Weld Inspection
Level 1

Introduction to Welding
Definition Introduction to Welding Welding Terminology Physics of Welding



Welding: A group of processes used to join metallic and nonmetallic materials. Often done using heat but maybe done using pressure or a combination of heat and pressure. A filler material may or may not be used.

Other processes: riveting, forging, cutting, turning, and bending

First used: 2000 BC Modern methods: 1881

Examples of Welding Processes
Shielded Metal Arc Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding



Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding


5/13/2010 Gas Metal Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding 4 .

brazing and adhesive bonds which are not fusion processes Arc Welding Intense heat to melt metal is produced by electric arc Arc between electrode and metal to be joined 5 .5/13/2010 Introduction to Welding Joint between the materials is melted Intermixing occurs Upon solidification a metallurgical bond results The weld has the potential to have same strength as the materials being joined Unlike soldering.

AC or DC The Arc 6 .5/13/2010 Shielded Metal Arc Welding High current. low voltage.

5/13/2010 Heat in The Arc Change the arc length Change the shielding gas Addition of potassium salts reduces arc voltage Metal Arc Transfer Metal is transferred across the arc (consumable electrode) Mechanism of transfer: Molten metal drop touches and transfers by surface tension Magnetic pinch effect Gravity (flat welding) More heat is transferred than non-consumable electrodes Ionization column must be present to conduct electricity (arc) 7 .

electrode negative Selection depends upon: Process Type of electrode Arc atmosphere Metal being welded Properties of Metals Physical Chemical Mechanical 8 .5/13/2010 Electrical Supply AC DC. electrode positive DC.

5/13/2010 Physical Properties Colour Melting Temperature Density (weight per unit volume) Chemical Properties How the metal reacts in an environment Corrosion Resistance (ability to resist corrosion) Oxidation Resistance (ability to resist combining with oxygen) 9 .

5/13/2010 Mechanical Properties Strength (ability to resist load without failing) Tensile strength (ability to resist pulling force) Compressive strength (ability to resist crushing force) Ductility (ability to deform without breaking) Brittleness (inability to resist fracture) Toughness (ability to resist cracking) Hardness (ability to resist indent or scratching) Grain size (important in determining mechanical properties) Effects of Welding Heat creates stress. affects ductility and toughness Effects of previous heat treating are lost around the weld If done properly usually stronger than the base metal Can effect the chemical resistance 10 .

5/13/2010 Expansion and Contraction Metal expands when heated Metal contracts when cooled Expansion and contraction creates stress Welding jigs or fixtures prevent movement but lock in stress Butt Joint Root Opening 11 .

5/13/2010 Butt Joint Root Opening Butt Joint Distortion 12 .

5/13/2010 Tee Joint Distortion Reducing Distortion & Stress Tack weld Align parts for contraction Use jigs or fixtures Preheat parts Heat treat welded parts Proper welding procedures 13 .

5/13/2010 Heat Treating Pre heating Raise the temperature just prior to welding Entire part is heated Less contraction and stress on cooling Heat Treating Interpass heating Heating while welding or between passes Minimize expansion and contraction Reduce stress 14 .

5/13/2010 Heat Treating Annealing Heat treatment after welding Heated above critical temperature 900° C for mild steel Held at temperature for 1 hour per inch of thickness Slow cooled Heat Treating Stress Relieving Heat treatment after welding Heated below transition temperature 650° C for mild steel Held at temperature for 1 hour per inch of thickness Air cooled Relieves some of the stress of welding 15 .

5/13/2010 Electrical Principles Voltage Force that causes electrons to flow in a circuit Similar to pressure Measured in volts Electrical Principles Resistance Opposition to flow of electrons measured in ohms Air gap is resistance If voltage is not sufficient to overcome resistance of gap no arc exists Higher voltage allows a longer arc Arc stops if voltage is not high enough 16 .

000 17 .000 or .000 Mega [M] = 1.001 Centi [c] = 1/100 or .5/13/2010 Electrical Principles Current Flow of electrons measured in amperes Compared to flow of water If there is no arc.000001 Milli [m] = 1/1.000 or . no current flows in welding circuit Units of Measure Micro [µ] = 1/1.01 Deci [d] = 1/10 or .000.000.1 Kilo [ K] = 1.

5/13/2010 Terminology Welding Technology Fundamentals Page 441 Procedures Handbook of Arc Welding Page 16.1-1 Basic Weld Joints 18 .

5/13/2010 Butt Joints Parts of a Grooved Butt Joint 19 .

Joint 20 .5/13/2010 Corner Joint T .

5/13/2010 Edge Joint Fillet Welds 21 .

5/13/2010 Engineering Drawings Isometric Projection 22 .

5/13/2010 Orthographic Projection Orthographic Projection 23 .

5/13/2010 Orthographic Projection Orthographic Projection 24 .

