. As suggested by Nainggolan et al (2013), the mathematical model becomes

݀ܵ
ൌ ᖴ െ ߣܵ െ ሺߤ ൅ ߠሻܵ
݀‫ݐ‬
ܸ݀
ൌ ߠܵ െ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ሻܸ
݀‫ݐ‬
݀‫ܧ‬
ൌ ݂ߣܵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ݇ሻ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݂ଵ ߜଶ ߣܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
݀‫ܫ‬
ൌ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣܵ ൅ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݇‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ݌‬൅ ݀ ሻ‫ ܫ‬൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣߜଶ ܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
ܴ݀
ൌ ‫ ܸݎ‬൅ ሺ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ ൅ ‫݌‬ሻ‫ ܫ‬െ ߤܴ െ ߣߜଶ ܴ
݀‫ݐ‬
(2)
The variable u(t) is the control variable of the treatment. In the case of u=1 means the treatment amounted for
vaccination effort is twice of the default administration, while if u=0 means the default treatment (‫ݎ‬ଵ ) alone is
sufficient to control the TB. Furthermore, the objective function is formulated as the weighted-combined numbers of
the individual of active TB and treatment costs. Therefore, the purpose is to minimizing the population of active TB
and costs incurred by the implementation of the treatment.The costs incurred to implement the control (u(t))is a
quadratic functions. Based on the above assumption, ‫ݑܥ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻis the cost function with C is a weighted coefficient of
the cost function. If B is the weighted coefficient of the number of individuals in the infected compartment, then
the objective function is given by

‫ܬ‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ൌ න ሾ‫ܫܤ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݑܥ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሿ݀‫ݐ‬

(3)
The mathematical problem is now minimizing (3) with the respect to the dynamics in (2). It could be done by
using optimal control theory which the control variable is uand the state variables is
‫ݔ‬ሶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܵሶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ܸሶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ܧ‬ሶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ ܫ‬ሶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ܴሶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ™ith boundary conditions :
Ͳ ൑ ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൑ ͳǡ ‫ א ݐ‬ሾͲǡ ܶሿǡ ܵ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܵ଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ܸ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܸ଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ‫ ܧ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ܧ‬଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ‫ܫ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ܫ‬଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ܴ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܴ଴ ൒ Ͳ
The things that need to do is to define the Hamiltonian function
݀ܵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܸ݀ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ ܧ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ ܫ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܴ݀ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
‫ ܪ‬ൌ ‫ܫܤ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݑܥ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅  ߣଵ ൅ ߣଶ ൅ ߣଷ ൅ ߣସ ൅ ߣହ
݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬

020020-3
where ߣଵ ǡ ߣଶ ǡ ߣଷ ǡ ߣସ ǡ ߣହ are the co-state variables or the Lagrangian multiplier. Based on the Pontryagin
Maximum Principle, there should be a sate equations and co-state equations systems satisfying:

State equation
݀‫ܪ‬
ܵሶ ൌ ൌ ᖴ െ ߣܵ െ ሺߤ ൅ ߠሻܵ
݀ߣଵ
݀‫ܪ‬
ܸሶ ൌ ൌ ߠܵ െ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ሻܸ
݀ߣଶ
݀‫ܪ‬
‫ܧ‬ሶ ൌ ൌ ݂ߣܵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻߣܸ െ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ݇ሻ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݂ଵ ߜଶ ߣܴ
݀ߣଷ
݀‫ܪ‬
‫ܫ‬ሶ ൌ ൌ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣܵ ൅ ߜଵ ߣ‫ ܧ‬൅ ݇‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ݌‬൅ ݀ ሻ‫ ܫ‬൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߜଶ ܴ
݀ߣସ
݀‫ܪ‬
ܴሶ ൌ ൌ ‫ ܸݎ‬൅ ሺ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ ൅ ‫݌‬ሻ‫ ܫ‬െ ߤܴ െ ߣߜଶ ܴ
݀ߣହ

with the boundary conditions :


ܵ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܵ଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ܸ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܸ଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ‫ ܧ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ܧ‬଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ‫ܫ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ܫ‬଴ ൒ Ͳǡ ܴ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܴ଴ ൒ Ͳ

