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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications

Vol.8, No.4 (2014), pp.187-196


http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2014.8.4.20

A Festival Satisfaction Evaluation Method using Multiple Regression


Analysis

Bok-Hee Jung1 and SoonGohn Kim2*


1, 2
Department of Information Science, JoongbuUniversity,
101 Daehakro, Chubu-meon, Gumsangun, Chungnam, 312-702, Korea
jangel9977@nate.com, sgkim@joongbu.ac.kr

Abstract
Different festivals are being held following the implementation of the local autonomy
system. These festivals are having significant influences on the image enhancement of the
regions holding the festivasl as well as the local economic stimulation. In terms of economic,
social, and cultural perspectives, festivals have positive effects on the local society and are
acting as resources for new opportunities in area development. In order for the festivals to be
successful, preparation and efforts are needed to enhance the satisfaction of the festival
spectators. This paper derived the evaluation factors which have influence on the festival
satisfaction of spectators from the planning stage and constructed a study model. Then,
regression analysis was applied for suggestion to be made on the evaluation of festival
satisfaction.

Keywords: Festival Satisfaction, Multiple Regression Analysis, Satisfaction Evaluation


Method, Festival Evaluation Factors

1. Introduction
After implementing the local self-governing government, the local governments are
holding different festivals as the measure for awareness enhancement and area stimulation.
However, despite the quantitative growth of the festivals, criticisms are being suggested about
the insufficient functions as festivals. In order for the festivals to be successful, thorough
preparations and efforts need to be reflected from the planning stage in order to enhance the
satisfaction of the festival spectators.
Currently, numerous local festivals are annually being held in each domestic region.
According to the Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, a total of 758 local festivals have
been opened (2012 standard). In 2011, the festivals which were held in nationwide provinces
and cities were displayed as 763 festivals, and in 2010, 823 festivals were held in nationwide
provinces and cities [1].
Since 1999, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has introduced the evaluation system for
local cultural festival and it is being implemented. This evaluation system does not conclude
as a form of evaluation. Instead, outstanding cultural festivals are selected from this and
budget execution is conducted at the same time as it promotes competition between the
festivals and causes partial contributions to developing the contents of the festivals. In order
for the festivals to be successful as well as develop, the evaluation factors which influence the
festival satisfaction of spectators visiting the festivals need to be identified [2].
When the evaluation factors relevant to festival satisfaction are observed, they are as

*
Corresponding Author

ISSN: 1738-9984 IJSEIA


Copyright ⓒ 2014 SERSC
International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

follows: The image properties of festival spectators caused influence on spectator satisfaction,
and were extracted as "event content," "event promotion guideline," "price and product,"
"event amenities," "event information," and "surrounding sightseeing."[3].
Amongst the studies on festivals, the Boryeong Mud Festival received high evaluation on
the 7 service quality satisfaction such as "amenities of event hall," “enthusiasm of the main
agent of the festival," "program correspondence," and "food quality and price satisfaction."
[4].
In the study on the effect of the service characteristic factors of festivals on visitors’
satisfaction and behavior intentions, five factors were extracted in the case of the Busan
International Rock Festival: Process and convenience, product factors, price factors,
precipitating factors, and human factors[5].
In the study of the evaluation of the accomplishments of and satisfaction with local
festivals in South Korea, accessibility, publicity, contents, products, food, and convenience
were derived as the festival evaluation factors[6].
In the study on cultural and tourism festival visitors’ evaluation attributes satisfaction and
behavior intentions, variables for the evaluation attributes of, satisfaction with, and behavior
intentions regarding cultural and tourism festivals were derived from theoretical research. In
addition, the factors of publicity and information, contents of the events, souvenirs and food,
and convenience facilities were derived from factor analysis of cultural and tourism festival
evaluation attributes[7].
In the comparative study on the service quality of and the evaluation of satisfaction with
local festivals, the five local festival service quality factors of festival products, festival
programs, festival information service, and festival convenience facilities were derived from
empirical analysis[8].
In the study on the effect of the images of local festivals on satisfaction in accordance with
local festival visitors’ intentions for visits, the five factors of appropriateness of management,
entertainment value, convenience of the events, compatibility with the theme of the events,
and information on the events were derived from factor analysis of the images of local
festivals [9].
This study derived the evaluation factors which cause influence on festival satisfaction of
spectators from the planning stage and constructed a study model. Then, regression analysis
was applied for suggestions to be made on the evaluation of festival satisfaction.
This paper designed a study model by taking the 2012 CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada
Anseong as the standard. CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada Anseong is the greatest in scale
amongst domestic festivals, and the number of visiting spectators were greater nationwide
local festivals. Therefore, the CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada Anseong was selected since it was
considered the standard for determining the evaluation factors which affect the festival
satisfaction evaluation for spectators.