5/13/2010 Orthographic Projection View Selection 25 .

5/13/2010 First and Third Angle Projection First and Third Angle Projection 26 .

5/13/2010 Drawing Lines Dimensioning S = size P = position 27 .

5/13/2010 Dimensioning Angles Chamfers Tapers Auxiliary Views 28 .

5/13/2010 Sectional Views Sectional Views Mating parts Typical cross section 29 .

5/13/2010 Thread Illustrations Team Project 2 Prepare a sketch in third angle orthographic projection 30 .

5/13/2010 Preparation of Joints for Welding Preparation of Joints for Welding Flanged Preparation e = member thickness Used of relatively thin material Medium efficiency 31 .

5/13/2010 Preparation of Joints for Welding Square Butt Preparation with backing g = root gap Improves probability or full penetration Stress raisers that affect fatigue performance Preparation of Joints for Welding Single Vee Preparation ß = bevel angle. g = root gap. = solid angle Optimum joint efficiency require back gouging and welding 32 . s = root face. α = groove angle.

less distortion Optimum joint efficiency require back gouging and welding 33 . Ω = angle of incidence Used for Tee and corner joints Optimum joint efficiency require back gouging and welding Preparation of Joints for Welding Single U Preparation α = groove angle. g = root gap. r = root radius Reduced volume of weld as compared to Vee.5/13/2010 Preparation of Joints for Welding Single Bevel Preparation α = groove angle. s = root face. s = root face. g = root gap. β = bevel angle.

b = root width Preparation of Joints for Welding Double Vee Preparation α = groove angle. s = root face. g = root gap.5/13/2010 Preparation of Joints for Welding Partial U Preparation α = groove angle. s = root face. d = depth of prepared edge. β = bevel angle. d = depth of of prepared edge Reduced distortion and weld volume compared to single Vee. back gouging preferred before welding second side 34 . r = root radius. g = root gap.

s = root face. less distortion 35 . d = depth of prepared edge Used in SAW Preparation of Joints for Welding Double U Preparation α = groove angle. s = root face.5/13/2010 Preparation of Joints for Welding Double Vee Preparation with Broad Root Face α = groove angle. d = depth of of prepared edge Used for thicker sections Reduced volume of weld as compared to Vee. β = bevel angle. g = root gap. g = root gap.


Preparation of Joints for Welding
Double J Preparation

α = groove angle, s = root face, g = root gap, d = depth of prepared edge, r = root radius

Partial Double J Preparation

Preparation of Joints for Welding

α = groove angle, s = root face, g = root gap, r = root radius, d = depth of of prepared edge



Mixed Preparation

Preparation of Joints for Welding

α = groove angle, r = root radius, l = half width of flat bottom

Welding Symbols



Welding Symbols
F A R T S (E) L-P


F A R T S (E) L-P

N Weld-all around


5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) Field Weld L-P N F A R T S (E) L-P N Reference Line 39 .

process or other reference 40 .5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) L-P N Tail (Tail omitted when references not used) F A R T S (E) L-P N Specification.

5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) L-P N Depth of penetration. size or strength F A R T S (E) L-P N Groove weld size 41 .

5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) L-P N Basic weld symbols Finish symbol F A R T S (E) L-P N 42 .

5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) Finish contour L-P N F A R T S (E) Groove angle L-P N 43 .

5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) Root opening L-P N F A R T S (E) L-P N Number of spot. stud or projection welds 44 .

5/13/2010 F A R T S (E) Length and pitch L-P N Basic Weld Symbols F A R T S (E) L-P N Designates the specific type of weld 45 .

5/13/2010 Basic Groove Weld Symbols Square Single V Single bevel Double J Double flare Fillet and Plug Weld Symbols Fillet Plug 46 .

5/13/2010 Single and Double Welds Single Bevel Groove Double J Groove Flare Fillet Arrow Significance 47 .

5/13/2010 Arrow Significance Groove Welds Arrow Significance Groove Welds 48 .

5/13/2010 Arrow Significance Fillet Welds Arrow Significance Fillet Welds 49 .

5/13/2010 Information in the Tail F A R T S (E) L-P N WeldingSpecification. process or other reference process Welding procedure “Typical” representative of all welds on the drawing Field Weld In a place other than original construction Usually in the erection phase 50 .

5/13/2010 Melt-thru Symbol Extent of Welding If length is not specified length is between abrupt changes in direction Length maybe directly dimensioned on drawing Weld all around symbol F A R T S (E) L-P N Weld-all around 51 .

5/13/2010 Uses of Weld All Around Finishing of Weld C G M R H Chipping Grinding Machining Rolling Hammering 52 .

5/13/2010 Break in Arrow Arrow points to member to be chamfered Combined Welding Symbols 53 .

