You are on page 1of 105

A

SUMMER TRAINNING PROJECT REPORT

ON

“CUSTOMER PREFRANCE AND BRAND AWARENESS”


OF
“YAMAHA AUTOMOBILES”

SUBMITTED TO UTTRAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY IN THE


PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
“BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION”

(THREE YEAR’S REGULAR DEGREE PROGRAMME)

SUBMITTED BY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

NAME OF STUDENT FACULTY NAME


SHUBHAM KAUSHIK MR. ARUN KANT PENOLI
B.B.A (V SEMESTER) ( DEPARTMENT HEAD)

Batch – 2012-2015
QUANTUM SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

Mandavar, Roorkee – Dehradun Highway (NH 73)

ROORKEE – 247662

Approved by AICTE, Min. of HRD and Govt. of india

Affiliated to Uttrakhand technical University

Certificate of completion and originality of work:

This is to certify that the Summer project report titled CUSTOMER PREFRANCE
AND BRAND AWARENESS OF “YAMAHA AUTOMOBILES” has been
accomplished by SHUBHAM KAUSHIK under my guidance and supervision.
This project is being submitted by him / her in the partial fulfillment of
requirements for award of the BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
from QUANTUM GLOBAL CAMPUS .

This work has not been submitted by him / her anywhere else for
the award of any degree or diploma. All sources of information and help
have been duly mentioned and acknowledged.

SIGNATURE

MR. ARUN KANT PENOLI

( HEAD OF DEPARTMENT )
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate


enough to get support from a large number of people to whom I shall
always remain grateful.

I would like to record my gratitude to MR. ARUN KANT PENOLI for


allowing me to undertake this project.

I take this opportunity to thank MR. KAPIL SHARMA (MANAGER HEAD)


for providing us an opportunity to work for YAMAHA AUTOMOBILES .

I am also desirous of placing on record profound indebtedness to MR.


ARUN KANT PENOLI {DEPT. HEAD] of QUANTUM GLOBAL CAMPUS,
for the valuable advice, guidance, precious time and support that he
offered.

I would be failing in my duty if I do not acknowledge the gratitude to Prof.


ROHIT KUSHWAHA Director of QUANTUM GLOBAL CAMPUS who
motivated us a lot in carrying out this project.

Last but not least, I would also like to thank all the respondents for giving
us their precious time and relevant information and experience, as and
when required without which this project would not have been possible.

( SHUBHAM KAUSHIK)

DATE :
TABLE OF CONTENTS:-

 Preface

 Introduction

 Executive summary

 Objective

 Research methodology

 About the company

 Segment of bikes

 BAL share in different markets

 Market analysis

 Competitor analysis

 Marketing Strategies

 Analysis of questionnaire

 Conclusions
 Suggestions

 Limitation

 SWOT analysis

 Bibliography
PREFACE :

In present era people are looking for more speed at minimum cost, that’s why they
are shifting themselves from scooter to bike. So, the company needs to diversify her
business as YAMAHA has done successfully.

YAMAHA has completed this task but to increase the number of customer they two
options either penetrate their competitors market or use their customer data base to
increase the number of customer. So they are working first time on “referral scheme”
and my project was related on that topic itself.

I have done research, under the able guidance of Mr. Vishal who has very good
professional skills. The process begins with researching the relevant market place to
understand its dynamics and to identify opportunities to meet existing or latent needs. It
involves formulating strategies and seeing that it works in line with principles of
marketing mix, evaluating results, seeking areas of improvement. It involves preparing
the questionnaires related to the research objectives, collecting data analyzing them
and coming to some conclusions.

The compiled project includes company profile, objective, research methodology


marketing concepts used, structure of the questionnaire, analyzing data collected
graphical representation, SWOT analysis, limitations, conclusions and
recommendations.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Yamaha Motor India (YMI) Ltd. is the fully-owned subsidiary of Yamaha Motor Co of

Japan. Yamaha’s two wheelers are known for their power and have been a successful

until the Government norms against two stroke bikes was introduced. It has now turned

towards and manufactures four stroke bikes in the Indian segment. YMI's motto is 'Speed,

Quality, and Yamaha’s original design'. Its present domestic market share is 5.185% and

its export market share is 8.064%

YAMAHA, the leading two wheeler company of India ranks 5st in terms of manufacturing
whereas by the sales criteria it closely follows Hero. YAMAHA has lion share in entry and
premium segments of bike, but it has Hardly 8% in executive segments of bike in all over India
and 11% in Delhi market.

YAMAHA, has a image of speed bikes manufacturing industry in customer mind and in
modern era, when people are looking for speed and mileage in their vehicle, specially
commuters who commute long distance every day in metros wants to save money spend in fuel.
So, this kind of changing behavior of customer is main reason for shift from low to high segment
bikes ..

The above statement can be proved by current report of “chairman letter and management
discussion and analysis report –YAMAHA” which shows that while the two- wheeler market has
grown at a compound annual report of 11.7% between 1994 and 2012, motorcycle sales
exploded at a rate of 41% per year. Consequently, from a market share of fewer than 22%in
1993-94, motorcycle now account for over 74% of India’s two wheeler sales. Indeed, this share
of motorcycle grew by over 8% points between 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 from 66.2% to
74.3%. Simply put, motorcycle is the name of game.

So, it was difficult for two-wheeler industry to sustain position in market, so to face this new
challenge, in 1997-98,YAMAHA had shrug off his image of being a manufacturer of traditional
metal bodies geared scoters by systematically introducing motorcycle that could combine the
companies historical selling points of ruggedness, fuel economy and price competitiveness with
style, performance and comfort. Due to his good brand name and better quality product REL is
enable to get 46.5% in entry level of bike and 42%in premium segment but YAMAHA is still
facing problem in executive segment of bikes, they have only 7% in this segment (last quarter
result of 2010). YAMAHA is facing tuff competition from market leader of two wheeler industry
Hero.

YAMAHA is penetrating this segment with hero like version, but still it is looking for new
innovative method to increase sell. So YAMAHA is working for new scheme to attract more
and more customer; scheme like –referral scheme.

As we already know that referral scheme is just to add new customer with help of existing
customer database. This can be done with the help of satisfied customer who can act like as a
referral customer.

So, post purchase satisfaction of customer is required before go to referral

scheme. Since this project was based on YAMAHA so I have collected database of customer
from different-2 dealers, which has been allotted to me. I have prepared questionnaire which
response to given by customer on the basis of licker type of scale (Excellent, Good, Average,
Poor, Bad) via telephonic interview.

At last I got those customer list who were satisfied by the Discover and ready to refer this bike to
there relatives and friends.

After get referral list, I have recommended those customer lists to there relative dealers and I
was in regular contact with tale-operator of those dealers, because they were instructed by
Yamaha that they have to talk those customer and ask for reference. There were some positive
results also. Dealers have some extra facility to those customers who have given reference like
gift package etc.

I have done work on related to this how can we implement this referral scheme and what is the
problem in implementing this scheme.

This was also a nice exposure to interact with customer, in this way I have got practical
experience that how to deal customer and interact with them.
COMPANY PROFILE

Yamaha Motor Company, Limited

Type Public
Industry Automotive
Founded July 1, 1955
Headquarters Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan
Area served Global
Hiroyuki Yanagi, President &
Key people
Representative Director
Motorcycles, Commuter Vehicles
& Scooters, Recreational
Vehicles, Boats, Marine Engines,
Snowmobiles, Personal
Watercraft, Electrically Power
Products Assisted Bicycles, Automobile
Engines, Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle, Golf Cars, Power
Products, Pools, Compact
Industrial Robots, Wheelchairs,
Parts including Apparel, Helmets
53,958 (as of December 31,
Employees
2012)
Minarelli
Subsidiaries
MBK
Website Yamaha Motor Global

Yamaha Motor Company Limited (ヤマハ発動機株式会社 Yamaha Hatsudōki KK), is a


Japanese manufacturer of motorcycles, marine products such as boats and outboard
motors, and other motorized products. The company was established in 1955 upon
separation from Yamaha Corporation, and is headquartered in Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan.
Yamaha Motor conducts global development, production and marketing operations
through 109 consolidated subsidiaries as of 2012.
Led by Genichi Kawakami, the company’s first president, Yamaha Motor began
production of its first product, the YA-1, in 1955. The 125cc motorcycle won the 3rd
Mount Fuji Ascent Race in its class, and launched a legacy by which the company
continues to pursue motorsports as a means to accelerate development.

Yamaha Motor’s current lineup of products includes motorcycles, scooters, electrically


power assisted bicycles, boats, sail boats, personal watercrafts, pools, utility boats,
fishing boats, outboard motors, 4-wheel ATVs, recreational off-highway vehicles, racing
kart engines, golf cars, multi-purpose engines, generators, water pumps, snowmobiles,
small-sized snow throwers, automobile engines, surface mounters, intelligent
machinery, industrial-use unmanned helicopters, electrical power units for wheelchairs
and helmets. The company is also involved in the import and sales of various types of
products, development of tourist businesses and management of leisure, recreational
facilities and related services.

Company Mission:

YMI follows Yamaha Motor's corporate mission of creating 'Kando' - a unique Japanese

word that means 'touching people's hearts.' 'Kando' also describes the 'spirit of challenge"

to create new value surpassing customer expectations. YMI is committed to making

products that benefit from the skills and technology used by Yamaha world-wide.

