0 views

Uploaded by OPTICALMIMOOFDM

On the Performance of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Systems with Imperfect Successive Interference Cancellation

- Modulation Power Bandwidth
- BER for BPSK in Rayleigh Channel
- Nokia Net Monitor Guide v0 80 1
- DoceoTech Design Rev 2
- On the Statistical Properties of Mobile-To-Mobile Fading_LOS
- Analysis of Performance Improvement Using GMSK Modulation Technique in Wireless DS-CDMA Communication Systems
- Design and Performance Analysis of Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder for Various Generator Polynomials
- Performance Analysis and Simulation of Cyclic
- phuluc
- Pruning of Blind Decoding Results for Long Term Evolution
- Anoop Report
- Preamble Data Bursts Wimax
- 100114
- Schoen en 2008
- MIMO Equalization techniques
- gchannel
- msk200_dvb-t-measurement.pdf
- Space Diversity Configuration - GigaPro
- BER Analysis of OFDM Systems with Varying Frequency Offset Factor over AWGN and Rayleigh Channels
- Fpga Implementation of Race Control Algorithm for Full Bridge Prcp Converter

You are on page 1of 6

Interference Cancellation

Lina Bariah* , Arafat Al-Dweik*† and Sami Muhaidat* ‡

*

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Emails: {lina.bariah, dweik}@kustar.ac.ae

*†

Western University, London, Canada. Email: dweik@fulbrightmail.org

*‡

University of Surrey, Guildford, U.K. Email: muhaidat@ieee.org

Abstract—Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique the outage probability and the ergodic sum rates performance

has sparked a growing research interest due to its ability to in downlink NOMA systems with randomly deployed users.

enhance the overall spectral efficiency of wireless systems. In The derived analytical results in [3] show that the outage

this paper, we investigate the pairwise error probability (PEP)

performance of conventional NOMA systems, where an exact probability of NOMA systems highly depends on the targeted

closed form expression for the PEP is derived for different users, data rates and the allocated power for each user. Ding et al.

to give some insight about the reliability of the far and near users. [4] studied the effect of user pairing on the outage probability

Through the derivation of PEP expressions, we demonstrate that performance and the sum rate for two scenarios, fixed power

the maximum achievable diversity order is proportional to the allocation and cognitive-radio inspired NOMA. As reported in

user’s order. The obtained error probability expressions are used

to formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the overall [4], selecting users with distinctive channel gains can enhance

bit error rate (BER) under power and error rate threshold the achieved sum rate.

constrains. The derived analytical results, corroborated by Monte Dynamic power allocation for uplink and downlink NOMA

Carlo simulations, are presented to show the diversity order and systems is presented in [5] with guaranteed QoS for dif-

error rate performance of each individual user. ferent users. Unlike conventional techniques, such as fixed

Index terms— NOMA, pairwise error probability, reliabil- power allocation and cognitive-radio inspired NOMA, dy-

ity, diversity gain, optimization. namic power allocation provides more flexibility by allowing

tradeoffs between user fairness and overall system throughput.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Performance analysis of NOMA systems is evaluated in [6]

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a promising from users’ fairness standpoint. In particular, the authors

technique for the upcoming fifth generation (5G) wireless investigate the outage probability and the sum rate of different

communications, and it has attracted an increased research power allocation scenarios, where instantaneous and average

interests in recent years. Enhanced latency, spectral efficiency channel gains are considered.

and connectivity are the main factors that stimulated the emer- Although performance analysis of NOMA systems is well

gence of NOMA systems, in which multiple users are allowed investigated in the literature [7]–[12], most of the reported

to share the same time and frequency resources [1]. The key work concentrates on evaluating the system’s performance in

point of NOMA systems is to permit a constrained level of terms of outage probability, individual sum rate and average

interference from other users that allows the receiver to per- sum rate. To the best of the authors knowledge, none of the

form successive interference cancellation (SIC) for the other reported work addressed the error rate performance analysis

users’ signals before detecting its own signal. NOMA systems of NOMA systems. Emphasizing on this, studying the error

rely on exploiting the power domain multiplexing to control rate performance of different users while considering imperfect

interference and maintain user fairness, in a way that grants SIC is crucial, to have some insightful results about the QoS

the far users higher power coefficients and assign low power of each individual user. Accurate bit error rate (BER) analysis

coefficients to near users [2]. Although NOMA technique of NOMA systems is intractable due to the SIC process,

enhances users’ fairness, in comparison with the conventional however, pairwise error probability (PEP) can be analyzed.

