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Helpful formulas

1  cos(2 x) 1  cos(2 x)
Trig Identities: sin 2 x  and cos2 x 
2 2

Hyperbolic Functions
e x  e x e x  e x
sinh x  and cosh x 
2 2

Matrix Algebra
1
A 
T
The inverse of a matrix is given by A 1  c

Vectors
The vector from P1  x1 , y1 , z1  to P2  x2 , y2 , z2  is given by

P1 P2 =  x2  x1  i   y2  y1  j   z2  z1  k
Given the vectors a  a1i  a2 j  a3k and b  b1i  b2 j  b3k , then the
 dot product is given by a b  a1b1  a2 b2  a3b3

1
 a b 
 angle between two vectors is given by θ  cos  
 a b 
i j k
 cross product is given by a  b  a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3
Standard parametrization of the line L is given by

x  x0  ta , y  y0  tb and z  z0  tc

Equation of a plane is given by a  x  x0   b  y  y0   c  z  z0   0

Complex Numbers
Cartesian form: z  x  iy
Polar form: z  r (cos  i sin  )
Exponential form: z  rei
De Moivre’s Theorem:  cos  i sin    cos n  i sin n
n

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Integration
Integration by parts:
 u dv  uv   v du
Derivatives of Basic Functions
Where appropriate, u and v are differentiable functions in x.
1.
d n
dx
 u   nu n1
du
dx
d
2.  c   0 , where c is a constant
dx
d du dv
3. u  v   
dx dx dx
d dv du
4.  uv   u  v (Product Rule)
dx dx dx
du dv
v u
d u dx dx
5.   (Quotient Rule)
dx  v  v 2

dy dy du
6. If y  F (u) where u  f ( x) then   (Chain Rule)
dx du dx
d du
7.  sin u   cos u
dx dx
d du
8.  cos u    sin u
dx dx
d du
9.  tan u   sec2 u
dx dx
d du
10.  sec u   sec u tan u
dx dx
d du
11.  cosec u   cosecu cot u
dx dx
d du
12.  cot u   cosec2u
dx dx
13.
d u
dx
 e   eu
du
dx
14.
d u
dx
 a   au ln a
du
dx
d 1 du
15.  ln u   , u 0
dx u dx
d 1 du
16.  loga u  
dx u ln a dx
17.
d
 sin 1 u  
1 du
, 1  u  1
dx 1  u 2 dx
1 du
18.
d
 cos 1 u   , 1  u  1
dx 1  u 2 dx
19.
d
dx
 
tan 1 u 
1 du
1  u 2 dx
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20.
d
 cosec1u   
1 du
, | u | 1
dx | u | u 2  1 dx
21.
d
 sec1 u  
1 du
, | u |1
dx | u | u 2  1 dx
1 du
22.
d
dx
 cot 1 u  
1  u 2 dx
d du
(sinh u )  cosh u
23. dx dx

d du
24.  cosh u   sinh u
dx dx
d du
25.  tanh u   sech 2 u
dx dx
d du
26.  sech u    sech u tanh u
dx dx
d du
27.  cosech u   cosech u coth u
dx dx
d du
28.  coth u    cosech 2u
dx dx
29.
d
sinh 1 u   1 du
dx 1  u 2 dx
30.
d
 cosh 1 u  
1 du
, u 1
dx u 2  1 dx
31.
d
dx
 
tanh 1 u 
1 du
1  u 2 dx
, | u | 1

32.
d
 
cosech 1u  
1 du
, u0
dx | u | u 2  1 dx
1
33.
d
 sech 1 u  
du
, 0  u 1
dx u 1  u 2 dx

34.
d
dx
 coth 1 u  
1 du
1  u 2 dx
, | u | 1

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Table of Standard Integrals
Where appropriate, a, b, and n are constants.

x n1
1.
x n dx 
n 1
 C, n  1

2.
 dx  x  C
n 1
(ax  b)
 (ax  b) dx  a(n 1)  C
n
3.

 x dx  ln | x |  C
1
4.

 (ax  b) a
dx 1
5.  ln | ax  b |  C


ax b 1 ax b
6. e dx  e  C
a

 a dx  ln a a  C a 1, a  0 , where u is a function of x


u 1 u
7.


1
8. cos (ax  b) dx  sin (ax  b)  C
a


1
9. sin (ax  b) dx   cos (ax  b)  C
a

 tan (ax  b) dx  a ln| sec(ax  b) |  C


1
10.


1
11. sec (ax  b) dx  ln| sec (ax  b)  tan (ax  b) |  C
a


1
12. cosec(ax  b) dx  ln | cosec(ax  b)  cot(ax  b) |  C
a


1
13. cot (ax  b)dx  ln| sin (ax  b) |  C
a


1
14. sec (ax  b) dx  tan (ax  b)  C
2


1
15. cosec (ax  b) dx   cot (ax  b)  C
2


1
16. sec (ax  b) tan (ax  b)dx  sec (ax  b)  C
a


1
17. cosec(ax  b) cot (ax  b)dx   cosec(ax  b)  C
a
 
 a  x  sin  a   C, x  a
dx x 1 2 2
18.
2 2

 a  x a a  C, a  0
dx 1 x 1
19. 2
 tan2

 x x  a a a  C, x  a
dx 1 x 1
20.  sec 2 2
2 2

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1
21. sinh (ax  b) dx  cosh (ax  b)  C
a


1
22. cosh (ax  b) dx  sinh (ax  b)  C
a


1
23. tanh (ax  b) dx  ln cosh (ax  b)  C
a


1
24. coth (ax  b)dx  ln| sinh (ax  b) |  C
a


1
25. sech 2 (ax  b) dx  tanh (ax  b)  C
a


1
26. cosech 2 (ax  b)dx   coth (ax  b)  C
a


1
27. sech(ax  b) tanh (ax  b)dx   sech (ax  b)  C
a


1
28. cosech (ax  b) coth (ax  b) dx   cosech (ax  b)  C
a


dx x
29.  sinh 1  C a  0
a x
2 2 a


dx x
30.  cosh 1 C , 0ax
x2  a2 a

a x
dx 1 x
31. 2 2
tanh 1  C if x 2  a 2

a a
1 x
= coth 1  C if x 2  a 2
a a
 x

dx 1
32.   sech 1    C , 0  x  a
x a x
2 2 a a


dx 1 x
33.   cosech 1 C x0
x a x
2 2 a a

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