Company Objectives:

The Company in order to strengthen its place in the two-wheeler market, has formulated

three main objectives. The first is customer satisfaction. The second is strengthening

R&D. YMI's mission is to constantly produce what customers are looking for, by analysing

market trends and changes. The third objective is to optimize the internal working system.

Contents

 1 Yamaha Motor divisions


 2 Key products
o 2.1 Motorcycles
 2.1.1 Racing
o 2.2 Complete Formula One results
o 2.3 Automobile engines
o 2.4 Snowmobiles
 2.4.1 Current models
o 2.5 All-terrain vehicles (ATV) vehicles
 3 See also
 4 References
 5 External links

Yamaha Motor divisions

: List of Yamaha products

 Motorcycles — Sport bikes, Star Cruiser bikes, trail bikes, road racers and
motocross racers
 Commuter vehicles, including scooters
 Recreational vehicles — All-terrain vehicles and snowmobiles
 Boats — Powerboats, sailboats, utility boats and custom boats
 Marine engines — Outboard motors, electric marine motors, marine diesel
engines and stern drives
 Personal watercraft
 Electric bicycles
 Automobile engines
 Industrial-use unmanned helicopters
 Golf cars
 Power products — generators, multipurpose engines, water pumps and snow
throwers
 Swimming pools, watersliders and pool-related equipment
 Intelligent machinery, including compact industrial robots
 Electric wheelchairs and wheelchair electric drive units
 Yamaha parts and accessories, apparel, cycle helmets and motor oil
 Industrial robots and surface mounters

Key products

Motorcycles
List of Yamaha motorcycles :

Yamaha XS650 vertical-twin

Yamaha's first motorcycle was the 1 YA-1, which was a copy of the German DKW
RT125, and had a 125 cc, single-cylinder two-stroke engine. It was launched in
February 1955 and the bike won its first race, the Mount Fuji Ascent Race, in July
1955.[3] Yamaha continued producing two-stroke engines until it launched the XS-1 in
1969, with a 650 cc two-cylinder four-stroke engine, using expertise that it gained doing
engine development work for Toyota. In 1998 Yamaha marketed a revolutionary 1000cc
four cylinder road bike called the YZF 'R1', this model introduced a new style of gearbox
design which shortened the overall length of the motor/gearbox case, thereby allowing a
more compact unit. This, in turn allowed the motor to be placed in the frame far enough
forward to compliment good handling in a short wheel-based frame, a revolutionary step
forward in motorcycle design[4] In 1979, the XT500 won the first Paris-Dakar Rally.[5]

In 1995, Yamaha announced the creation of Star Motorcycles, a new brand name for its
cruiser series of motorcycles in the American market. In other markets, Star
motorcycles are sold under the Yamaha brand.

In 2007, Yamaha officially established the Philippine operations and distributes Yamaha
motorcycles under the corporate name of Yamaha Motor Philippines, Inc.

Today, Yamaha produces scooters from 50 to 500 cc, and a range of motorcycles from
50 to 1,900 cc, including cruiser, sport touring, sport, dual-sport, and off-road.

Racing

Yamaha Motor Racing


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (August 2009)
Two-time Grand Championship winner Kenny Roberts at the 1981 German Grand Prix.

In motorcycle racing Yamaha has won 39 world championships, including 6 in MotoGP


and 9 in the preceding 500 cc two-stroke class, and 1 in World Superbike. Yamaha
riders include Giacomo Agostini, Bob Hannah, Heikki Mikkola, Kenny Roberts, Eddie
Lawson, Wayne Rainey, Jeremy McGrath, Stefan Merriman, Phil Read, Chad Reed,
Ben Spies, and currently Jorge Lorenzo and Valentino Rossi.

The Yamaha YZ450F won the AMA Supercross Championship two years in a row, in
2008 with Chad Reed, and 2009 James Stewart. Yamaha was the first to build a
production monoshock motocross bike (1975 for 250 and 400, 1976 for 125) and one of
the first to have a water-cooled motocross production bike (1977 in works bikes, 1981 in
off-the-shelf bikes).

Since 1962, Yamaha made production road racing Grand Prix motorcycles that any
licensed road racer could purchase. In 1970, non-factory privateer teams dominated the
250 cc World Championship with Great Britain's Rodney Gould winning the title on a
Yamaha TD2.

Yamaha also sponsors several professional ATV riders in several areas of racing, such
as cross country racing and motocross. Yamaha has had success in cross country with
their YFZ450, ridden by Bill Ballance, winning 9 straight titles since 2000. Yamaha's
other major rider, Traci Cecco, has ridden the YFZ450 to 7 titles, with the first in 2000.
In ATV motocross, Yamaha has had success with Dustin Nelson and Pat Brown, both
who race the YFZ450. Pat Brown's best season was a 3rd place title in 2007, while
Nelson has had two 1st place titles in the Yamaha/ITP Quadcross, one in 2006 and the
other in 2008.

Yamaha produced Formula One engines from 1989 to 1997, initially for the Zakspeed
team, in 1991 for the Brabham BT60Y, in 1992 for the Jordan 192, from 1993 to 1996
for Tyrrell, and in 1997 for the Arrows A18. These never won a race, but drivers
including Damon Hill, Ukyo Katayama, Mark Blundell and Andrea de Cesaris scored
some acceptable results with them.
Automobile engines

Yamaha-built DOHC V6 Ford Taurus SHO engine

Yamaha has built engines for other manufacturers' vehicles beginning with the
development and production of the Toyota 2000GT (1967) with the Toyota Motor
Corporation. Also, the cylinder head from the Toyota 4A-GE engine was developed by
Yamaha Motor Corporation and was built at Toyota's Shimayama plant alongside the
4A and 2A engines. All performance-oriented cylinder heads on Toyota/Lexus engines
were designed and/or built by Yamaha. Some examples are the 1LR-GUE engine found
on the 2010-2012 Lexus LFA, the 2UR-GSE found in Lexus ISF, the 3S-GTE engine
found on the Toyota Celica GT4 and the 2ZZ-GE engine found on the 1999-2006
Toyota Celica GT-S. Name a high performance Toyota engine, Yamaha is involved. In
1984, executives of the Yamaha Motor Corporation signed a contract with the Ford
Motor Company to develop, produce, and supply compact 60° 3.0 Liter DOHC V6
engines for transverse application for the 1989–'95 Ford Taurus SHO.[7][8] From 1993 to
1995, the SHO engine was produced in 3.0 and 3.2 Liter versions. Yamaha jointly
designed the 3.4 Liter DOHC V-8 engine with Ford for the 1996–'99 SHO. Since 2005
Yamaha produces a 4.4 Liter V8 for Volvo. The B8444S engines are used in the XC90
and S80 models. British sportscar maker Noble also uses a bi-turbo version of the Volvo
V8 in their M600.

Yamaha also tunes engines for other manufacturers, such as Toyota, so Yamaha logos
on Toyota S engines.

Snowmobiles

Yamaha Phazer snowmobile


In 2010, Yamaha was the only snowmobile manufacturer to use four-stroke engines
across its range. In Canada though, there are still three models that Yamaha
manufactures that are still two-stroke. They are the Bravo, VK 540 and the Venture XL.
Yamaha had introduced four-strokes to their line-up in 2003, and the line-up became
four-stroke based for model year 2005. The RX-1, released in 2003, was the first
performance-oriented four-stroke snowmobile on the market. It was not, however, the
first modern four-stroke snowmobile produced. That honor belongs to Arctic Cat for their
Yellowstone Special, released in 2000, which was designed as a rental sled that could
meet Yellowstone National Park's stringent emission requirement. However, Yamaha
received much criticism for its weight disadvantage when compared to similar two-
strokes, despite its fuel economy and low-range torque. Yamaha is now on the cutting
edge of four-stroke technology with the introducing of their 80FI engine, which is
equipped on the Phazer and Venture Lite models. This engine has one of the highest
specific output of any four-stroke in production, with 160 HP/L, Yamaha achieves this
even without the use of a forced induction system. Yamaha is also a key player in the
"four-stroke wars", which are a series of advertisements from opponent Ski-Doo, who
claim their E-tec and power-tec equipped two-strokes are still cleaner and more efficient
than four-strokes, while Yamaha still claims the four-strokes are cleaner. Yamaha also
broke a multi-year absence from sno-cross in the winter of 2006/2007 with their
introduction of a factory race team headed by former Arctic Cat racer Robbie Malinoski.

Yamaha was the first brand to win with a 4-stroke in a professional snowcross race.
This happened in 2006 at the WPSA snow cross championship.