systems such as orthogonal multiple access (OMA) systems, It is worth noting that PEP gives a valuable indicator for the

quality of service (QoS) of far users is relatively low, which is BER performance, since it is considered as an upper bound

considered as a performance limiting factor in many scenarios for the BER.

due to error propagation. Based on the aforementioned discussion, the main contri-

Extensive research efforts have been conducted to study the butions of this paper are summarized as follows:

performance of NOMA systems from different perspectives • In this work, the PEP performance analysis of conven-

and under different scenarios. In [3], the authors investigated tional NOMA systems with imperfect SIC is considered,

where an exact closed form PEP expression is derived for where xl is the transmitted signal of

Pthe lth user and αl is the

L

each user individually. The derived PEP expressions are power allocation coefficient, where l=1 αl = 1. The received

verified by Monte Carlo simulations. signal at the lth user is,

• Building on the obtained PEP formulae, asymptotic PEP

rl = hl s + nl (2)

is derived to analyze the achieved effective diversity gain,

which represents the performance of the system at high where hl ∼ CN (0, 2σh2 ) is the channel frequency response

SNR regime. and nl is the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with

• Using the derived asymptotic expression of the PEP, an zero mean and variance σn2 . Power allocation coefficients are

optimization problem is formulated and solved to obtain sorted in descending order, α1 > α2 > ... > αL , given that

the optimum power allocation coefficients that minimize |h1 |2 < |h2 |2 < ... < |hL |2 . The first user decodes only

the BER, under power and users’ individual error rate its signal x1 , while treating the signals of all other users as

constrains. interference. The rest of the users should employ SIC to be

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Adopted system able to detect their signals. For the lth user, it should perform

and channel models are presented in Sec. II followed by exact SIC for the higher power users, i.e., U1 , · · · Ul−1 , and treat the

and asymptotic PEP analysis for each individual user in Sec. rest of users signals as interference, i.e., Ul+1 , · · · UL .

III. Power allocation coefficients optimization is addressed in

Sec. IV. Numerical and simulation results are presented in III. PAIRWISE E RROR P ROBABILITY A NALYSIS FOR

Sec. V and the paper is concluded in Sec. VI. NOMA S YSTEMS

Notation: (·)∗ and |.| denote the complex conjugate opera-

A. PEP Analysis for First User

tion and the absolute value, respectively. Re {.} represents the

real part of a complex number. x̂ represents a detected symbol Without loss of generality, we consider the first user as the

2 2 2

and ∆ denotes (x − x̂). farthest user, therefore, |h1 | < |h2 | < · · · < |hL | . The

received signal at the first user can be represented as follows,

II. S YSTEM AND C HANNEL M ODELS !

L p

Recalling that the basic idea behind NOMA systems is to p X

utilize the broadcast nature of the wireless channels to allow r1 = h1 α1 P x1 + αl P xl + n1 (3)

l=2

multiple users to share the same time, frequency and code

PL √

domains while assigning different power levels for different where l=2 αl P xl represents the interference term from

users, to permit a specific level of interference from the other the other users. PEP is defined as the probability of detecting

users. In this work, downlink transmission NOMA system with the symbol x̂ while symbol x was transmitted [13], which can

