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Footwear

Fashion

Footwear Fashion Staking your
Footwear Fashion Staking your
Footwear Fashion Staking your

Staking your

Footwear Fashion Staking your

© April 2019: J Jericho & The Free School www.thefreeschool.education

Price: ₭ 0

Copyright is waived if the author is acknowledged.

The Author

is waived if the author is acknowledged. The Author Dr. Jay The inspiration to write this

Dr. Jay

The inspiration to write this mini book arrived in a dream last week.

This educational book is not for commercial sale. It strives to motivate elite designers of future generations to aim high and achieve stratospheric supremacy. Trademark and celebrity Images in this book acknowledge sources. Royalty free use is claimed under the fair illustration purposes in education. Images without explicit references are Microsoft Clip Art sources.

This public exposure draft was penned without assistance. I am grateful to receive feedback about errors and ideas from any source. You may e-mail the author at jay@journalistethics.com

You may download a free copy of this book in PDF or print format at these home pages:

author at jay@journalistethics.com You may download a free copy of this book in PDF or print

Shoes

Tasks

Part 1

Types

p. 1

Part 2

Terrain

p. 10

Shoes

Themes

Part 3

Time

p. 12

Part 4

Tradition

p. 15

Part 5

Taste

p. 21

Part 6

Trademark

p. 23

Shoes

Techniques

Part 7

Tones

p. 25

Part 8

Textures

p. 27

Part 9

Therapeutics

p. 29

Part 10

Ties

p. 31

Part 11

Tacks

p. 38

Part 12

Treatments

p. 42

Part 13

Tag-ons

p. 46

Case Studies

Part 1

Additional purpose shoes: Gameboy

p. 9

Part 2

Terrain: Diving fins

p. 10

Part 3

Time as brand: Dr. Martens

p. 14

Part 4

Fads: Puma’s untied laces

p. 20

Part 5

Each to their own: Flashing lights sneakers

p. 22

Part 6

Trademark infringement dispute: Adidas

p. 24

Part 7

Red Shoes

p. 26

Part 8

Ugg Boots

p. 28

Part 9

Dr Scholl’s ®

p. 30

Part 10

One size fits all: Adjustable rowing shoes

p. 37

Part 11

Boot-making economics

p. 41

Part 12

Costing and pricing template

p. 45

Part 13

To advertise or not advertise?

p. 49

Summary

Manolo Blahnik and Sarah Jessica Parker

p. 51

References

p. 52

Shoe design template

Criteria

Illustration example

My selection

1.

Type

High heel

 

2.

Purpose

Multiple

 

3.

Heel

3”

 

4.

Open or closed

Semi-open

 

5.

Terrain

Indoors

 

6.

Time period of style

1990s retro

 

7.

Tradition

Classic

 

8.

Taste

Elegant

 

9.

Trademark

Trixie Dixie ™

 

10.

Tones

Fire engine red

 

11.

Textures

Artificial suede

 

12.

Therapeutics

Ultra-soft inner lining

 

13.

Ties

Toe strap

 

14.

Tacks

Nailed soles

 

15.

Treatments

Kuru Shield ®

 

16.

Tag-ons

Shoe horn

 

17.

Unit cost

USD 400

 

18.

Retail price

USD 699

 

19.

Demographic

Mature, wealthy

 

20.

Endorsement

Cate Blanchett

 

21.

Brand image

Red carpet, VIP

 

22.

Legality

Attorney vetted

 
21. Brand image Red carpet, VIP   22. Legality Attorney vetted   www.journalistethics.com

www.journalistethics.com

Part one

Shoe types

This book is about shoes. This noun is synonymous with ‘footgear’ and ‘footwear’. Most people

wear shoes at least once in their lives. The meaning of this word needs no serious introduction

beyond the cutesy pictures below that illustrate these paired objects. The image on the left

illustrates footwear targeted at the ladies’ market. The picture on the right shows men’s footgear.

market. The picture on the right shows men’s footgear. This book is structured into three main
market. The picture on the right shows men’s footgear. This book is structured into three main

This book is structured into three main parts. The first section classifies shoe types. It links this

taxonomy to the territory where its owners are most likely to wear these apparel. The second

section explores shoe themes. Topics of discussion include time period of the product ranges,

design traditions, fashion gimmicks and trademark originality. The final major section explores

five aspects of aesthetic form: tone, textures, therapeutics, ties and tacks.

The goal of this open-access short book is ambitious. It aims to create a comprehensive handbook

that illustrates the breadth of core concepts that shoes designers should consider when they

create their signature-style masterpieces. This book aims to inspire creative geniuses like you.

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Classifications

There are numerous ways to classify shoe types. The system that you adopt may vary by context.

The sub-sections below examine popular taxonomies. I also construct my own tripartite scheme.

Online

It is easy to find shoe classification systems online using popular search engines such as Yahoo

Images. The search string “shoe types” delivers dozens of useful charts such as these examples.

string “shoe types” delivers dozens of useful charts such as these examples. Source, Quora.com (author unknown)

Source, Quora.com (author unknown)

2

A shoe classification system

A shoe classification system 3
A shoe classification system 3

3

Functions

Virtually all footwear designers consider the single or dominant purpose of the shoes that they

construct. Footgear that have narrow purposes may best illustrate this concept.

I posit that footwear may be classifiable by three broad functions;

Specific purpose;

Multi-purpose;

Most purposes.