Current models

 Apex, Apex SE, Apex XTX


 SR Viper RTX DX, SR Viper LTX DX, SR Viper S-TX DX, SR Viper MTX 153, SR
Viper RTX SE, SR Viper LTX SE, SR Viper XTX SE, SR Viper MTX 153 SE, SR
Viper MTX 162 SE, SR Viper RTX LE, SR Viper LTX LE, SR Viper XTX LE, SR
Viper MTX 162 LE
 RS Vector, RS Vector LTX
 RS Venture, RS Venture GT, RS Venture TF
 RS Viking Professional
 Phazer RTX, Phazer XTX, Phazer MTX
 Venture MP
 SRX 120

All-terrain vehicles (ATV) vehicles

 BW80/200/350
 YFZ450
 Raptor 80/250/350/660/700R
 Badger 80
 Blaster 200
 Timberwolf 250
 Banshee 350
 Warrior 350
 Bruin 350
 Kodiak 400/450
 Grizzly 80/125/350/400/450/550/600/660/700
 Big Bear 350/400
 Wolverine 350/450
 Tri-Zinger 60
 Tri-Moto 125/175/200/225
 Yamahauler 200
 Tri-Z 250

Companies portal

 List of Yamaha Scooters


 Yamaha WaveRunner

References

1. http://www.yamaha-motor.com/outboard/products/lifestylehome/home.aspx
2. "Intelligent Machinery - Company information". Yamaha Motor. Retrieved 2011-
12-27.
3. Alexander, Jeffrey W. (2009). Japan's Motorcycle Wars: An Industry History.
UBC Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-7748-1454-6.
4. Vandenheuvel, Cornelis (1997). Pictorial history of Japanese motorcycles. MBI
Publishing Company. pp. 84–90. ISBN 978-1-870979-97-9.
5. "Dakar Retrospective 1979–2007". Retrieved 29 April 2011.
6. All About the Toyota Twin Cam (2nd ed.), Tokyo, Japan: Toyota Motor Company,
1984, p. 24, retrieved 2012-12-06
7. "SHO n Tell". Jon Mikelonis and Matt Wilder. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
8. Ford Motor Company (2007-07-19). 1989 Ford Taurus SHO commercial. Ford
Motor Company.
9. "Toyota Twin Cam Article". Toysport.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
10. 2010 Yamaha Snowmobile brochure

vFirst bikes

Yamaha YA-1
 YA-1 built August 1954, produced January 1955. The first bike manufactured by
Yamaha was actually a copy of the German DKW RT 125; it had an air-cooled,
two-stroke, single cylinder 125 cc engine.
 YC-1 (1956) was the second bike manufactured by Yamaha; it was a 175 cc
single cylinder two-stroke.
 YD-1 (1957) Yamaha began production of its first 250 cc, two-stroke twin, the
YD1.[1]
 MF-1 (1958) 50 cc, two-stroke, single cylinder, step through street bike[1]
 YDS-3 (1964) 246 cc, two-stroke, parallel-twin, it used the world’s first oil
injection lubrication system in a 2-stroke engine
 DT-1 (1968) Yamaha's first true off-road motorcycle.
 XS-1 (1970) Yamaha's first four-stroke engine motorcycle (650 cc twin).
 Yamaha YZ Monocross (1975) First production motocross bike with a single rear
shock.
 Yamaha YZ400F (1998) First mass-produced four-stroke motocross motorcycle.

Road bikes

Two-stroke

 CR5
 CS3
 CS5
 DS7
 TDR50
 TDR80
 Yamaha AT-1
 Yamaha AT-1MX
 Yamaha CT-1
 DT-1 1968[1]
 DT50LC
 DT50M
 DT50MX
 DT50R
 DT50X
 DT80MX
 DT80LC
 DT80R
 DT100MX
 DT100R
 DT125LC
 DT125MX
 DT125R
 DT125X
 DT175MX
 DT200R
 DT250MX
 DT250R
 DT350LC
 DT350R
 DT400B
 FS1E[note 1]
 IT200
 L2GF
 PW50
 PW80
 RX50
 Yamaha RT-1
 RT180H
 RZ350
 R5
 RZ500
 RD50
 RD60
 RD125
 RD135
 RD200
 RD250
 RD350
 RD350LC
 RD350 YPVS
 RD350 F2
 RD400
 RD500LC
 RS200
 R1-Z
 RS
 Yamaha RS 125DX
 RS-100
 RX-Z
 Rs 5-speed
 RX 100
 RX DX
 RX 115
 RX-S
 RX-125
 RX-135 (also known as RX-K)
 SDR 200
 TD2
 TDR 125
 TDR 250
 TZR 125
 TZR 250
 TZM 150
 TZ250
 TZ750
 YCS1
 YDS3
 YA-1
 YB50
 YC-1
 YD-1
 YDS6C - 1969 250 parallel twin based on the Daytona Racing engine of same
time. Street scrambler.
 YG1K
 L2
 YAS1
 YAS2
 Yamaha YL1
 Yamaha YL2
 Yamaha YL2C
 YM1
 YR2

Four-stroke

Star Motorcycles

 FJ600 1984–1985 US model — see XJ600


 Yamaha BT1100 Bulldog
 FJ1100
 FJ1200
 FJR1300
 FZS 600
 FZ1 / FZ6
 FZ16 / Byson / FZ-S / Fazer
 Yamaha FZ FI V2.0
 Yamaha FZS FI V2.0
 Yamaha Fazer FI V2.0
 FZ150i / V-Ixion
 FZ250
 FZ400
 FZ750
 FZR400R
 FZR400RR
 FZR600R
 FZR750R/OW-01
 FZ8 and FAZER8
 FZR1000
 FZX700/750 Fazer
 GTS1000
 Jog
 Libero G5
 Morpho I
 MT-01
 MT-03
 MT-07
 MT-09 / FZ-09
 Scorpio Z
 SRX
 SRV250
 Yamaha SR1
 Yamaha SR125
 SR185
 SR250
 SR400
 SR500
 SS 125
 STX
 SZ
 SZR 660
 TDM 850 / 900
 TT 250 AUS only model
 TT 350
 TT 500
 TT600R
 TTR250
 TTR230
 TX500 / 600 / 750
 Venture
 XVZ1200 Venture Royale
 XVZ1300 Venture Royale
 Virago
 VMax
 XC125, XC180, and XC200 RIVA Scooter
 Yamaha XJ650 Maxim
 XJ 550R Seca
 XJ 600
 XJ650RJ Seca – released in the U.S. in 1982, the XJ650RJ Seca is essentially
the same as the XJ650 sold in Europe, but with emissions options that meet U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency guideline
 XJ650 Turbo [Yamaha XJ650 Seca Turbo] 1982–85 (Yamaha's only turbo
charged road bike)
 XJ550 / XJ650 / XJ700 / XJ700X / XJ750 / XJ900 / XJ1100 Maxim
 XJ750D
 XJ750 Maxim
 XJ6
 XJ 600N
 XJ 600S Diversion / Seca II
 XJ 900S Diversion
 XJR400
 XJR1200
 XJR1300
 XS400 / XS400R Seca 400 / XS500 / XS650 / XS750 / XS850 / XS Eleven
 XT200 / XT225 / XT250 / XT350 / XT500 / XT550 / XT600 / XT600E
 XT 660
 XT 125 R / 125 x
 Yamaha XTZ 250
 XTZ 660 / XTZ 750
 XV920R
 XV 1600A Wildstar / Road Star
 XZ 550 Vision / XZ 400
 YBR 125
 Yamaha YD 100
 Junoon
 YBA-125 Enticer
 YBR 250 / YS 250 FAZER
 YX600 Radian
 YZF600R / YZF750R / YZF1000R
 YZF1000R Thunderace
 YZF-R125 / YZF-R4 / YZF-R6 / YZF-R7 / YZF-R1 / YZF-R15

Step-throughs, scooters, maxi-scooters (Two- and four-stroke)

Modified Yamaha BW 125 in Girardot, Colombia.

Some of these step-throughs and scooters are made for Southeast Asian markets,
where they are known as underbones.

 Lagenda series (Asia)


 Yamaha LC50 (Asia)
 Yamaha MJ50 (Asia)
 Yamaha V50m(U.K,Europe and Asia)
 Yamaha C3 50cc (U.S.)
 Yamaha Lexam (Vietnam)
 Yamaha Nouvo (Asia)
 Yamaha Mio (Asia)
 Yamaha Sirius (Asia)
 Yamaha X-1 (Asia)
 Yamaha X-1R (Thailand)
 Chappy
 Yamaha Aerox R 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Aerox TY race replica 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Beluga
 Yamaha BJ 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha BW's NBA 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BW's 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BWs Naked 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BW's 12 inch 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BW's Next Generation 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Force one/ss
 Yamaha F1ZR/ss two (asia)
 Yamaha Giggle 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha JogR 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha JogRR 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha JogRR MotoGP 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Jog Deluxe 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Jog ZR 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Jog Poche 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Neo's 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Neo's 4-Stroke 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Slider Naked 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Why 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Vino Classic 50 cc (U.S.)
 Yamaha Rex 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Zest 50 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Zuma 50 cc (U.S.)
 Yamaha Vox 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Vino 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Molte Vino 50 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha U7E
 Yamaha RX-Z 135
 Y125Z (Asia)
 Vino 125 (U.S.)
 Zuma 125 (U.S.)
 Y135LC/Spark 135/Sniper (Asia)
Maxi-scooters (four-stroke)

Large scooters with more than 125 cc, and a large chassis and protection from the
elements, are very popular in the E.U., Japan, and the US.

