by
Kieran J. Claffey
9529349
I
Abstract
This study is based on the fatigue failure of the trademarked, cobaltchrome, surgical alloy,
Vitalliumtm which is used in the manufacture of prosthetic hip implants. Different aspects of
fatigue failure are explored within a completely reversed bending, fatigue test programme.
The effect of mean stress on alternating stress is considered in the form of a fatigue strength
diagram. An exploratory SN curve is determined for cast vitalliumtm. A notch sensitivity
analysis is conducted for two different notch types. A cumulative damage analysis is also
conducted to determine the most suitable life prediction theory for vitalliumtm. The effects of
machining and hot isostatic pressing on fatigue resistance are examined. The nature of the
fatigued microstructure and macrostructure is inspected. It was found that BenAmoz’s
theory and the Unified theory were the best cumulative damage life prediction theories for
application to vitalliumtm.
II
Dedication
To my parents for being ever supportive and making all this possible.
III
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................1
2 Objectives .......................................................................................................................4
3 Literature Review .........................................................................................................5
3.1.1 Introduction to Fatigue Behaviour .................................................................................5
3.1.2 The Three Stages of Fatigue...........................................................................................5
3.5.2 Notch Sensitivity, Stress Concentrations and Fatigue Notch Factors ..........................13
IV
Table of Contents
3.7.6 Randomly Distributed Small Crack Data Method of Fatigue Evaluation ...................24
3.11.1 Investment Casting of Hip Implants and Fatigue Test Specimens ..............................31
V
Table of Contents
3.12.3 Machining.....................................................................................................................39
5 Experimentation .........................................................................................................57
VI
Table of Contents
8 Inspection ....................................................................................................................87
9 Discussion ....................................................................................................................92
VII
Table of Contents
10 Conclusions ...............................................................................................................102
11 Recommendations ....................................................................................................103
References .................................................................................................................104
Appendix .........................................................................................................................
VIII
Nomenclature
Nomenclature
B Specimen width mm
D Damage fraction 
D Specimen thickness mm
M Bending moment Nm
R Stress ratio 
IX
Nomenclature
n Factor of safety 
n12 Equivalent no. of cycles for 2nd stress level after application 1st stress level (Subramanyan). 
q Notch sensitivity 
r Notch radius mm
ε Strain 
Stress MPa
X
Nomenclature
XI
Introduction Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 1
Introduction
The study of fatigue failure began more than a century ago. The English engineer, Sir
William Fairbairn, carried out the first recorded fatigue tests with wrought iron girders. He
discovered that a girder which could withstand a static load of twelve tons for an indefinite
period would fail if a load of three tons was applied cyclically about three million times. His
explanation was that the metal had become tired. Thus was born the concept of metal
fatigue.
Fatigue accounts for approximately eighty per cent of all metal failures. Therefore, the more
information that can be obtained on the subject, the better it is for society. The general
public first became aware of fatigue failure because of the comet airline disasters in the
1960’s and from the fatigue of fuselage and propellers in ageing civilian and military aircraft.
Fatigue affects us in ways other than aeroplane disasters. An example is of fatigue failure of
the pinion teeth in a rack and pinion automotive steering system. If this were to suddenly fail
when coming down a winding mountain road, the consequences would be obvious. Another
practical example is the small pin which connects the gear shift of a car to the transmission.
This pin is subjected to high stresses every time a gear is changed and cannot fail in a fatigue
event.
Introduction Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
It is obvious that these are extreme situations. Fatigue can cause a lot of trouble in industry.
For example a crack may occur in a notched key way on a motor shaft and as a result, fail
due to fatigue. The damage would necessitate repair and the motor may need to be replaced.
Either of which is expensive. Any part of a machine that vibrates around a point of stress
concentration is liable to be subjected to fatigue and possible failure. It is therefore,
important to design machines to operate at speeds which avoid resonant frequencies, thus
eliminating strong vibrations and unnecessary fatigue failures.
A large area which warrants fatigue information is that of the prosthetic bone industry.
Cobalt chrome alloys have been used as a bone prosthesis material for decades. Vitalliumtm
is one such alloy used by Howmedica to manufacture knee implants and fasteners for
insertion into the human body. Some of the early prosthesis in the 1960’s and ‘70’s failed
during service, due to fatigue. The CharnleyMuller type femoral component in hip
prosthesis was one of these. Today, implants do not fail. This can be accredited to the
design engineers who relentlessly made improvements to get to this stage.
However, the failure of a metal component in a person cannot be over emphasised because of
the excruciating pain involved. It is dangerous to become complacent especially with the
design of new implant products. Surgeons are still reluctant to do hip replacement operations
on people who are under sixty years of age. The implant cannot be one hundred percent
guaranteed against failure under very active conditions. This is a materials problem that
needs to be addressed. This report concentrates on the selection of the best cumulative
damage theory to apply to vitalliumtm , in order to predict when failure is likely to occur
when the material is in a prestressed condition.
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Introduction Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The study examines certain areas of the fatigue failure of heat treated cast vitalliumtm, heat
treated machinedcast vitalliumtm and hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) heat treated cast
vitalliumtm.
The literature review explains each aspect of fatigue, which was considered relevant to
vitalliumtm. The theory section breaks down each cumulative damage theory that was used
and shows how to apply the theory for life prediction purposes. The chapter entitled
‘Analysis of Data’ is basically a summary of how the results were analysed to produce
design charts and design data for vitalliumtm.
The investment casting, hot isostatic pressing and Xraying was conducted by Howmedica
Limerick (Pfizer Corp.). The machining, microscopic analysis and fatigue testing were
conducted by the author in the University of Limerick materials laboratory.
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Objectives Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 2
2.1 Objectives
The main objective of this report is to develop an extensive understanding and empirical
knowledge about the fatigue behaviour of the surgical alloy, Vitalliumtm. In particular, to
determine a suitable cumulative damage theory for application to this material. The previous
researcher [29] provided a basis for the study by producing an SN curve and cumulative
damage results for machined Vitalliumtm.
1. To plot a reliable SN curve for cast vitalliumtm by conducting experimental fatigue tests.
2. To conduct a cumulative damage analysis so as to determine the best life prediction
theory for vitalliumtm.
3. To conduct a notch sensitivity analysis.
4. To produce an SN diagram for notched cast vitalliumtm and to evaluate the affects of
geometric discontinuities on fatigue behaviour.
5. To produce a fatigue strength diagram for cast vitalliumtm.
6. To determine and quantify whether hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment affects the
fatigue resistance of cast vitalliumtm.
7. To evaluate the affect of machining on the fatigue behaviour of cast vitalliumtm.
8. To conduct a microscopic and macroscopic examination of the fatigued surface.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 3
3.1.1 Introduction to Fatigue Behaviour
Local plastic yielding may strain harden a material and prevent the growth of a crack.
If yielding is any more than this it causes a loss of local ductility. The resulting cyclic
strain causes failure.
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A loss of ductility is associated with this stage. The third stage is a catastrophic
failure. This occurs when the decreasing crosssectional area, can no longer support
the applied load.
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data points on the SN plot. The curve of best fit is drawn, which gives 50%
reliability.
The scatter is due to the statistical nature of fatigue, and remains despite taking care to
make all specimens identical. At 106 cycles the statistical spread can be taken as
Gaussian with a standard deviation of 8%. If the design stress is reduced by 8%, the
probability for survival for 106 cycles is 0.841. However, if the design stress is
reduced by three standard deviations (24%), a theoretical reliability of 99.9% can be
achieved.
This means the strength reduction factor for reliability ‘CR’ has a value of 0.76.
Therefore, the reliable stress for a design that is to have a safe life of N cycles is
σα = CR SN Equation 3.1
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
the ultimate tensile strength is typically 0.35 to 0.5 in a completely reversed bending
test with stress ratio R = 1.