Specific purpose shoes are designed for narrow contexts. Karate shoes and golfer shoes are

examples of footgear that are made for specific situations.

examples of footgear that are made for specific situations. The image above illustrates shoes designed for

The image above illustrates shoes designed for a ballerina to wear during public performances.

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Multi-purpose shoes are appropriate for few functions. The images below of dress shoes with

heels are an example of footwear that is best suited for a handful of scenarios. Popular examples

include attending formal events (e.g. weddings), corporate wardrobe and evening wear.

( e.g. weddings), corporate wardrobe and evening wear. Most purposes shoes are a subtle extension of
( e.g. weddings), corporate wardrobe and evening wear. Most purposes shoes are a subtle extension of

Most purposes shoes are a subtle extension of the multi-purpose classification. Their functional

design is self-explanatory. They can be worn in numerous contexts. Sports shoes and generic flat

casual shoes can be worn in several environments. Examples of these uses includes:

Jogging;

Light hiking;

Gardening;

Playing sports such as tennis and basketball;

Casual wear, such as attending family barbecues;

Shopping expeditions that involve extensive walking;

Exercising and working out at the gymnasium;

Office work that does not require corporate wardrobe (e.g. basement archivist).

Images overleaf are illustration examples of sports shoes and casual shoes.

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Sports shoes

Sports shoes Casual shoes The ‘map of Africa’ image, above right, illustrates the partial overlap between
Sports shoes Casual shoes The ‘map of Africa’ image, above right, illustrates the partial overlap between
Sports shoes Casual shoes The ‘map of Africa’ image, above right, illustrates the partial overlap between

Casual shoes

Sports shoes Casual shoes The ‘map of Africa’ image, above right, illustrates the partial overlap between

The ‘map of Africa’ image, above right, illustrates the partial overlap between some sports shoes

and casual shoes. These black casual shoes have a design that is somewhat sporty.

black casual shoes have a design that is somewhat sporty. Converse ™ is a famed example
black casual shoes have a design that is somewhat sporty. Converse ™ is a famed example

Converse ™ is a famed example of an established shoe brand that designs footgear that are

suitable for sports and fashionable casual wear. The figures above are illustration examples.

6

Aesthetic

Some shoes are classifiable by their lack of utility. Examples are rare. Art-oriented fashion

designers sometimes create showy shoes that are designed to entertain audiences at catwalk

fashion shows and art exhibitions. These melting chocolate shoes are an example. You lick?

These melting chocolate shoes are an example. You lick? Design Other popular classifications of shoes overlap

Design

Other popular classifications of shoes overlap with issues shown in the ‘function’ illustrations on

the prior three pages. Laced (below left) and non-laced (below right) designs are an example.

illustrations on the prior three pages. Laced (below left) and non-laced (below right) designs are an

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illustrations on the prior three pages. Laced (below left) and non-laced (below right) designs are an

Heeled shoes (below left) and non-heeled flat shoes (below right) are a popular classification.

flat shoes (below right) are a popular classification. Open shoes (below left) and closed shoes (below
flat shoes (below right) are a popular classification. Open shoes (below left) and closed shoes (below

Open shoes (below left) and closed shoes (below right) are a way to classify footgear. Closed

shoes fully conceal the wearer’s feet. They are best suited for protective work applications.

feet. They are best suited for protective work applications. The three design classifications above overlap. The

The three design classifications above overlap. The top left image above of flips flops may be

classified in multiple ways. For example, they are non-laced, non-heeled informal wear. They also

have an open design. The aesthetic of this footgear conveys a casual aura. They are suitable for

leisurely activities such as walking around the home garden or along a sandy beach coastline.

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Case study

Additional-purpose shoes

Some shoe designs incorporate functions that go beyond supporting and decorating feet.

Numerous examples may be found via online search engines. Gameboy shoes are an example of

an eccentric additional-purpose shoe. The design incorporates a storage area for digital games.

an eccentric additional-purpose shoe. The design incorporates a storage area for digital games. Street stylista (2009)

Street stylista (2009)

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Part Two

Terrain

Many shoe designers instinctively classify shoe designs as exclusively or dominantly suitable for

indoor or outdoor activities. Images below are footwear designed for heavy duty outdoor use.

below are footwear designed for heavy duty outdoor use. Ballroom dancing shoes and tap-dancing shoes are
below are footwear designed for heavy duty outdoor use. Ballroom dancing shoes and tap-dancing shoes are
below are footwear designed for heavy duty outdoor use. Ballroom dancing shoes and tap-dancing shoes are

Ballroom dancing shoes and tap-dancing shoes are designed primarily for delicate indoor use.

heavy duty outdoor use. Ballroom dancing shoes and tap-dancing shoes are designed primarily for delicate indoor

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Case study

Terrain

Diving shoes are an example of footgear that has narrow purposes as identifiable from their

name. Fin designed diving footwear have a very narrow purpose. The dynamic shape propels

divers forward as they kick their legs. Anyone who has attempted to walk along the ground

wearing diving fins knows that this is an extremely slow and difficult act. And comical to watch.

an extremely slow and difficult act. And comical to watch. Diving shoes are an example of

Diving shoes are an example of how designers adapt footgear that has a single role to create a

fashion-wear that has practical purposes. Soft fabric scuba divers’ shoes are an example.

