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# Chapter 10

EEE 33

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

University of the Philippines - Diliman
Definition of Two-Port Networks
I1 I2

+ +
V1 Two-port V2
Port 1 network
Port 2
_ _

## §  In general, we describe a two-port network as a

network consisting of R, L, and C elements, op-
amps, transformers, and dependent sources, but
no independent sources.
§  Only two of the four variables are independent,
and the specification of any two of them
determines the remaining two.
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Examples of Two-Port Networks

L - network Series

Pi network Shunt
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Examples of Two-Port Networks

Lattice T network

Bridged T Twin T
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Two-Port Network Parameters
I1 I2

+ +
V1 Two-port V2
Port 1 network
Port 2
_ _

## Parameters of the two-port completely describe

its behavior in terms of the voltage and current
at each port.
w  Permits us to describe its operation when it is connected
to a larger network.
w  Important in modeling electronic devices and system
components.
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Two-Port Parameters

## w  Admittance Parameters (yjk)

w  Impedance Parameters (zjk)
w  Hybrid Parameters (hjk)
w  Transmission Parameters (tjk)

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Admittance Parameters
•  V1 and V2 are the independent variables
•  Express I1 and I2 in terms of V1 and V2

I1 = y11V1 + y12V2
I2 = y21V1 + y22V2

## •  The coefficients yjk are also called the short-circuit

admittance parameters or the y-parameters
•  The coefficients yjk are dimensionally admittance

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Getting the Short-Circuit Admittance
Parameters (y-parameters)

I1 = y11V1 + y12V2
I2 = y21V1 + y22V2
I1 I2 I1
y11 =
V1 V
+ 2 =0
Two-port
V1 network
I2
_ y 21 =
V1 V
2 =0

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Getting the Short-Circuit Admittance
Parameters (y-parameters)

I1 = y11V1 + y12V2
I2 = y21V1 + y22V2
I1 I2 I1
y12 =
+ V2 V1 = 0
Two-port V2
network
_
I2
y 22 =
V2 V1 = 0

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I1 I2
Example: Find
the Y-parameters 2 3
+ +
of the two-port 6
V1 V2
network on the
_ _
right.

## Get the y-parameters one by one.

y11: I1
y11 =
V1 V
2 =0
2 3
Yin = y11 6 y11 = 1/(2 + 3//6)
Ω

= ¼

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y22 I2
y 22 =
V2 V1 = 0
2 3
6 Yin = y22 y22 = 1/(3 + 2//6)
Ω

= 2/9

I1
y12 y12 =
V2 V1 = 0

3V y
2 3 + I −
I1
V2
y12 = 1 = 4 2 22
6
V2 V2
-
= − 34 y 22 = −1 / 6
Ω

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I2
y21 y 21 =
V1 V
2 =0

+ 2 3
2
V1 6 I2 y 21 = I2 V1 = - V1 y11 V1
3
-
Ω

= - 2 3 y11 = - 1 / 6

Thus, we get
I1 I2
+ 2 3 + I1 = 1/4 V1 - 1/6 V2
V1 6 V2 I2 = -1/6 V1 + 2/9 V2
_ _

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Or in matrix form,

## ⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡ y11 y12 ⎤ ⎡V1 ⎤

⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ y ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
y22 ⎦ ⎣V2 ⎦
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 21
⎡ 1 1 ⎤
⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎢ 4 − ⎥ ⎡V1 ⎤
6
⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ 1 2 ⎥ ⎢V ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎢− ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦
⎣ 6 9 ⎦
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Impedance Parameters

## •  I1 and I2 are the independent variables

•  Express V1 and V2 in terms of I1 and I2

V1 = z11I1 + z12I2
V2 = z21I1 + z22I2

## •  Also known as the open-circuit impedance

parameters or the z-parameters
•  The coefficients are dimensionally
impedance

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Impedance Parameters

## ⎡V1 ⎤ ⎡ z11 z12 ⎤ ⎡ I1 ⎤

⎢V ⎥ = ⎢ z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 21 z22 ⎦ ⎣ I 2 ⎦
V1 V1
z11 = z12 =
I1 I I2 I
2 =0 1 =0

V2 V2
z21 = z22 =
I1 I I2 I
2 =0 1 =0

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I1 I2
Example: Find the
Z-parameters of the + 2 3 +
two-port network on V1 6 V2
the right. - -

## Method 1: Using the definitions,

V1 V2
z11 = z21 =
I1 I I1 I
2 =0 2 =0

z11 = 2 + 6 = 8 Ω
z21 = 6 Ω

V1 V2
z12 z22 =
=
I2 I I2 I
1 =0
1 =0

z22 = 3 + 6 = 9 Ω z22 = 6 Ω

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Method 2: By writing loop equations,