Refer to figure 3.4. The scatter in fatigue strength corresponding to a given life, is
small. The scatter in fatigue life corresponding to a given stress level, is large. It is
therefore important to pick the correct stress level for each test. Frequency has a
negligible effect on the fatigue life of most metallic materials, except at frequencies
greater than 1000 Hz or at temperatures where significant creep occurs during each
cycle. This is useful since accelerated testing can be used to explore failure
conditions [3].
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Or if the safe number of cycles for a given stress is required the formula transposes to
SN
log S 6
6 3 10
S 3
10
log
N 10
S 6
10
Equation 3.3
These formulae can only be used when the endurance stresses are known at 103 and
106 cycles and only apply to materials which show an asymptotic relationship on a
S –log N curve at 106 cycles.
It is common practice to use static design data between 1 and 10 cycles because the
strength reduction is considerably small when compared to cycles above 103 cycles.
A safety factor is introduced to compensate for the cyclic nature of the load.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
S (2 N f ) c F Equation 3.4
Once the exponent ‘c’ is known the number of cycles to failure ‘Nf’ can be
determined.
Figure 3.5 Illustration of how stress alternates with time for zero mean stress and mean stress conditions.
A constant life diagram allows one to determine the new safe value for the cyclic
component of alternating stress when a mean stress is applied. The application of a
mean stress, results in a lesser allowable alternating stress. This stress needs to be
known. The constant life diagram is then superimposed on another plot, on which
maximum stress is the ordinate and the minimum stress is the abscissa to produce
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.6 Fatigue strength diagram for 7075t6 aluminum alloy, Su = 82 Ksi, Sy = 75 Ksi [5]
If a known mean stress is applied, and if the maximum stress and the required life
cycle of a component are also known, then the maximum allowable alternating stress
can be determined using the fatigue strength diagram. Having mean stress correction
has the effect of increasing the materials chances of yielding before actual failure. It
reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure due to mean stress.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
initiate cracks at low energy whereas blunt notches need more energy to initiate
cracks.
The introduction of a notch causes a stress concentration in one local area. The stress
at the notch is higher than the nominal stress throughout the component. For
example, consider the SN curve below.
Figure 3.7 SN curve illustrating how the introduction of a notch can affect the fatigue life.
The fatigue life of the plain material with no notch is given by ‘N1’. The material
would not last as long as long as N1 if a notch were to be introduced. Therefore, the
life of the notched material is given by ‘N2’ at the new higher local stress. In reality,
this is not the new fatigue life. The introduction of the new local higher stress does
not reduce the fatigue limit as much as it was thought it would. This is where the
fatigue notch factor and notch sensitivity come into play. The notch, in actual fact
has an equivalent stress level at ‘N3’.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
q = Kf  1 Equation 3.5
Kt  1
f
Kf Equation 3.6
nf
f = Fatigue limit of unnotched material
nf = Fatigue limit of notched material
Note: It is desirable that notch effects do not adversely change the fatigue properties.
Therefore, one wants to keep the fatigue notch factor ‘Kf’ as close to unity as
possible. The fatigue notch factor is always lower than the stress concentration factor.
The estimated fatigue notch factor ‘Ktf’is used for design purposes, only when the true
notch factor is unknown. It represents a calculated estimate of the actual fatigue
notch factor ‘Kf’.
Ktf = q(Kt  1) + 1 Equation 3.7
Note: In high strength steels the effect of small holes or scratches is more
pronounced than in steels of lesser strength. Vitalliumtm is a high strength material
which is susceptible to notch effects of small holes. This is the reason why such
small notch radii were chosen for the notch analysis. It can be seen from the graph q
vs. r, (figure 3.8) that materials (especially brittle materials) are more notch sensitive
at small radii.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.8 Notch sensitivity curves for steels of different hardness and an aluminum alloy [1].
It is difficult to find ‘q’ because the notch sensitivity factor ‘Kf’ must be known first.
However the approximate nature of ‘q’ as shown in the above graph, can be found
using the following formula.
1
q Equation 3.8
a
1
r
Where a = material constant
r = notch radius
Note: The softer the material is; the higher the value of ‘a’.
a = 0.02 for aluminium alloy.
The notch sensitivity ‘q’ and the material constant ‘a’ are unknown for vitalliumtm.
One of the main purposes of doing a notch sensitivity analysis is to determine the
proper ‘Kf’ fatigue notch factor for vitalliumtm as opposed to using stress
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
There exists another definition of notch sensitivity which is obtained from material
tensile data. It is defined by the reduction in ductility of an area that has a triaxial
stress field [6].

Notch strength ratio (NSR) = Equation 3.9
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
K is the change in the stress intensity factor and can be measured experimentally.
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Where Y is a function of the geometry of the instantaneous crack size ‘a’ and the
specimen thickness ‘B’, [Y= f (a/B)].
For a given crack size, a specific critical failure stress is defined by its fracture
toughness ‘Kc’or failure locus (figure 3.10 below). Conversely, for a given stress, a
critical crack size exists.
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1.8
1.6
The reason the thickness effects the failure locus is because ‘Y’ is a function of (a/B).
Thus, the high stress region extends further for a thick plate than for a thin one.
Therefore, for two weld joints with the same initial crack size, but with different plate
thicknesses, the ‘Y’ factor and hence the stress intensity factor (K) will be greater for
the thicker plate, causing the crack to propagate faster in the thicker plate. The same
situation exists for pressure vessels in that fatigue strength will decrease with
increasing thickness. However, in bridge girders, (I  beams, T  beams, J  beams),
the fatigue strength will increase with flange thickness.
LEFM thickness predictions have been investigated experimentally and have
correlated reasonably with conventional fatigue test data.
The mode one stress intensity factor ‘K1’ varies with thickness ‘B’ but the critical
stress intensity factor ‘K1c’ is a material property that has a critical value according to
equation 3.13. Refer to figure 3.13 below.
2
K
B 2.5 1c Equation 3.13
Y
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.12 Illustration of how material thickness affects the stress intensity factor.
The critical stress intensity factor ‘K1c’ is more commonly known as the fracture
toughness parameter. To perform a valid test to find K1c the thickness B must be in
agreement with equation 3.13 above.
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Figure 3.13 Constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth curves for a mill annealed Ti6A14V alloy tested in
vacuum at room temperature.
Paris's Law relates the slope (da/dN) of figure 3.13 to the stress intensity range (K).
K can be found from the equation
K1 . a Equation 3.14
and da/dN can be obtained from figure 3.13. A plot with da/dN as ordinate and K1
as abscissa (figure 3.14) yields the fracture toughness value, K1C.
Figure 3.14 Relationship between the rate of crack growth and fracture toughness.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The value of the fracture toughness on the K1 (fracture toughness) axis occurs when
the slope of figure 3.14 goes to infinity.
3.7.5 Life Prediction using LEFM
Paris's Law, [da / dN = C (K )n] can be solved to yield a life prediction, once the
initial crack length ai and the final crack length af are known. Through integration by
separation of variables equation 3.11 becomes
1
dN
Nf af
da
C K
n
N0 ai Equation 3.15
But if equation 3.14 is substituted into equation 3.15, the equation then becomes
1 n
Nf af
dN a 2
da Equation 3.16
C n
N0 n ai
2
The values of C and n can be obtained from the plot of log (da/dN) vs. log K. as
shown in figure 3.15.
Figure 3.15 Demonstration of method used to determine the constants ‘C’ and ‘n’.