Fashionable ‘Scuba Sneakers’ are suitable for earthly leisure wear and light scuba diving.

suitable for earthly leisure wear and light scuba diving. Functional scuba diving shoes (Zappos, 2019) 11

Functional scuba diving shoes (Zappos, 2019)

11

Scuba sneakers (Popinac, 2019)

Part Three

Time

Most fashion designers strategically consider the time period theme for each line of footwear

that they design. Broadly speaking there are three main eras that designers may select:

Retrospective (‘retro’) designs;

Contemporary (‘modern’) designs;

Innovative (‘futuristic’) designs.

Retrospective models aim to emulate a look from a past era. A retro theme example is ‘1980s

London punk army boots’ that are popular among some leading designers such as Dr. Martens.

popular among some leading designers such as Dr. Martens. In 2019, a person may buy an

In 2019, a person may buy an original pair of Dr. Martens punk shoes from a second hand store

that were made in the 1980s. The shoe designer of that pair is not a retro artist. The shoes are

from a retro period. The designer of that period was a contemporary punk fashion designer.

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Contemporary modes align with current fashion trends. They are not synonymous with

mainstream fashion. Some alternative and niche designs reflect current trends in those domains.

Dr. Martens is an example of an established brand that rarely markets contemporary designs.

The images below are a novel exception. This collaborative design aimed to emulate the current

camouflage pattern of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) (Freshness Mag, 2012).

the United States Marine Corps (USMC) (Freshness Mag, 2012). In a similar vein to the exception

In a similar vein to the exception example above, Dr. Martens sometimes design futuristic theme

footwear. This shoemaker’s Vegan Galaxy Range has a progressive connotation. It aligns with the

gradual growth of vegan consumers and mainstreaming of space institutions such as Space X.

with the gradual growth of vegan consumers and mainstreaming of space institutions such as Space X.

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(Etsy, 2019a)

Case study

Time as brand

Dr. Martens are a useful brand to examine for all three period examples. This corporation’s image

centers around time. Dr. Martens was founded in 1947. During the 1960s-1980s, this brand

became associated with sub-cultures such as rebellious skin heads, punks and grunge hippies

who reject social norms such as consumerism and the corporate career life course. The popularity

of their footwear skyrocketed from fringe to borderline mainstream during the early 1990s. The

firm almost went bankrupt in 2003, due to rapidly declining sales.

In contemporary times, Dr. Martens retailers explicitly acknowledge the massive global successes

that this brand experienced during its glory decade, the 1990s (Wildfang, 2019).

during its glory decade, the 1990s (Wildfang, 2019). The image above shows how Dr. Martens retailers

The image above shows how Dr. Martens retailers refer to 1990s modes to reassure customers

that contemporary designs match peak success fashions from the 1990s. Dr. Martens branding

team face a quandary. Image modernization may alienate customers who prefer heritage purity.

On the other hand, failure to innovate may eventually bore loyal customers. It may also alienate

youth who do not want to emulate their parents dress code when they were the same age.

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Part Four

Tradition

Diligent fashion creators reflect deeply on the style of shoes that they design. Style is one of the

core factors that consumers assess when they select apparel among the numerous alternatives.

Other core factors include affordability (e.g. value) and the functional utility of the product.

The Random House Dictionary (2019) defines ‘style’ as “a particular kind, sort, or type, as with

reference to form, appearance, or character.”

There are numerous style taxonomies in fashion literature. I simplify these debates by discussing

five specific styles. I explore how these have been used to construct and market tennis shoes.

The five distinct styles that I define and illustrate in this chapter are:

1. Traditional;

2. Classic;

3. Cutting edge;

4. Avant garde;

5. Fads.

Tradition is a cultural concept that refers to historical roots. It may be associated with

anthropological concepts such as folk heritage from prior centuries and ancient history. The

modern form of tennis emerged during the late 19 th Century. In the sports context, traditional

tennis shoes may be marketed as ‘vintage’ designs by those who sell old stock from prior decades

or centuries. It may also be used by current manufacturers who aim to revive such styles.

15

Etsy.com is an example of a shoe retailer that maintains a specialist search category titled

“Vintage tennis shoes”. The image below captures an extract from this online sales interface.

These original tennis shoes from the 1970s are explicitly marketed as “Vintage tennis shoes”.

1970s are explicitly marketed as “Vintage tennis shoes”. Classic With reference to its fashion definition, the

Classic

With reference to its fashion definition, the Collins Dictionary (2019a), offers the following

interpretation of the noun ‘classic’:

Continuously in fashion because of its simple and basic style [example] a classic day dress

US, Informal continuing in fashion because of its simple style [example] said of an article of apparel

Many tennis commentators regard the Dunlop Volley shoe range to be a prime example of a

classic tennis shoe (e.g. Moore, 2018). The first version of this shoe was sold in 1939.

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This shoe’s canvas fabric, flexi-rubber sole, lace-up ties and narrow white body has barely

changed since the 1960s. The Dunlop Volley has never ceased production. Images below show

retail versions of this shoe from the mid-1970s and 2019.

retail versions of this shoe from the mid-1970s and 2019. Yu (2018) [c. 1976] Volley (2019)

Yu (2018) [c. 1976]

Volley (2019)

The “White/Green/Gold” 2019 edition is near-identical to the version worn by professional tennis

player Mark Edmondson when he won the Australian Open Men’s Singles crown in 1976.

Cutting edge

The Collins Dictionary (2019b) defines the adjective ‘cutting edge’ as “techniques or equipment

are the most advanced that there are in a particular field”.