4) Complete Penetration Note: CJP = Complete joint penetration or CP = Complete penetration GTSM = Grind to sound metal 54 .5/13/2010 Alternate Combined Welding Symbols (AWS A2.

5/13/2010 Groove Welds Key parameters: Depth of penetration Bevel angle Root opening Three Basic Angles Θ1 = Bevel angle Θ2 = Groove angle Θ3 = Angle at root 55 .

5/13/2010 Dimensioning Double Groove Welds Depth of Penetration & Groove Weld Size F A R T S (E) L-P N F A R T S (E) L-P N 56 .

5/13/2010 Depth of Penetration & Groove Weld Size E may be greater or smaller than S Practice Single Groove Partial Penetration 57 .

5/13/2010 Practice Single Groove Partial Penetration Practice Single Groove Partial Penetration 58 .

5/13/2010 Practice Single Groove Partial Penetration Practice Double Groove Partial Penetration 59 .

5/13/2010 Practice Double Groove Partial Penetration Practice Double Groove Partial Penetration 60 .

5/13/2010 Practice Double Groove Partial Penetration Practice Double Groove Full Penetration 61 .

5/13/2010 Practice Double Groove Full Penetration Practice Double Groove Full Penetration 62 .

5/13/2010 Practice Square Groove Square Groove Requires Full Penetration 63 .

5/13/2010 Square Groove Symmetrical Double Groove Welds 64 .

5/13/2010 Optional Joint Preparation Complete Penetration With Back-gouging 65 .

5/13/2010 Complete Penetration With Back-gouging Complete Penetration With Back-gouging 66 .

5/13/2010 Flare Weld Flare Weld 67 .

5/13/2010 Surface Finish Most common is flush Welds With Backing Basic Symbol M = Material of backing bar R = Removal of backing bar after welding 68 .

5/13/2010 Welds With Backing S = Steel R = Removed Backing bar size can be placed in tail Joints With Spacers 69 .

5/13/2010 Combination Groove and Fillet Sequence of Preparation Solid lines indicate preparation before fit-up 70 .

5/13/2010 Sequence of Preparation Solid lines indicate preparation before fitting CSA W59 Fillet Welds 71 .

5/13/2010 Fillet Welds Note: vertical side (line) always on left Equal-legged Fillets 72 .

5/13/2010 Fillet Size S = Specified size (size on symbol) Seff = Effective size (size that corresponds to specified size) Sm = Measured size (based on actual measurement) Fillet Size 73 .

but requires identification: “z” designates leg size “a” designates throat size Fillet Size 74 .5/13/2010 Fillet Size Some countries specify the size of fillet by throat rather than leg In Canada and USA we use leg ISO (ISO/TC44/SC7) recognizes both.


Unequal-legged Fillet Welds

Size is shown in brackets as: (S1 x S2) Not leg specific

Unequal-legged Fillet Welds




Unequal-legged Fillet Welds
Often the which leg size is governed by geometry of joint

Fillet Sizes (With Gaps)
Gaps less than 1mm (CSA W59) or 1/16 (AWS D1.1)



Fillet Sizes (With Gaps)
Gaps greater than 1mm (CSA W59) or 1/16 (AWS D1.1) Maximum gap 5mm for material < 75mm thick 8mm for material > 75mm thick Measured size increased by amount of gap

Fillet Welds in Skewed Connections

Beyond this range, weld is considered partial penetration (CSA W59 and AWS D1.1)


5/13/2010 Fillet Welds in Skewed Connections It is necessary to show a sketch of the weld with dimensions Length of Fillet Welds 78 .

5/13/2010 Length of Fillet Welds Length of Fillet Welds (Not Specified) Considered to run length of joint to change of direction 79 .

5/13/2010 Length of Fillet Welds (Not Specified) Fillet All-around 80 .

5/13/2010 Intermittent Fillet Welds Intermittent Fillet Welds Common Centre Symbols Aligned 81 .

5/13/2010 Intermittent Fillet Welds Staggered Centres Staggered Symbols Fillets Welds With Terminal Ends 82 .

5/13/2010 Fillets Welds Surface Finish & Contour Plug and Slot Welds 83 .

5/13/2010 Plug and Slot Welds Plug and Slot Welds 84 .

5/13/2010 Plug Welds Key Parameters: Diameter of hole Angle of countersink Depth of filling Spacing of welds Contour and surface finish Plug Weld. Diameter 85 .

Countersink Plug Weld. Depth of Filling Complete fill 86 .5/13/2010 Plug Weld.

Spacing Plug Weld. Symbols 87 .5/13/2010 Plug Weld.

5/13/2010 Safety Considerations Pressurized Gases High temperatures and hot surfaces Electrical hazards Fume generation Non-ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation Molten droplets of metal Explosive hazards Oxy-Fuel Cutting Torch tip selection Oxygen pressure Acetylene pressure Cutting Speed Tip alignment Torch Position 88 .