The equation which allows the calculation of the number of cycles to failure is
simplified to give this final equation.
af
1 a 1 n 2
Nf Equation 3.18
C 1 n
n n
2
2 ai
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
It should be noted that LEFM can only be utilised in materials which exhibit a
relatively linear elastic relationship according to Hooke's Law ( Elasticplastic
fracture mechanics [EPFM] has been developed to deal with materials that act in a
plastic nature around the crack zone. EPFM is the preferred fracture mechanics
method when dealing with materials that tend to workharden during cyclic loading.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The first model was a linear model with all the material assumed to have an elastic
behaviour. In the second model the nonlinear behaviour of the stem interface was
taken into account by incorporating simple gap elements. In the third model the
bonding cement was modelled as an elasticperfectly plastic material. Their study
highlighted the important point that FEM cannot be blindly used to predict failure
because the first two FE models failed completely to predict the actual stress field
with only the most complex model achieving an acceptable degree of accuracy.
McNamara et als investigated the load transfer (stress shielding) of press fitting and
full bonding of hip prosthesis by comparing a finite element model with an
experimental model [11]. They discovered that pressfitting a stem does not provide
the same stress shielding effect as obtained by gluing. The FE method predicted
strains which correlated well with the experimental strains. In this case the FE
method was accurate.
The problem associated with FE is not the actual computer package but the wisdom of
the engineer who makes the simplifying assumptions. Often it is impossible to be
able to preconceive actual material behaviour. It is always recommended to conduct
experiments and not to rely on FEM alone.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The first method presents difficulties in that several kinds of defects exist at the same
time ( geometry, size, and inclusion defects for example ) The problem of adding the
effects of different kinds of defects to obtain ‘total damage’ has not yet been solved
[12] although LEFM methods have produced some promising results for variable
loading conditions.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Attempts have been made to predict fatigue life under variable  amplitude loading
using LEFM methods. For randomised load spectra, LEFM models are reasonably
successful in predicting trends in the rate of fatigue crack growth and fatigue life.
The rate of crack growth may be characterised reasonably well by using the root
meansquare value of the stress intensity range (Krms) [9]. Life prediction for
random load spectra may then be possible by replacing K by Krms in equations 3.11
and 3.16.
Failure conditions must be checked along the way by comparing the crack size ‘a’
against the critical crack size ‘af’ for the current maximum load.
For ordered loading spectra, such as in two level step tests, an iterative procedure
developed by Wei and Shih [8] appears to work. The general form of Paris's law is
preserved, but is modified by adding numbers of cycles of delay ‘ND’, where no crack
growth takes place. These delay cycles are illustrated in figure 3.17 below and they
are determined by experimentation.
Figure 3.17 Schematic illustration of delay in fatigue crack growth (definition of delay cycles, N d).
Their results [8] suggest the assumption, that damage is directly related to defects, is
correct. This method is long winded however as the number of delay cycles must be
found experimentally for the magnitude of each loading level, whether it is high low
stressing, or lowhigh stressing. The second method damage being considered is the
alteration of a material property. Some properties which have been correlated with
27
Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.18 Damage accumulation curves for two level tests. (a) Without interaction
The forms of the curves are dependent on the loading level; the higher levels
correspond to a higher damage level.
Consider a two level step test. Proposed test models may be divided into two cases:
[12]
1.) There is no interaction of the first level upon the second level. (Figure 3.18a).
2.) There is interaction of the first level upon the rate of damage accumulation of
second level. (Figure. 3.18b).
For the first case, at S1, damage accumulates along path OAC until point A is reached,
where the stress level is changed to S2. The damage then begins to accumulate along
path OBC, which is the path along which damage would have accumulated if the
stress had been equal to S2 all along. However, for the second case (Fig. 3.18b);
damage accumulates along path BD after the stress change. This case is what actually
happens in reality, especially when the first stress is greater than the second stress
(highlow) in a two level step test.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Pluvinage and Raguet [12] investigated the affects of eight different damage
properties for low cycle fatigue. They defined damage as
X0 Xn
D Equation 3.19
X0 X R
Where X0 is the value of the considered property for the virgin material, and XR is the
value of the considered property after N cycles of strain.
Their results suggested that the measurement of fatigue damage depends on the
properties that are used as damage indicators (Figure 3.19 below). Clearly the
damage indicator affects the cycle ratio ‘β’ and the overall life prediction.
From figure 3.19 it can be seen that the eight properties can be put into three
categories.
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The Mohr theory is suggested for design purposes for brittle materials subjected to
alternating stress [13]. The factor of safety for bending loading (normal stress) is
given as,
n = f / Kt a Equation 3.20
A master mould, in two separate halves, is produced to manufacture the wax patterns.
This metal mould can be machined or cast using a low melting point alloy around a
pattern. A typical example of a wax mould making process can be broken into five
steps below.
1. Molten wax is injected into the clamped master mould at a pressure of about
3.5 MPa.
2. When the wax has solidified it is removed from the metal mould and its gate is
trimmed.
3. The wax pattern is attached to a central wax runner. This is repeated until the
required number of castings is reached and produces a ‘wax tree’ which is then
attached to a bottom plate.
4. An open metal flask is placed over the assembly and a liquid investment
material is poured into the flask. The bottom plate vibrates to bring entrapped
air bubbles to the surface during investment solidification. A typical
investment material is a mixture of fine ‘sillimanite’ sand and ethyl silicate.
5. It takes about eight hours for the investment to dry. The bottom plate is
removed, the flask is inverted and is passed through an oven at approximately
150°C. The wax melts and leaves a cavity which is then used as the mould for
the original required parts.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
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The work piece is then pressurised with an inert gas and heated to a softened state.
The gas pressure exerts a large force equally distributed over the part to attain
absolute density. When healing defects in castings, temperatures generally range from
500°C to 1300 °C and pressures from vacuum to 200 MPa.
Companies, such as Howmedica, who conduct high integrity casting, can accrue the
following advantages utilising HIP.
1. Repair of subsurface defects.
2. Improved mechanical properties which reduce rejection rates and inspection
frequencies.
3. Elimination of unwanted porosity to significantly reduce premature failure.
Repair of used turbine blades, such as the one in figure 3.22, by HIP has been
successful on both stationary and aircraft turbine engines. The cost to HIP is much
less than the cost to manufacture new turbine blades.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
In HIP cycles for castings, restrictions on the temperature range are influenced by the
strength of the material (minimum temperature) and the occurrence of melting
(maximum temperature). The range may be as little as 30 °C. Temperature control is
more critical than pressure or dwell time control. Frequent sampling of gas purity is
necessary during a typical cycle to prevent gas inclusions.
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.23 Illustration of the microshrinkage that can appear in titanium castings which can be closed
by HIP [14].
HIP has been proven to increase the stress rupture life under creep tests, the fatigue
life under fatigue tests and tensile strength for most alloys. Also, mechanical
properties are improved in castings that have no detectable defects.
Figure 3.24 High cycle fatigue properties of titanium alloy before and after HIP [14]
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 3.25 Low cycle fatigue properties of titanium alloy before and after HIP [14].
It can be seen that the HIPed specimens give fatigue lives to the right and above the
mean SN curve.
A typical set of fatigue test results is shown in table 3.1 for the alloy RENE 120. In
this case HIPing improves the fatigue resistance.
1177 0C 1204 0C
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Figure 3.26 Typical bending test pieces of rectangular crosssection, outlined by BS. 3518 [15].
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Literature Review Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
crosssection. The surface preparation of the remainder of the test section is therefore
not as important as in the case of unnotched specimens [16].
3.12.3 Machining
The tolerance on the thickness of the test piece is X + 0.5mm. Test pieces should be
ground to size in the following manner.
The sequence of polishing is arranged so that the last paper used is 600 grade
waterproof silicon carbide paper.
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Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 4
4.1 Miner's Cumulative Damage Theory
This theory adopts two major assumptions [17]:
1.) The loading cycle is sinusoidal, (figure 4.1).
2.) The total amount of work that can be absorbed produces failure (i.e. no work
hardening occurs).
Figure 4.2 Typical SN curve illustrating the effects of cumulative damage for two
different levels of stress [17].