An example of cutting edge apparel are shoes and clothes worn at catwalk fashion parades at

upmarket fairs in Paris, Rome and New York. Such events offer their audiences a preview of elite

fashion months prior to the distribution of these shoes and garments in mainstream stores and

niche retail outlets.

17

Tennis shoes that market themselves as ‘cutting edge’ focus on advanced technological

innovations that provide club and professional players with a competitive advantage.

Tennis Warehouse (2019a) is among the largest online retailers of tennis equipment and apparel.

largest online retailers of tennis equipment and apparel. Tennis Warehouse uses the term ‘cutting edge’ to
largest online retailers of tennis equipment and apparel. Tennis Warehouse uses the term ‘cutting edge’ to

Tennis Warehouse uses the term ‘cutting edge’ to describe the advanced materials and comfort

features of the KSwiss Knitshot men’s tennis shoes. The text image above shows these words.

Avant garde

Fashion designer Barbara I Gongini (2019) describes avant garde fashion as

An intellectual, artistic and cultural movement characterized by the experimental, the radical and the unorthodox approaches. Derived from French and meaning vanguard or advance guard, the term describes the few who dare to go in front and defy conventions.

Avant garde technologies and fashion may overlap with the notion of ‘cutting edge’ in some

peoples’ minds. A distinction between these nouns is that avant garde designers take risks. Avant

garde technology trials advanced techniques that are not yet proven to develop recognized best

practices.

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Experimental, innovative fashion and technologies are used to construct and market tennis

footwear. Tennis Warehouse (2019b) uses the noun avant garde to market a range of Adidas

tennis shoes that are ultra-light and minimalist compared to competitors with similar designs.

and minimalist compared to competitors with similar designs. The use of the adjective ‘forward-thinking’ in the

The use of the adjective ‘forward-thinking’ in the advertisement above is consistent with the term

‘avant garde’. This advertisement markets the “design” and “materials” as avant garde. It

explicitly uses these words to convey this core marketing message concerning innovation.

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Case study

Fads

The adjective ‘fad’ describes a phenomenon that briefly enjoys mass popularity. Fads usually

involve people purchasing a good or service and conspicuously consuming this in public. Some

fads are revived years later and repeat the same cycle. Other fads never repeat. Many people

equate fads with adjectives such as ‘tacky trends’ and ‘gimmicks’ that are short lived.

During the late 1980s, leading sports apparel manufacturer Puma marketed their basketball

shoes as fit to wear ‘untied’.

This case study shows how product fads can be marketed with

reference to the ways that a product manufacturer opts to market a mainstream product and

how their customers freely adapt their use of a conventional product.

customers freely adapt their use of a conventional product. This fad was rarely replicated on the

This fad was rarely replicated on the sports field by elite professionals for safety reasons.

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Part Five

Taste

It is customary for fashion designers to reflect deeply on the core emotional message that an

individual product, product line or brand aims to impart to audiences. Two contrasting examples

among many are the decision to design shoes that are ‘tasteful’ or ‘tacky’.

Tasteful designs are synonymous with adjectives such as ‘elegant’ and ‘graceful’. Tacky modes

are synonymous with words such as ‘vulgar’ and ‘gaudy’. These adjectives are subjective. One

person may regard a pair of shoes to be ghastly and another may think they are classy.

Those who aim to create tasteful shoe designs usually follow established norms about key design

factors such as texture and tone for each range of shoes that fulfils a specific purpose. For

example, it is customary for bridal shoes to match the bridal gown. In Western contexts, fashion

designers who style wedding shoes for traditional white bridal gowns mostly use white or light

tones such as nudes. They commission superior materials and incorporate a heel into the design.

superior materials and incorporate a heel into the design. Getty © Designers who purposefully strive to
superior materials and incorporate a heel into the design. Getty © Designers who purposefully strive to

Getty ©

Designers who purposefully strive to design tacky shoes may aim to defy standard conventions

about core design issues such as color, texture and shape. Some tacky designers strive to create

an atmosphere of informality and joviality. Others may seek to convey another message.

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Case study

Each to their own

Some fashion critics state that flashing lights trainers are tasteless. They are worn by show-offs

who thrive on being the center-of-attention. Others argue these footgear range are fun. Owners

share the positive energy of flashing lights with others and bear the expenses such as batteries.

lights with others and bear the expenses such as batteries. Opinions about taste may vary by
lights with others and bear the expenses such as batteries. Opinions about taste may vary by

Opinions about taste may vary by context. For example, a child wearing flashing sneakers at a

dance party may be appropriate behavior. According to some, the same opinion may not be true

of a mature-age corporate executive attending a board meeting at a global merchant bank.

executive attending a board meeting at a global merchant bank. Pant-shoes 22 Cardboard shoes Images (Inventor

Pant-shoes

22

executive attending a board meeting at a global merchant bank. Pant-shoes 22 Cardboard shoes Images (Inventor

Cardboard shoes

Images (Inventor Spot, 2016)

Part Six

Trademark

Any designer may trademark their art at a trademark registry if their work meets registration

requirements. Criteria for trademark recognition are broadly similar in all jurisdictions. The

United States Patent and Trademark Office offers guidelines for American registered trademarks.

Office offers guidelines for American registered trademarks. Trademarked work must be distinguishable to attorneys

Trademarked work must be distinguishable to attorneys trained to recognize unique merits of

text, images and symbols. Many specialist shoe manufacturers display the trademark logo ™

against their corporate brand name as their corporate brand and logo are trademark registered.

as their corporate brand and logo are trademark registered. The ® symbol indicates that the brand
as their corporate brand and logo are trademark registered. The ® symbol indicates that the brand

The ® symbol indicates that the brand logo is registered as intellectual property.