One of the smallest of Yamaha's maxi-scooters: Majesty 125

 Yamaha Axis Grand 100 cc(Japan)


 Yamaha CygnusX 125 cc (E.U./Japan)
 Yamaha CygnusX SR 125 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Majesty 125 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Vity 125 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha X-City 125 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BLACK X-MAX 125 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha X-MAX 125 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha X-City 250 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha BLACK X-MAX 250 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha X-MAX 250 cc (E.U.)
 Yamaha Maxam 250 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha Morphous 250 (CP250VL) (U.S.)
 Yamaha Majesty 125 cc
 Yamaha Majesty 250 cc (Japan)
 YP400 Majesty / ABS (E.U./U.S.)
 Yamaha X-MAX 400 cc / ABS (E.U.)
 Yamaha Grand Majesty 400 cc (Japan)
 Yamaha TMAX / ABS (E.U./U.S.)
 Yamaha BLACK TMAX / ABS (E.U.)

Motorcycles (racing)

Two-Stroke

 RD48
 AS1
 YR1
 YR2
 YR3
 TD1
 TD2
 TR2
 TR3
 TZ125
 TZ250
 TZ350
 TZ500
 TZ700
 TZ750
 OW48R
 RD56
 Yz80
 YZR500

Four-Stroke

 YZR-M1

 OW-01
 YZE750T
 YZE850T

Off-road bikes

A Yamaha motocross bike on display at Phillip Island

Former World Enduro Champion Stefan Merriman on a Yamaha


Trail bike (road oriented)

Two-stroke

 TDR125
 TDR250
 CT175
 DT50
 DT80
 DT100
 DT125
 DT175
 DT200
 DT250
 DT360
 DT400
 L5
 YL-1
 YL2
 YL2C

Four-stroke

 TW125
 TW200
 TW225
 WR250X
 XT200
 XT125X
 XT660R
 XT660X
 XTZ660 Tenere
 XTZ750 Super Tenere
 XT1200Z Super Tenere

Yamaha WR125X

Trail bike (dirt oriented)

Trials

 TY 80
 TY 175
 TY 250

Two-stroke

 AG175 / AT1 / AT2 / AT3


 BW80 / BW200 / BW350
 CT1 / CT2 / CT3
 DT1 / DT2 / DT3
 JT1 / JT2
 RT1 / RT2 / RT3
 LT2

Four-stroke

 TTR92
 TTR90
 TTR110
 TTR125
 XT125R
 XT225
 TTR225
 TTR230
 TT250
 TTR250
 WR250R
 WR250F
 XT250
 TT350
 XT350
 XT400
 TT500
 XT500
 XT550
 TT600
 XT600
 XT600Z
 XT660R
 XT660Z Ténéré

Enduro

Two-stroke

 IT125
 IT200
 IT250
 WR250
 IT400
 IT425
 IT465
 IT490
 IT175
Four-stroke

 XT500
 TT600R
 WR250R
 WR250F
 WR400F
 WR426F
 WR450F
 WR125R
 WR125X

Trials

 TY80
 TY175
 TY250
 TY350

Motocross

A Yamaha kids bike for beginners.

A Yamaha kids bike for slightly bigger kids.

Two-stroke

 PW50
 YZ50
 GT80
 PW80
 YZ80
 YZ85
 MX100
 RT100
 MX125
 YZ125
 MX175
 YZ175
 RT180
 MX250
 YZ250
 MX360
 YZ360
 MX400
 YZ400
 YZ465
 YZ490
 SC500

Four-stroke

 YZ250F
 YZ400F
 YZ426F
 YZ450F

Electric motorcycles and scooters

See also: Electric motorcycle

 Yamaha Frog
 Yamaha Mest
 Yamaha Eccy
 Yamaha Passol
 Yamaha EC-02
 Yamaha Passol-L
 Yamaha Pocke
 Yamaha Seated Electric Scooter
Concept/prototype motorcycles

A Yamaha FC-me

 Yamaha DEINONYCHUS
 Yamaha FC-me
 Yamaha Gen-Ryu
 Yamaha HV-01
 Yamaha MAXAM 3000
 Morpho
 Yamaha Morpho II
 Yamaha YZF-R25
 VOX
 Yamaha XS-V1 Sakura[6]
 Yamaha XT250X
 Yamaha Tesseract
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

Based on our own brand of globalization, we have built our distribution network

over 60 countries world wide and multiplied over our export from 1% of total

turnover in fiscal 1989-90 to over 5% in fiscal 1996-97.

The countries where YAMAHA products have a large market are USA, Argentina,

Colombia, Peru, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Italy, Sweden, Germany, Iran and Egypt..

YAMAHA leads Colombia with 65% of the scooter market, in Uruguay with 30% of the

motorcycle market and in Bangladesh with 95%of the three-wheeler market.


BOARD OF DIRECTORS

 Rahul
 Chairman and Managing Director

 Madhur
 Vice Chairman and whole time Director

 D S Mulla
 (Up to 31 March 2003)

 Kantikumar R Podar
 Atul C Kirloskar
 (Upto 23 October 2010)

 Shekhar

 D J Balaji Rao

 D S Mehta
 Whole time Director

 J N Godrej

 S H Khan

 Rajiv
 Joint Managing Director

 Suman Kirloskar (Ms)


 (w e f 23 October 2010)

 Naresh Chandra
 (W e f 15 January 2003)

 Nanoo Pamnani
 (W e f 14 May 2003)

 MANAGEMENT

 Rahul
 Chairman and Managing Director

 Madhur
 Vice Chairman

 Rajiv
 Joint Managing Director

 D S Mehta
 Whole- time Director

 R A Jain
 Executive Director
 Ranjit Gupta
 Vice President (insurance)

 C P Tripathi
 Vice President (Operation)

 R L Ravichandran
 Vice President (Business Dev. and Marktg.)

 N H Hingorani
 Vice President (Materials)

 P B Menon
 Vice President (Projects)

 Sanjiv
 Vice President (Finance)

Company Secretary

J Sridhar

AUDITORS

Dalal and Shah

Chartered Accountants
INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTANTS

KPMG

COST AUDITOR

A P Raman

Cost Accountant

BANKERS

Central Bank of India

State Bank of India

Citibank NA

Standard Chartered Bank

Bank of America

REGISTERED OFFICE

Akurdi, Pune 411035

WORKS

 Akurdi, Pune 411035


 Royal Nagar, Waluj, Aurangabad 431136
 Chakan Industrial Area, Chakan, Pune 410501
SEGMENTS OF BIKE

To better understand the motorcycle industry, it is necessary to look at the

different segment of motorcycle. Except of some changes at the margin,

categorization for motorcycles more or less remains the same.

There are three different segment of motorcycle segmented by market expert,

which are-

Entry level, Executive level, Premium level

 Entry level :- In entry level of bike , pricing and ruggedness plus fuel

efficiency is prime factors driving sales. The model price of this segment of

bike is between Rs.35, 000 and Rs. 40,000.

Examples of this segment of bike are Boxer , Platina etc.

 Executive level:-The executive level of bike is defined as one which

need to incorporate the best of both words-Mileages from the entry level of
bikes among with style and a modicum of performance from the premium

segment. The model price of this segment of bike is between Rs.45, 000 and

Rs.50, 000.

Examples of this segment of bike is SZS,

 Premium level:- In premium segment of bike, look and style of bike

are main driven force to sales. Mileage is not important factor to consider.

The model price of this segment of bike is above Rs.50, 000.

Examples of this segment is FZ,


ANALYSIS OF SEGMENT OF BIKE

It is necessary to focus on these three segments individually and see how

these sub-markets have moved in the last year. It will help us to

understand the marketing trend.

180,000
160,000
140,000
120,000
100,000 2009-10
80,000 2011-12
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
Entry Executive Premium
The above chart shows, that the industry’s average sales in the entry level

segment was a bit over 99,000 per month, and account for 42% of the number of

motorcycle sold. Despite an 8% growth in the volume of sales in 2011-12, the

overall market share of this segment dropped to 34%.

No doubt, poor monsoons of 2010 and lower farm income played a role in

declining sales in this segment, especially Nov.2010.

From above chart Executive market has grown by a staggering 37%from an

average sales of 124,000 units per month in 2009-10 to well over 170,000 units

per month in 2011-12.Today this market accounts for over 54% of the volume of

motorcycle sales. And, three factors- higher disposable urban incomes for

progressively younger people, the desire to ride smartly styled, well performing,

fuel efficient bikes and extremely attractive retail finance schemes- have made

this a very large, attractive and robustly growing segment.


In premium segment bike sale increases from 14,151 bikes per month to

37,815 per month which itself shows the increasing demand of this segment, due

to style and look desire people. This segments show the increase of 167.22%

and this has 43%of market


MARKET SHARE OF YAMAHA IN DIFFERENT SEGMENT

In two wheeler industry there are many players, like Hero-Honda, ,

Yamaha, LML.They are playing major role in different-2 segment. On the basis of

sales HH is the market leader of overall segment and BAL is on the second

position.

Let us look at each and every segment on the basis of last quarter result
ENTRY LEVEL

royal enfield

HH

YAMAHA

TVS

Total market size: 307,381

Above pie chart shows the last year trend of market. The percentage of

different market segment is like this: -

R E-40

HH -29

YAMAHA-11

TVS-20
Above percentage shows that royal enfield is the market leader of this

segment. The prime model of royal is Boxer and newly version CT100 .So; royal

enfield has no fear about this segment, they are fulfilling this segment demand

like better mileage, low price.