5/13/2010 89 .

5/13/2010 Tip Alignment Torch Position Tilted to 20 degrees away from direction of cutting 90 .

5/13/2010 Torch Position Torch 90 degrees to the surface of the metal Torch Position Cutting thin steel 91 .

5/13/2010 Cutting Conditions Good Cut Cutting Conditions Preheat flames too small Cutting speed too slow 92 .

5/13/2010 Cutting Conditions Preheat flame too long Top surface melted over Cutting edge irregular Excess slag Cutting Conditions Oxygen pressure too low Top edge melted Travel speed too slow 93 .

emphasized drag lines 94 .5/13/2010 Cutting Conditions Oxygen pressure too high Nozzle too small Cut control lost Cutting Conditions Cutting speed too slow Irregular.

5/13/2010 Cutting Conditions Cutting speed too fast Pronounced break in drag line Cut edge irregular Cutting Conditions Torch travel unsteady Cut edge wavy and irregular 95 .

5/13/2010 Cutting Conditions Cut lost Not properly restarted Bad gouges at restart point Shielded Metal Arc Welding 96 .

5/13/2010 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Acronyms: AC Alternating Current DC Direct Current CC Constant Current CV Constant Voltage DCEN Direct Current Electrode Negative DCEP Direct Current Electrode Positive OCV Open Circuit Voltage Current and Polarity DCEN DCEP 97 .

less heat to the base metal Used for welding thin materials AC Produce a neutral or reducing gas (to protect the weld puddle) Medium depth of penetration Current and Polarity Manual processes such as SMAW require CC welding machine CC machines sometimes called droopers or droop curve machines A CC machine adjusts to maintain a constant current as small changes in arc length occur 98 .5/13/2010 Current and Polarity DCEP DCEN Deeper penetration than DCEN Electrode melts faster.

5/13/2010 Constant Current Machine 25% change in voltage 4% change in current Welding Machines 99 .

5/13/2010 Welding Machines Current Type (AC. DC. or AC/DC) Input power requirements (117. 240 0r 550 Volts) Rated current output Duty Cycle Open Circuit Voltage Rated Current Output 100 .

5/13/2010 Duty Cycle How long a welding machine can be used at maximum current Based on a ten minute cycle E. 60% duty cycle machine can be used at maximum current for a maximum of 6 minutes out of every 10 minutes.g. It can be used for longer periods at lower current settings Duty Cycle 200 amp. 20% duty cycle 101 .

5/13/2010 Open Circuit Voltage Voltage of the welding machine when on but not being used. Welding Leads Electrode lead Work lead Electrical resistance increases as diameter decreases and length increases Voltage and current are affected when leads are too small in diameter 102 . Typically 80 volts compared to closed circuit voltage of 5 to 30 volts A high OCV is required to initiate the arc.

5/13/2010 Welding Leads Welding Technology Fundamentals Page 58 Wire Diameter Suggested Filter Lenses Sensible 7 thru 14 Shade Adjustability On The Outside Of The Helmet While You Are Welding 103 .

Create a flux to remove impurities 4.3 aluminum and aluminum alloys A5.15 gray and ductile cast iron CSA W 48-01 carbon steel covered electrodes chromium and chromium-nickel covered electrodes low alloy steel covered electrodes Electrode Coverings 1. Add filler metal 2.11 nickel and nickel alloys A5.5 low alloy steels A5. Create a protective gas shield 3.5/13/2010 SMAW Electrodes Specified by: AWS A5.1 carbon steel A5. Create slag to protect bead as it cools 5. Add alloys to improve mechanical and chemical properties 6. Determine the polarity of electrode 104 .4 corrosion resistant steels A5.6 copper and copper alloys A5.

3/32. 1/4. 5/16. 5/64.5/13/2010 Electrode Size CSA W47-01 Electrode Size AWS Lengths: 9. 1/8. 14. 5/32. 3/8 inches 105 . 7/32. and 18 inches Diameters: 1/16. 3/16. 12.

5/13/2010 Freezing Characteristics Electrodes manufactured to melt rapidly are called fast-fill electrodes Electrodes manufactured to freeze rapidly are called fast-freeze electrodes Electrodes manufactured to compromise between fast-fill and fast-freeze are called fill-freeze Electrode Designations AWS Minimum tensile strength in thousand psi Electrode Welding position E 6010 Utilization 106 .

horizontal.5/13/2010 Minimum Tensile strength Minimum tensile strength of the as deposited metal Welding Position 1 2 3 4 All position Flat and horizontal fillets only Flat position only Flat. overhead and vertical down 107 .