L users is considered, where each user is equipped with single be evaluated for the first user as follows,

antenna, as depicted in Fig. 1. Users are classified based on

PEP (x1 , x̂1 ) =

their distance from the base station (BS), where the first user is 2 2

p p

the farthest user from the BS, consequently, it has the weakest Pr r1 − α1 P h1 x̂1 ≤ r1 − α1 P h1 x1 , x̂1 6= x1 .

channel. On the other hand, the Lth user is the nearest with

the strongest channel. The channels between the BS and the L (4)

users are modeled as independent and identically distributed Using the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of a normal

(i.i.d) Rayleigh flat fading channels. It is worth mentioning that distribution, the conditional PEP for the first user can be

near users are assigned lower power coefficients than far users. represented as given in (5). In (5),

Given the total transmitted signal power is P , the transmitted Z ∞ 2

1 u

signal from the BS is given by, Q(x) = √ exp − du (6)

2π x 2

is the Gaussian Q-function [14] and ∆1 = (x1 −x̂1 ). It is worth

noting that the derived PEP expressions are conditioned on

particular interference values, which depend on the transmitted

and detected symbols for each user.

To get the unconditional PEP, we average over the prob-

ability density function (PDF) of |h|. By noting that user

1 has always the weakest channel, and channel gains for

the rest of users are ordered in ascending order, i.e. |h1 | =

min(|h1 |, · · · , |hL |) and |hL | = max(|h1 |, · · · , |hL |), ordered

statistics should be considered when evaluating the PDF of

Fig. 1: Typical NOMA system with L users. |h1 |. Therefore, the PDF of the lth user is given by [15],

L! L−l

L p

X f(l) (x) = fX (x)FX (x)l−1 (1 − FX (x)) .

s= αl P xl (1) (l − 1)!(L − l)!

l=1

(7)

√ 2

n P √

L

o

α1 P |h1 | |∆1 | + 2 |h1 | Re ∆1 l=2 αl P x∗l

PEP (x1 , x̂1 | |h1 |) = Q √ . (5)

2 |∆1 | σn

distributed, its PDF and CDF where

x2 x2

are fX (x) = σx2 exp − 2σ and F (x) = 1 − exp − 2σ ,

" ( L

)

2 X 2 X

2

p p

∗

respectively [16]. Therefore, using (7), the PDF of |h1 | , ω1 βl = αl P |∆l | + 2 Re ∆l αn P xn

n=l+1

is given by, ( )# (17)

l−1

ω2

X

∆∗q

p

2ω1 + Re ∆l αq P

fΩ (ω1 ) = 2 exp − 12 (8)

σh 2σh q=1

and

h i

2 √

where σh2 = E |hl | , l = 1, 2, · · · , L.

υ= 2σn |∆l | . (18)

Hence, the PEP averaged over the PDF of ω1 is

Z ∞

ω1

ω12

Γ ω1

To evaluate the unconditional PEP, we average over the PDF

PEP (x1 , x̂1 ) = exp − 2 erfc √ dω1 of |hl | , ωl . Using the PDF of the ordered statistics provided

0 σh2 2σh 2ζ

(9) in (7) and considering that |h| is Rayleigh distributed, the PDF

where of |hl | is,

ωl2

( L p

) L! ωl

p 2

X

∗ fΩ (ωl ) = exp − 2

Γ = α1 P |∆1 | + 2Re ∆1 αl P xl (10) (l − 1)!(L − l)! σh2 2σh

l=2 l−1 L−l

ω2 ω2

and 1 − exp − l2 exp − l2 .

√ 2σh 2σh

ζ= 2 |∆1 | σn . (11) (19)

1 x

In (9), we use the identity, Q(x) = 2 erfc( 2 ),

where erfc(x)

√

To calculate the

is the complementary error function. Solving the integral in n Pnunconditional

n k n−k

PEP, we use binomial expansion

(a + x) = k=0 x a [18, Eq. 1.111] to represent

(9) gives [17], k 2 l−1

ωl

! the term 1 − exp − 2σ2 . Accordingly, the PEP can be

h

1 Γσh evaluated using the following integral,

PEP (x1 , x̂1 ) = 1− p . (12)

2 2ζ 2 + Γ2 σh2 l−1

L! X l−1 2(l−1)−j

which can be averaged over all the possible values of xl , l = PEP (xl , x̂l ) = 2 (−1)

σh (l − 1)!(L − l)! j=0 j

2, · · · , L, to consider all interference scenarios. Z ∞

[L − l + j − 1] ωl2

βl ωl

× ωl exp − Q dωl .