PREMIUM SEGMENT

TVS

HH
28% YAMAHA

HH

YAMAHA TVS
18% 19%

TOTAL MARKET SIZE: 127,735

Above pie chart shows that, the %of different companies is like that-

HH-28%

R E-42%

YAMHA-24%
TVS-6%

Again in premium segment of bike royal is market leader. The brand of this

segment is Pulsar 150 and Pulsar 180.

EXECUTIVE SEGMENT

TVS

YAMAHA

HH

TOTAL MARKET SIZE: 517,957

The above pie chart shows that, the percentage of different companies is

HERO– 49%

YAMAHA-8%

TVS-12%

BAJAJ-31%
Market Analysis

The motorcycle market has seen a substantial growth in the last year

coming to about 20%. This

growth has been over and above all estimates and a total of 4768578

Units of motorcycles were sold during the period April’ 2004 to February’2005. The

clear market leader is still Hero Honda with its model Splendor having the highest

market share in the Indian bikes market. But, Royal has seen the highest growth

during this period with a growth of more than 2 times that of the industry. Another

point to be noted is that only Bajaj, Hero Honda and Royal Enfield have shown

growth during this period. The market shares of the various competitors in the

motorcycle industry are as shown in the illustration.

2011-12 2005-06
Cost Structure

The following tables illustrate the cost structure in the motorcycle industry.

The point to be noted is that a major chunk i.e. 75% of the costs is incurred as cost

of the components which is the single major component of the cost of building a

motorcycle. This cost of components in turn depends upon the costs of the raw

materials. Steel and aluminum are the two major raw materials consumed in

building a motorcycle. Hence any rise in the price of raw material directly affects

the cost of the motorcycle.

Steel is the most important raw material which forms bulk of the costs of the raw

material involved in the components. It roughly forms 60% of the total raw materials

consumed. This cost includes the indirectly consumed steel in the form of components

purchased from vendors. Aluminum is the second major raw material consumed in the

production of bikes.
Since the raw material costs have been on a constant rise in the past few years,

the costs of production have increased. The rise in the cost has been mainly due to the

rise in the costs of steel which grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 7% from the

last few years.

The next major cost is that of selling expenses. The selling expenses account for

5-10% of the cost of the bikes. These costs have also increased because of new model

launches by the competitors which are entailed with high advertisement expenses and

aggressive pricing discounts and incentives. This cost hits the smaller players more than

the bigger players because bigger players are able to spread these costs over a larger

volume of vehicles while the smaller players have to incur higher costs per unit in order to

keep up with the advertising by the bigger players. The selling costs incurred by different

players have been shown in the illustration.

2011-12 2005-06
All these costs have resulted in the dipping of operating margins overall. The operating
margins across different players are as shown in the illustration and they average around
14-15% . As evident most of the players have seen dip which may be marginal in the
operating margins.

Growth

The motorcycle industry is expected to grow at close to 12-14% according to estimates.


This growth is expected to be because of 4 major factors which are:

 Rising household income


 Affordable financial schemes
 Discounts
 New Model launches
Auto financing has been showing a constant trend of falling interest rates which is
depicted in the illustration. This has allowed more and more people to buy vehicles at
their income levels.

Trends

 A noticeable trend which has influenced the market of motorcycles has been a
constant shift in preference towards motorcycles away from its substitute, the
scooter. An important reason for this is the mileage and the style associated with
a motorcycle.
 The price gap between 100 cc and 125 cc bikes has been decreased
because of aggressive pricing by Bajaj. This has resulted in the formation of
a completely new segment which is the 125 cc segment.

 Another trend observed in the market has been towards the rural market.
States with high rural population and low penetration have shown the
fastest growth in the number of motorcycles.

 Increasing competitive pressure is forcing companies to broaden their


product range by launching either variants of existing products or new
products. This has shrunk the average product age.

 Honda, a global two-wheeler major, plans to launch its premium motorcycle


in the Indian market later this year. YAMAHA market share will be under
pressure given the direct competition to its model, YAMAhHA 110.
COMPETITOR ANALYSIS

YAMAHA AUTOMOBILES

YAMAHA is the fastest growing motorcycle manufacturer in the country. It


registered growths of around 40% last year compared to the industry average of
just 20%. Royal enfield has undergone a metamorphosis over the recent years by
successfully changing its identity tag from a scooter to a motorcycle company.
Today YAMAHA is the second largest player in the market and is manufacturing
products across all market segments. It has leading products in the entry and
premium segments.

YAMAHA has a technical tie-up with Kawasaki Heavy Industries of Japan to


produce a range of the latest, state-of-art two-wheelers in India. Since the tie-up in
1986, YAMAHA has launched KB100, KB RTZ, KB125, 4S, 4S Champion, Boxer,
Caliber, Caliber115, Wind125 and India's first real cruiser bike, the Kawasaki
Royal Eliminator. Currently Royal has 8 models in the market viz. BYK, Boxer, CT-
100, Caliber, Wind, Discover, Pulsar and Eliminator. Currently its best selling
models (as told by dealers) are CT 100, Discover and Pulsar 150 cc.

YAMAHA motors firmly believes in providing the customers “value for


money”. Quality, safety and service are the core criterion (apart from production
costs etc.) for production by this firm. YAMAHA has adopted TPM (Total
Productivity Maintenance) as a means of creating a safe and participative work
environment in which all employees target the elimination of losses in order to
continuously enhance the capacity, flexibility, reliability and capability of its
processes. Learning, Innovation, Perfection, Speed and Transparency are the five
guiding values of the brand.
YAMAHA has the following strengths in the motorcycles market:

 YAMAHA has a reputation for inexpensive and durable products among


Indian consumer

 YAMAHA has bikes in all the segments allowing it to reach majority of the
market

 It has an extensive distribution and service network throughout India 9400

dealerships and over 1,300 service centers)

 YAMAHA is the oldest player in the two wheeler market and hence knows

the Indian market better than anyone else

 The company has developed capabilities in research and development that

emphasize what Indian consumers want. It has developed improved engine

performance and product styling that best fit the Indian market.

 YAMAHA is a highly innovative company and has been introducing new

products regularly in the market

 YAMAHA has kept itself lean through offering VRS schemes (4 till date)

 YAMAHA has excellent IT infrastructure in place :

o WAN connecting three plants, 14 regional offices and 12 warehouses

o Web based portal network for dealers and suppliers.


 YAMAHA products have good resale value

YAMAHA also has a few weaknesses. The first weakness is that Royal has not

been able to completely shed its image of a scooter manufacturer and hence people

perceive it as incapable to compete in motorcycles market. This phenomenon has is

reducing gradually as Royal is gaining more and more market share. Another problem

faced by YAMAHA is the low capacity utilization (around 50% only) which leads to

higher fixed costs. The company is planning to increase the capacity and if the industry

growth falls down due to any unknown reason it would mean a greater loss due to idle

capacity for YAMAHA than anyone else.

Future Plans

 YAMAHA plans to introduce two new bikes in April-June 2005, one each in the

entry and premium segments.

 A new plant with a capacity upto 200,000 motorcycles a month shall be setup by

July 2005

 YAMAHA plans to end FY 2005 with a sale of close to 1.5 million motorcycles, a

growth of almost 40% in an industry that is growing at about 20%. The past 9

month trends predict that it shall be able to achieve this target.

 YAMAHA is planning to launch bikes in many countries. It would be focusing on

emerging markets like Africa. First one would be Nigeria. Selection of target

countries is based on the following strategy:


o (S) Sequential approach, “similar” countries first to maximize
organizational learning

o (T) Target yuppies as they have more money

o (P) invest for product differentiation

o (4P) Increase product margins, and become “lean and mean”.

The latest sales results for the company are:

Sales (nos.) Actual Extrapolated

9
Q3 Q3 Months
2011- 2009- Change 9 Months 2003- Change Full Year Full Year Change
Product 12 10 % 2011-12 04 % 2003-04 2004-04 %

Motorcycles 441,355 269,995 63.5 1,053,566 760,658 39 1,023,551 1,404,755 38

EXPORTS (Actual) Extrapolated

9 9 Full
Q3 Q3 Months Months Year Full
2011- 2009- Change 2011- 2003- Change 2003- Year Change
Product 12 10 % 12 04 % 04 2011-12 %

Motorcycles 28,086 22,462 25 82,896 57,362 45 82,424 110,528 34.1


OTHER COMPETITORS :

TVS Motors Ltd

TVS Motor Company Limited, part of the TVS Group, is one of India's

leading two-wheeler manufacturers. With a turnover of over Rs.2800 crores (USD

574.94 million), the Company manufactures a wide range of motorcycles,

scooters, mopeds and scooterettes. The company was founded in 1980. It entered

into a joint venture with Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan in 1983 and produced

first 100cc bike. The joint venture was terminated in September 2001.