6 & 8 108 . what electrodes will provide good root penetration? What electrodes cannot be used for DCEP? Low Hydrogen Electrodes *5.5/13/2010 Team Assignment 5 Assignment What electrodes are low hydrogen? What electrodes cannot be used with AC? Which electrodes have iron powder addition? Cellulose is used to improve penetration.

000 psi. E7016. 490 Mpa Moderately heavy slag easy to remove Smooth quiet arc. Page 74-78. and CSA W48-01 appendix D 109 .2. medium penetration AC or DCEP Iron powder addition Electrodes Assignment: Prepare a similar description for E7015. very low spatter. E6010.5/13/2010 E 7018 E4918 (CSA W48-01) Low hydrogen Fill-freeze All position 70. E8018. Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding Chapter 6. E7028. E6019 Hint: Use references: Welding Technology Fundamentals.

5/13/2010 Electrode Storage Low Alloy Steel Electrodes 110 .

5/13/2010 Electrode Designations AWS Minimum tensile strength in thousand psi Electrode Welding position E 10016-D2 Alloy addition Utilization Alloy Additions 111 .

Describe the electrodes E9018-B3L and E6218-B3L 2. DC 26 flat or horizontal position AC/DC (DC if available) 112 . and which electrodes cannot be used with AC Chromium and Chromium Nickel Electrodes Electrode Alloy designation Low carbon Position E 316L-16 Use-ability 15 all position DC only 16 all position AC/DC.5/13/2010 Low Alloy Electrodes Assignment: 1. (DC if available) 25 flat or horizontal position only. Create memory rules to help recall which electrodes are low hydrogen.

What electrode is used to join 304L stainless steel to 316L stainless steel? Hint: Procedure handbook of Arc Welding chapter 7. What electrode is used to join 304 stainless steel to 304 stainless steel? 2.2 Flat Welding Position Striking an arc Scratch method Pecking method 113 .5/13/2010 Chromium and Chromium Nickel Electrodes Team Assignment 6: 1. What electrode is used to join 316L stainless steel to 316L stainless steel? 3.

5/13/2010 Arc Blow Stringer Bead Width of bead 2 to 3 times electrode diameter Height of bead 1/8th bead width 114 .

5/13/2010 Weaving Bead Width less than 6 times Travel Angle 115 .

5/13/2010 Work Angle Reading The Bead Good bead 116 .

5/13/2010 Reading The Bead Current too low Reading The Bead Current too high 117 .

5/13/2010 Reading The Bead Arc length too short Reading The Bead Arc length too long 118 .

5/13/2010 Reading The Bead Travel speed too slow Reading The Bead Travel speed too fast 119 .

5/13/2010 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Current & Heat Distribution Constant current 120 .

5/13/2010 Cleaning Action Shielding Gases Argon Easier to start and maintain arc Lower flow rates Less expensive Helium Hotter arc Deeper penetration Faster welding speeds 121 .



Zirconia: AC only, Aluminum Thoria: Steel and SS Pure: Aluminum

Current Selection

R2 p9.4-2



Current Selection

Current Selection



Pulsed GTAW

Arc Starting

High frequency start Electrode contact


filler added to front of puddle Rod is withdrawn electrode is moved to front of puddle Typical SS Welding Procedures 125 .5/13/2010 Laying A Bead Pool formed Electrode moved to back of puddle.

316L pipe for use in a pressure chemical application.5/13/2010 GTAW Variations Autogenous Automatic Hot Wire Multi-Electrode Team Assignment 7 Prepare a welding procedure including all the details your team is capable of to perform a full penetration Butt weld to join two 3-1/2” schedule 40. 126 .

5/13/2010 Gas Metal Arc Welding Metal Transfer Short Circuit Globular Transfer Spray Transfer 127 .

flat position 128 .5/13/2010 Short Circuit Thin material Out of position Low heat transfer Globular Transfer Spatter.

5/13/2010 Spray Transfer At least 90% Argon Pulsed Spray Transfer Above and below transition current Out of position 129 .

5/13/2010 Power Supply Constant Potential Inductance Slope Adjustment No current adjustment Wire Feeder 130 .

5/13/2010 Shielding Gas Type of transfer Penetration and bead shape Speed of Welding Mechanical Properties of weld Shielding Gas 131 .

Helium 132 .CO2 Argon. nickel alloys Increased heat input Deeper penetration Argon.5/13/2010 Shielding Gas Argon: aluminum. copper magnesium excellent arc stability good penetration and bead profile finger like penetration steel reactive gas will not support spray transfer greater spatter and fumes good fusion and penetration heavy sections of Al. nickel. Cu and Mg higher thermal conductivity additional heat to base metal CO2 Helium Shielding Gas Argon-Oxygen 1 to 8% Oxygen Stainless steel increases droplet rate more fluid puddle reduces undercut Carbon and low alloy steels Most popular 5 to 18% More fluid puddle Higher welding speeds Aluminum. copper.