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Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
w1 w2 w3 w
Hence ...... n 1 Equation 4.2
W W W W
n1 n2 n3 nn
...... 1 Equation 4.3
N1 N 2 N 3 Nn
Miner experimented with 245  T Alcad aluminium at two or more stress levels, with
constant stress ratio, and found that the average test value for n/N was 0.98.
He discovered that all loading cycles were significant in the eventual failure of
materials. To prove this he based experiments on the assumption that only the final
stress cycling caused failure. The average value of n/N was 0.37 in this
circumstance, which indicated that the damage from the other loading cycles cannot
be ignored.
Miner also experimented with aluminium specimens, at different stress levels, and
also with variance in the stress ratio R (Smin/Smax). He did this to determine the effect,
the ratio had in particular cyclic loading patterns. He discovered that the average
value of n/N was 1.05 for these experiments. Fatigue data by Johnson and Oberg
[18] when readjusted gave an average value of n/N equal to 1.05. Miner published
his paper on cumulative damage in 1945. He did not know whether his rule would
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Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
apply to materials other than 24 ST Alcad aluminium. Subsequent fatigue testing of
various materials has proven him correct. More complicated cumulative damage
theories have been developed since but none is more widely used than Miners' theory
because of its sheer simplicity. His rule has been developed by other authors to
increase its accuracy. It has been discovered [19] that for a two level stress test, in
which one stress is applied for a number of cycles and then run to failure at a second
stress, that if S1 < S2, then n/N > 1
and for S1 > S2, then n/N < 1
In addition, the variation from unity is greater for larger differences between S1 and S2
stress levels.
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Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The isodamage line is drawn from the point (S1, n1) to the point ( Se, Ne ) which is
known as the knee point. The equivalent damage D at ( S2, n12 ), caused by stress 1 at
n1 is found from
From figure 4.3, n2 = N2  n12. Cycle ratio may be defined as C = n/N then equation
2 may be written as follows.
But
log n12 <=>  Se
log n1 <=>  Se
log N2 <=>  S2
log N1 <=>  S1
When the number of remaining cycles to failure in a two level step test is required,
equation 4.7 transposes to the following form.
n
n2 N 2 1 1 Equation 4.9
N1
43
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 4.4 Upper and lower bounding damage curves used in BenAmoz’s cumulative damage theory
[21].
44
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The damage curves A’ and B’ in figure 4.4 above violate the second assumption and
so are considered to be invalid.
n2 n
Miner’s theory states that 1 1
N2 N1
n2 n
Subramanyan’s theory states that 1 1
N2 N1
n n n
1 1 2 1 1 Equation 4.10
N1 N 2 N1
1
n n n
1 2 1 1 2 Equation 4.11
N 2 N1 N2
BenAmoz proved that the bounds apply equally aswell to linear as well as nonlinear
SN curves. The bounds can become narrower if crack initiation information is
available. The fatigue process is broken into two phases, crack initiation and crack
propagation. The remaining life is considered to be of the form
n2 = ni2 + np2 Equation 4.12
where ni2 = number of cycles which cause crack initiation at stress level 2.
np2 = number of cycles which cause crack propagation at stress level 2.
Two cases arise.
45
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
n1 n1
N1 N i1 n2
N1 N i1
N p 2 1 N p 2 1 Equation 4.14
N p1 N2 N p1
46
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
47
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 4.6 Damage as a function of cycle ratio for seven different stress levels [24].
48
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Each stress level has its own damage curve. Lines of constant damage are plotted on
an SN curve. For example, a damage line of D = 0.4 is shown in figure 4.7 which is
extrapolated from points 1 to 7 in figure 4.6.
Figure 4.7 SN plot showing lines of constant damage developed by Marin’s theory [24].
He approximated the shape of the SN curve to be
SxN = K Equation 4.17
where x is an exponent describing the shape of the curve. He also defined
q=yx Equation 4.18
where y is a material constant (same as ‘d’ in Corten and Dolan’s theory).
n1 S1
q
n f N 2 1 Equation 4.20
N 1 S2
49
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
This rule can be considered as Miner’s rule applied to both the crack initiation and
crack propagation stages of fatigue. Through an empirical method he discovered that
a special point ‘P’ was common to all SN curves regardless of damage level [25].
Refer to figure 4.8 below.
Figure 4.8 Manson’s cumulative damage rule applied to a twolevelstress test [25].
N2
log NP
n log N1 N P
n f N 2 1 1 Equation 4.21
N1
50
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
E1
S 1 n N Equation 4.23
S E 0
n
E0 1 N
where S = applied stress
D1
n N Equation 4.24
E
1 0 S E 1 n N
0
The value of E0 must be updated after the application of each stress level, using
equation 4.23 above, to yield E0, E1, E2…., where E1 is the fatigue limit after applying
n1 cycles at stress level S1 and so on. Failure will occur when the sum of damage
fractions equals unity [26].
D = 1 failure.
51
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 4.9 Illustration of the set of new SN curves according to Henry’s modified cumulative damage
theory.
This method yields a new SN curve after each new load which can then be used to
predict failure. For example, in figure 4.9 above, the application of a third stress level
‘S3’ will produce failure at n = 103 cycles.
where e = Se/Seo = fatigue limit ratio (ratio of current value of fatigue limit to the
original value of fatigue limit).
= S/Seo = stress amplitude ratio (ratio of the stress amplitude to the original
value of the fatigue limit).
52
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Gatts’s theory calculates the new endurance limit ‘Se’ after stressing. This new value
can be substituted into equation 4.24 from Henry’s theory, to evaluate the damage
fraction ‘D1’. The same failure criteria applies to Gatts’s and Henry’s theory, which
is
D = 1 failure.
D2 S e
D2 S2 Se N 2
n2 Equation 4.26
DS
1 2 e S S
2 e
where D2 = 1  D1
dD d
e Equation 4.27
dn dn
53
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
dD
= damage growth.
dn
e / eo
The determination of the rate of change of the nondimensional endurance limit is the
backbone of the theory. Once this was found an expression relating the damage
fraction ‘D’ to cycle ratio ‘’, to maximum cyclic stress and to original ultimate
tensile strength, was derived.
D
Equation 4.28
m
1
u
1
β = Cycle ratio.
m
k k
uk
De
1
ek
k
Equation 4.29
m
De 1 k
uk
1
k 1
54
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The theoretical number of cycles that the specimen will sustain at the last level k is
For a twolevel step test, the number of remaining cycles can be found by
2) Failure will occur when ‘D’ reaches unity and when (n/N) reaches a critical
value.
The critical value ‘ (n/N)’ can be determined from the damage history on a damage
vs. cycle ratio plot. Consider figure 4.10.
55
Life Prediction Theory Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 4.10 Fatigue damage as a function of cycle ratio for lowhigh stressing, illustrating Marco
Starkey cumulative damage theory.
For a lowhigh, twolevelstress test, S1 is applied for a cycle ratio (n/N) of 0.5,
followed by S3 until failure occurs at D = 1. Path 0ABC represents the damage
history. The critical value of n/N may be computed from the curve as
n n n
Equation 4.33
N N S1 N S3
From figure 4.10, for example, it can be observed that the critical value is
56
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 5
5.1 Experimental Programme
All tests were carried out using the AveryDenison Fatigue testing machine. The
experimental programme consisted of five parts, each with its own purpose.
1. Determination of the SN curve for cast vitalliumtm.
2. Determination of the SN curve for notched vitalliumtm with a notch radius of
1.5mm
3. Determination of the SN curve for notched vitalliumtm with a notch radius of
2.5mm
4. Determination of the SN curve for HIPed vitalliumtm.
5. Twolevelstress tests for a cumulative damage analysis.
57
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
pressure to densify cast components. This process eliminated all traces of the micro
voids. This meant that thirty eight specimens were available for testing.
58
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
5.4 Apparatus
Figure 5.2
59
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 5.3
60
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
61
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
5. The top and bottom dial gauges were both set to zero when contact was made with
the torsion bar arm.