0 2σh2 υ

B. PEP Analysis for the lth User

(20)

For the lth user, it first decodes the signals with higher Solving the integral in (20) gives the closed form expression

power, i.e., U1 , · · · , Ul−1 , to perform SIC before detecting for the PEP for the lth user, as shown in (21).

its own signal. The output of the lth SIC receiver can be

represented as,

L l−1 p

C. Asymptotic Analysis

p X p X

r̃l = αl P hl xl + αn P hl xn + αk P hl ∆k +nl PEP represents an upper bound for the BER, and it gives a

n=l+1 k=1

(13) useful insight on the error rate performance when the closed

where ∆k = (xk − x̂k ). The PEP of the lth user can be form expression of the BER can not be found. PEP is used

evaluated as shown in (4), which after simplification can be also to study the achieved diversity, where the diversity gain

represented as shown in (14). Wenwould like to highlight is defined as the magnitude of the slope of the PEP when the

PL √ o signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value goes to infinity [13],

that for the Lth user, the term Re ∆l n=l+1 αn P x∗n

equals to zero. Hence, the PEP of the Lth user is given in log PEP (xl , x̂l )

ds = lim − (22)

(15). Therefore, using the CDF of a normal Gaussian random γ̄→∞ log γ̄

variable, the conditional PEP of the lth user can be evaluated where γ̄ = E {γ} is the average transmit SNR. Capitalizing

as the following, on the PEP presented in (21), in this section we derive the

asymptotic expression for the PEP of the lth user, which will

|hl | βl

PEP (xl , x̂l | |hl |) = Q (16) be used to evaluate the asymptotic diversity order. In this work

υ

" ( L

) ( l−1

)#!!

√ √ X √ X √

PEP (xl , x̂l | |hl |) = Pr 2 αl P Re {hl ∆l n∗l } ≤ −h2l 2

αl P |∆l | + 2 αl P Re ∆l αn P x∗n + Re ∆l αk P ∆∗k .

n=l+1 k=1

(14)

( L−1

)!!

√ √ X√

PEP (xL , x̂L | |hL |) = Pr 2 αL P Re {hL ∆L n∗L } ≤ −h2L 2

αL P |∆L | + 2 αL P Re ∆L ∗

αk P ∆k . (15)

k=1

l−1

!

2(l−1)−j

L! X l − 1 (−1) βl σ h

PEP (xl , x̂l ) = 2 1− p 2 2 . (21)

σh (l − 1)!(L − l)! j=0 j [L − l + j + 1] βl σh + [L − l + j + 1] υ 2

log PEP (xl , x̂l ) l−1

de = − . (23)

X l−1 j 1

log γ̄ PEP (xl , x̂l ) ≤ Al (−1) ×

j=0

j γ̄

As it is noticed, when γ̄ → ∞, the effective diversity order Z ∞ j+L−l+1

!

γβl2

converges to the asymptotic diversity gain. The conditional γ

1− exp − 2 dγ.

