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Appendix A

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Sizing Storm Drainage Systems

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A.1 Rainfall Rates for Cities....................................................................................................................................388
Table A.1 Rainfall Rates for Cities.........................................................................................................389

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A.2 Roof Drainage...................................................................................................................................................388
A.3 Sizing by Flow..................................................................................................................................................388
A.4 Sizing by Roof Area..........................................................................................................................................388

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A.5 Capacity of Rectangular Scuppers....................................................................................................................388
Table A.5 Discharge from Rectangular Scuppers - GPM.......................................................................393

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2015 National Standard Plumbing Code - Illustrated 387


A.1 Rainfall Rates for Cities
The rainfall rates in Table A.1, RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, are based on U.S. Weather Bureau Technical
Paper No. 40, specifically Chart 14: 100-YEAR 1 HOUR RAINFALL (inches) and Chart 7: 100-YEAR
30-MINUTE RAINFALL (inches). The data in Chart 7 were multiplied by 0.72 to determine the rainfall for a
15-minute period, then multiplied by 4 to establish the corresponding rainfall rate in inches per hour. The flow

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rates in gallons per minute (gpm) were established by dividing the inches per hour by 12 to determine cubic feet
per hour per square foot, then multiplying by 7.48 gallons per cubic foot to determine gallons per hour per square

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foot, then dividing by 60 minutes per hour to determine the equivalent gallons per minute.

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A.2 Roof Drainage
Primary roof drainage systems are sized for a 100-year, 60-minute storm. Secondary roof drainage systems are

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sized for a more severe 100-year, 15-minute storm. The rainfall rates in Table A.1 should be used for design unless
higher rates are established locally.

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A.3 Sizing by Flow Rate
Storm drainage systems may be sized by stormwater flow rates, using the appropriate GPM/SF of rainfall listed
in Table A.1 for the local area. Multiplying the listed GPM/SF by the roof area being drained (in square feet)

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produces the gallons per minute (gpm) of required flow for each drain inlet. The flow rates (gpm) can then be
added to determine the flows in each section of the drainage system. Required pipe sizes can be determined from
Table 13.6.1 and Table 13.6.2.

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A.4 Sizing by Roof Area
Storm drainage systems may be sized using the roof area served by each section of the drainage system. Required
pipe sizes can be determined from Table 13.6.1 and Table 13.6.2. Using this method, it may be necessary to inter-
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polate between the various listed rainfall rates (inches per hour). To determine the allowable roof area for a listed
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size pipe at a listed slope, divide the allowable square feet of roof area for a 1” rainfall rate by the listed rainfall
rate for the local area. For example, the allowable roof area for a 6” drain at 1/8” slope with a rainfall rate of
3.2 inches/hour is 21400/3.2 = 6688 square feet.

A.5 Capacity of Rectangular Scuppers


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Table A.5 lists the discharge capacity of various width rectangular roof scuppers with various heads of water.
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The maximum allowable level of water on the roof should be obtained from the structural engineer, based on the
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design of the roof.


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388 2015 National Standard Plumbing Code - Illustrated


Table A.1 RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES
PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE
60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION
STATES AND CITIES 100-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN

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IN/HR GPM/SF IN/HR GPM/SF
ALABAMA
Birmingham 3.7 0.038 7.8 0.081

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Huntsville 3.3 0.034 7.5 0.078
Mobile 4.5 0.047 10.1 0.105
Montgomery 3.8 0.039 8.4 0.087

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ALASKA
Aleutian Islands 1.0 0.010 2.5 0.026
Anchorage 0.6 0.006 1.5 0.016

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Bethel 0.8 0.008 2.0 0.021
Fairbanks 1.0 0.010 2.5 0.026
Juneau 0.6 0.006 1.5 0.016
ARIZONA
Flagstaff 2.3 0.024 5.2 0.054

