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MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

MATRIX is a simply set of numbers arranged in rectangular. Matrices usually inside the parentheses () or
bracket [].

Ex. This is a 2 x 4 matrix. It has 2 rows and 4 columns

ELEMENTS IN A MATRIX

The elements in a matrix A are denoted by aij , where i is the row number and j is the column
number.

Ex. Consider the matrix

5 4 9
A= ( )
1 −2 3
The element a21= 1, since the element in the 2nd row and 1st column is 1.
The element a13= 9, since the element in the 1st row and 3rd column is 9.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES

We can only add or subtract the matrices if they have the same dimensions. To add matrices,
just add corresponding elements.

Ex.
8 3 4 5 −2 1 8+5 3 + (−2) 4 + 1 13 1 5
( )+( )=( )=( )
0 −1 9 6 3 3 0+6 −1+3 9+5 6 2 14

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION (AND DIVISION)

In scalar multiplication of matrices we multiply (or divide) each element by the scalar value (a single
number)
Ex.

3 1
If A = (7 − 1)
2 8
then
3 1 3𝑥3 3𝑥1 9 3
3A = 3(7 − 1) = (3𝑥7 3𝑥 − 1) = (21 − 3)
2 8 3𝑥2 3𝑥8 6 24

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES
We can only multiply matrices if the number of columns in the first matrix is the same as the
number of row in the second matrix.

A) Multiplying a 2 x 3 matrix by a 3 x 4 matrix is possible and it gives a 2 x 4 matrix as the answer

B) Multiplying a 7 x 1 matrix by 2 x 3 matrix is NOT possible.

MULTIPLYING 2 MATRICES
As an example, let’s take a general, 2 x 3 matrix multiplied by 3 x 2 matrix and it gives 2 x 2
matrix.
𝑢 𝑣
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑎𝑢 + 𝑏𝑤 + 𝑎𝑦 𝑎𝑣 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐𝑧
( ) (𝑤 𝑥 ) = ( )
𝑑 𝑒 𝑓 𝑦 𝑧 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑒𝑤 + 𝑓𝑦 𝑑𝑣 + 𝑒𝑥 + 𝑓𝑧

Example
3 1
0 −1 2 0 − 1 + 12 0−2+2 11 0
( ) (1 2) = ( )=( )
4 11 2 12 + 11 + 12 − 4 + 22 + 2 35 20
6 1

DETERMINANTS
Is a square array of numbers (written within a pair of vertical lines) which represent a certain
sum of products.
An example of 3 x 3 determinant (it has 3 rows and 3 column)

10 0 −3
|−2 − 4 1|
3 0 2

 The result of multiplying out, then simplifying the elements of a determinant is a single number
(a scalar quantity)
 Calculating a 2 x 2 determinant, in general we find the value of 2 x 2 determinant with elements
a, b, c, and d as follows:
𝑎 𝑏
| | = ad – cb
𝑐 𝑑

Example.
4 1
| | = 4x3 – 2x1 = 12 – 2 = 10
2 3

3 x 3 Determinants
Can be evaluated in various ways.
 Expansion by Minors
The cofactor is formed from the elements that are not in the same row as a and not in the same column
as a.
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| The cofactor of a is |𝑒 𝑓|
𝑔 ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖

We evaluate 3 x 3 determinant using expansion by minors. This involves multiplying the elements in the
first column of the determinant by the cofactors of those elements. We subtract the middle product and
add the final product.
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
𝑒 𝑓 𝑏 𝑐 𝑏 𝑐
|𝑑 𝑒 𝑓| = a| | - d| |+𝑔| |
ℎ 𝑖 ℎ 𝑖 𝑒 𝑓
𝑔 ℎ 𝑖

 Diagonal Method

(aei+bfg+cdh) - (afh+bdi+ceg)

Example

2 3 1
1 4 3 1 3 1
|5 1 4| = 2 | | - 5| | + 4| |
8 2 8 2 1 4
4 8 2

= 2(2 − 32) − 5(6 − 8) + 4(12 − 1)

= 2(−30) − 5(−2) + 4(11)
= -60+10+44
= −𝟔

OR

2 3 1 2 3
|5 1 4| 5 1
4 8 2 4 8

= [(2x1x2) + (3x3x4) + (1x5x8) ] – [ (3x5x2) + (2x4x8) + (1x1x4) ]

= (4 + 48 + 40) – (30 + 64 + 4)
= 92 – 98
= -6