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Case study

Trademark infringement

Those interested in following current trademark infringement cases about shoe branding may

opt to read the ongoing ‘Adidas America versus Skechers USA’ court case. Adidas claim that

Skechers’s stripe design infringes its famous three stripes branding trademark.

infringes its famous three stripes branding trademark. Skechers’s attorneys argue that multiple shoe

Skechers’s attorneys argue that multiple shoe manufacturers use multi colored stripe designs on

trainers/sneakers and casual shoes. The image below offers four brand examples.

use multi colored stripe designs on trainers/sneakers and casual shoes. The image below offers four brand

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Part Seven

Tones

Sales clerk:

Hello madam. What sort of notebook computer are you looking for?

Customer:

A pink one.

I overheard this conversation in an electronics store seven years ago. I almost wet my pants from

laughter. I repeated the encounter verbatim to my roommate. He informed me that he worked

in a computer store part-time when he was at college. He said that “about 10% of all young ladies

who entered the store to buy a notebook computer walked up to the counter and asked to buy

a pink laptop”. The model and functions were not core considerations.

Colors are powerful. The same color may convey different meanings to alternative people.

Interpretations may vary among shades of the same color. For example, some people associate

dark tone khaki boots with the military. Light khaki tone boots may remind them of gardening.

Those designing shoes may benefit from researching the dominant meanings associated with

functional shoe types for the most likely consumers and situations that are associated with their

brand, shoe type and objectives. This may maximize sales and positive reviews among customers.

Some customers mostly black shoes because ‘black goes with everything’. Many consumers

believe that blue shoes are the most neutral color. This shade rarely offends others. Some people

never buy ashy toned shoes as grey is ostensibly a sad hue. Brown tones may be a faux paus

choice for unsavory reasons. Purple for some is the color of mystery, piety and non-conformity.

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Case study

Red shoes

What is so sacred about red shoes? Perhaps there is no enigma. Shoes come in all hues. Red is

just another tone. May you freely reflect on these famed images and draw your own conclusions.

reflect on these famed images and draw your own conclusions. Do you concur that heavily discounted
reflect on these famed images and draw your own conclusions. Do you concur that heavily discounted
reflect on these famed images and draw your own conclusions. Do you concur that heavily discounted
reflect on these famed images and draw your own conclusions. Do you concur that heavily discounted

Do you concur that heavily discounted men’s shoes in retail stores are often limited to a small

range of colors? Popular colors from the same range are not discounted. Heavy price cuts may

reflect paltry sales. Some shoe tones don’t match most people’s wardrobe. Tones such as

mustard and orange are examples of casual shoe colors that match few gent’s shirts and pants.

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Part Eight

Textures

In the shoe design context, texture contains two overlapping main elements. The first relates to

the choice of material. The second relates to the feel and performance of the material.

The list below are some examples of material that designers may select to incorporate into the

main body of shoes and attachments such as laces and removable shoe linings.

Wool (natural);

Leather and suede (natural);

Vinyl, plastic, polyester, nylon and foam (artificial);

Cottons such as canvas and linen (natural);

Rubber (natural).

The performance of each material may depend on factors such as the quality of the supplier and

the chemicals that the material has been exposed to during manufacturing processes. Bonded

leathers are usually cheaper and coarser than finer grade leathers such as full grain leathers.

Expensive materials do not always offer the most comfort. Many rubber shoes are more

comfortable than rigid shoes made from fine leather grades. Rubber shoes may offer better

performance if the user requires maximum flexibility. Canvas construction shoes may offer better

comfort and performance for some trampolinists than superior grade leather substitutes.

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Case study

Ugg boots

Ugg Boots are a nongendered style of sheepskin boot. They are normally made from twin-faced

sheepskin. The boot’s inside is lined with fleece. The outer surface is lined with sheep hide.

with fleece. The outer surface is lined with sheep hide. Boots made from sheep fleece and
with fleece. The outer surface is lined with sheep hide. Boots made from sheep fleece and
with fleece. The outer surface is lined with sheep hide. Boots made from sheep fleece and

Boots made from sheep fleece and hide offers advantage over Ugg Boots made from polyester.

√ Wool is more durable than synthetics and may be cheaper in the long run;

√ Many consumers enjoy the smell of natural fibers such as wool;

√ Wool is less allergenic than artificial substitutes in most cases;

√ Natural fibers such as wool offer better insulation than artificial substitutes;

√ Wool is less likely to absorb moisture from rain and it dries faster;

√ Wool allows skin to breathe and reduces perspiration and moisture retention.

Many of these advantages translate to other natural fibers in comparison to artificial substitutes.

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Part Nine

Therapeutics

To some degree, all shoe designers must consider the comfort, health and safety of those who

wear their shoes. A line of shoes that are painful or dangerous may damage a brand’s general

standing among stakeholders and customers. They may also result in lawsuits or prosecution.

Comfort extends beyond construction materials discussed in the prior chapter. The height, width,

contours and weight of a shoe’s dimensions underpin its general feel and performance.

dimensions underpin its general feel and performance. Requirements may vary widely among users who wear the

Requirements may vary widely among users who wear the same shoe type for different contexts.

Some workers require formal office shoes that have bulky, tough dry soles and surfaces to protect

them from spiky debris that scatters the floor in work areas. An office worker who frequently

climbs ladders may require office shoes that are tight, minimalist, light and have sticky grip soles.

