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Implementation of Data Driven Control System of

DC Motor by Using System Identification Process

Ye Naung1, Anatolii Schagin, Htin Lin Oo, Kyaw Zaw Ye, Zaw Min Khaing
Department of Automatic Control System and Control
National Research University of Electronic Technology
Zelenograd, Moscow, Russia
1
ye.naung.miet@gmail.com

Abstract—This paper presents data driven control system of linear and nonlinear black-box model structures [1]. In this
DC motor by using system identification process. In this paper paper, nonlinear black-box model structures in the system
we use component base modeling similar to real DC motor by identification toolbox have been used for representing
using simscape electronic systems for obtaining the input voltage continuous-time transfer function of the DC motor. In a
and output speed of DC motor, the system identification toolbox broader sense, the system identification is no easy way to
and the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) derive their mathematical models for the most complex system
neural network for identification and obtaining the model of an unlike dc motors. In this case, artificial neural network (ANN)
object. The object model and training the neural network for can be used for multiple input/outputs and the very complex
data driven control system are developed by using
system due to the fact that they can estimate any continuous
MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. So, simulation results of this
paper present the advantage of the suggested control method and
nonlinear function to any acceptable accuracy in the system
the acceptable accuracy with respect to dynamic characteristics identification [2]. So, nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous
of the system. input (NARX) neural network is used to compare nonlinear
black-box model structures, which generate transfer function
Keywords— data driven control system; system identification; of the plant in the system identification process.
(NARX) neural network; dc motor; pid controller; simscape Today, we can use many kinds of control design in control
electronic systems
system such as PID control design, model reference adaptive
control design and model predictive control design. But
I. INTRODUCTION proportional, integral, derivative controller (PID controller)
DC motors are widely used in robotic control systems, still becomes very popular and is commonly used in control
transportation, industrial control systems and other systems and other applications. PID controller design has the
applications due to their dynamic characteristics and high following special features: simple mathematical modelling,
efficiency. On the other hand, in DC motor system may be good reliability, high reliability, stabilization. Besides it, the
occur such as changes in load dynamics, disturbances, variable system operates and corrects the error easily in the stationary
and unpredictable inputs, unknown parameters. All that will state. Therefore, one should choose PID controller for the
result in high motor performance, therefore, the motor must be controller design.
controlled and analysed. To analyse and design the controller The main goal of this paper is to implement data driven
of the motor, it is necessary to design its model. In this regard, control system of the DC motor using system identification
to solve the problem the data driven control must be used. process. And another important task is to compare the
Data driven control is a designed controller when no plant performance of the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous
model is available and it requires the measured input/output inputs (NARX) neural network and nonlinear black-box model
data about the plant, system identification process and structures, which generate transfer function of the plant in the
controller design. In this case, let’s consider component base system identification process.
modelling similar to a real DC motor by using simscape
electronic system because simscape allows to create models of
physical systems rapidly within the MATLAB/SIMULINK II. DATA DRIVEN CONTROL
platform for the researchers. Simscape electronic system Nowadays, many industrial processes, aerospace systems,
allows building models of physical components based on robotic systems become more complex. Thus, even if physical
physical connections that directly connect with simulink models are available for this complex system, they can be too
block0 and other modelling paradigms. complex to be suitable for the design of the controller [4]. For
this reason, the data driven control is established and
System identification is possible to solve the objective of
developed in the theory and applications. Here, we consider
designing mathematical models of dynamical system based on
the data driven control system of DC motor by using system
the perceived system data. The system identification toolbox is
identification process and implement the data driven control
useful for representing dynamic systems and ensures some
flow work as shown in (fig.1).

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• Electrical Reference block
Utilizing Simscape simulink blocks, we can quickly
construct DC motor model as shown in (fig.3).

Fig. 1. Data driven control flow work

In this paper, the DC motor is a hardware part, from which Fig. 3. SIMULINK diagram of simscape physical plant completed DC motor
input voltage and output speed can be measured. The
measured data is used to operate system identification process. After getting the completed DC motor model, the
And then we get the transfer function of the plant model from measured input (voltage) and output (speed) of the DC motor
the system identification process. It is mandatory to choose a are used to operate system identification process. The input
controller design and a control system for controlling the plant (voltage) and output (speed) of the DC motor are given in
model. After finishing the modeling process, we can start real (fig.4).
time testing of the DC motor.

III. DC MOTOR MODEL USING SIMSCAPE SYSTEM


In this paper, the physical block diagram of the simscape
extension is used to build DC Motor model. Actual physical
component is represented in simscape library. For the DC
motor models they can be built without mathematical
equations. DC motor equations can be directly modelled
applying the simscape electronic system. To get the completed
DC motor model, there is easy to assign values to the physical
parameters of each block [3]. DC motor model using the
physical modeling block is given in (Fig.2).