6. The eccentric wheel was offset by four wheel divisions.
7. The upper and lower deflections of the torsion bar arm were adjusted until they
were the same. This ensured that the neutral axis was in the centre of the test
specimen. The adjusting was done using the two allen head bolts (adjusters) on
the machine head.
Note: One bolt was loose while the other was being tightened and both bolts
were tight when the eccentric was rotated by hand.
8. Both dial gauges were offset by the value of deflection obtained from the
calibration chart.
9. The eccentricity of the connecting rod was increased until both dial gauges
registered a tiny deflection. This indicated that the deflection in the torsion bar
delivered the required stress to the specimen and that it occurred at the centre of
the specimen.
10. The number of revolutions on the revcounter was recorded, the dial gauges were
removed from the machine and the adjusters were both tightened.
11. The upper contact on the switch was lowered until the red light illuminated. The
stop button was pressed and the switch lowered again until the red light
illuminated. The stop button was pressed again. This was repeated until the red
light remained on. The switch connection was broken with the use of a phase
tester and the machine was started. The switch was lowered until the shortest
spark length was obtained.
12. The steps, one to eleven, were repeated for each application of stress.
13. The same procedure was carried out for the cumulative damage tests, with the
exception that the machine was manually turned off after the application of the
first stress level and reset for the application of the second stress level.
62
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1. The dashpot switch proved to be a problem, especially with high cycle tests.
Through experimentation it was found that the switch was optimal when the spark
between the switching contacts was at a minimum length. When the spark length
was allowed to increase, the machine cut out. During high cycle tests the point of
the switch flattened due to the high level of repeated contact. This meant that the
spark length was allowed to increase; resulting in machine cut out when the
specimen had not yet fractured. To overcome this problem the point of the lower
contact had to be sharpened with rough emery paper between each test. Also, for
high cycle tests, the upper contact had to be slightly lowered approximately every
four hours. This ensured a short spark length until the specimen fractured.
2. The AveryDenison fatigue testing machine contains two dashpot switches. The
lower switch was missing parts and the remaining parts were broken. The upper
switch was capable of doing the job on its own so it was decided not to use the
lower switch at all.
3. During low cycle testing the machine was not cutting out when the specimen
fractured. Through an investigation the problem was discovered. The oil in the
dashpot switch contained wear particles. These particles made the oil less
viscous. This meant the dashpot piston was too slow to come down the necessary
distance to allow full contact across the switch. The problem was solved by
changing the oil every four or five tests.
63
Experimentation Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
4. Some oil splashing occurred. This seeped down the thread of the adjustable upper
contact and across the switch, cutting out the machine. The solution was to put
the bare minimum of oil into the dashpot to eliminate splashing.
5. The pivot screws in the dashpot switch tended to loosen and needed to be
tightened throughout the test programme. This was also the case for the two
tapered bolts which secured the torsion bar.
6. Two adjusters were used to centre the position of the load in the test specimen.
The internal and external threads on one of the adjusters completely wore out.
The reason for this must be that the torque exertion at the adjuster was excessive.
However, it was necessary to apply such a high torque, to bend the test specimen
with the torsion bar. The problem was rectified by taking the machine apart, re
boring and retapping the internal thread to a larger size (M10).
7. The front damping plate, which supports the machine head, cracked at the end of
testing program. A crack initiated at a point of high stress concentration and
appeared to propagate across the plate. This problem can be solved by making
another plate and replacing the damaged one.
8. The screw which bounces continuously off the torsion bar arm has worn it down.
Therefore when high stresses were applied the screw bounced higher than usual
causing the switch to close. This had the random effect of switching off the
machine when the piece had not broken. The problem was solved by damping the
screw. The worn area of the torsion bar arm was covered with paper and wrapped
with insulating tape. Even though it was a temporary job it improved the switch
performance immensely.
64
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 6
Experimental Results
65
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental Miner
Nonconservative)
66
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental Subramanyan
Non
conservative)
High 650 1.0x104 8,000 580 1.85x104 .811 2,500 3,062 noncon
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 .687 92,000 52,304 con
Tests 600 9x103 6,000 500 1.6x104 .687 62,000 38,924 con
Low 580 1.85x104 2,500 650 1.0x104 1.233 14,000 9,152 con
5 4
High 550 1.05x10 60,000 580 1.85x10 1.111 8,500 8,565 noncon
5 4
Tests 550 1.05x10 20,000 580 1.85x10 1.111 33,500 15,568 con
5 5
450 1.24x10 100,000 550 1.05x10 1.588 25,000 30,383 noncon
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental BenAmoz
Non
conservative)
67
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental CortenDolan
Nonconservative)
d = 6.3
High 650 1.0x104 8,000 580 1.85x104 2,500 20,500 noncon
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 92,000 45,731 con
Tests 600 9x103 6,000 500 1.6x104 62,000 28,384 con
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental CortenDolan
Nonconservative)
d = 9.82
4 4
High 650 1.0x10 8,000 580 1.85x10 2,500 30,616 very noncon
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 92,000 86,881 con
3 4
Tests 600 9x10 6,000 500 1.6x10 62,000 53,926 con
68
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 q n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative / Non
Experimental Marin
conservative)
4 4
High 650 1.0x10 8,000 580 1.85x10 4.42 2,500 6,122 noncon
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 1.53 92,000 51,003 con
Tests 600 9x103 6,000 500 1.6x104 5.96 62,000 17,992 very con
Low 580 1.85x104 2,500 650 1.0x104 4.42 14,000 5,227 con
5 4
High 550 1.05x10 60,000 580 1.85x10 22.8 8,500 26,711 noncon
5 4
Tests 550 1.05x10 20,000 580 1.85x10 22.8 33,500 50,455 noncon
5 5
450 1.24x10 100,000 550 1.05x10 6.68 25,000 5,318 con
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental Manson
Non
conservative)
69
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments
(Conservative /
Experimental Modified
Non
Henry conservative)
70
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1 N1 n1 2 N2 D1 D2 E1 n2 = nf n2 = nf Comments (Conservative /
Nonconservative)
Experimental Henry
High 650 1.0x104 8,000 580 1.85x104 .694 .306 85.4 2,500 6,304 noncon
Low 600 1.45x104 6,000 500 1.15x105 .273 .727 203.4 92,000 94,053 noncon
3 4
Tests 600 9x10 6,000 500 1.6x10 .516 .484 75 62,000 83,907 noncon
Low 580 1.85x104 2,500 650 1.0x104 .074 .926 259 14,000 9,543 con
5 4
High 550 1.05x10 60,000 580 1.85x10 .395 .605 169.2 8,500 12,652 noncon
5 4
Tests 550 1.05x10 20,000 580 1.85x10 .103 .897 251 33,500 17,372 con
5 5
450 1.24x10 100,000 550 1.05x10 .611 .389 108.7 25,000 46,446 noncon
High 650 1.0x104 8,000 580 1.85x104 .338 .306 233.3 2,500 7,852 noncon
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 .338 .727 252 92,000 96,984 noncon
3 4
Tests 600 9x10 6,000 500 1.6x10 .218 .484 148.4 62,000 91,466 noncon
Low 580 1.85x104 2,500 650 1.0x104 .338 .926 270.9 14,000 9,553 con
High 550 1.05x105 60,000 580 1.85x104 .338 .605 233.2 8,500 13,304 noncon
5 4
Tests 550 1.05x10 20,000 580 1.85x10 .338 .897 266 33,500 17,425 con
5 5
450 1.24x10 100,000 550 1.05x10 .338 .389 189.9 25,000 51,771 noncon
Table 6.13 Gatts’s prediction for two levelstresstests.