5/13/2010 Electrode Wire Rod Solid Electrode ER49S-B2 Alloy Tensile Strength [MPa] Electrode Wire 133 .

5/13/2010 Torch Position Torch Position 134 .

5/13/2010 Team Assignment 8 Flux Cored Arc Welding 135 .

Self Shielded 3. Metal Cored Gas Shielded Electrodes Used with same equipment as GMAW Constant voltage Constant wire speed Most are designed for DCEP Gas is usually CO2 or 75% Ar / 25%CO2 Rutile wire: spray transfer only stable arc. smooth bead good penetration & out of position short circuit and globular transfer considerable spatter not easy to use out of position Basic wire: 136 . Gas shielded 2.5/13/2010 Flux Cored Arc Welding Electrodes 1.

5/13/2010 Self Shielded Electrodes Very similar to an inside out SMAW electrode Flat and out of position wire Immune to moisture pickup DCEN or DECP. with long stick-out Most fume generation Metal Cored Electrodes Core contains: arc stabilizers deoxidizers metal powders Used with shielding gas Short circuit/globular/spray transfer Out of position with pulsed spray transfer 137 .

5/13/2010 Electrode Designations Tensile Strength Electrode Tubular or C = metal cored Welding Position 1= all. 2 = F groove and F&H fillet EXXXT-1 Grouping (27 groups / CSA W48-01) Refer to CSA W48-01 figure B1 Power Supply Constant Potential Inductance Slope Adjustment No current adjustment 138 .

low alloy. 3/32” Also cored and strip Available for mild steel. 5/64.5/13/2010 Submerged Arc Welding Three to ten times faster than SMAW Electrodes Typical wire size: 1/16. stainless steel and nickel-base alloys 139 .

5/13/2010 Fluxes Manufacturing: Fused (mixed. AC DCEP recommended for deep penetration DCEN recommended for: fillets (clean plate) hard facing hard to weld steels greater build-up AC recommended for: tandem arc 140 . binder added. sized & packaged) Alloy Content of Weld: Active (Controlled amounts of Mn & or Si to improve resistance to porosity and cracking) Neutral (contains little or no deoxidizers) Power Supplies DCEN. crushed. fused. dried. DCEP. screened & packaged) Bonded (blended dry. melted.

5/13/2010 Joint Preparation Joint Preparation 141 .

5/13/2010 Joint Preparation Backing Required Electrode & Flux Specification Tensile Strength Heat Treat Condition A = as welded. C = composite electrode S = single pass only 142 . P = PWHT Flux Electrode F XX X X-E L XX X If solid K = killed steel Carbon or chemical analysis Mn L = low. M = medium. Temp of impact strength Z = impact testing not required H = high.

SMAW GTAW GMAW FCAW SAW Heating Preheating: Interpass heating Just prior to welding During welding Post weld heat treatment : After welding 143 .5/13/2010 Team Assignment 9 Make a short presentation (7 to 10 minutes) to act as a review for your class mates on one of the welding methods.

5/13/2010 Preheating Why? Reduce local shrinkage stresses Reduce cooling rate through critical temperature (870º to 720º C) to prevent excess hardening & lowering ductility in weld & HAZ Reduce cooling rate around 205º C to allow more time for hydrogen to to diffuse from weld and adjacent plate material to avoid hydrogen embrittlement and cracking How Much Preheat? Base metal chemistry Plate thickness Restraint Rigidity of members Heat input of welding process 144 .

5/13/2010 Guides for Preheat Specification Note usually given as minimum preheat and is determined by measuring temperature for some distance around the weld Observe minimum ambient temperatures Remember Q&T steels can be damaged if preheat is to high Guides for Preheat 145 .

5/13/2010 W59-03 Appendix P W59-03 Appendix P 146 .

5/13/2010 W59-03 Appendix P W59-03 Appendix P 147 .

5/13/2010 W59-03 Appendix P Methods of Preheating Production of small parts maybe best in a furnace Natural gas premixed with air Acetylene or propane torches Electric strip heaters parallel to joint 148 .

calibration and proper use are important Preheating Quench & Tempered Steel Q & T steel have been heat treated heating above a certain temperature will destroy the properties of that heat treatment The assembly may require preheat but it must not be to high The material must cool rapidly enough to re-establish the original properties Preheating and welding heat input must be closely controlled 149 .5/13/2010 Measuring Preheat Temperature With the exception of Q&T steels temperatures can be exceeded by 40º C If temperature indicating crayons are used it is best to have one above and one below target temperature Pyrometers. thermocouples and infrared sensors are also Used.