Fig. 4. The input voltage and output speed DC motor

IV. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION PROCESS


The System Identification Toolbox provides MATLAB
functions, SIMULINK blocks and interactive tools for
creating dynamic model system. There is need to acquire input
and output data in the time and frequency domain to identify
Fig. 2. SIMULINK diagram of simscape physical plant DC motor
continuous and discrete transfer functions, process models and
The electrical part of the model solves voltage and current the state space model.
values while the mechanical side solves the torque and angular In this work, input voltage and output speed of DC motor
velocity leads to identical simulation results for the models of are used as the input data in the system identification toolbox.
armature-controlled DC motor. The main advantage of the The input data is estimated by using continuous-time
simscape model is the ability to modify the model quickly identified transfer function estimation (TFEST) on time
without having the equations of the system. In order to domain data. After the identification process, we get the
complete the response of DC motor, it is necessary to add the transfer function with the following parameterization:
following blocks to the model [2]:
• Fit to estimation – 95.78% (stability enforced)
• Current Sensor block
• FPE – 8.498
• Controlled Voltage Source block
• MSE – 8.488
• PS-Simulink Converter blocks
• Solver Configuration block

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ω (s) 53 .98 s + 5 .04
= 2
Y (s) s + 1636 s + 0 .194 (1)

And then, we identify DC motor model by using online


Neural Networks system identification. The article deals with
the solution of the DC motor model based on (NARX) neural
network. The standard (NARX) neural network architecture is
shown in (fig.5).

Fig. 8. The results of the model

Fig. 5. Standard NARX architecture


V. THE CONTROLLER DESIGN
The proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller is
In this part, input (voltage) and output (speed) of the DC the most effective and widespread type of regulator, which
motor are used to train as an input and target of the (NARX) provides quite high accuracy while controlling various
neural network. The (NARX) neural network structure processes. The PID controller generates an output signal that
consists of 10 neurons with a (tansig) transfer function in the is calculated using the following formula:
hidden layer, 1 neuron with a (purelin) tramsfer function in the t de(t )
output layer and 2 numbers of delay. We use Levenberg- u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K i ³ e(τ ) dτ + K d
0 dt (2)
Marquardt algorithm to train the networks with learning rate
equal to 0.001. The network validated in 1000 iterations, 16 As can be seen from the formula, the control signal is a
seconds and the best validation performance of the mean sum of three components: Kp, Ki and Kd. The proportional
squared error (mse) is 4.149e-9. After successful training of component depends on the error and is responsible for the
the network, we get the (NARX) network and it’s given in response to the instantaneous control error. The integral
(fig.6). component contains the accumulated control error, which is an
additional source of output power and allows achieving the
maximum speed of reaching the setpoint without overshoot.
The differential component depends on the rate of change of
the parameter, which causes the regulator to react to a sharp
change in the measured parameter, which can be solving an
external disturbing effect. In this paper, PID controller is used
for the proposed plant model. For correct regulation of the
Fig. 6. NARX Neural Network plant model, it is necessary to configure the coefficients of the
controller. There are many kinds of tuning method used to
After the system identification process, we can compare configure the PID controller, such as Ziegler-Nichols method,
the performance (NARX) neural network architectures and a manual setting method and auto tuning method in
nonlinear black-box model structures which generate transfer MATLAB. The auto tuning method is used to get the desired
function of the plant in the system identification process. The response of the DC motor. The DC motor model using PID
comparative model is shown in (fig.7) and the results of the controller is shown in (fig.9).
model are given in (fig.8).

Fig. 9. Model of the DC motor using PID controller


Fig. 7. Comparative model

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The performance of the proposed control system is produced model can be realistic dynamic model of DC motor,
effectiveness and acceptable response of DC motor and it’s that able adopt the DC motor to dynamics completely.
useful to real time testing of DC motor. The speed response of Moreover this model can be used to analysis controller design
the DC motor using PID controller is given in (fig.10). and the control system of DC motor for students, researchers
and control engineers.

REFERENCES
[1] https://www.mathworks.com/help/nnet/ug/design-time-series-narx-
feedback-neural-networks.html
[2] Hussein, A., Hirasawa, K., Hu, J., Wada, K., 2003. Application of
universal learning networks to PV-supplied DC motor drives. Research
Reports on Information Science and Electrical Engineering of Kyushu
University8(2),129–134.)
[3] Ye Naung ,Schagin Anatolii, Htin Lin Oo, Zaw Min Khaing,Kyaw Zaw
Ye.The Comparative Analysis of Modelling of Simscape Physical Plant
System Design and Armature- Controlled System Design of DC Motor.
Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
(EIConRus), 2017 IEEE Conference of Russian.978-1-5090-4865-
Fig. 10. The speed response of the DC motor using PID controller 6/17/$31.00©2017IEEEɋ.998-100
[4] Zhongsheng Hou, Huijun Gao,Frank L. Lewis.Data-Driven Control and
Learning Systems. IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, VOL.64,
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