Today TVS Motor Company holds a considerable market share in

motorcycles. It has the largest market share in the moped category and is also the

undisputed leader in the scooterette segment. The company manufactures its

motorcycles, scooterettes and mopeds at its state-of-the-art factories in Mysore

and Hosur. The company boasts of a strong sales and service network of 500

Authorized Dealerships, 1018 Authorized Service Centers and over 864 Certified

Service Points. TVS offers a wide range of brands in the motorcycle industry

namely TVS Phoenix 125, TVS Apache 160, TVS Sports etc.. TVS Motors has

made huge strides in implementation of quality initiatives like TQM, TPM etc and

production technologies like JIT, e-kanban, FMS etc for achieving world-class

quality. TVS Motor is the third Indian company to win the Deming Prize; in fact it is

the world's first motorcycle company to be awarded the prize. The company’s

pioneering efforts in the Indian motorcycle industry include:


 First Indian Company to introduce 100cc Indo-Japanese

motorcycles in Sept 1984.

 Introduced India's first catalytic converter enabled motorcycle, the

110cc Shogun in Dec 1996.

 Launched India's first 5-speed motorcycle, the Shaolin in Oct

1997.

 Launched TVS Apache 2007, a world-class 4-stroke 160 cc

motorcycle.

 Launched TVS Phoenix 2013, a world-class 4-stroke 125 cc

motorcycle with VT-i Engines for best-in-class mileage.

Future Plans

 Setting up of a manufacturing facility for two wheelers in Indonesia

with an initial annual capacity of 1.20 lakhs two wheelers. Estimated

investment upto US $ 50 million.

 Setting up of a manufacturing facility for three wheelers in their

existing plant at Mysore with an initial annual capacity of 1.00 lakh

vehicles. The estimated cost of the project is Rs.100 crores.

 Setting up a two wheeler manufacturing unit in Himachal Pradesh

with an initial annual capacity of 3.00 lakhs vehicles at an estimated

cost of Rs.90 crores.


 Increasing exports to the South-East Asian nations
Concerns

 Increasing costs of raw materials like steel, nickel and copper etc

causing the costs to increase

 Good industry growth leading to creation of excess capacity, thus

probability of capacity unutilization if growth slows. This might

increase costs and thus affect profitability.

 Increasing threat from global competition in wake of globalization and

deregulation

The latest sales results for the company are:

Period Feb’04 Feb’05 Var % Apr’03-Feb’04 Apr’04-Feb’05 Var %

Units 59286 57009 -4 644550 615262 -5

Market 16% 13% ---- 16% 13% ----

Share
Honda Scooters And Motorcycles India Pvt. Ltd.

Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. (HMSI), a wholly owned subsidiary of

Honda Motor Company Ltd., Japan. Honda is the world's largest manufacturer of

2-wheelers. Honda's aim in India is to manufacture 2-wheelers of global quality,

and capture a big chunk of the market. It was established in 1999 and has a

capital of Rs. 300 crore. It is located in Manesar, District Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

The factory has a capacity of 200,000 units per year. Honda also has a significant

presence in the mid and upscale range of cars in India.

Honda has already entered the 4 stroke scoter market and has already

achieved the number one position in the 4-stroke scooter market in India within a

span of just four years in 2003. HMSI sold 1.4 lakh scooters and scooterettes in

2004, a sharp rise from the 0.8 lakh vehicles it sold in the similar December ’03

quarter.

Honda had a partnership agreement with the Hero Group in India regarding

the manufacture of motorcycles. With the expiry of that agreement in 2003, Honda

has attempted to enter the motorcycle market by the launch of the Shine in

October 2010 all over the country.

The Shine is a 125 cc bike, with a 4 stroke engine generating 13.3 BHP

power. The price range is Rs. 52,000 to Rs. 56,000 depending on the

specifications. The company has thus attempted to introduce a high performance

bike at extremely competitive prices. It is just the first motorcycle that is going to be

offered from HMSI. The company has many more models in the pipeline.
In the words of the MD, HMSI:

“Honda is an enterprise that always wants to be with the masses, we do not

want to restrict ourselves to any specific category. We would like to have

full-line up covering right from the entry level low cost motorcycle to a

motorcycle for people with strong taste and fun element into it. The Shine is

just the beginning.”

Mr Aoshima, MD and COO, HMSI

The HMSI Shine Motorcycle

Within the first six months of the launch of the SHINE, HMSI had managed

to sell around 57,000 units of the motorcycle till February, 2010. It was a good

performance for a new motorcycle.


HMSI has a network of 250 dealers, 375 authorised service centres, 5100

private workshop owners, 7200 retailers and 25 parts stockists to ensure

availability of service and spares to its customers.

To cater for the expected future growth in sales, HMSI has set up a new 26

acres plant adjacent to its existing facility taking the total plant area to 51-acres.

With this expansion, the total annual production capacity of HMSI has grown from

200,000 to 600,000 units. By 2006-07 the company plans to have a total

investment of Rs. 600 crore and a production capacity of 700,000 units per annum.

HMSI thus seems to be poised to become a significant player in the Indian

motorcycle market in the coming years and by leveraging on its massive

technological advantage and high quality it is likely to pose a serious challenge to

the present market leaders.

Kinetic Motors Ltd

Kinetic Motor Company Limited is part of the Kinetic group of companies, a

leading manufacturer of two wheelers in India. Kinetic Motor began in 1984 as a

Joint Venture with Honda Motor of Japan, to manufacture and market advanced

scooters in India. In 1998, the arrangement with Honda Motor was realigned as a

technical collaboration. With that, the company became the first Indian company to

buy out the controlling stake from its foreign partner. After the realignment the

company has posted major growth in sales and profitability, introduced new

models and made several key improvements in all products.


The company has a state of the art manufacturing facility - at Pithampur,

near Indore and at Koregaon Bhima. It is ISO 9001 certified from DNV for all

models and activities. It has a strong dealership network of over 400 dealers and

authorized service centers across the country. It is a leading exporter of vehicles

across the globe with thousands of vehicles exported to countries like USA,

Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Middle East and South Asia. It enjoys

"Export House" status and has won the Exports Excellence award nine

consecutive years.

Kinetic’s different brands include: Comet, Velocity, GF 170, GF 125, Boss,

Acquila, Challenger etc. Kinetic launched motorcycles in all the major segments

of the market last year by launching GF 170, Big Boss 115, Velocity, Laser and

King 100 to increase its presence. Kinetic launched Comet in collaboration with

Hyosung Motors. Comet is India’s first sport bike with 250cc, v-twin, 8 valve engine

and 27 bhp power.

Apart from Korean partner Hyosung Motors, Kinetic has always collaborated with

Italjet for obtaining its technological expertise.

Kinetic’s strategy is consumer-focused as it aims to have a product that

suits the transport requirements for everyone - be it a student or an executive,

someone looking for fuel efficiency, or mileage, or performance or comfort. With

this in mind, KML has built a diverse product portfolio. All the new products adhere

to the cardinal rule of aggressive pricing, low ownership cost and maintenance,

giving optimum performance.


The latest sales results for the company are:

Period Feb’04 Var % Apr’03- Apr’04-Feb’05 Var %


Feb’05 Feb’04

Units 4542 2851 -37 50491 39519 -22


Royal Enfield Motors

Overview: Established in 1955, Royal Enfield Motors is now a part of the Eicher Group

of Companies - a Rs.10 billion conglomerate which has a range of interests in the

automotive industry. The headquarters of Royal Enfield Motors is situated at

Thiruvottiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Product:

Core Product: The core benefit associated with Royal Enfield can be said as a unique

motorcycling experience. It offers power, riding comfort, attractive beat and a distinctive

styling.

Augmented Product:

 Brand Stores: The company is opening up brand stores in different parts of

the country which would help the promotion of biking community. They have

pictorial collages and are an idea to leverage on the legend and the heritage

of the bike.

 Clubs: The company is promoting clubs like REDS and also provided

information on adventure and touring on web.

 Rentals: Royal Enfield provides rental services for its bikes from a few

locations.

Models Available: Bullet 350, Bullet 500, Thunderbird, Machismo, Electra.


Price: All the models have been placed in the lifestyle segment and are available in the

price range of Rs 65000 to Rs 75000.

Distribution: The company operates out of 12 area offices, 16 depots, over 250

dealers and 150 authorized service centers in India. Royal Enfield also exports to over

20 countries including Japan, USA, Canada, France, Germany and the UK.

Positioning: The bike has been targeted for the lifestyle segment of bike customers.

“Royal Enfield is the power and leisure bike leader of India” –Sidhartha Lal, CEO, 2003

Customers:

The bike is endorsed by the army, the police, the paramilitary forces and over 500

institutions which form part of the die-hard customer base of the Bullet. The sales are

evenly distributed among different types of regions.

Urban
Semi-Urban
30
35 Rural

35
Tie ups:

 AVL, Austria for new engines

 FW Egli for high power engines for 535cc and 624cc

 Criterion Engineers, UK for a new 5 speed transmission system

 DB Designs, UK for styling

Strengths:

 Unflinching loyalty to the customer forms a part of the corporate philosophy.

Bullet machismo received the industry best customer satisfaction rating for

cruiser bike.

 Royal Enfield targets a niche segment which forms a loyal customer base and

the sales remain steady around 25 – 30000 bikes per annum.

Weaknesses:

 The company is targeting its bikes onto a very niche segment which is not very

large in size.

 The bikes are still made with handicraft type techniques, which may not allow it to

compete with other high end bikes in terms of production volumes.


Future plans:

 Concentration on marketing efforts seems to be the name of the game. The

Enfield has planned a segment based retail strategy which would allow the user

to experience the brand by targeting to different needs in different regions. The

ambience of the buying outlet would reflect the same.

