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CONJUNCTION

GROUP 7

NAME:

Asakolan Sangadji
Ondi Daniel
Risha Widaswara Febrianthi

1 SIPIL 2 PAGI

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Preface

Assalamualikum wr. wb.

Praised thank heavens we said upper the presence of Almighty God, because
with the blessing and his gift we was still being given by the opportunity to
complete this paper. Did not forget we said the English teacher and friends who
gave the support in completing this paper.

The writer realised that in the writing of this paper still many lacks, therefore
the writer really hoped for criticism and the constructive suggestion. And hopefully
with the end of this paper could be useful for the reader and friends. Amin.

Wassalamualaikum wr. wb.

The writer

Content

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Preface 2

Content 3

Conjunction 4

Practice 10

Bibliography 13

Conjunction

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Conjunction is one type of word (Parts of Speech) is used to connect the word with other
word, the sentence with the other sentence, so as to be able to form an understanding or the clear
and complete meaning.

Here are some of conjunction that is often used both in the form of the article and oral:

1. Expressing additional information


(besides, moreover, in addition, also, furthermore, and, also, too)
• Besides (preposisi)
Creator with ‘in addition to’ that serves to add information. These words began
noun / pronoun / gerund.
e.g. Besides being good at sport, Niko is a good student.
• Besides (Adverb)
Usually headed the clause. The word ‘moreover’ and ‘furthermore’ had the
meaning that a meaning with this conjunction.
e.g. Sora doesn’t want to go there, besides she has already been
there.
• And
Connected two words/sentence/clause that the form and his function be the same
and were equal.
e.g. He switched off the lights and went to bed.

1. Expressing contras/consession
(however, but, nevertheless, still, yet, although, though, even though,
despite, in spite of, whereas)
• However
Headed the adverb/characteristics/clause. The statement that was preceeded
however contradicted with the other statement. The word 'but' and 'nevertheless'
have similar meanings when starting a sentence.
e.g. You couldn’t earn much however hard you work.
• But

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Showed the conflict/the different matter.
e.g. She invited him to the party last week but he did not come.
• Still and yet
e.g. They are ugly and expensive yet; yet/still, people buy them.
• Although, though, even though
Showed the contradictory sentence and was forever followed by the form of the
clause (S + V).
e.g. - We will not tell her although we know the secret.
- He did not go to campus even though he was not sick last
Monday.
• In spite of, despite
Showed the contradictory sentence and must head the phrase
(noun/pronoun/gerund).
e.g. - They went to the rock concert despite the hard rain.
- In spite of the bad weather, we continued our journey.
Notes:
The difference between "though / although / even though" with "in spite of /
despite" is "though / although / even though" followed by the sentence, whereas
"in spite of / despite" followed by the word object.
Note to the difference of the sentence along with:
In spite of/Despite the hard rain, we came to the party = Though/Although/Even
Though it rained hard, we came to the party.
• Whereas
e.g. She can’t travel whereas she has a lot of money.

1. Expressing condition
(if, otherwise, or, only if, unless, if not, providing that)

• If
e.g. She will be angry if you don’t come there now.

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• Otherwise
Stated the possibility resulting from that was not hoped for if the previous
question/others are not fulfilled. Conjunction ‘or’ could replace the position
‘otherwise’, apart from stating the choice.
e.g. You have to come there soon otherwise she will be angry with you.
• Unless
e.g. She will be angry unless you come there now.
Notes:
Unless means the same as ‘If not’, but unless was formed in the
pattern of the positive sentence whereas ‘If not’ was formed in the
pattern of the negative sentence.
Note to the pattern along with this:
If + S + do/does not + V1… = Unless + S + V1/V1 (s/es)

If + S + did not + V1… = Unless + S + V2…

If + S + Has/Have not + Been/V3 = Unless + S + Has/Have +


Been/V3…

If + S + to be + Complement/V1- = Unless + S + tobe + Com./V1-


ing ing

– If he does not go, she will not go. = Unless he goes, she will
not go.
– If he did not busy her a present, she would be sad. = Unless
he bought her a present, she would be sad.
– If they have not submitted it, they may not follow the test. =
Unless they have submitted it, they may not follow the test.
– If she is not busy, she will come there tonight. = Unless she is
busy, she will come there tonight

1. Expressing purpose and result


(so, therefore, consequently, hence, thus, as a result, in that case, so…that, such…that)

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• So
Shows the result of which occurred from the previous statement.
e.g. She was very busy yesterday so she didn’t come to the party.
• Therefore
Showed resulting from a cause and effect sentence. Had the similar meaning ‘so’,
‘consequently’, and ‘hence’.
e.g. We do not know her handphone number, therefore we can’t phone her.