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Phoenix 2.2 0.023 4.9 0.051
Tucson 3.0 0.031 5.8 0.060
ARKANSAS
Eudora 3.8 0.039 8.6 0.089

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Ft. Smith 3.9 0.041 8.9 0.092
Jonesboro 3.5 0.036 7.5 0.078
Little Rock 3.7 0.038 8.6 0.089
CALIFORNIA
Eureka 1.5 0.016 3.7 0.038

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Lake Tahoe 1.3 0.014 2.9 0.030
Los Angeles 2.0 0.021 4.3 0.045
Lucerne Valley 2.5 0.026 4.3 0.045
Needles 1.5 0.016 3.7 0.038
Palmdale 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075
Redding 1.5 0.016 3.7 0.038
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San Diego 1.5 0.016 3.7 0.038
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San Francisco 1.5 0.016 3.5 0.036
San Luis Obispo 1.5 0.016 3.7 0.038
COLORADO
Craig 1.5 0.016 3.5 0.036
Denver 2.2 0.023 4.6 0.048
Durango 1.8 0.019 4.3 0.045
Stratton 3.0 0.031 6.6 0.069
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CONNECTICUT
Hartford 2.8 0.029 6.6 0.069
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New Haven 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075


DELAWARE
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Dover 3.5 0.036 7.8 0.081


Rehobeth Beach 3.6 0.037 8.6 0.089
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Washington 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089
FLORIDA
Daytona Beach 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089
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Ft. Myers 4.0 0.042 10.1 0.105


Jacksonville 4.3 0.045 8.6 0.089
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Melbourne 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089


Miami 4.5 0.047 11.5 0.119
Palm Beach 5.0 0.052 11.5 0.119
Tampa 4.2 0.044 10.1 0.105
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Tallahassee 4.1 0.043 9.2 0.096


GEORGIA
Atlanta 3.5 0.036 7.8 0.081
Brunswick 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089
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Macon 3.7 0.038 8.1 0.084


Savannah 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089
Thomasville 4.0 0.042 8.6 0.089
HAWAII
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Hawaiian Islands (1)

2015 National Standard Plumbing Code - Illustrated


2012 389
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Table A.1 RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued
PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE
60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION
STATES AND CITIES 100-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN

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IN/HR GPM/SF IN/HR GPM/SF
IDAHO
Boise 1.0 0.010 2.3 0.024

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Idaho Falls 1.2 0.012 3.2 0.033
Lewiston 1.0 0.010 2.9 0.030

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Twin Falls 1.1 0.011 2.3 0.024
ILLINOIS
Chicago 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065
Harrisburg 3.1 0.032 6.9 0.072

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Peoria 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
Springfield 3.0 0.031 6.6 0.069
INDIANA
Evansville 3.0 0.031 6.9 0.072

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Indianapolis 2.8 0.029 6.3 0.065
Richmond 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065
South Bend 2.7 0.028 6.0 0.062
IOWA

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Council Bluffs 3.7 0.038 8.1 0.084
Davenport 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075
Des Moines 3.4 0.035 7.8 0.081
Sioux City 3.6 0.037 7.8 0.081
KANSAS

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Goodland 3.5 0.036 7.5 0.078
Salina 3.8 0.039 8.6 0.089
Topeka 3.8 0.039 8.6 0.089
Wichita 3.9 0.041 8.9 0.092
KENTUCKY
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Bowling Green 2.9 0.030 6.9 0.072
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Lexington 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
Louisville 2.8 0.029 6.3 0.065
Paducah 3.0 0.031 6.9 0.072
LOUISIANA
Monroe 3.8 0.039 8.9 0.092
New Orleans 4.5 0.047 10.1 0.105
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Shreveport 4.0 0.042 9.5 0.099


MAINE
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Bangor 2.2 0.023 4.9 0.051


Kittery 2.4 0.025 5.8 0.060
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Millinocket 2.0 0.021 4.3 0.045