 Testing newer high powered engines


LML LIMITED

LML Ltd (LML) a Deepak Singhania group Company is a leading two-

wheeler manufacturer. Currently it has capacity to produce 6.3 lakh two

wheelers. It was established in 1972, and went to public in 1980 and had

five divisions -- engineering, synthetic yarn processing, twister machines,

nylon-6 chips and scooters. LML has launched `Sensation', a highly fuel-

efficient 125cc two-wheeler in Bangalore. LML has introduced advanced

front and rear suspension systems manufactured in collaboration with

Bitubo of Italy.

The company is a late entrant in the motorcycles market. The

company manufactures two versions of a four-stroke, 100-cc bike -`Energy'

and `Adreno' in technical collaboration with Daelim, the Korean collaborator.

While both the bikes feature a four-stroke, three-valve engine, Adreno

comes with a five-speed gearbox and Energy has a four-speed gearbox.

Currently 70% of its turnover is generated from Motor Cycles. Its motorcycle

- Freedom, which is in the Deluxe Commuter Segment, has established a

position of excellence in the market due to its contemporary technology,

which gives many benefits to the user. The financial statement of the

company is attached as Exhibit


SWOT Analysis of the Company

Strengths:

 Strong and well differentiated marquee.

 Consumer understanding and Systems for building insights into

market behavior.

 R&D capability well linked with business.

 Strong dealer network in North, Central & Eastern markets.

 Strong vendor supply chain.

 Strategic location of the plant.

 High level of indigenisation.

Weaknesses:

 Continued burden of "Asset-servicing" costs relating to geared scooter

business.

 Late entry into motorcycle market.

 Low network penetration.

 Low production capacity and product range (motorcycles).

Opportunities:

 Market growth through increased penetration especially in semi-

urban and rural areas.


 Influencing consumers’ preference through innovation, and with high

level of quality and class, defining product performance.

 Late entry gives flexibility in having a product line-up responding to

present day consumer preferences.

 Substantial cost-reduction opportunities - with increase in volumes.

Threats:

 Low volumes as compared to peers.

 Shrinking market for geared scooters.

Future Plans

The Company is taking steps in the area of expansion of the

product portfolio for the new motorcycles. It expects to place in the market

new offerings, which would give the Company the required space in the

motorcycle segment to operate. The Company is also taking steps for

increase in capacity, which together with the existing and new range of

vehicles, would give it the required line up and depth of motorcycles in the

market, which has remained restricted to only one segment (Deluxe

Commuter) through Freedom. LML is planning for a comprehensive

restructuring of its business (financial, dealer net-work, industrial, product

portfolio, cost, etc.).

LML is also adding a host of products to its range, including vehicles of 2-

stroke and 4-stroke engines, having geared variomatic transmission. It plans

to float a finance company to provide easy funding to the buyers of its two-

wheelers. It plans to offer disc brakes; digital ignition and an auto lube
system. The company is also planning to introduce four-stroke scooters and

is working towards developing engines based on alternate fuels such as

(LPG).
MARKETING STRATEGIES

MARKETING

Marketing is challenging and exciting. The solving of marketing problems

required insight, experience and analytical ability. Take the case of a company

faced with the problem of increasing its sales. Increase in the sales at the expense

of profits may not be a desirable objective. Again there are many ways in which

sales can be increased, e.g. by finding new customers or selling more to existing

customers, by increasing advertising and by reducing the price. The marketing

manger must decide which strategy or combination of methods he should adopt for

increasing his sales profitably. He must also keep in touch with the changing

needs and desires of the consuming public as well as his competitors’ activities.

Thus marketing is interesting, as it required the marketing manger to be dynamic

and not complacent for continuous prosperity of his organization.

THE MARKETING FUNCTION

However the meaning of marketing is not often clear to people who use the

word. To a salesman it means selling whereas to an advertising manger it means

advertising. high-sounding definitions have also been advanced. For example,

Paul Mazur defined it as “the delivery of a standard of living of society”. Thus was

expanded by Prof. Malcolm McNair to “the creation and delivery of a standard of

living.

“Marketing is the primary management function which organizes and directs

the aggregate of business activities involved in converting customer purchasing


power into effective demand for a specific product or service and in moving the

product or service to the final consumer or user so as to achieve the company-set

or other objectives”.

(A) RELEVANT MARKETING FORCES

 Consumer habits.

 Consumer attitudes and motivations.

 Trade structures and practices.

 Trade attitudes and motivation.

 Types of competition.

 Relation of supplies and price to demand.

 Position and share of the market.

 Trends of competitive behaviour.

 Government controls, which are applicable.

PRODUCT

A Product is something of value that is offered for sale or hire with the aim

of satisfying customer needs. It is a bundle of satisfaction that the customer buys.

A product may be a tangible offer to the market, which includes product quality,

variety, design, features, branding etc. It may also be intangible such as provision

of a service like training or education etc. Many products may have tangible as

well as intangible attributes. For example Daewoo Cielo car is the tangible product

and after sale services and mobile repair anywhere is an intangible service.
Product Line

A product line refers to a group of product clubbed together because they

have one of the above described characteristics in common. The number of

product lines carried by a firm at a given point in time is a function of its resources

and competitive position.

Product Width

This refers to the number of different product lines marketed by a firm.

Product Depth

This refers to the numbers of product items and their variations (like size,

packaging, colours, etc) offered in each product line.

Product Consistency

This is the degree of similarity between product line in end use, technology

and production techniques, distribution channel etc.

The ideal product mix is an issue that varies from firm to firm and may be

hard to define and come by.

POSITIONING OF THE PRODUCT


Positioning concerns what is in the minds of consumers, in particular in the

minds of your target group(s) of consumers. It is what the consumers think of the

product or the firm or there perception of the product offerings of a firm.

It is about the position your firm, the product, and the brand occupy in the

minds of particular group of consumers, the attributes they associate with your

product, and they have concerning the product. Positioning is something that goes

on in the consumers mind.

BRANDING

A brand is a name, term sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them,

intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to

differentiate them form those of competitors.

Branding is a way of labeling your particular product offering to distinguish it from


other competitors product offering.
INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC:-

Today’s in two wheeler industries, bike has dominant role in comparison

to scooter. In India there are many companies who are facing cut throat competitions.

In which HERO, is a major player and facing same tuff competition with

HH, LML, TVS.

Companies are looking for new methodology by which they can increase

the no. of customer. The new methodology adopted by Royal enfield is-“Referral

scheme”.

Referral scheme refers to increase the number of customer with the help

of existing customer data base. The project given by Royal was related to referral

scheme. It was a kind of live project. The process of referral scheme followed as

Firstly talk with existing customer (with the help of customer data base)

and ask for satisfied customer and any how convince them to refer bike to there
friends and relatives. In this project I have to look

for that how to introduce referral scheme and what is the problem in implementing this
scheme.

By searching the net I was found there are many referral scheme which

helps companies to increase the number of customer.


OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH:-

The first and the foremost requisite in a research process is to define the

research problem clearly and accurately.

Only if the research problem clearly set, the researcher can carry out the

whole process successfully. Also it is necessary on the part of the person who is

going through the report. The reader must know exactly what the report covers.

The research objective which I was supplied is:-

1- MARKET ANALYSIS

(a) Customer preference and buying behavior analysis.


(b) To find out the brand awareness of BAL in Executive segment of bike.
(c) Finding out the requisite promotional activities.
2- REFERRAL LIST

(a) Asking satisfied customer for referral list.

(b) Follow-up on referrals front to gauge the effectiveness of this new

methodology.

(d) Looking new method that how to implement this method and what is the problem
in
implementing this method.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-

RESEARCH DESIGN:

The design in this study is rigid and not flexible. Researcher must pay attention

towards following points while conducting descriptive research:-

(1) Statement of objectives.


(2) Method of data collection.
(3) Method of analysis of data.
(4) Reporting of findings.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:-

Descriptive studies, as the name implies, are designed to describe

something for example, the characteristics of users of a given product, the

degree to which product is relate with income, use, age, sex or other

characteristics or the number who saw a specific television commercial. A

majority of marketing studies are of this type.


Despite the emphasis on description, it should not be concluded that such

studies should be simply fact gathering expeditions. Unfortunately, it is

relatively easy to start a descriptive study that is made with only hazy

objectives and with inadequate planning. Much of the data collected in such

studies turn out to be useless.

STATISTICAL METHOD:-

The statistical method is the most widely used method in marketing research and

is the method usually implied when a “survey” is referred to? The name comes

from the statistical techniques that are used in analyzing the data collected-

techniques that are vary from simple means and percentages to very

sophisticated techniques that require computers to manipulate the data.

Survey method, telephonic interview and observations are used in very


comprehensive manner.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD:-

A questionnaire were prepared for customer of YAMAHA and on the basis

of telephonic interview data was collected.

SAMPLE SIZE:-

The sample size of this research is 1398. Since this was based on

telephonic interview so, we can say that the actual number of size is 1006

because this number of people have only telephone number


RESEARCH PLACE:-

Place of research was Saharanpur region.