71
Results Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
High 650 1.0x104 8,000 580 1.85x104 .8 2.32 2.95 2.07 .708 .820 2,500 3,330 noncon
good
4 5
Low 600 1.45x10 6,000 500 1.15x10 .41 2.14 2.95 1.78 .277 .464 92,000 61,640 con
3 4
Tests 600 9x10 6,000 500 1.6x10 .66 2.14 4.59 1.78 .508 .599 62,000 64,070 noncon
good
Low 580 1.85x104 2,500 650 1.0x104 .14 2.07 2.95 2.32 .079 .124 14,000 8,760 con
High 550 1.05x105 60,000 580 1.85x104 .57 1.96 2.95 2.07 .398 .554 8,500 8,251 con
good
5 4
Tests 550 1.05x10 20,000 580 1.85x10 .19 1.96 2.95 2.07 .105 .181 33,500 15,152 con
450 1.24x105 100,000 550 1.05x105 .81 1.61 2.95 1.96 .618 .764 25,000 24,780 con
good
72
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 7
7.1 Determination of SN Curve
An SN curve for cast vitalliumtm was constructed from data provided by the previous
researcher, Michael Moloney [29] and the author. The experimental curve was
insufficient to do constant life calculations because it existed only between 104 and
106 cycles.
The first part of the curve was plotted on the basis of Juvinall & Marsheks’ estimate
[1], which is that the material loses one tenth of its fatigue strength between 1 cycle
and 103 cycles. This can be done as it yields a good correlation with the experimental
results obtained at 104 cycles.
It was evident from exploratory tests that the SN curves for machined vitalliumtm and
cast vitallium tm were different. Refer to figure 7.1. The curve for machined
vitalliumtm is to the right and above the cast SN curve, indicating that it has a greater
fatigue resistance than cast vitalliumtm.
73
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
900
800
Stress Amplitude (Mpa)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 Juvinall and Marshek
Machined
Number of cycles to Failure
Cast
74
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
N Nominal Stress
m Mean Stress
The effects of applying a mean stress can be seen in figure 7.2. The maximum
allowable mean stress of 280 MPa yields an SN curve much lower than the original
SN curve. This curve was constructed by using the Goodman criteria of mean stress.
Stress Amplitude
1000
800
600
Mean Stress = 0
400
Mean Stress = 100
200
0 Mean Stress = 200
1.00E+02 1.00E+05 1.00E+08 Mean Stress = 280
Figure 7.2 The reduction of the fatigue strength of machined Vitalliumtm due mean stress effects,
according to Goodman’s mean stress criteria.
75
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
1.00E+03
800
0 1.00E+04
700 0 1.00E+05
600 0
0 3.00E+05
500
0 1.00E+06
400 0 1.00E+08
300 Yield Stress
200
100 Ultimate Tensile
Strength
0 531Yield Strength 827
0 200 400 600 800 1000
This diagram shows that a maximum of 280 MPa of mean stress can be applied for
infinite life. This is substantially less than the estimated endurance limit of 377 MPa
for machined vitalliumtm, when zero mean stress is applied.
76
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
7.4 Constant Life Diagram with Mean Stress Correction for Machined
Vitalliumtm
Another constant life diagram was constructed (figure 7.4) using the SN curve for a
mean stress of 280 MPa.
600 1.00E+03
1.00E+04
400 1.00E+05
3.00E+05
200 1.00E+06
1.00E+08
0 Yield Stress
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Mean Stress (MPa)
Figure 7.4 Constant life diagram for machined Vitalliumtm with mean stress correction.
This constant life diagram shows that a maximum mean stress of 402 MPa can be
applied, for infinite life conditions so long as the stress amplitude does not exceed
127 MPa. Having mean stress correction in a constant life diagram has the effect of
increasing the materials chances of yielding before actual failure. This reduces the
possibility of catastrophic failure due to mean stress.
This chart can be used if the application of a mean stress is unavoidable. This constant
life diagram still is not complete, as stress concentration and fatigue notch factors
have not been considered.
77
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
A Haigh constant life diagram was also constructed for nonmachined cast vitalliumtm
with the use of its own SN curve.
The constant life diagram was then converted into a fatigue strength diagram [5], by
considering the relationship between the maximum stress [Smax], minimum stress [S
min] and the mean stress [Sm].
Figure 7.5 Relationship between mean stress, maximum stress and minimum stress in a typical fatigue
situation.
When there is zero mean stress Smax and Smin both have a magnitude of Sa. .Refer to
figure 7.5 above. Points A and B were plotted giving one point on each curve. If the
mean stress were equal to the ultimate tensile stress ‘Su’ (827 MPa), the specimen can
withstand no further load, hence the corresponding stress amplitude ‘Sa’ is zero.
Then Smax and Smin are the same and equal to Su. Thus both curves pass through the
point C. The curves AC and BC were assumed to be straight [17]. The line OC in
figure 7.5 slopes upwards at 45° because C was plotted with both coordinates equal to
Su. The vertical distance to an arbitrary point on the line OC is the mean stress Sm
78
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
while the additional vertical distance to the line AC is the stress amplitude Sa. This
allows the stress amplitude (also known as alternating stress) to be determined, once
the maximum and mean stresses are known. This information was superimposed on
the constant life diagram to produce the fatigue strength diagram for cast vitalliumtm,
shown in figure 7.6.
79
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 7.6 Fatigue strength diagram constructed for heat treated, cast vitalliumtm.
80
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 7.7 Comparison of cumulative damage theories with experimental data obtained for machined vitalliumtm.
81
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
There are several damage theories available. The author has investigated each theory
to see which cumulative damage theory is best suited to machined vitalliumtm. This
was done by comparing the experimental and theoretical results obtained from the
previous author. It can be seen from figure 7.7 that Subramanyan’s theory is the
closest to the experimental curve, especially in the region of S1/S2 > 1, where high
low testing occurred.
A plot of Damage vs. Cycle Ratio for each two level step test was configured (figure
7.8).
1
Damage Fraction
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Highlow Sequence
Cycle Ratio Lowhigh Sequence
Figure 7.8 Relationship between damage fraction and cycle ratio for vitalliumtm according to Henry’s
damage theory.
Damage was calculated using Henry’s damage equation.
According to Henry’s theory, damage can be quantified as a reduction in the
endurance limit after the initial loading has occurred. He postulated that the new
endurance limit was a function of the applied stress, the cycle ratio and the original
fatigue limit.
n
N
D Equation 7.3
S fo n
1 1
S nom S fo N
82
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Where D = Damage
n/N = Cycle ratio
Sfo = Original endurance limit
Snom = Nominal stress
The plot shows that the lowhigh tests yield a straight line. This is almost identical to
Miner’s linear damage rule, which states that the damage accumulated is a linear
function of cycle ratio. This explains why Miner’s theory yielded relatively accurate
results. The plot also shows that the highlow tests yield a polynomial curve below
the straight line. This curve is similar to the curve that Subramanyan’s damage theory
would provide.
The plot suggests; for cast vitalliumtm, that Miner’s damage theory should be applied
to lowhigh stressing situations and that Subramanyan’s damage theory should be
applied to highlow stressing situations. More tests need to be conducted at higher
values of cycle ratio to confirm that this graph is a true representation of the
cumulative damage behaviour of cast vitalliumtm.
The endurance limit of the notched specimens is below 200 MPa and is estimated to
be 180 MPa. Using this information and Peterson’s stress concentration design charts
[13], the notch sensitivity ‘q’ of each notch geometry was determined.
83
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
84
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 7.10 Peterson’s stress concentration chart used to determine the stress concentration factors of
both notch geometries [13].
The results were as follows.
At notch radius = 1.5 mm q = 0.585
At notch radius = 2.5 mm q = 0.855
Specimens with the smaller notch radii were more notch sensitive than those with the
larger radii. This was to be expected. However, the specimens with the smaller radii
seem to have a better resistance to fatigue than do the specimens with the larger notch
radii (figure 7.9). This suggests that vitalliumtm is notch sensitive because of the
stress concentration factor, not the fatigue notch factor.