MARYLAND
Baltimore 3.6 0.037 8.6 0.089
Frostburg 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
Ocean City 3.7 0.038 8.6 0.089
MASSACHUSETTS
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Adams 2.6 0.027 6.0 0.062


Boston 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065
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Springfield 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065


MICHIGAN
Cheboygan 2.1 0.022 4.6 0.048
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Detroit 2.5 0.026 5.5 0.057


Grand Rapids 2.6 0.027 5.5 0.057
Kalamazoo 2.7 0.028 6.0 0.062
Traverse City 2.2 0.023 4.9 0.051
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MINNESOTA
Duluth 2.6 0.027 6.0 0.062
Grand Forks 2.5 0.026 6.0 0.062
Minneapolis 3.0 0.031 6.9 0.072
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Worthington 3.4 0.035 7.5 0.078


MISSISSIPPI
Biloxi 4.5 0.047 10.1 0.105
Columbus 3.5 0.036 7.8 0.081
Jackson 3.8 0.039 8.6 0.089

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378 2015 National
2012 National Standard
Standard Plumbing
Plumbing Code
Code -- Illustrated
Illustrated
Table A.1 RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued
PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE
60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION
STATES AND CITIES 100-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN

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IN/HR GPM/SF IN/HR GPM/SF
MISSOURI

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Independence 3.7 0.038 8.4 0.087
Jefferson City 3.4 0.035 7.8 0.081
St. Louis 3.2 0.033 7.2 0.075

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Springfield 3.7 0.038 8.1 0.084
MONTANA
Billings 1.8 0.019 3.7 0.038

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Glendive 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060
Great Falls 1.8 0.019 3.7 0.038
Missoula 1.3 0.014 2.9 0.030
NEBRASKA

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Omaha 3.6 0.037 8.1 0.084
North Platte 3.5 0.036 7.5 0.078
Scotts Bluff 2.8 0.029 6.0 0.062
NEVADA

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Las Vegas 1.5 0.016 3.5 0.036
Reno 1.2 0.012 2.9 0.030
Winnemucca 1.0 0.010 2.3 0.024
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Berlin 2.2 0.023 5.2 0.054

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Manchester 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060
NEW JERSEY
Atlantic City 3.4 0.035 8.1 0.084
Paterson 3.0 0.031 6.9 0.072
Trenton 3.2 0.033 7.2 0.075
NEW MEXICO
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Albuquerque 2.0 0.021 4.0 0.042
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Carlsbad 2.6 0.027 6.0 0.062
Gallup 2.1 0.022 4.9 0.051
NEW YORK
Binghamton 2.4 0.025 5.5 0.057
Buffalo 2.3 0.024 5.2 0.054
New York 3.1 0.032 6.9 0.072
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Schenectady 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060


Syracuse 2.4 0.025 5.2 0.054
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NORTH CAROLINA
Ashville 3.2 0.033 7.2 0.075
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Charlotte 3.4 0.035 8.1 0.084


Raleigh 4.0 0.042 8.9 0.092
Wilmington 4.4 0.046 9.5 0.099
NORTH DAKOTA
Bismarck 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065
Fargo 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
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Minot 2.6 0.027 5.8 0.060


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OHIO
Cincinnati 2.8 0.029 6.3 0.065
Cleveland 2.4 0.025 5.5 0.057
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Columbus 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065


Toledo 2.6 0.027 5.8 0.060
Youngstown 2.4 0.025 5.8 0.060
OKLAHOMA
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Boise City 3.4 0.035 7.8 0.081


Muskogee 4.0 0.042 9.2 0.096
Oklahoma City 4.1 0.043 9.2 0.096
OREGON
Medford 1.3 0.014 3.2 0.033
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Portland 1.3 0.014 3.2 0.033


Ontario 1.0 0.010 2.3 0.024

2015 National
2012 National Standard
Standard Plumbing
Plumbing Code
Code -- Illustrated
Illustrated 391
379
Table A.1 RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued
PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE
60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION
STATES AND CITIES 100-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN

