matrix

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matrix

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MATRIX is a simply set of numbers arranged in rectangular. Matrices usually inside the parentheses () or

bracket [].

ELEMENTS IN A MATRIX

The elements in a matrix A are denoted by aij , where i is the row number and j is the column

number.

5 4 9

A= ( )

1 −2 3

The element a21= 1, since the element in the 2nd row and 1st column is 1.

The element a13= 9, since the element in the 1st row and 3rd column is 9.

We can only add or subtract the matrices if they have the same dimensions. To add matrices,

just add corresponding elements.

Ex.

8 3 4 5 −2 1 8+5 3 + (−2) 4 + 1 13 1 5

( )+( )=( )=( )

0 −1 9 6 3 3 0+6 −1+3 9+5 6 2 14

In scalar multiplication of matrices we multiply (or divide) each element by the scalar value (a single

number)

Ex.

3 1

If A = (7 − 1)

2 8

then

3 1 3𝑥3 3𝑥1 9 3

3A = 3(7 − 1) = (3𝑥7 3𝑥 − 1) = (21 − 3)

2 8 3𝑥2 3𝑥8 6 24

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

We can only multiply matrices if the number of columns in the first matrix is the same as the

number of row in the second matrix.

B) Multiplying a 7 x 1 matrix by 2 x 3 matrix is NOT possible.

MULTIPLYING 2 MATRICES

As an example, let’s take a general, 2 x 3 matrix multiplied by 3 x 2 matrix and it gives 2 x 2

matrix.

𝑢 𝑣

𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑎𝑢 + 𝑏𝑤 + 𝑎𝑦 𝑎𝑣 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐𝑧

( ) (𝑤 𝑥 ) = ( )

𝑑 𝑒 𝑓 𝑦 𝑧 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑒𝑤 + 𝑓𝑦 𝑑𝑣 + 𝑒𝑥 + 𝑓𝑧

Example

3 1

0 −1 2 0 − 1 + 12 0−2+2 11 0

( ) (1 2) = ( )=( )

4 11 2 12 + 11 + 12 − 4 + 22 + 2 35 20

6 1

DETERMINANTS

Is a square array of numbers (written within a pair of vertical lines) which represent a certain

sum of products.

An example of 3 x 3 determinant (it has 3 rows and 3 column)

10 0 −3

|−2 − 4 1|

3 0 2

The result of multiplying out, then simplifying the elements of a determinant is a single number

(a scalar quantity)

Calculating a 2 x 2 determinant, in general we find the value of 2 x 2 determinant with elements

a, b, c, and d as follows:

𝑎 𝑏

| | = ad – cb

𝑐 𝑑

Example.

4 1

| | = 4x3 – 2x1 = 12 – 2 = 10

2 3

3 x 3 Determinants

Can be evaluated in various ways.

Expansion by Minors

The cofactor is formed from the elements that are not in the same row as a and not in the same column

as a.

𝑎 𝑏 𝑐

|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| The cofactor of a is |𝑒 𝑓|

𝑔 ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖

We evaluate 3 x 3 determinant using expansion by minors. This involves multiplying the elements in the

first column of the determinant by the cofactors of those elements. We subtract the middle product and

add the final product.

𝑎 𝑏 𝑐

𝑒 𝑓 𝑏 𝑐 𝑏 𝑐

|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| = a| | - d| |+𝑔| |

ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖 𝑒 𝑓

𝑔 ℎ 𝑖

Diagonal Method

(aei+bfg+cdh) - (afh+bdi+ceg)

Example

2 3 1

1 4 3 1 3 1

|5 1 4| = 2 | | - 5| | + 4| |

8 2 8 2 1 4

4 8 2

= 2(−30) − 5(−2) + 4(11)

= -60+10+44

= −𝟔

OR

2 3 1 2 3

|5 1 4| 5 1

4 8 2 4 8

= (4 + 48 + 40) – (30 + 64 + 4)

= 92 – 98

= -6

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