85
Analysis of Data Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
800
700
600
Stress Amplitude (MPa)
500
400
300
200
100
0
1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 Plain Vitallium
Number of Cycles to Failure HIPed Vitallium
86
Inspection Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 8
87
Inspection Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 8.1 Tiny cracks propagate around the crystal boundaries at the fatigued surface of vitallium tm.
88
Inspection Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Casting voids are shown in figures 8.3a and 8.3b. A cluster of defects can be seen in
figure 8.3a while a single defect next to a crystal boundary can be seen in figure 8.3b.
a b
Figure 8.3 8.3a Cluster of casting voids. 8.3b Single void close to a crystal boundary line.
The photograph in figure 8.4 shows polishing scratches across a specimen’s surface.
The specimens were repolished until there were no more visible scratches.
89
Inspection Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Figure 8.5 Photograph of fractured specimen, showing a flaked fracture line. The scale at the bottom is
in millimetres.
90
Inspection Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
91
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 9
Discussion
The test program had to be modified because of the late arrival of specimens. Certain
high cycle SN curve tests, low stress cumulative damage twolevelstress tests and
cycle ratio hardness tests were thus eliminated from the program. These tests were
chosen because of test time considerations and lower priority. The various aspects of
the entire fatigue study and cumulative damage analysis are discussed below.
92
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The SN curves for both notch geometry’s were lower than that for unnotched
vitalliumtm. Therefore, it can be said that vitalliumtm is a notch sensitive material.
The notch sensitivity increased with a decrease in notch radius. This was due to the
stress concentration, not the fatigue notch factor. It can be seen from figure 7.9 that
the notch with the smaller radius seems to have a better resistance to fatigue than the
larger notch. Fatigue resistance suffers with increased notches. There are not enough
points on the notched SN curve to make any definite conclusions quantifying the
fatigue resistance of different size notches.
The endurance limit of notched vitalliumtm is a value below 200 MPa. It is estimated
to be approximately 180 MPa. More high cycle testing is required to obtain the true
value. The threshold notch sensitivity is a value in the range 0 to 0.585. A sharp
notch analysis with notch radii less than 1.5 mm is required to determine this value.
93
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The extremity of prediction accuracy for cast vitalliumtm was enormous. The most
accurate prediction (error of 0.76%) was for a lowhigh test using Subramanyan’s
theory 9 (table 6.5). The least accurate prediction (error of 1224%) was for a high
low test using CortenDolan’s theory (Table 6.8). The author decided not to use
percentage difference, but instead orders of magnitude. All of the predictions of
remaining life were of the same order of magnitude. These predictions are acceptable
when dealing with the random nature of fatigue damage. Some theories were more
accurate than others.
94
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
BenAmoz’s theory takes advantage of the two very useful theories of Miner and
Subramanyan. The cumulative damage scatter is taken into consideration and so
provides a conservative tool for failure prediction. The theory works best when crack
initiation information is available. This was not the case for vitalliumtm. However, it
was observed during testing that once a crack started to propagate, it failed
catastrophically very soon afterwards. This suggested that the vast majority of cycles
to failure are in the crack initiation phase. Therefore, it was considered quite
satisfactory to apply the simpler form of BenAmoz’s theory to vitalliumtm (Equations
4.10 and 4.1).
From the seven tests, two predictions were correct, four conservative and one non
conservative. This is excellent by any standard. This accuracy can be further
increased by applying BenAmoz’s full theory using crack initiation information. The
author recommends the use of this theory for the prediction of the remaining life of
vitalliumtm.
95
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
CortenDolan’s theory yields poor results when the constant ‘d’ is equal to 6.3 (i.e.
average between steel and aluminium) Refer to table 6.7. The overall accuracy is
greatly increased by using the average value of ‘d’ equal to 9.82 for vitalliumtm. (table
6.8). More tests need to be conducted to validate this value. It is a poor theory for
twolevel stress testing because it does not take the initial number of stress cycles into
account. It’s application to vitalliumtm cannot be dismissed yet because it is a theory
designed for variable stress amplitude loading, not twolevelstress tests.
Marin’s theory yields random predictions and should not be applied to vitalliumtm.
Refer to table 6.9
The theory proposed by Manson yields very conservative predictions for high
low tests, (table 6.10). It was the only theory which predicted failure at 2,500 cycles
for the first highlow test. Even though it is not accurate it can be considered as a safe
96
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
theory. However, this is true only when the value of “Np” is known for vitalliumtm.
The previous author used a value of Np equal to 1900 cycles. It is unknown whether
this is correct or not. More fatigue test are required to determine the value of “Np”.
E 0 E1
That is, if D1 Equation 9.1
E0
A possible test procedure to determine this would be to load eight test specimens at
the same stress, say 500MPa, for the same cycle ratio (n/N D) of say 0.5, then to
apply different stress levels to the eight specimens to determine an SN curve and a
new endurance limit ‘E1’. If the left hand side of equation 9.1 approximately equals
the right hand side of the equation then it could be said that Henry’s theory applies to
vitalliumtm.
Henry’s modified theory makes use of an SN curve for each new damage level. It
probably should not be applied to vitalliumtm for two reasons. The first reason is that
the theory is approximate in its nature because the SN curve is assumed to be linear.
This is rarely ever the case as most SN curves are ogeeshaped. The second reason is
97
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
that the modified theory suggests that the slope of the SN curve should start at 106
cycles. The use of this theory would produce false SN curves for each damage level
because the SN curve for vitalliumtm is not asymptotic to the endurance limit at 106
cycles. If the theory were to be modified to produce an SN curve at say 5x106 cycles
instead of 106 cycles, it would yield a better approximation.
Henry’s modified theory yields poor predictions for remaining life. Refer to table
6.11. This is because it assumes a linear SN curve. This assumption cannot be made
for vitalliumtm because of the definite curved nature of its SN curve.
Gatts’s and Henry’s cumulative damage theories are similar in that they both use the
reduction in endurance limit as their damage indicator. Gatts’s theory cannot be
readily applied to vitalliumtm for the same reason that Henry’s theory which is that
damage may not be a function of the new endurance limit for vitalliumtm.
The same points for Henry’s theory are valid for Gatts’ theory. The values of “C”,
0.338 and 0.218, for unnotched and notched vitalliumtm are questionable. However,
these values give better results than do the constants for the steel equivalent. Gatts’
theory generally yields nonconservative predictions and should therefore not be
applied to vitalliumtm.
98
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
However, for lower stresses, the opposite case seemed to exist. The energy required
to cause crack initiation was much higher for HIPed specimens than for plain
specimens. This was due to the lack of internal voids to act as stress raisers. This
meant that the crack initiation phase was increased and therefore the overall fatigue
life.
99
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
It was observed for HIPed specimens, at stresses below 580 MPa, that once a crack
started to propagate it failed much slower than specimens that were not HIPed. The
fracture line was straight and well defined for the HIPed specimens, whereas the
crack line was more random for the plain specimens. From this it was deduced that
HIPing had the effect of increasing the crack propagation phase and the overall
ductility of vitalliumtm. The HIPed vitalliumtm was more resilient to bending and
therefore, more ductile.
HIPing, on average increased the fatigue life of specimens by 92%. This can be
observed in figure 7.11 ;( take note that this is not completely obvious from the figure
because the abscissa of the graph has a logarithmic scale).
Despite the increase in fatigue life, it is still unsure whether HIPing actually increases
the endurance limit. Intuitively, the author believes this to be so. However, this is
opinion and not fact. It is estimated that the endurance limit exists in the range 280
MPa to 300 MPa, but it may be somewhat lower than this. A more conservative
estimate is 250 MPa to 300 MPa. More high cycle testing is required to make a final
determination on the endurance limit.
9.7 Inspection
The magnified photographs in figures 8.1 and 8.2 suggest that cracks propagate along
the crystal boundaries of vitalliumtm. This is in the direction of least resistance.