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IN/HR GPM/SF IN/HR GPM/SF
PENNSYLVANIA

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Erie 2.4 0.025 5.5 0.057
Harrisburg 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
Philadelphia 3.2 0.033 7.2 0.075

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Pittsburgh 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060
Scranton 2.8 0.029 6.0 0.062
RHODE ISLAND

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Newport 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075
Providence 2.9 0.030 6.9 0.072
SOUTH CAROLINA
Charleston 4.1 0.043 7.8 0.081
Columbia 3.5 0.036 8.4 0.087

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Greenville 3.3 0.034 9.2 0.096
SOUTH DAKOTA
Lemmon 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065

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Rapid City 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065
Sioux Falls 3.4 0.035 7.5 0.078
TENNESSEE
Knoxville 3.1 0.032 7.2 0.075
Memphis 3.5 0.036 7.5 0.078

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Nashville 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075
TEXAS
Corpus Christi 4.6 0.048 10.7 0.111
Dallas 4.2 0.044 9.5 0.099
El Paso 2.0 0.021 4.9 0.051
Houston 4.6 0.048 10.7 0.111
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Lubbock 3.3 0.034 7.5 0.078
No
San Antonio 4.4 0.046 9.8 0.102
UTAH
Bluff 2.0 0.021 4.3 0.045
Cedar City 1.5 0.016 3.5 0.036
Salt Lake City 1.3 0.014 2.6 0.027
VERMONT
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Bennington 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060


Burlington 2.3 0.024 5.2 0.054
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Rutland 2.4 0.025 5.5 0.057


VIRGINIA
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Charlottesville 3.4 0.035 7.8 0.081


Richmond 4.0 0.042 8.9 0.092
Roanoke 3.3 0.034 7.8 0.081
Norfolk 4.0 0.042 9.5 0.099
WASHINGTON
Seattle 1.0 0.010 2.3 0.024
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Spokane 1.0 0.010 2.6 0.027


Walla Walla 1.0 0.010 2.9 0.030
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WEST VIRGINIA
Charleston 2.9 0.030 6.6 0.069
Martinsburg 3.0 0.031 7.2 0.075
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Morgantown 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065


WISCONSIN
La Cross 2.9 0.030 6.9 0.072
Green Bay 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060
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Milwaukee 2.7 0.028 6.3 0.065


Wausau 2.5 0.026 5.8 0.060
WYOMING
Casper 1.9 0.020 4.3 0.045
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Cheyenne 2.5 0.026 5.5 0.057


Evaston 1.3 0.014 2.9 0.030
Rock Springs 1.4 0.015 3.5 0.036

1. Rainfall rates in Hawaiian Islands vary from 1.5 in/hr to 8.0 in/hr depending on location and elevation. Consult local data.

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380 2015 National
2012 National Standard
Standard Plumbing
Plumbing Code
Code -- Illustrated
Illustrated
Table A.5
DISCHARGE FROM RECTANGULAR SCUPPERS -
GALLONS PER MINUTE
WATER HEAD WIDTH OF SCUPPER - (Inches)
(Inches) 6 12 18 24 30 36

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0.5 6 13 19 25 32 38

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1 17 35 53 71 89 107
1.5 31 64 97 130 163 196

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2 98 149 200 251 302
2.5 136 207 278 349 420

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3 177 271 364 458 551
3.5 339 457 575 693
4 412 556 700 844

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NOTES:
1. Table A.5 is based on discharge over a rectangular weir with end contractions.
2. Head is depth of water above bottom of scupper opening.

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3. Height of scupper opening should be 2 times the design head.
4. Coordinate the allowable head of water with the structural design of the roof.

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2012 393
381
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394
382 2015 National
2012 National Standard
Standard Plumbing
Plumbing Code
Code -- Illustrated
Illustrated