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Case study

Dr. Scholl’s Shoes

Dr. Scholl’s ™ is an example of a global-reach shoe manufacturer that images its brand around its

therapeutic properties. The wooden shoes below offer strong protection from hazards such as

broken glass. The firm, smooth wooden sole may promote sound posture for certain persons.

wooden sole may promote sound posture for certain persons. The open top design of Dr. Scholl’s

The open top design of Dr. Scholl’s sandals allows feet to breathe. The raised contours on the

rubber sole of the shoe below (Tradesy, 2019) prevent feet sliding and massage a person’s foot.

contours on the rubber sole of the shoe below (Tradesy, 2019) prevent feet sliding and massage

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Part Ten

Ties

All shoes must be capable of remaining attached to feet as its wearer moves about. The decision

about what binds to select normally depends on core factors such as:

The affordability of the bind;

The physical performance and durability of the binding material;

The physical compatibility of the bind to the shoe’s construction and fabric;

The aesthetic compatibility of the bind to the shoe’s construction and fabric;

The reception of the choice among retailers and consumers.

The ‘reception of choice’ factor contains many sub-issues. For example, designers may need to

determine if they want the bind to convey a classic image or a seasonally popular look. They may

also reflect on ease of use. Some customers prefer sophisticated options for certain shoe types.

Other factors to consider vary by context. Examples of these issues include:

Civil Law – the need to avoid negligent design decisions;

Legislation – the need to abide by occupational health and safety statutes.

The sub-section overleaf shows by pictorial illustration examples of popular shoe binds and

examples of ‘eccentric’ (i.e. alternative) shoe binding options. All options are self-explanatory.

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Laces

Laces Buckle straps 32

Buckle straps

Laces Buckle straps 32

32

Non buckle strap structures

Non buckle strap structures Zippers 33

Zippers

Non buckle strap structures Zippers 33

33

Wrap around body

Wrap around body Elastic 34

Elastic

Wrap around body Elastic 34

34

Velcro

Velcro Rope 35

Rope

Velcro Rope 35

35

String

String Strapless pasties 36

Strapless pasties

String Strapless pasties 36

36

Case study

One size fits all

Case study One size fits all 37
Case study One size fits all 37

37

Part Eleven

Tacks

Conscientious designers should carefully consider how they want the manufacturer to bind their

shoes. Mediocre binding methods can damage the reputation of a brand line or the parent brand.

Many shoes in good condition are discarded merely because a small faulty section splurged open.

Broadly speaking there are four main shoe binding options: glue, nails, stitching and snap lock.

The table below generalizes the cost and performance benefits of each option. The actual cost

and performance for each brand line may vary widely by context.

Binding method

Cost

Performance

Glue

Cheap
Cheap

Average

Nails

Manual labor is expensive.

Superior
Superior

Stitching

Medium cost

Good

Snap lock

Varies

Varies

The options shown in the table above are not mutually exclusive. Some handmade footwear uses

nails to bind the shoe sole with the upper body. They may also use stitching to attach the laces

section onto the body. Furthermore, they may use glue to bind the inner sole lining. Images

overleaf illustrate each option. The name of each option is self-explanatory for most people.

38

Glue

Glue Nails 39 Baldwin (2017)

Nails

Glue Nails 39 Baldwin (2017)

39

Baldwin (2017)

Stitching

Stitching Snap lock 40 Snapdeal (2019)

Snap lock

Stitching Snap lock 40 Snapdeal (2019)
Stitching Snap lock 40 Snapdeal (2019)

40

Snapdeal (2019)

Case study

Boot-making economics

Bootmakers are less common than they were in past centuries Boot-making is a labor-intensive

profession. This process vastly raises the unit cost of each pair of shoes.

process vastly raises the unit cost of each pair of shoes. Many consumers are happy pay

Many consumers are happy pay premium prices for handmade quality footwear. It is cheaper in

the long run than replacing low cost broken shoes. It is also more pleasant to wear one pair of

attractive shoes for a decade than 10 pairs of cheap plastic substitutes over the same period.

10 pairs of cheap plastic substitutes over the same period. Ras (2015) Savvy fashion design decisions

Ras (2015)

Savvy fashion design decisions may extend beyond the selection of tone, texture, ties and tack.

41

Part twelve

Treatments

We have not quite yet finished designing our signature-style smash-hit masterpieces. We need

to coat and protect our fanciful footwear. There are no short cuts to excellence.

Once a shoe is assembled there are two options to consider regarding surface finishing: act or

ignore. Surface finishing involves processes that refine and protect the final product. A simple

example is the choice to protect surface cottons with a spray treatment 1 such as Scotchgard.

with a spray treatment 1 such as Scotchgard ™ . Surface finishing processes are not always

Surface finishing processes are not always done after a shoe is assembled. It

may be done automatically by the material manufacturer voluntarily or as a

customized request by the client. Preassembly treatments are a wise choice

when it is difficult to treat certain parts of a shoe after it is assembled.

Decisions about surface finishing are usually driven by economics. This reality underpins virtually

all design decisions in this book. It is common for designers to not pursue every option that will

improve product quality and popularity. It is too expensive to do everything they want to do.

Images overleaf summarize some product finishing issues that designers may consider. Images

are self-explanatory. The relevance of these decisions may vary by context such as shoe type.