Co-state equation
݀‫ܪ‬ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬
ߣଵ ൌ െ ൌ ሺߣ െ ݂ߣଷ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣସ ሻ ൅ ሺߣଵ െ ߣଶ ሻߠ ൅ ߣଵ ߤ
݀ܵሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܰ ଵ
݀‫ܪ‬ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬
ߣଶ ൌ െ ൌ ሺͳ െ ߪ ሻ ሺ ߣ െ ߣଷ ሻ ൅ ሺ ߣ ଶ െ ߣହ ሻ ‫ ݎ‬൅ ߣଶ ߤ
ܸ݀ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܰ ଶ
݀‫ܪ‬ ߜଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬
ߣଷ ൌ െ ൌ൬ ൅ ݇൰ ሺߣଷ െ ߣସ ሻ ൅ ߣଷ ߤ
݀‫ ܧ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܰ
݀‫ܪ‬
ߣସ ൌ െ
݀‫ܫ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
ߚܿܵ ߚܸܿ ߜ ߚܿ‫ܧ‬
ൌ െ‫ ܤ‬൅ ሺߣଵ െ ݂ߣଷ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣସ ሻ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ሺ ߣଶ െ ߣ ଷ ሻ ൅ ଵ ሺ ߣଷ െ ߣ ସ ሻ
ܰ ܰ ܰ
ߜଶ ߚܴܿ
൅ ሺߣହ െ ݂ଵ ߣଷ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣସ ሻ ൅ ൫‫ ݌‬൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ൯ሺߣସ െ ߣହ ሻ ൅ ߣସ ሺߤ ൅ ݀ሻ
ܰ
݀‫ܪ‬ ߜଶ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬
ߣହ ൌ െ ൌ ሺߣହ െ ݂ଵ ߣଷ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣସ ሻ ൅ ߣହ ߤ

ܴ݀ ‫ݐ‬ ሻ ܰ

Stationary equation
݀‫ܪ‬
ൌͲ
݀‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ

௥భ ூሺఒర ିఒఱ ሻ
Which results in ‫ ݑ‬ൌ , and since Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݑ‬൑ ͳ, it is equivalent to
ଶ஼
௥భ ூሺఒర ିఒఱ ሻ
‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݉݅݊ ቄͳǡ ƒš ቂ ቃ ǡ Ͳቅ as the optimal solution to the control problem. To ensure the
ଶ஼
ௗమ ு
minimum condition, the second derivative of u must satisfies ൌ ʹ‫ ܥ‬൒ Ͳ.
ௗ௨మ

NUMERICAL SCHEME AND SIMULATION


A nnumerical scheme used is the forward backward difference approximation method. Stages of the numerical
algorithm refer to the work of Elhia (2012). By the discretizeation of the intervalൣ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡ ‫ݐ‬௙ ൧ with ‫ݐ‬௜ ൌ ‫ݐ‬଴ ൅ ݄݅ǡ ሺ݅ ൌ
Ͳǡͳǡ ǥ ǡ ݊ሻwhere h is the step size up to ‫ݐ‬௡ ൌ  ‫ݐ‬௙ , we have the following version of the state and co-state equations:

ܵ௜ାଵ െ  ܵ௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜
ൌ ᖴ െ ܵ െ ሺߤ ൅ ߠሻܵ௜ାଵ
݄ ܰ ௜ାଵ

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ܸ௜ାଵ െ  ܸ௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜
ൌ ߠܵ௜ାଵ െ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ܸ െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ሻܸ௜ାଵ
݄ ܰ ௜ାଵ
‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ െ  ‫ܧ‬௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜
ൌ݂ ܵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ܸ െ ߜଵ ‫ ܧ‬െ ሺߤ ൅ ݇ሻ‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ݂ଵ ߜଶ ܴ
݄ ܰ ௜ାଵ ܰ ௜ାଵ ܰ ௜ାଵ ܰ ௜
‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ െ ‫ܫ‬௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ൌ  ሺͳ െ ݂ሻ ܵ௜ାଵ ൅ ߜଵ ‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ݇‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ െ ሺߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ ൅ ‫ ݌‬൅ ݀ሻ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻ ߜଶ ܴ௜
݄ ܰ ܰ ܰ
ܴ௜ାଵ െ  ܴ௜ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ൌ ‫ܸݎ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ሺ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ ൅ ‫݌‬ሻ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ െ ߤܴ௜ାଵ െ ߜଶ ܴ௜ାଵ
݄ ܰ
௡ି௜ ௡ି௜ିଵ
ߣଵ െ ߣଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ൌ ൫ߣଵ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ݂ߣଷ ௡ି௜ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ൫ߣଵ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣଶ ௡ି௜ ൯ߠ ൅ ߣଵ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߤ
݄ ܰ
ߣଶ ௡ି௜ െ ߣଶ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ൌ  ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ൫ߣଶ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ൫ߣଶ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣହ ௡ି௜ ൯‫ ݎ‬൅ ߣଶ ߤ
݄ ܰ
ߣଷ ௡ି௜ െ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߜଵ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ൌ  ൬ ൅ ݇൰ ൫ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣସ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߤ
݄ ܰ
ߣସ ௡ି௜ െ ߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߚܿܵ௜ାଵ ߚܸܿ௜ାଵ
ൌ െ‫ ܤ‬൅ ൫ߣଵ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ݂ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ൫ߣଶ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯
݄ ܰ ܰ
ߜଵ ߚܿ‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ߜଶ ߚܴܿ௜ାଵ
൅ ൫ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯ ൅ ൫ߣହ ௡ି௜ െ ݂ଵ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯
ܰ ܰ
൅ ൫‫ ݌‬൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ൯൫ߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣହ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ሺߤ ൅ ݀ሻ