1. Expressing cause and effect


(because, since, for, as, because of, due to)
• Because, since, for, as
Used in the cause and effect sentence.
e.g. - She does not go to campus because she is sick now.
- Since he was very busy, he did not come here to help us.
- Adrian always get bad mark for he never studies his lesson.
• Because of, due to
e.g. - They came late because of the traffic jam.
- The accident happened due to the driver’s carelessness.
Notes:
The difference between "Because / since / for" and "Because of / due to" is that
"Because / since / for" followed by the sentence while "Because of / due to"
followed by a Noun (noun).
Note to the sentence along with:
She can’t come here because it rains very hard. Bisa dinyatakan
dengan: She can’t come here because of the hard rain.

1. Expression time
(when, while, as, before, after, then, later, meanwhile, in the meantime, during, till/until)

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• When, while
Showed time during the occurrence something.
e.g. - When I was still a boy, I often played the kites in this field.
- Rina wants to be a doctor while her brother wants to be an architect.
• After
e.g. We will visit him in the hospital after we finish our lecture.
• Before
e.g. Before she leaves the house, she always closes the door.
• Till/until
e.g. We will stay here till/until the rain stops.

1. Correlative Conjunction
• Join words, phrases, and sentences of equal importance.
• Appear in pairs, and both parts receive the same attention.
• both/and, either/or, whether/or, neither/nor, and not only/but also
• Examples:

Either Bernice or Lauren determines the work schedule.

The speaker not only described the benefits of laughter but also related some
personal stories to illustrate her point.

1. Coordinating Conjunction
• Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that links
two words or phrases.
Relaxation can inject happiness and fulfillment into your daily
routine.

• Do not use a comma before a conjunction if the material following


the conjunction is not a complete sentence.

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Losing your temper may get attention but usually makes the
situation worse.

• Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses


in a series.

• Include a comma before the coordinating conjunction.

Ways to reduce stress include yoga, meditation, and exercise.

• Do not place a comma after the last item in a series.

Joanne usually chooses soup, salad, or a pasta dish for lunch.

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Practice

1. ____ he has created striking stage setting for the Martha Graham dance
company; artist Isamu Noguchi is more famous fo his sculpture.
a.
b. But not
c. Nevertheless
d. In spite of
e. Although

1. We couldn’t get to sleep last night ____


a.
b. because it was noisy
c. because of noisy
d. because of it was noisy
e. because of being noisy

1. ____ she is not interested in classical music, she decided not to go to


the concert.
a.
b. Therefore
c. Since
d. Inspite of

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e. However

1. He should have broken hi engagement to Beth ____ married Sue


instead.
a.
b. then
c. so
d. or
e. and

1. Not only my sister, ____


a.
b. and also my parents are planning to come
c. but also my parents planning to come
d. and they also are planning to come
e. but also my parents are planning to come

1. I've studied ____ French and Spanish in school.


a.
b. either
c. not only
d. both
e. neither

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1. Let us know ____ you spend the first night of your vacation.
a.
b. where
c. while
d. and
e. if

1. ____ they put that coat on sale, I can't afford to buy it.
a.
b. If not
c. since
d. unless
e. because

1. We played tennis ____ it was too dark to see the ball.


a.
b. until
c. before
d. since
e. after

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1. Please tell me ____ you will be late for dinner.
a.
b. when
c. whereas
d. if
e. although

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Answer :

1. d
2. b
3. b
4. d
5. d
6. c
7. a
8. c
9. a
10.c

Bibliography

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Purnomo, Wahyu S.S. 2005. English Grammar and Everyday Conversation.
Surabaya: Amelia Surabaya.

Sudrajat, Asep. 2009. Sukses Masuk Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta : Salemba


Group.
Sudarwati, Th. M, dan Eudia Grace. 2006. Look Ahead Book 2. Jakarta: Erlangga.
www.uvu.eduowlinforpdfgrammar_usageconjunctions.pdf

www.sinclair.educenterstlcpubhandouts_worksheetsgrammar_punctuation_writing
conjunction.pdf

www.nigelwright.bussines_english_at_work.ppt

Revolusi Belajar: Kumpulan Rumus XII IPA. 2008. Bandung: Ganesha Operation.

Revolusi Belajar: KODING. 2009. Bandung: Ganesha Operation.

Revolusi Belajar: SUPER INTENSIF. 2010. Bandung: Ganesha Operation.

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