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Present progressive tense

FORM [am/is/are + present participle]

• You are watching TV.
• Are you watching TV?
• You are not watching TV.
Complete List of Present Continuous Forms
USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something
is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something
is not happening now.
• You are learning English now.
• You are not swimming now.
• Are you sleeping?
• I am sitting.
• I am not standing.
• Is he sitting or standing?
• They are reading their books.
• They are not watching television.
• What are you doing?
• Why aren't you doing your homework?
USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century,
and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the
process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be
doing it at this exact second.
Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
• I am studying to become a doctor.
• I am not studying to become a dentist.
• I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.

• I am not reading any books right now.

• Are you working on any special projects at work?
• Aren't you teaching at the university now?
USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or
will not happen in the near future.
• I am meeting some friends after work.
• I am not going to the party tonight.
• Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
• Isn't he coming with us tonight?
USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"
The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the
idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is
like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words
"always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
• She is always coming to class late.
• He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
• I don't like them because they are always complaining.
REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any

continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings forMixed Verbs cannot
be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these
verbs, you must use Simple Present.
• She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
• She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always,
only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
• You are still watching TV.
• Are you still watching TV?
• Right now, Tom is writing the letter. Active
• Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. Passive

The present continuous tense is formed from the present tense of the verb be and
the present participle (-ing form) of a verb:
1. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the present:
• for something that is happening at the moment of speaking:

I’m just leaving work. I’ll be home in an hour.

Please be quiet. The children are sleeping.
• for something which is happening before and after a given time:

At eight o’clock we are usually having breakfast.

When I get home the children are doing their homework.
for something which we think is temporary:

Michael is at university. He’s studying history.

I’m working in London for the next two weeks.
• for something which is new and contrasts with a previous state:

These days most people are using email instead of writing letters.
What sort of clothes are teenagers wearing nowadays? What sort of music are
they listeningto?
• to show that something is changing, growing or developing:

The children are growing quickly.

The climate is changing rapidly.
Your English is improving.
• for something which happens again and again:
It’s always raining in London.
They are always arguing.
George is great. He’s always laughing.
Note: We normally use always with this use.
2. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the future:
• for something which has been arranged or planned:

Mary is going to a new school next term.

What are you doing next week?
3. We can use the present continuous to talk about the past:
• When we are telling a story:
• When we are summarising the story from a book, film or play etc.:

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (we are doing things now, at the

Am I + Ving ?
I am + Ving I’m not + Ving
Is he
He He
Is she + Ving ?
Sh isn’t + Ving
is + Ving
e e Is it

Are we
We We
You You aren’t + Ving + Ving ?
are + Ving

I am working. I’m not working. Am I working? – Yes, I am.

- No, I’m not.

He is working. He isn’t working. Is he working? – Yes, he is.

– No, he isn’t.

Spelling rules

Most verbs add If verbs end in If verbs end in

+ ing cons. + e e one vowel + one cons.

study - studying + ing double cons. + ing

work – working write – writing


want ________ like _________ see ________ understand ________

need ________ love ________ hear ________ forget ___________

prefer ______ hate ________ know ________ remember _________

Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It
can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.
• When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in
Potsdam. recommendation
• You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
• I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
• By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation

Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study
the chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms Negative Forms Also use:

1. = Present 2. = 1. = Present 2.
Past 3. = Future = Past 3. =
should 1. People with high 1. Sarah ought to
recommendation, cholesterol should shouldn't smoke
advisability eat low-fat foods. so much. It's not
2. Frank should good for her
have eaten low-fat health.
foods. That might
have prevented his 2. Sarah
heart attack. shouldn't have
3. You really should smoked so
start eating better. much. That's
what caused her
health problems.
3. Sarah
shouldn't smoke
when she visits
Martha next
week. Martha
hates when
people smoke in
her house.
should I should be at work NO NEGATIVE be
obligation before 9:00. FORMS supposed
We should return to
the video before the
video rental store
"Should" can also
express something
and obligation. "Be
supposed to"
expresses a similar
idea and can easily
be used in the past
or in negative forms.
should 1. Susan should be 1. Susan ought to,
expectation in New York by shouldn't be in be
now. New York yet. supposed
2. Susan should 2. Susan to
have arrived in New shouldn't have
York last week. Let's arrived in New
call her and see York until
what she is up to. yesterday.
3. Susan should be 3. Susan
in New York by next shouldn't arrive
week. Her new job in New York until
starts on Monday. next week.

Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow
your ideas. Linking words or phrases help you to build a logical argument by linking
one statement to another. An assignment
without linking words reads like a series of
unrelated statements with no flow and is
difficult to understand by the reader. Same
when you speak.

Linking words can be used to

 link the flow of ideas in your writing or speaking

 guide your reader/listener towards the next stage of your argument
 link paragraphs together.

Try to use a variety of connectors, particularly in longer pieces of writing.

Don't forget "AND"! Two short sentences are often best connected together with
this little word.

Here follows a list of the most common words and phrases that you should
absolutely know and be able to use. The list is not exhaustive at all, but you can
start with these. Their position in the sentence can vary; the best is to read a lot
and practice.
For more :
In your language
actually ________________
although ________________
anyway ________________
as a matter of fact____________________
as for _____________________
because of____________________
to begin with___________________
by the way____________________
certainly ___________________
to conclude (in conclusion)___________________
despite _______________________
due to ____________________
either… or… ___________________
even if _____________________
even though ___________________
eventually ______________________
first of all _____________________
hardly ______________________
however ____________________________
in any case _______________
including ____________________
in fact ___________________
in my opinion ____________________
in order to _____________________
in short ____________________
in spite of ________________________
instead ____________________
in the meantime__________________
neither… nor… __________________
nevertheless _____________________
no doubt _________________________
not to mention ____________________
on the one hand… on the other… ___________________
probably ________________________
quite ___________________________
since _________________________
so that _____________________
to start with ______________________
thanks to ____________________
therefore _____________________
though ______________________
unlike _________________________
what is more _______________________
whereas ______________________
whether ______________________
while ____________________