ߣହ ௡ି௜ െ ߣହ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߜଶ ߚܿ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ


ൌ ൫ߣହ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ݂ଵ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯ ൅ ߣହ ௡ି௜ିଵ ߤ
݄ ܰ

The steps of the forward-backward difference approximation methods is:

Step 1
Inserting initial value
ܵ ሺͲሻ ൌ  ܵ଴ ǡ ܸ ሺͲሻ ൌ  ܸ଴ ǡ ‫ ܧ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ  ‫ܧ‬଴ ǡ ‫ܫ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ  ‫ܫ‬଴ ǡ ܴሺͲሻ ൌ  ܴ଴ ǡ ߣ௜ ൫‫ݐ‬௙ ൯ ൌ Ͳሺ݅ ൌ ͳǡ ǥ ǡ ͷሻǡ ‫ݑ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͲǤ
Step 2
To݅ ൌ Ͳǡ ǥ ǡ ݊ െ ͳǡcalculate :
Ȧ݄ ൅ ܵ௜
ܵ௜ାଵ ൌ  ఉ௖ூ೔
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺ ൅ ߤ ൅ ߠሻ

Ʌ݄ܵ௜ାଵ ൅ ܸ௜
ܸ௜ାଵ ൌ  ఉ௖ூ೔
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺሺͳ െ ߪሻ ൅ ߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ሻ

ఉ௖ூ ఉ௖ூ೔ ఉ௖ூ
݂ ೔ ݄ܵ௜ାଵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ݄ ܸ ൅ ݂ଵ ߜଶ ݄ ೔ ܴ௜ ൅ ‫ܧ‬௜
ே ே ௜ାଵ ே
‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ൌ  ఉ௖ூ
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺ ೔ ߜଵ ൅ ߤ ൅ ݇ሻ

݄݇‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ‫ܫ‬௜
‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ ൌ  ఉ௖ ఉ௖ ఉ௖
ͳ ൅ ݄ ቀߤ ൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ ൅ ‫ ݌‬൅ ݀ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻ ܵ௜ାଵ െ ߜଵ ‫ܧ‬௜ାଵ ቁ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻ ߜ ܴ
ே ே ே ଶ ௜
‫ܸ݄ݎ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ݄ሺ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ ൅ ‫݌‬ሻ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ ൅ ܴ௜
ܴ௜ାଵ ൌ ఉ௖ூ
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺߤ ൅ ೔శభ ߜଶ ሻ

ఉ௖ூ೔శభ
௡ି௜ିଵ
ߣଵ ௡ି௜ ൅ ݄൫ሺߣଷ ௡ି௜ ݂ ൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ߣଶ ௡ି௜ ߠሻ

ߣଵ ൌ ఉ௖ூ೔శభ
൅ ߠ ൅ ߤሻ
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺ

௡ି௜ ఉ௖ூ೔శభ ௡ି௜
ߣଶ ൅ ݄ ൬ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ߣଷ ൅ ߣହ ௡ି௜ ‫ݎ‬൰
௡ି௜ିଵ ே
ߣଶ ൌ ఉ௖ூ
ͳ ൅ ݄ሺሺͳ െ ߪሻ ೔శభ ൅ ‫ ݎ‬൅ ߤሻ