PEP presented in Eqn. (16) can be bounded by the following, 0 γ̄ 4 |∆l |

! (28)

γβl2

PEP (xl , x̂l | |hl |) ≤ exp − 2 (24) Solving the integral in (28) and after some simplifications, the

4 |∆l |

bounded PEP can be expressed as follows,

2

where βl is given in (17) and γ = |hl | /σn2 is the instanta- l−1 z

Al X X l − 1 z

neous SNR, which is modeled as exponential random variable PEP (xl , x̂l ) ≤ (−1)j+z+k (γ̄)−z+k

with PDF, γ̄ j=0 j k

k=0

1 γ 2

!

f (γ) = exp − . (25) 4 |∆l |

γ̄ γ̄ Γ(z − k + 1)

βl2

Using (25) and the ordered statistics PDF provided in (7) and

(29)

after some manipulations, the ordered PDF of the instanta-

neous SNR at the lth user is given by, where z = j + L − l + 1. At high SNR values and considering

l−1 j+L−l+1 the dominant components from the summations in (29), it is

X l−1 j 1 γ observed that the bounded PEP is proportional to the effective

fl (γ) = Al (−1) exp −

j=0

j γ̄ γ̄ diversity order,

(26)

L! PEP (xl , x̂l ) ∝ γ̄ −z+k−1 . (30)

where Al = (l−1)!(L−l)! .

The effective diversity order is evaluated from (29) using

numerical methods and results are provided in Sec. V.

IV. P OWER A LLOCATION C OEFFICIENTS O PTIMIZATION

Therefore, the asymptotic unconditional PEP can be evalu- It has been demonstrated in literature and using numerical

ated as, and analytical results, that power allocation coefficients play

l−1 an essential rule in determining the overall performance of

X l−1 j 1 the NOMA systems. Proper power allocation among different

PEP (xl , x̂l ) ≤ Al (−1) ×

j=0

j γ̄ users can enhance the overall performance remarkably. In this

Z ∞ j+L−l+1 ! section, we will form an optimization problem that aims to

γβl2

γ

exp − exp − 2 dγ. find the optimum power allocation coefficients that minimizes

0 γ̄ 4 |∆l | the average BER. It is worth mentioning that PEP is used to

(27) calculate a union bound on the BER, as follows [14],

Given that the diversity order is evaluated at high SNR M

X M

X

values,

the first exponential in (27) can be approximated as Pe ≤ Pm q(x(m) → x̂(m̂) )PEP(x(m) , x̂(m̂) ) (31)

exp − γ̄γ ≈ (1 − γγ̄ ). m=1 m̃=1

x6=x̂

where Pm is the probability that x(m) is transmitted and [13]. It is noted here that diversity gain in NOMA systems

q(x(m) → x̂(m̂) ) is the number of bit errors between x(m) is realized due to the ordered channel gains, which in reality

and x̂(m̂) . Therefore, our aim is to find the optimum power represents how far each user from the BS.

allocation coefficients that minimize the following objective Fig. 4 shows the average and individual error rate perfor-

function, mance of NOMA system with two users scenario over different

M M combinations of power allocation coefficients, where SNR =

X X

Ψ= Pm q(x(m) → x̂(m̂) )PEP(x(m) , x̂(m̂) ) (32) 30 dB. From the figure, it is noticed that the second user can

m=1 m̃=1 achieve the threshold error rate at very low and very high

x6=x̂

values of α1 . However, at very low values of α1 , the first

while satisfying a specific error rate performance threshold for user has a very poor performance, and this is justified by

all users to maintain user fairness. Additionally, for normalized the increased interference from the second user. Although the

average power, the some of the power allocation coefficients second user achieves the best performance when α1 = 0.7781,

should equals to 1. Hence, the optimization problem can be at this value of α1 the first user exceeds the threshold value,

represented as, where Pth = 10−3 , hence, user fairness is violated in this

scenario. To achieve users’ fairness, where both users have

Minimize Ψ

PL error rate performance less than the threshold value while the

j=1 αj = 1, (33)

s.t. average BER is kept to the minimum, α1 should take values

PEP(xl , x̂l ) ≤ Pth . from 0.852 to 0.99. Choosing the optimum power allocation

The above optimization problem is solved using numerical coefficients is a tradeoff problem that is determined based on

methods since closed form expressions for the optimum coef- the targeted average BER and the individual BER of each user.

ficients are hard to derive.