5/13/2010 Interpass Temperatures Usually steel which requires preheat is required to remain at that temperature between passes On massive weldments the heat input from welding may not be sufficient to maintain the required temperature Just as it is desirable to control the cooling rate of the weld as a whole it is also important to control cooling between passes Heat from additional sources maybe required to maintain interpass temperatures Post Weld Heat Treatment Annealing Normalizing Stress Relief 150 .

usually in furnace Normalizing Purpose: Reduce stresses.5/13/2010 Full Annealing Purpose: Make steel soft and ductile Reduce stresses Heat steel to 100º F above critical temperature Hold for 1 hour per inch of thickness Slow cool. usually after welding Greater hardness & tensile strength than full annealing Heat steel to 100º F above critical temperature Hold for 1 hour per inch of thickness Cool in still air 151 .

5/13/2010 Stress Relief Purpose: Provides dimensional stability Softens martensitic areas Improves fracture resistance Heat slowly to about 625º C Hold for a period of time Slowly cool Welding Procedures CWB Pre-qualified Joints Not pre-qualified Joints ASME No pre-qualified joints 152 .

5/13/2010 CWB Pre-Qualified Joints CSA W59-03 Section 10 SMAW. FCAW and SAW only Weld Procedure Specification Submit to CWB for Approval Qualify Welders CWB Not Pre-Qualified Joints Welding Procedure Specification Procedure Qualification CWB Approval Qualify Welders 153 .

5/13/2010 ASME Weld Procedures No pre-approved joints Each welding procedure will have a procedure qualification record Three types of variables: Essential Supplementary Non-essential What is Included in a Welding Procedure? One welding procedure specification One or more data sheets 154 .

5/13/2010 Welding Procedure Specification Scope Welding Procedure Base Metal Base Metal Thickness Preparation of Base Material Filler Material Shielding Gas Position Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures Electrical Characteristics Welding Technique Treatment of Underside of Groove Weld Metal Cleaning Quality of Welds Storage of Electrodes Data Sheet 155 .

5/13/2010 Data Sheet CWB Welder Qualification Classification Process Mode of Application Position 156 .

ASW = arc spot weld.5/13/2010 Classification S With backing T Without backing FW = fillet & tack welds. WT = tack welds Process SMAW FCAW GMAW SAW ESW EGW 157 .

vertical & overhead positions 158 . horizontal & vertical positions Flat.5/13/2010 Mode of Application Manual Semi-automatic Machine Welding Automatic Position Class F Class H Class V Class O Flat position & horizontal fillets Flat and horizontal positions Flat. horizontal.

Exx13. Exx14 Exx22. Exx28 Team Assignment 10 Review a weld procedure and present your teams understanding to your class 159 . Exx11 Exx12. Exx24. Exx18 Exx00. Exx27. Exx16.5/13/2010 Electrode Designations F4 F3 F2 F1 Exx15. Exx10.

5/13/2010 Verification Functions Develop inspection plans & check lists Ordering and delivery of material Welding procedure specifications Welder qualifications Proper fit up and welding processes Heat Treatment Inspection Inspection Records Nondestructive Testing Procurement Verification Vendor approval Quantity & Dimensions Material Specification Special Requirements Heat treatment Inspection Nondestructive Testing QA Requirements Documentation Requirements 160 .

5/13/2010 Receiving Inspections Quantity Inspections Dimensions Identification Mill test reports or other required documentation Manufacturing defects Weather or transportation damage Documentation Verification Mill Test Reports Certificates of Compliance Partial Data Reports 161 .

5/13/2010 SMAW Electrode Storage Low Hydrogen Minimum 120º C Used within 4 hours Alternate exposure times maybe approved Portable storage devices maybe approved E49 within 10 hours in portable storage Non-Low Hydrogen Stored warm and dry Kept free from oil and grease Preparation for Welding 162 .

5/13/2010 Preparation for Welding Assembly Fillet Welds 163 .

5/13/2010 Assembly Groove Welds Workmanship 164 .

5/13/2010 Tack Welds 165 .

5/13/2010 Backing Distortion Control 166 .

5/13/2010 Preheat & Interpass Temperatures Dimensional Tolerances 167 .






Warpage and Tilt




Profile of a Fillet Weld


5/13/2010 Fillet Weld Size 171 .

5/13/2010 Fillet Weld Size Butt Weld Profile 172 .

5/13/2010 Groove Weld Profile Butt Weld Profile 173 .

5/13/2010 Butt Weld Profile Undercut 174 .

5/13/2010 Butt Weld Profile Weld Discontinuities 175 .

5/13/2010 Incomplete Penetration Lack of Fusion 176 .

5/13/2010 Porosity Slag Inclusions 177 .

5/13/2010 Solidification Crack Hydrogen Induced Cracking 178 .

5/13/2010 Lamellar Tearing Arc Strikes 179 .

5/13/2010 Excess Convexity Excessive Concavity 180 .

5/13/2010 Excessive Reinforcement Insufficient Reinforcement 181 .

