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July 15th 2019 1

Lesson One

Ch 2
Atmosphere

 The layer of gases


surrounding the
Earth
 78% Nitrogen
 21% Oxygen
 Critical to life as it
controls surface
temperature
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Lithosphere

 Earth’s solid outer


layer
 Consists of rocks
and minerals
 Ranges from 50-
150km in thickness

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Hydrosphere

 All of Earth’s water


in solid, liquid and
gas form
 Oceans, lakes, ice,
groundwater, clouds
 97% of water is
contained in oceans
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Biosphere

 The zone around


earth where life can
exist
 An in-between of the
other three spheres
 Very small layer in
comparison to the
other spheres
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 All the living organisms and
their physical and chemical
environment
 Consists of living (biotic)
and non-living (abiotic)
components

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 Radiant Energy travels through empty space
 Light Energy is a visible form of radiant energy
 Thermal Energy is energy transferred through heating and cooling

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 The process in which the Sun’s
energy is converted into
chemical energy
 Plants are producers. This
means they make their own
energy-rich food compounds by
using the Sun’s energy

Carbon Dioxide + Water  Light Energy  sugar + oxygen 9


 The process by which sugar and
oxygen are converted into carbon
dioxide and water to provide
energy for the cell
 Notice that this process is the
opposite for plants
 Animals are consumers. They
obtain energy by eating
producers or other consumers

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 A linear network in a
food web that
connects a producer
to it’s consumers and
decomposers
 How energy is
transferred from one
organism to another

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 A system of food chains
from a community – all
interconnected
 The feeding
relationships in a
community

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 The function a species serves in its ecosystem, including what it
its, what eats it, and how it behaves.
 Helps animals avoid competition

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4 Tertiary Consumer
 The level of an organism in
an ecosystem depending on
its feeding position in a
3 Secondary Consumer food chain.

2 Primary Consumers

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Producers
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 A representation of energy,
numbers, or biomass
relationships in ecosystems

 Biomass is the mass of


organisms in a given area

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 The movement of matter through the biotic and abiotic
environment
 The Water Cycle
 The Carbon Cycle
 The Nitrogen Cycle

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 Any factor that restricts the size of a population is a limiting factor
 Tolerance ranges are dictated by the abiotic conditions in which the
species can survive
 Carrying capacity refers to
the maximum population
size of a particular species a
given ecosystem can sustain

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 Oligotrophic bodies of water are very low in nutrients
 Eutrophic bodies of water are rich in nutrients

 Freshwater Ecosystems
 Marine Ecosystems
 Intertidal Zone
 Part time low-tide and terrestrial

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 A large geographical region
defined by climate (precipitation
and temperature) with a set of
specific set of biotic and abiotic
features

 5 biomes in Canada: Mountain,


Grassland, Tundra, Boreal
Forest, Temperate Deciduous
Forest

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 Using the textbook, fill out the worksheet provided on Biomes
and ecosystems.

 Have it finished by Next Monday (22nd)

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