V. N UMERICAL AND S IMULATION R ESULTS

In this section, numerical and simulation results are con- U1

ducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme U2

U3

and to validate the derived analytical results. A conventional 10-2

Simulation

NOMA system is adopted where a single BS and three users

are considered with power allocation coefficients α1 , α2 and

α3 , for the first, second and third user, respectively. Without

loss of generality, we consider the first user as the farthest user, 10-4

α1 > α2 > α3 . All users are equipped with single antenna

PEP

Rayleigh flat fading channel. Transmitted signals are chosen

randomly from quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) constel- 10-6

lation with average power P = 1. It is worth mentioning that

in the presented results, the transmitted signals of different

users are fixed and imperfect SIC is considered.

10-8

Fig. 2 presents the PEP for the three users while considering

imperfect SIC scenarios. Power allocation coefficients are

α1 = 0.7, α2 = 0.2 and α3 = 0.1. This power alloca-

tions coefficients values are chosen based on the evaluated

performance of the system, where it is noted that these 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Eb /No (dB)

values give good performance in comparison with other values.

The derived analysis are corroborated with simulation results, Fig. 2: Analytical and simulated PEP for the 3 users with

where it is shown that the derived analysis and simulation imperfect SIC.

results match perfectly for the three users over the entire SNR

range. As expected, the PEP gives an indication about the

performance of the three users in NOMA systems in low and VI. C ONCLUSION

high SNR values, where at high SNR value, the near users In this paper, we investigated the performance of NOMA

show strong performance while the far user has relatively weak systems from error rate standpoint. An exact closed form ex-

performance. pression for the PEP is derived, which represents a tight upper

The effective diversity order of different users is shown in bound for the BER, therefore, it can give useful indication

Fig. 3. From the figure, it is observed that at high SNR values, about the BER performance of each user in NOMA systems.

the diversity order of the lth user converges to l. Which is Using the obtained PEP, asymptotic expression is derived,

expected since the asymptotic diversity gain is achieved when which is then used to evaluate the achieved effective diversity

the PEP of NOMA systems behaves as PEP(x, x̂) ∝ γ̄ −de order. Capitalizing on the importance of the allocated power

100

4

Avg. BER

U1 U1

U2 U2

3.5

U3

10-1

3

Effective Diversity Order

2.5 10-2

BER

2

10-3

1.5

1

10-4

0.5

10-5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 α1

Eb /No (dB)

Fig. 3: Effective diversity order for the three users, α1 = 0.7, Fig. 4: Average BER over different power allocations, SNR

α2 = 0.2 and α3 = 0.1. = 30 dB, α2 = 1 − α1 , Pth = 10−3 .

coefficients, constrained optimization problem is introduced to [8] X. Liang, Y. Wu, D. W. K. Ng, Y. Zuo, S. Jin, and H. Zhu, “Outage

evaluate the optimum coefficients that reduce the overall error performance for cooperative NOMA transmission with an AF relay,”

IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2428–2431, Nov. 2017.

rate. Derived expressions, verified by Monte Carlo simulation [9] T. Qi, W. Feng, Y. Chen, and Y. Wang, “When NOMA meets sparse sig-

results, gave an insightful results about the users’ reliability nal processing: Asymptotic performance analysis and optimal sequence

and error rate performance. design,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 18 516–18 525, 2017.

[10] R. Jiao, L. Dai, J. Zhang, R. MacKenzie, and M. Hao, “On the

performance of NOMA-based cooperative relaying systems over Rician

VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 11 409–

This work was supported by ICT fund grant No. 11 413, Dec. 2017.

[11] D. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Ding, Z. Zhou, A. Nallanathan, and T. Sato,

11/15/TRA-ICTFund/KU. “Performance analysis of non-regenerative massive-mimo-noma relay

systems for 5G,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 4777–4790,

R EFERENCES Nov. 2017.

[1] Z. Ding, Y. Liu, J. Choi, Q. Sun, M. Elkashlan, C. L. I, and H. V. [12] X. Yue, Y. Liu, S. Kang, and A. Nallanathan, “Performance analysis of

Poor, “Application of non-orthogonal multiple access in LTE and 5G NOMA with fixed gain relaying over Nakagami- m fading channels,”

networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 185–191, Feb. 2017. IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 5445–5454, 2017.