+ 2 3 +
V1 I1 6
I2 V2
- -

Therefore,

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Relationship Between
Y- and Z-parameters
⎡I1 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤
Let I = ⎢ ⎥ and V = ⎢ ⎥
⎣I2 ⎦ ⎣V2 ⎦
We know ⎡I1 ⎤ ⎡y11 y12 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤
⎢I ⎥ = ⎢y ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ I = YV
y
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 21 22 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦
Solving for V: V = Y-1I
⎡ V1 ⎤ ⎡z11 z12 ⎤ ⎡I1 ⎤
⎢V ⎥ = ⎢z V = ZI
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 21 z22 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣I2 ⎥⎦
Therefore, −1
−1 ⎡z11 z12 ⎤ ⎡y11 y12 ⎤
Z=Y or ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥
z z y y
⎣ 21 22 ⎦ ⎣ 21 22 ⎦
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Hybrid Parameters
•  Also known as H-parameters
•  Often used to model the small signal behavior of
bipolar junction transistors
V1 = h11I1 + h12 V2
I2 = h21I1 + h22 V2
I1 h11 Ω I2

+ +
+
V1 h12V2 h22 S V2
_
_ h21I1 _

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Getting the H-parameters

V1 = h11I1 + h12 V2
I2 = h21I1 + h22 V2
V1 V1
h11 = h12 =
I1 V V2 I
2 =0 1 =0

I2 I2
h21 = h22 =
I1 V2 = 0
V2 I
1 =0

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Converting Z- to H-parameters
V1 = z11I1 + z12I2 V2 = z21I1 + z22I2
Express V1 and I2 with in terms of V2 and I1
z21 1 z12z21
I2 = − I1 + V2 h11 = z11 −
z22 z22 z22

z21 1 z12
V1 = z11I1 + z12 (− I1 + V2 ) h12 =
z22 z22 z22
z21
z21 z12 h21 = −
= (z11 − z12 )I1 + V2 z22
z22 z22 1
h22 =
z22
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Inverse Hybrid Parameters
•  Also known as G-parameters
I1 = g11V1 + g12I2
V2 = g21V1 + g22I2

I1 V2
g11 = g21 =
V1 I V1 I
2 =0 2 =0

I1 V2
g12 = g22 =
I2 V1 = 0
I2 V1 = 0
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Transmission Parameters
•  The transmission parameters relate the voltage
and current at one port of the network with
those of the other end.

## V1 = t11V2 − t12I2 V1 = AV2 − BI2

or
I1 = t21V2 − t22I2 I1 = CV2 − DI2

## •  The transmission parameters are also known as the

chain parameters, general circuit parameters, or ABCD
parameters

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Transmission Parameters

V1 = AV2 − BI2
I1 = CV2 − DI2
1 V2 1 I2 1 V2 1 I2
= − = = − =
A V1 I B V1 C I1 I D I1
2 =0 V2 = 0 2 =0 V2 = 0

## 1/A - open-circuit voltage gain

-1/B - short-circuit transfer admittance
1/C - open-circuit transfer impedance
-1/D - short-circuit current gain
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The t-parameters are useful in describing two-port
networks which are connected in cascade.
I1 I1a I2a I1b I2b I2

+ + + + + +
Aa Ba Ab Bb
V1 V1a V2a V1b V2b V2
Ca Da Cb Db
_ _ _ _ _ _

## ⎡ V1a ⎤ ⎡ A a B a ⎤ ⎡ V2a ⎤ ⎡ V1b ⎤ ⎡ Ab Bb ⎤ ⎡ V2b ⎤

⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ C D ⎥ ⎢ − I ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ C D ⎥ ⎢ − I ⎥
⎣ 1a ⎦ ⎣ a a ⎦ ⎣ 2a ⎦ ⎣ 1b ⎦ ⎣ b b ⎦ ⎣ 2b ⎦

## ⎡ V2a ⎤ ⎡ V1b ⎤ ⎡ V1a ⎤ ⎡ A a B a ⎤ ⎡ A b Bb ⎤ ⎡ V2b ⎤

but ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ so ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ C D ⎥ ⎢ C D ⎥ ⎢− I ⎥
⎣- I2a ⎦ ⎣ I1b ⎦ ⎣ 1a ⎦ ⎣ a a ⎦ ⎣ b b ⎦ ⎣ 2b ⎦
Therefore, in
⎡V1 ⎤ ⎡A B ⎤ ⎡ V2 ⎤ ⎡A B ⎤ ⎡A a Ba ⎤ ⎡Ab Bb ⎤
⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢C D⎥ ⎢− I ⎥ , ⎢C D⎥ = ⎢C D ⎥ ⎢C D ⎥
⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ a a ⎦ ⎣ b b ⎦
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Inverse Transmission Parameters

## •  Also known as ABCD parameters

V2 = A' V1 − B' I1
I2 = C' V1 − D' I1

## •  For passive networks,

AD - BC = A D - B C = 1