YAMAHA AUTOMOBILES

Under the supervision ofKAPIL SHARMA (MANAGER HEAD )


ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire consists of five questions and the response was based on

Lickert type of scale, it means Excellent, Good, Average, Poor and bad.

For better analysis I have taken questions one by one.

ANALYSIS OF OUESTION NO. 1

QUESTION: How happy are you with the power delivery of bike?

ANALYSIS:
Responses regarding the power delivery of the
bike

6%
12% 23%
Excellent
Good
Average
18% Poor
Bad
41%
INTERPRETATION: As we see from the above graph that, the responses of

customers related to power delivery is in favour of YAMAHA as the percentage of

response of poor and bad is only 06%. And, the percentage of response for excellent
and good is 23% and 41% respectively. Which itself shows that the

YAMAHA has good performance in terms of power delivery.

So, the above figures serve as a proof to the company’s claim that the bike is
one of the best in terms of power delivery in executive segment.
ANALYSIS OF OUESTION NO. 2

QUESTION: How satisfied are you with mileage bike delivers?

ANALYSIS:

The analysis of second question we can see in pie chart as-

Responses regarding mileage bike delivery

8% 18%
13% Excellent
Good
Average
Poor
23%
Bad
38%

INTERPRETATION: As we see from above chart, it shows that the responses

Of customer related to mileage in favour of SZ ,SZS, the percentage of Excellent

response is only 18% and good response is 23%. The lion share of this response is
average which is 38%.
The response of poor and bad is 13% and 08% respectively.

The above response gives the overall rating to this bike as a average bike in terms of
mileage delivery.

So, we can say that there is still a gap between claim and actual response

ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO -3

QUESTION: How do you rate the top speed?

ANALYSIS:

The analysis of third question we can see in pie chart as-


Responses regarding the rating of the top speed
of the bike

10% 4%
26%
Excellent
Good
Average

28% Poor
Bad
32%

INTERPRETATION: As we see in above response we find that the response

Of customer in speed is very nice for speed. Because the response given by

customers is 26% for excellent and 32% for good which itself shows that the

customers is very satisfied in terms of speed.

The average response of customer in terms of speed is

28%. The attribute has been rated by 10% customer as poor and 04% as bad.
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO-4

QUESTION: Are you satisfied with overall performance

of the bike?

ANALYSIS: The analysis of the above question can be shown by pie chart

as-

Responses regarding the overall performance of


the bike

6% 21%
11%
Excellent
Good
Average
Poor
34% 28% Bad

INTERPRETATION:

It is very clear from above pie chart that the responses of customer for this question is
very nice for Pulser. The responses of customer show that 21% of customer says
excellent and 28% of customer gives responses for good. The percentage of response
shows only 34% and 11% as poor and and 06% as bad respectively.

So, we can say that the overall performance of bike is at a


satisfactory level. Now we can say that the company which claims for speed, mileage,
power seems to be near about complete, except in case of mileage.

ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO-5

QUESTION: Will you recommend this bike to your friend/

relatives?

ANALYSIS: The analysis of above question can be shown by bar diagram as


Responses regarding reference of the bike to
friends/relatives

700

600

500

400
No. of Response
300

200

100

0
Yes No

INTERPRETATION: The sample size of 1006 (phone no. available), which I have got in
which 613 customer has responses yes, it means they were ready to refer this bike to
there customer and friends. 393 customers has say no for referral.

It means we can say that near about 61% of customer are


ready to refer this bike. So, it is good percentage of people who are
CONCLUSION

This project was a kind of live project, it means in the project we can get the

result while doing the project. In this project I got different-2 kind of responses of

customer on the basis of questionnaire, which I have prepared. It was really

surprising that, few customers were highly satisfied with Royal enfield’s

performance, few were satisfied and a few others were dissatisfied.

In the process of telephonic interview, I found that it is better way to detect the

actual customer need.

So, what I found that, if we are going for referral scheme, we should look for

satisfaction of customer. Because, satisfaction is the base for referral scheme.

Those customers who is highly satisfied or satisfied only they will go for referral

list.

Then matter arises that what makes a customer satisfied. The first thing is that

a person pre purchase behavior should be match with his post purchase behavior.

Like for this product I can say that customer pre purchase behavior i.e. looks

for this bike –better mileage, power and economical bike. In analysis of telephonic

interview I found that few customers were satisfied with speed and power but they

were not fully satisfied with mileage.

There is many other problems which the customer were facing like 2nd gear

shifting problem, sound in chain.


Many customer complaints about poor after sales service.

After found satisfied customer list I was looking for referral scheme. I found

that customer gave good response but instead of reference they want some rebate

or some preference kind of thing.


SUGGESTIONS

After the analysis and interpretation of the data collected I reached to

certain conclusions, based on which I give following suggestions to the

company:

1) Service after sales needs to be bettered should provide satisfaction to the

customer.

2) The customer shouldn’t feel cheated by unsatisfactory after sales service

and un-friendly and non-cooperative behavior of the service and

maintenance people.

3) The people associated with the after sale service should be provided with

special camps to train them how to behave with the customers in a polite

and friendly manner.

After it is going to affect the company’s goodwill with the customers

drastically.
4) Finance facility should be easy. One bench facility should be provided

and thereby saving customers from running here and there.

5) The referral customers should be providing with some added advantage

like: 4-5 free services or a gift.

6) Camp for the customers too, is required to train about all the features of

the bikes, especially for those who shifted from scooter to bike.

7) The referral scheme should be taken under the direct control by the

company and proper inspection from time to time is required to maintain

efficient functioning of the scheme.

8) Referral scheme should involve customer satisfaction.


LIMITATIONS:-

Every research is done in certain condition, but all conditions are not controllable.

These conditions affect the research at some extent. In the same way this

research also has some uncontrollable factor, which are limitations of this

research. The few important limitations are-

1. For telephonic interview the customer profile provided by company had

many wrong numbers and some were without telephone.

2. All customers were not reachable by phone in working hours.

3. Customer feels irritation when call many times.

4. Few customer could not get ranking scale response so they have taken

response very lightly.

5. Very hot summer was also a limitation, because our project time was

July.
6. The topic was subjective so, that no statistical tolls can not be used.

7. Duration of summer training was so least that it was little difficult to take

proper response

of this big sample.

8. Few customer were not able to understand my questionnaire, it also

affect the overall response.


STRENGTHS:

1. Good brand name of YAMAHA group.

2. Second largest two Wheeler Company in India.

3. Better model of bike for different segment at different price range.

4. YAMAHA has improved R & D center in India.

5. An emerging MNC, exported many country including Peru, Colombia,

USA, Bangladesh.

6. Good supply chain management, so that Royal brand is available

everywhere in country.

7. Low maintenance cost of motorcycle.

8. Being a Indian company, it can understand domestic customer demand.


WEAKNESSES:

1. Lack of prompt after sales service.

2. With progressive new models the manufacturing of older versions is stopped, eg.
Royal Xced 125, Pulsar 200 (Old Version).

3. No proper follow up of company rule by the dealers.

4. Some minor technical problem exist in Royal model, but no focus on these
issues.

5. There is no customer care center in royal enfield, where customer can

complaint their problem.

6. Less resale value of Royal bike.

7. Non-availability of spare parts of older version bikes.

OPPOURTUNITY:

1. People are looking for speed and mileage, so they are shifting from

scooter to bike.
2. Better infrastructure can help to fulfill the increasing demand of market.

3. Higher disposable urban incomes for progressively younger people

and their desire to ride in style.

4. Increasing number of commuters in metros is also a opportunity for two

wheeler industry because commuters are looking for their own vehicle

and in this case motorcycle is best substitute for middle class income

people.

5. Increasing no. of professionals and students is also an opportunity for

two-wheeler industry.

THREATS:

1. Good brands like HH and TVS are major threat for Royal because they

are offering good models and features at a very less price.


2. With the break up of Hero Motors and Honda, Honda will be soon

entering in the market with proper expertise.

3. Fast changing consumer buying behavior is also a threat for two-wheeler.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :

1. http://www.starmotorcycles.com/star/company/historyhome/home.aspx
2. "Yamaha Sports YDS-3". 240 Landmarks of the Japanese Automotive Industry.
Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc. Retrieved 10 August 2013. The
Yamaha Autolube system employed a plunger pump as a method for allowing
minute amounts of oil to spread over the lubricated surfaces of each engine part.
3. http://www.yamaha-motor.com/corporate/historytimeline.aspx, Yamaha website
timeline, accessed October 2, 2011
4. Robert Smith (July–August 2007). "1982 Yamaha XJ650RJ Seca". Motorcycle
Classics. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
5. Yamaha's folding seated electric scooter, Treehugger.com, May 17, 2005,
retrieved 2009-09-07
6. Paul Crowe (2007-10-16), Yamaha XS-V1 Sakura for Tokyo Motor Show, The
Kneeslider, retrieved 2009-09-07

Notes

1. last UK unrestricted moped, and last moped required to have pedals (1977)
2. built August 1954, produced January 1955. The first bike manufactured by
Yamaha; it had an air-cooled, two-stroke, single cylinder 125 cc engine.
3. (1956) was the second bike manufactured by Yamaha; it was a 175 cc single
cylinder two-stroke.
4. (1957) Yamaha began production of its first 250 cc, two-stroke twin, the YD1.
5. (1965) single cylinder 80 cc two-stroke)