5/13/2010 Undercut Discontinuities Related to Specific Welding Methods SMAW SAW GMAW & FCAW GTAW 182 .

change electrode angle Watch for arc blow Ensure electrodes are not wet SMAW Undercut Reduce current Reduce travel speed Reduce electrode size Change electrode angle Avoid excessive weaving 183 .5/13/2010 SMAW Spatter Lower current Check polarity Shorter arc If molten metal running in front of arc.

5/13/2010 SMAW Rough Welding Check polarity Check current Ensure electrodes are not wet SMAW Porosity Remove scale rust and moisture Use low hydrogen electrodes Use shorter arc length 184 .

5/13/2010 SMAW Lack of Fusion Increase current Stringer bead technique Ensure joint is clean Check joint fit-up and design Over Lap SMAW Incomplete Penetration Increase current Decrease travel speed Use smaller diameter electrode Increase root gap Proper electrode selection 185 .

5/13/2010 SMAW Cracking Hydrogen induced cracking Low hydrogen electrodes Store electrodes properly Use preheat Smaller diameter electrodes SMAW Cracking Hot Cracking Proper fit-up Proper electrode selection Ensure root pass is of sufficient size Check rigidity of joint Check Distortion control techniques 186 .

5/13/2010 SMAW Cracking Solidification Cracking If originating in crater use back step technique If centre bead decrease travel speed SAW Cracking Fillet Welds If members 25 mm or greater ensure gap of 1 to 1. usually DCEP but DCEN sometimes used to reduce penetration to help deal with cracking Check wire size.5 mm to help with shrinkage Check polarity. larger wire often used when cracking is a problem Check condition of root pass and fit-up Check bead shape (1-1/4 to 1) 187 .

may need to be reduced If the first bead from the second side. after back gouging is cracking check to make sure the width is greater than depth If the steels are of poor weld-ability often reducing current and/or travel speed or increasing stick out reduces dilution and reduces cracking tendency 188 . check voltage and travel speed.5/13/2010 SAW Cracking Fillet Welds & T Welds Groove angles should be at least 60º If different materials. weld puddle towards the most weld-able material Increasing stick out reduces cracking tendency Ground at the start end of the weld Decreasing welding speed and current reduces cracking tendency SAW Cracking Butt Welds If bead is hat shaped .

Check arc length (too long cannot be protected) Tungsten Inclusions Check for touching the electrode into the puddle Check for current being to high Check the size and type of electrode 189 .5/13/2010 GMAW & FCAW Fillet Welds Undercut & overlap are common Check manipulation of the gun to ensure welding of both base metals Slag Check for slag removal between passes Gas Shielding is affected by ambient air movement GTAW Porosity Check shielding gas flow rates. leaks etc.

5/13/2010 Team Assignment 11 Identify weld discontinuities in samples provided. Record results Mechanical Testing 190 .

5/13/2010 Bend Tests Face Bend Root Bend Bend Tests Root Bend Face Bend 191 .

5/13/2010 Bend Tests Bend Tests 192 .

5/13/2010 All Weld Metal Tensile Test Reduced Section Tensile Test 193 .

5/13/2010 Vickers Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test 194 .

5/13/2010 Hardness Tests Three groups:    Elastic hardness Resistance to cutting or abrasion Resistance to penetration Resistance to Penetration Brinell Hardness Test A hard steel ball or carbide sphere is forced into the surface under a specified load. Diameter is measured to determine Brinell Hardness BHN = Brinell Hardness Number 195 .

5/13/2010 Resistance to Penetration Rockwell Hardness Method Measures the net increase in depth of the impression after a minor load is applied and after the major load is applied 14 different scales C. A & D are the most common scales 15-N. 30-N & 45-N are the most common Superficial scales Resistance to Penetration Vickers Hardness Test Considered a micro hardness method Uses a square based diamond pyramid The surface dimensions of the indent are measured and converted to hardness Used for measuring case hardening and heat affected zones of welds VHN = Vickers Hardness Number 196 .

5/13/2010 Resistance to Penetration Tukon Hardness Method Micro hardness technique Employs a diamond indenter Usually combined with a Vickers unit Resistance to Penetration Knoop Hardness Method Micro hardness technique KHN = Knoop Hardness Number 197 .

5/13/2010 Impact Tests Measures the decrease in fracture resistance caused by sudden loading in the presence of a notch Methods: Charpy Izod Units: foot pounds of joules Charpy Impact Tests CVN = Charpy V-Notch 198 .

5/13/2010 Izod Impact Tests Transition Temperature Impact test results must include temperature Most materials exhibit a change from notch tough to notch brittle over a very narrow temperature range called the transition temperature Transition temperature is determined by conducting impact tests at different temperatures until an abrupt change in energy required to break the specimen is noted 199 .