[2] W. Shin, M. Vaezi, B. Lee, D. J. Love, J. Lee, and H. V. Poor, “Non- [13] M. Uysal, “Diversity analysis of space-time coding in cascaded Rayleigh

orthogonal multiple access in multi-cell networks: Theory, performance, fading channels,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 165–167, Mar.

and practical challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2006.

176–183, Oct. 2017. [14] J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. UK: Ashford

[3] Z. Ding, Z. Yang, P. Fan, and H. V. Poor, “On the performance of Colour Press, 2014.

non-orthogonal multiple access in 5G systems with randomly deployed [15] P. Dhakal, R. Garello, S. K. Sharma, S. Chatzinotas, and B. Ottersten,

users,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1501–1505, Dec. “On the error performance bound of ordered statistics decoding of linear

2014. block codes,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications

[4] Z. Ding, P. Fan, and H. V. Poor, “Impact of user pairing on 5G (ICC), 2016, pp. 1–6.

nonorthogonal multiple-access downlink transmissions,” IEEE Trans. [16] M. Simon, Probability Distributions Involving Gaussian Random Vari-

Veh. Technol., vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 6010–6023, Aug. 2016. ables. Springer US, 2002.

[5] Z. Yang, Z. Ding, P. Fan, and N. Al-Dhahir, “A general power allocation [17] A. P. Prudnikov, Integrals and Series, Volume 2: Special Functions.

scheme to guarantee quality of service in downlink and uplink NOMA CRC Press, 1986.

systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 7244– [18] I. Gradshteyn and I. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products,

7257, Nov. 2016. A. Jeffrey and D. Zwillinger, Eds. Academic Press, 2007.

[6] S. Timotheou and I. Krikidis, “Fairness for non-orthogonal multiple

access in 5G systems,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 22, no. 10, pp.

1647–1651, Oct. 2015.

[7] L. Zhang, J. Liu, M. Xiao, G. Wu, Y. C. Liang, and S. Li, “Performance

analysis and optimization in downlink NOMA systems with cooperative

full-duplex relaying,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 35, no. 10, pp.

2398–2412, Oct. 2017.

- Modulation Power BandwidthUploaded byAli khan7
- BER for BPSK in Rayleigh ChannelUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Nokia Net Monitor Guide v0 80 1Uploaded byanupamkhanna
- DoceoTech Design Rev 2Uploaded byJoshua Ivan
- On the Statistical Properties of Mobile-To-Mobile Fading_LOSUploaded byMilica Milicic
- Analysis of Performance Improvement Using GMSK Modulation Technique in Wireless DS-CDMA Communication SystemsUploaded byAnonymous S2HNoKmk
- Design and Performance Analysis of Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder for Various Generator PolynomialsUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Performance Analysis and Simulation of CyclicUploaded bygaozhensen
- phulucUploaded byNguyen Thanh Nhan
- Pruning of Blind Decoding Results for Long Term EvolutionUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Anoop ReportUploaded bytalktoabhinav
- Preamble Data Bursts WimaxUploaded byArjun Aslekar
- 100114Uploaded byVol2No1
- Schoen en 2008Uploaded byandra
- MIMO Equalization techniquesUploaded byIbrahim Isaac
- gchannelUploaded bytjthegreat
- msk200_dvb-t-measurement.pdfUploaded bymaxidico
- Space Diversity Configuration - GigaProUploaded byMamery Koné
- BER Analysis of OFDM Systems with Varying Frequency Offset Factor over AWGN and Rayleigh ChannelsUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Fpga Implementation of Race Control Algorithm for Full Bridge Prcp ConverterUploaded byesatjournals
- pub-et_13762Uploaded byAdinadh Kr
- Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Steganographic Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4Uploaded byWaleed Dhman
- Channel Noise ZiemerTranterUploaded bySoumitra Bhowmick
- PDF of Route ReservationUploaded byUsha Baburaj
- system ProgramiUploaded byAsif Mehmood
- Comparisons.docxUploaded bySanket Patil
- 120072212 Modulation Power BandwidthUploaded byTestronic Parts
- ComparisionOfDVBTAndCDTMB_MLIU_ICCS2008Uploaded byAnindyaSaha
- 04317702Uploaded bya4648208
- IT SECOND YEAR SYLLABUSUploaded byPRIYA RAJI