1 This illustration product is not endorsed. There are no sponsors of this book.

42

Shoe polish

Shoe polish Shoe varnish 43

Shoe varnish

Shoe polish Shoe varnish 43

43

Shoe covers

Shoe covers Box and tissue 44

Box and tissue

Shoe covers Box and tissue 44

44

Case study

Costing and pricing

Most fashion designers are required to understand the basics of product costing and pricing

templates. These forms are designed and processed by accountants. With rare exception,

businesses will not manufacture a good that is unprofitable, i.e. unit costs exceed unit revenue.

The image above is a basic template that illustrates a product that is profitable to manufacture.

illustrates a product that is profitable to manufacture. Ingram (2019) This shoe can earn the manufacturer

Ingram (2019)

This shoe can earn the manufacturer USD100 revenue per unit sold to apparel retailers such as

Macys. The total unit costs of producing each unit are USD49. Total profit per unit is USD51.

It is beyond the scope of this art centric book to offer detailed information about unit costing.

Feel free to email the author of this book if you have questions about unit template calculations

for shoe costs. He has much experience in this area. My professional experience informs me that

creative geniuses such as yourself will receive much support from your awesome accountants.

45

Part thirteen

Tag-ons

Most shoe sales do not include free accessories such as miniature cases of shoe polish. Many

superior quality footwears provide basic free accessories that are loaded in the shoe box or string

bag. For example, it is customary for upmarket office shoes to include a spare shoe lace and a

small simple shoe horn that aims to protect the upper rear entry slot of the product.

The decision by footgear manufacturers and retailers to supply free accessories with shoes sales

depends on multiple factors. Examples of popular considerations includes:

The net impact on profits;

Expectations of customers for that brand;

Unique requirements for that specific shoe line (e.g. red canvas);

Industry norms for specific shoes categories such as occupational work boots.

Certain shoe styles should include minimum specific accessories. Some upmarket shoes use

materials and tones that are exceptionally difficult to match with laces and polishes sold in most

shoe stores. Such products may opt to gift a free set of shoe laces and shoe polish in the box.

Economics is King, or Queen in the retail business. If free accessories increase net profits, then

you may consider including these supplies. Illustration images overleaf offer examples of

accessories that manufacturers and retailers may consider including with certain shoe products.

46

Chamois

Chamois Shoe care instructions 47

Shoe care instructions

Chamois Shoe care instructions 47

47

Warranty certificate

Warranty certificate Customer support business card Spare inner soles Spare inner soles may be essential in

Customer support business card

Warranty certificate Customer support business card Spare inner soles Spare inner soles may be essential in

Spare inner soles

certificate Customer support business card Spare inner soles Spare inner soles may be essential in cases

Spare inner soles may be essential in cases where generic retail supplies do not fit the shoe shape.

48

Case study

To advertise or not advertise?

The decision to deposit commercial advertising in sales bags or shoe boxes for a line of footwear

is a factor that can reap net positive or net negative benefits dependent on context. In most

cases, the inclusion of a small, single, tasteful, non-intrusive advert will not offend customers.

Those who do not like the promotion or are not interested will likely ignore/discard this material.

are not interested will likely ignore/discard this material. Advertising is more likely to irritate customers when

Advertising is more likely to irritate customers when it does not relate to the product they have

purchased. The same applies when the material promotes goods or services of a third party.

Summary

This book aims to motivate champion fashion designers such as yourself to toil hard, study harder

and realize your birthright aesthetic excellence. There are millions of wannabe fashion designers

out-and-about who are equally talented and passionate about their creative career.

My theory is that designers who craft their trademark ™ signature-style by tenacious trial-and-

error persistence are the legends who crack the big time and leave a lasting impression. Your

artistic signature-style exists. Yes, it does. It is as unique as your fingerprint, voice, iris and DNA.

It is as unique as your fingerprint, voice, iris and DNA. The template on page iv

The template on page iv provides basic

guidance for those who design footwear.

The points in this matrix may be useful

for apparel and accessory designers.

matrix may be useful for apparel and accessory designers. You may write to the author of

You may write to the author of this book at any time. I wish you stratospheric success .

50

Case study

Manolo Blahnik

Many fashion commentators claim that Sarah

Jessica Parker, a.k.a. the fabulous ‘Carrie

Bradshaw’, single-handedly elevated the Manolo Blahnik brand into the consciousness of

millions of people who do not recognize upmarket footwear labels.

of people who do not recognize upmarket footwear labels. © Darren Star & HBO Manolo Blahnik

© Darren Star & HBO

Manolo Blahnik ™

Elite product endorsement isn’t cheap. Celebrity commendation is a sound business decision if

the fee paid to the VIP is less than the increase in profit that the star earns a fashion line and

brand. Some luminary endorsements are not based on riches. Some designers woo the support

of favorite public figures for the prestige that it bestows their persona as a top-tier creative.

51

References

Baldwin, C. (2017), How Much Should It Cost to Get Your Shoes Repaired?,

<www.vox.com/2017/9/4/16243578/shoe-repair-cobbler-cost>. Viewed 24 April 2019.

Collins Dictionary (2019a), Classic,

<www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/cutting-edge>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

Collins Dictionary (2019b), Cutting edge,

<www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/cutting-edge>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

Etsy (2019a), Vegan Galaxy Dr Martens, Doc Martens, Pink and Blu-e, Dr Martens, Custom DMs,

Astrology Gift, Galaxy DMs, Galaxy Doctor Martens, Astronomy,

<www.etsy.com/listing/683636257/vegan-galaxy-dr-martens-doc-martens-

pink?ref=landingpage_similar_listing_top-2>. Viewed 22 April 2019.