100
Discussion Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
The macroscopic inspection indicates that vitalliumtm fails in a brittle fashion (figure
8.5). This may be caused by work hardening of the specimen surface under cyclic
loading. The specimens’ surfaces were characterised by fibrous areas caused during
progressive crack propagation and crystalline areas which occurred during
catastrophic failure. Catastrophic failure did not occur in all cases. Therefore, the
surfaces of these specimens were not examined and failure was deemed to occur
when a deep crack was observed around the entire perimeter of the specimen.
Although not totally necessary, it would be desirable to replace the dashpot switching
mechanism, to make it more reliable for high cycle tests.
101
Conclusions Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 10
Conclusions
1. BenAmoz’s cumulative damage theory works well for vitalliumtm.
2. The Unified cumulative damage theory yields accurate life prediction data for
vitalliumtm.
3. Vitalliumtm is a notch sensitive material.
4. HIPing increases the fatigue resistance and ductility of cast vitalliumtm.
5. Heavily machined vitalliumtm has a better fatigue resistance than cast vitalliumtm,
which has not been machined.
6. Vitalliumtm work hardens and fails in a brittle manner when subjected to
completely reversed bending cyclic loading.
7. Cracks propagate along the crystal boundaries of vitalliumtm.
8. The endurance limit of cast vitalliumtm lays within the range of 250 MPa to 300
MPa.
9. The endurance limit of HIPed vitalliumtm is estimated to lay within the range of
250 MPa to 300 MPa (and is expected to be greater than endurance limit of cast
vitalliumtm upon completion of further high cycle tests).
10. The endurance limit of the notched specimens is below 200 MPa and is estimated
to be 180 MPa.
11. The endurance limit of machined vitalliumtm is approximately 377 MPa.
12. The maximum allowable mean stress for infinite life that can be applied to
machined vitalliumtm under completely reversed bending conditions is 280 MPa.
13. The average value of ‘d’ for vitalliumtm, in CortenDolan’s cumulative theory was
found to be 9.82.
14. The threshold notch sensitivity of vitalliumtm is a value in the range 0 to 0.585.
102
Recommendations Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Chapter 11
Recommendations
1. Repair the fatigue testing machine as outlined in the discussion.
2. Conduct more tests on HIPed specimens to quantify better their increased fatigue
resistance.
3. The microstructure of HIPed vitalliumtm could be examined to check if any
casting defects exist.
4. Conduct more high cycle tests to properly determine the true endurance limit of
cast, notched and HIPed vitalliumtm.
5. The threshold notch sensitivity of vitalliumtm can be found by conducting another
notch analysis, with notch radii less than 1.5mm.
6. Conduct experiments to find the crack initiation information required to apply
BenAmoz’s full cumulative damage theory.
7. Conduct a test programme to determine whether a reduction in endurance limit is
a valid damage indicator for vitalliumtm.
8. Test the hardness of vitalliumtm for different cycle ratios of fatigue to discover if
hardness can be used as a damage indicator.
9. A variable stress amplitude fatigue test programme could be conducted to see if
Corten Dolan’s cumulative damage theory applies to vitalliumtm.
10. It may be useful to conduct strain controlled fatigue tests. This type of test would
show the influence of randomised high strains that may occur in cast vitalliumtm.
103
Recommendations Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
References
2. HIGGINS, R.A., Materials for the Engineering Technician, Second Edition, p. 3035, 71.
4. HEARN, E.J., ‘Mechanics of Materials’, Second Edition, Pergamon Press, 1992, p.842
858.
5. BUCH, A., ‘Fatigue Strength Calculation’, Trans Tech SA, 1988, p.1227.
6. AGOGINO, A.M., ‘Notch Effects, Stress State and Ductility’, Transactions of the
ASME, October 1978, V100, p.349350.
9. HARRISON, J.D., ' Damage Tolerant Design', Fatigue Crack Growth', (SMITH, R.A.).
pp. 117  129.
104
Recommendations Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
11. McNAMARA, B.P., VICECONTI, M., CRISTOFOLINI, L., TONI, A., TAYLOR, D.,
‘Experimental and numerical preclinical evaluation relating to total hip Arthroplasty’,
Archives of Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery.
13. PETERSON, R.E., ‘Stress Concentration Factors’, John Wiley & Sons, 1953.
14. JAMES, P.J., ‘Isostatic Pressing Technology’, Applied Science Publishers, p.169203,
221238.
17. MINER, M.A., ‘Cumulative Damage in Fatigue’, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1945,
V12, p.159164.
18. JOHNSON, J.B., OBERG, T, T., 'Airplane Propeller Blade Life', Metals and Alloys,
1938, V8, pp. 259  262.
105
Recommendations Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
20. SUBRAMANYAN, S., ‘A Cumulative Damage Rule based on the Kneepoint of the SN
curve’, Transactions of the ASME, V98, October 1976, p.316321.
21. BENAMOZ, M., ‘A Cumulative Damage Theory for Fatigue Life Prediction’,
Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 1990, V37, No. 2, pp. 341347.
23. COLLINS, J.A., ‘Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design’, John Wiley & Sons, USA,
1981, p. 255274.
24. MARIN, J., ‘Mechanical Behaviour of Engineering Materials’, Prentice Hall 1962.
25. MANSON, S.S., FRECHE, J.C., ‘Application of a Double Linear Damage Rule to
Cumulative Fatigue’ Fatigue Crack Propagation, STP 415, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1967,
p.384.
28. DUBUC, J., THANG, B.Q., BAZERGUI, A., BIRON, A., ‘Unified Theory of
Cumulative Damage in Metal Fatigue’, Canadian Welding Research Council (WRC),
Bulletin 162, p.119.
106
Recommendations Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
29. MOLONEY, M., ‘A Cumulative Damage Analysis of the Surgical Alloy, Vitalliumtm’,
Final year project report, 1996, p.1145. (Not Published).
107
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
APPENDIX
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
And the distance from the neutral axis to the surface is, y = D/2
Thus
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
A.2
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
A.3
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
A.4
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
A.5
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
All sample calculations shown in appendix are for the first highlow, twolevelstress test in
the cumulative damage analysis.
The details of which are
S1 = 650 MPa
N1 = 10,000
n1 = 8,000
S2 = 580 MPa
N2 = 18,500
n2 experimental = 2,500
n 8,000
n2 N 2 1 1 18,5001 3,700 cycles
N1 10,000
580 280
0.81
650 280
8,000 0.81
n2 18,5001 3,062
10,000
n2 = 3,062 cycles
N 10,000
n2 6.3 6. 3 20,500 cycles
S2 580
S1 650
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
q yx
y 9.82
18,500
log
10,000
x 4.42
650
log
580
n1 S1
q
8,000 650
4 .42
n2 N 2 1 18,500 1 6,122
N 1 S 2 10,000 580
n2 = 6,122 cycles
8,000
10,000
D1 0.694
280 8,000
1 1
650 280 10,000
D2 1 D1 0.306
8,000
650 1
10,000
E1 85.4 MPa
650 280 8,000
1
280 10,000
n2 = 6,304 cycles
For most steels the original fatigue limit ‘Seo’ is about one half the ultimate tensile strength, giving a value
of ‘C’ equal to 0.5.
1
S e S 1
n1 S
N1 S eo n1
1 C
S . 1 N 1
S eo 1
Appendix Cumulative Damage Analysis – Kieran J. Claffey
S e 6501 1 233.3 MPa
8,000
10,000
650
280
1
8,000
1 0.338 650 1 10,000
280
.306 233.3
0.306 18,500
580 233.3
n2 7,852
.306 233.3
1
580 233.3
n2 = 7,852 cycles
0.8
D1 0.708
2.32
8
1 0.8 2.32
2.95
0.8
132
.
2.07
8
.7082.07
2.95
e 2 107
. 0.82
2.07 8
0.7081
2.95
1 107
.
n2 = 3,330 cycles