ఉ௖ூ
ߣଷ ௡ି௜ ൅ ݄ ቀ ೔శభ ߜଵ ߣସ ௡ି௜ ൅ ݇ቁ
ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൌ  ఉ௖ூ

ͳ ൅ ݄ ቀ ೔శభ ߜଵ ൅ ݇ ൅ ߤቁ

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ఉ௖ௌ೔శభ ఉ௖௏೔శభ
௡ି௜
‫ ܤ‬൅ ൫݂ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣଵ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯ ൅ ሺͳ െ ߪሻ ൫ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣଶ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯
ே ே
ߣସ ൅ ݄ ቌ ఋ ఉ௖ா ఋ ఉ௖ோ

െ భ ೔శభ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൅ మ ೔శభ ൫݂ଵ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣହ ௡ି௜ ൯ ൅ ൫‫ ݌‬൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ൯ߣହ ௡ି௜
௡ି௜ିଵ ே ே
ߣସ ൌ
ఉ௖ௌ೔శభ ఋభ ఉ௖ா೔శభ ఋమ ఉ௖ோ೔శభ
ͳ ൅ ݄ ൬ሺ‫ ݌‬൅ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݑ‬௜ ሻ ൅ ߤ ൅ ݀ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ሻ െ െ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻ൰
ே ே ே
ఉ௖ூ
௡ି௜
ߣହ ൅ ݄ ൬ ೔శభ ߜଶ ൫݂ଵ ߣଷ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൅ ሺͳ െ ݂ଵ ሻߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯൰
௡ି௜ିଵ ே
ߣହ ൌ ఉ௖ூ
ͳ ൅ ݄ ቀ ೔శభ ߜଶ ൅ ߤቁ

൫ߣସ ௡ି௜ିଵ െ ߣହ ௡ି௜ିଵ ൯‫ݎ‬ଵ ‫ܫ‬௜ାଵ
ܶ௜ାଵ ൌ 
ʹ‫ܥ‬
‫ݑ‬௜ାଵ ൌ ݉݅݊൫ͳǡ ݉ܽ‫ݔ‬ሺͲǡ ܶ௜ାଵ ሻ൯

Step 3
To ݅ ൌ Ͳǡ ǥ ǡ ݊displayܵሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ܵ௜ ǡ ܸሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ܸ௜ ǡ ‫ܧ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ‫ܧ‬௜ ǡ ‫ܫ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ‫ܫ‬௜ ǡ ܴሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ܴ௜ ǡ ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬௜ ሻ ൌ ‫ݑ‬௜ .The algorithm is complete.

As an example to the above algorithm, we use the following parameters as in Table 1.

TABLE 1.Initial Values and Parameters


ࡿ૙ ࢂ૙ ࡱ૙ ࡵ૙ ࡾ૙ ࢘૚ ࢑
95703 35703 13670 2000 0 0.6 ͳ͵‫ିͲͳݔ‬ହ
࢘ ࢾ૚ ࢾ૛ ࢌ ࢌ૚ ‫ܥ‬ ࣆ
0.35 0.2 0.15 0.9 0.7 400 0.01
઩ ࣂ ࢉ ࣌ ࢊ ࢼ ࢖
3500 0.2 21 0.8 0.05 0.17 0.015

The initial value of parameters used were obtained from Naiggolan et al. (2013) and (Hattaf, 2009). Numerical
simulations were performed by varying the numbers of iterations and the period in years. The results are shown in
Fig. 2 The figure shows that the infected TB population will increase if no treatment, but with the presence of
treatment the infected population will reduce towards zero in the 5thyear. In the case of no treatment, the initial
infected population (2,000 individual) grows to reach 6,000 individuals. However, if there is an optimal treatment
the number decrease towards zero.The profile of the optimal treatment is given in Fig. 3

FIGURE 2.Graph Effect of Treatment In Infected Population with N=100.

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FIGURE 3. Graph of u.

CONCLUSION
In this paper we have solved an optimal control problem in TB transmission using the method of forward-
backward finite difference method. The simulation shows that by giving the optimal treatment (with optimal
control), the population of the infected individuals experienced a greater decline compared with no treatment or the
default treatment with no control. This result is consistent which the convergent is faster with the previous one
discussed in Nainggolan et al. (2013).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This paper assisted in part by the Indonesian Government through PenelitianUnggulanPerguruanTinggi 2016
Unpad Number: 431/UN6.3.1/PL/2016.

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