Etsy (2019b), Vintage 70's canvas tennis shoes-Ramones-Stiv Bators, Viewed 22 April 2019.

<www.etsy.com/listing/633706557/vintage-70s-canvas-tennis-shoes-ramones>.

Freshness Mag (2012), British Millerain X Dr. Martens Camo Wedge Collection | Foot patrol

exclusive,

<www.freshnessmag.com/2012/05/08/british-millerain-x-dr-martens-camo-wedge-

collection-foot-patrol-exclusive/>. Viewed 22 April 2019.

52

Gongini, B. (2019), Avant-garde fashion – A modern definition, Viewed 22 April 2019.

<barbaraigongini.com/universe/blog/avant-garde-fashion-a-modern-definition/>.

Ingram,

K.

(2019),

Absorption

and

variable

costing,

<accountinginfocus.com/managerial-

accounting-2/costing-methods/absorption-and-variable-costing/>. Viewed 24 April 2019.

Inventor Spot (2016), The 10 Strangest Shoes In Fashion Today,

<inventorspot.com/articles/10_strangest_shoes_fashion_today_24497>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

Moore, C. (20018), How one picture is bringing Dunlop Volleys back: Australian brand to open 50

stores in China after a photo of the 'Beyonce of the country' wearing the sports shoes goes viral,

<www.msn.com/en-au/lifestyle/style/how-one-picture-is-bringing-dunlop-volleys-back-

australian-brand-to-open-50-stores-in-china-after-a-photo-of-the-beyonce-of-the-country-

wearing-the-sports-shoes-goes-viral/ar-AAzAJTz>. Viewed 22 April 2019.

Popinac (2019), Scuba diving sneakers $59.99,

<www.popinac.com/products/scuba-diving-sneakers>. Viewed 21 April 2019

Random House (2019), Style, <www.dictionary.com/browse/style>. Viewed 22 April 2019,

Ras, K. (2015), Concerns About Factory Safety and Worker Exploitation in Developing Countries,

<www.slideshare.net/KimboRas/concerns-about-factory-safety-and-worker-exploitation-in-

developing-countries-55728170>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

53

Snapdeal (2019), Funtoes Broken Marbles Flat Flip Flop, Viewed 23 April 2019.

<www.snapdeal.com/product/funtoes-broken-marbles-flat-flip/623685231796>.

Street Stylista (2009), GameBoy + Shoes = Game Boy Shoes!, Viewed 21 April 2019

<streetstylista.blogspot.com/2009/10/gameboy-shoes-game-boy-shoes.html>.

Tennis Warehouse (2019a), KSwiss Knitshot Green/Black Men's Shoes,

<tenniswarehouse.com/KSwiss_Knitshot_Green_Black_Mens_Shoes/descpageMSKSWISS-

MKKGB.html>. Viewed 24 April 2019.

Tennis Warehouse (2019b), Lightweight Men's Tennis Shoes, Viewed 23 April 2019. <www.tennis-warehouse.com/Lightweight_Mens_Tennis_Shoes/catpage-MSLIGHT.html>.

Tradesy (2019), Dr. Scholl's Orange Classic with Rubber Sole Sandals, <tradesy.com/i/dr-scholl-s-

orange-classic-with-rubber-sole-sandals-size-us-10-regular-m-b/21292957/>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

United States Patent and Trademark Office (2019), Protecting Your Trademark, <www.uspto.gov/sites/default/files/documents/BasicFacts.pdf>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

Volley (2019), Heritage international, Viewed 23 April 2019. <volley.com.au/sneakers/adult-sneakers/heritage/heritage-international-white_green_gold>.

Wildfang (2019), Dr. Martens, <wildfang.com/brands/dr-martens.html>. Viewed 22 April 2019.

Yu, M. (2018), Q&A with Volley Shoes, <www.egoexpo.com.au/brand-stories/volley-shoes-australian-icon/>. Viewed 23 April 2019.

Zappos (2019), O'Neill Reactor Reef Boot, <www.zappos.com/p/oneill-reactor-reef-boot/product/7567907>. Viewed 21 April 2019.

54

Advertising Branding Celebrity endorsement Demographics Shoes

Accessories Aesthetic Tack Tag-ons Task Taste Terrain Textures Therapeutics Ties Time Tones Trademark Tradition Treatment Types Shoe design template Signature-style Unit costing

Index

pp. 49, 51 pp. 6, 13-14, 21, 23-25, 29-30, 38, 46, 51 pp. 17, 51 pp. iv, 14, 25

pp. 46, 50 pp. 1, 7-8, 31, 50 pp. 38-41 pp. 46-49 pp. 4-6, 8, 10-11, 37 pp. 21-22 pp. 10-11 pp. 27-28 pp. 29-30 pp. 31-37 pp. 12-14 pp. 21, 25-26, 41, 46 pp. 1, 23-24, 50 pp. 15-20 pp. 42-45 pp. 1-9 p. iv pp. 1, 42, 50 pp. 38, 41, 45

55

Up-and-coming fashion designers Please email Jay to advertise your signature style Student portfolio extract on

Up-and-coming fashion designers

Please email Jay to advertise your signature

style

Student portfolio extract on this space for free.

jay@journalistethics.com

Jay to advertise your signature style Student portfolio extract on this space for free. jay@journalistethics.com 56

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