- Mostafa 2009Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Kamel 2009Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 1-s2.0-S1319157897800067-mainUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 89_J_6851Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- fdma3Uploaded byShankarPrasai
- Ahmed 2010Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- El Fadeel2012Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 1-s2.0-S2090447912000615-mainUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- l Comm 28931951Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 08621012Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Yark in 2017Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- bai2018 (2)Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Moos Avi 2019Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- A_combination_of_selected_mapping_and_clipping_to_.pdfUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- aem00185-0051Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Abdel Mall Ek 1994Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 72574-pdfUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 10.1007%2Fs11356-015-5585-1Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- PCM and DPCMUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 253380861-Simulation-de-PCM-DPCM-y-DM-Simulink.pdfUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Simulink PCMUploaded bybipbul
- Comparative Study of Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio System Using Energy Detection over Different ChannelsUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 10.1109@leos.2003.1251826Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Useful PhrasesUploaded bywinnieXD
- Lec-7.3Uploaded byLân Võ Thành
- partial_pivoting_example1.pdfUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Tutorial 6Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- 10.1007%2F978-3-642-27192-2_9Uploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM

- Lovecraft RisingUploaded byPavle Đurić
- Deborah Shaw - Deconstructing and Reconstructing Transnational CinemaUploaded bymarcelabr
- Caricomp Manual 2001Uploaded byBioestudiantes Un
- Introduction_kinesitherapy_2.pptUploaded byjOBEER
- Biochemistry and the Organization of Cells-chap 1Uploaded byscribdusernumber21
- Easy Hawaiian Lesson 2Uploaded bychrisbymeg
- Stoic HandbookUploaded byaverick
- A Conversation Between Andrei Tarkovsky and Tonino GuerraUploaded bymalviyn
- Hortus SanitatisUploaded byNino Perrone
- Rule 07- Travero vs. BobonganUploaded bySittie Norhanie Hamdag Lao
- Muysken.- Uchumataqu: Research in Progress on the Bolivian AltiplanoUploaded byRoger R. Gonzalo Segura
- Naked SaintsUploaded byIniziazioneAntica
- MSU Course List & FeeUploaded bymittalnipun2009
- Complementary & Alternative Medicine Source Book 2010Uploaded byAngel Celestial
- Mortimer J. Adler-Ten Philosophical Mistakes-Macmillan Publishing Company, Collier Macmillan Publishers (1985)Uploaded byNat Geo English
- 65.1.BouzagloUploaded bygerawence
- Class TestUploaded byGoldy Banerjee
- wmi_cookbook.pdfUploaded byKevin
- Spence 1998 ScasUploaded byMaría Elena Santos-Nieves
- Items to check during inspection of signaling gears for RailwayUploaded byVikas Srivastav
- Logo TutorialUploaded bybalha
- Sales Operations Process Improvement in Atlanta GA Resume Neil GriffinUploaded byNeilGriffin2
- The Passion ExpoundedUploaded byapi-3695841
- Physics formal reportUploaded bynatlas
- Quatitative analysisUploaded byGarick Bhatnagar
- Hosts TorstenUploaded byoutbreak86
- 12.714_S2L05Uploaded bykarim2005
- Leaves of GrassUploaded byאריהלייב
- TRAINING IN THE REHABILITATION OF DRUG ADDICTS INTRODUCTION DRUGS DrugUploaded byibnulwaqt
- Resistant OCDUploaded byLaloaa