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# MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

MATRIX is a simply set of numbers arranged in rectangular. Matrices usually inside the parentheses () or
bracket [].

## Ex. This is a 2 x 4 matrix. It has 2 rows and 4 columns

ELEMENTS IN A MATRIX

The elements in a matrix A are denoted by aij , where i is the row number and j is the column
number.

## Ex. Consider the matrix

5 4 9
A= ( )
1 −2 3
The element a21= 1, since the element in the 2nd row and 1st column is 1.
The element a13= 9, since the element in the 1st row and 3rd column is 9.

## ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES

We can only add or subtract the matrices if they have the same dimensions. To add matrices,

Ex.
8 3 4 5 −2 1 8+5 3 + (−2) 4 + 1 13 1 5
( )+( )=( )=( )
0 −1 9 6 3 3 0+6 −1+3 9+5 6 2 14

## SCALAR MULTIPLICATION (AND DIVISION)

In scalar multiplication of matrices we multiply (or divide) each element by the scalar value (a single
number)
Ex.

3 1
If A = (7 − 1)
2 8
then
3 1 3𝑥3 3𝑥1 9 3
3A = 3(7 − 1) = (3𝑥7 3𝑥 − 1) = (21 − 3)
2 8 3𝑥2 3𝑥8 6 24

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES
We can only multiply matrices if the number of columns in the first matrix is the same as the
number of row in the second matrix.

## A) Multiplying a 2 x 3 matrix by a 3 x 4 matrix is possible and it gives a 2 x 4 matrix as the answer

B) Multiplying a 7 x 1 matrix by 2 x 3 matrix is NOT possible.

MULTIPLYING 2 MATRICES
As an example, let’s take a general, 2 x 3 matrix multiplied by 3 x 2 matrix and it gives 2 x 2
matrix.
𝑢 𝑣
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑎𝑢 + 𝑏𝑤 + 𝑎𝑦 𝑎𝑣 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐𝑧
( ) (𝑤 𝑥 ) = ( )
𝑑 𝑒 𝑓 𝑦 𝑧 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑒𝑤 + 𝑓𝑦 𝑑𝑣 + 𝑒𝑥 + 𝑓𝑧

Example
3 1
0 −1 2 0 − 1 + 12 0−2+2 11 0
( ) (1 2) = ( )=( )
4 11 2 12 + 11 + 12 − 4 + 22 + 2 35 20
6 1

DETERMINANTS
Is a square array of numbers (written within a pair of vertical lines) which represent a certain
sum of products.
An example of 3 x 3 determinant (it has 3 rows and 3 column)

10 0 −3
|−2 − 4 1|
3 0 2

 The result of multiplying out, then simplifying the elements of a determinant is a single number
(a scalar quantity)
 Calculating a 2 x 2 determinant, in general we find the value of 2 x 2 determinant with elements
a, b, c, and d as follows:
𝑎 𝑏
| | = ad – cb
𝑐 𝑑

Example.
4 1
| | = 4x3 – 2x1 = 12 – 2 = 10
2 3

3 x 3 Determinants
Can be evaluated in various ways.
 Expansion by Minors
The cofactor is formed from the elements that are not in the same row as a and not in the same column
as a.
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| The cofactor of a is |𝑒 𝑓|
𝑔 ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖

We evaluate 3 x 3 determinant using expansion by minors. This involves multiplying the elements in the
first column of the determinant by the cofactors of those elements. We subtract the middle product and
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
𝑒 𝑓 𝑏 𝑐 𝑏 𝑐
|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| = a| | - d| |+𝑔| |
ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖 𝑒 𝑓
𝑔 ℎ 𝑖

 Diagonal Method

(aei+bfg+cdh) - (afh+bdi+ceg)

Example

2 3 1
1 4 3 1 3 1
|5 1 4| = 2 | | - 5| | + 4| |
8 2 8 2 1 4
4 8 2

## = 2(2 − 32) − 5(6 − 8) + 4(12 − 1)

= 2(−30) − 5(−2) + 4(11)
= -60+10+44
= −𝟔

OR

2 3 1 2 3
|5 1 4| 5 1
4 8 2 4 8

## = [(2x1x2) + (3x3x4) + (1x5x8) ] – [ (3x5x2) + (2x4x8) + (1x1x4) ]

= (4 + 48 + 40) – (30 + 64 + 4)
= 92 – 98
= -6