2. Determination of Festival Evaluation Factors


2.1. Study Model
The factors which influence the festival satisfaction evaluation were classified between
dependent variables and independent variables in order to design the study model of this
study. 8 independent variables (X1~X8) and 1 dependent variable were applied. In the study
model of this paper, it was formed between 8 independent variables which simply
accommodate the input value and 1 dependent variable which is relevant to the last output
layer. The basic model structure of the sample design of the study model is the same as that of

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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

Figure 1[10].

Figure 1. Design a Study Model Structure

The regression model formula based on the design structure of the study model is as
follows[10].

(1)

2.2. Definition of Study Variables


Independent input variables influencing evaluation on satisfaction with a festival include
gender, residential area, types of reservations, types of tickets, types of entry to an exhibition
hall, the time of entry, waiting time, and amenities.
As an output variable, the 5-Point Likert Scale-based on satisfaction with a festival was
selected. Input variables and output variables used at the time of evaluation on satisfaction
with a festival are shown in Table 1 [10].

Table 1. Input and Output Variables


Types of Name of
Characteristics Definition
variables variable
X1 Gender Male & female
X2 Residential area Capital area, other regions than capital area
Types of Reservation on the spot,
X3
reservation Internet reservation
X4 Types of tickets Special ticket, ordinary ticket, group ticket
Input variables
Types of entry to an
X5 Entry on the spot, reservation entry
exhibition hall
X6 Time of entry Morning, afternoon & evening
X7 Waiting time Within 2hours, 1hour, and 30minutes
X8 Amenities Dissatisfied, average & satisfied
Output Y(Satisfaction with Very dissatisfied, Dissatisfied, Average, Satisfied,
variables a festival) Very satisfied

2.3. Investigation Design


This investigation implemented surveys to identify the evaluation factors which cause
influence on the festival satisfaction evaluation targeted on spectators visiting the festivals.

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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
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The responders were required to evaluate the festival satisfaction, which is the dependent
variable, through the independent variables of the responder's gender, residential district,
types of ticket purchase, types of entrance tickets, exhibition entrance types, entrance time,
waiting time before entrance, and amenities. A total of 160 surveys were distributed for the
analysis. Amongst them, a total of 150 copies of surveys, excluding 10 copies of surveys with
no responses or unfaithful responses, were ultimately applied for the analysis.
The guidelines for the data coding of the survey used in the final analysis are shown in
Table 2.

Table 2. Guidelines for the Data Coding of the Survey

column num variables coding method

1 - num 1 start

2 1 Gender (X1) 1 = Male, 2 = Female

1 = Capital area
3 2 Residential area (X2) 2 = other regions than capital
area
1 = Reservation on the spot
4 3 Types of reservation (X3)
2 = Internet reservation
1 = Special ticket, 2 = ordinary
5 4 Types of tickets (X4)
ticket, 3 = group ticket
Types of entry to an 1 = Entry on the spot
6 5
exhibition hall (X5) 2 = Reservation entry
1 = Morning, 2 = afternoon,
7 6 Time of entry (X6)
3 = evening
1 = Within 2hours
8 7 Waiting time (X7) 2 = Within 1hour
3 = Within 30minutes
1 = Dissatisfied
9 8 Amenities (X8) 2 = Average
3 = Satisfied
1 = Very dissatisfied
2 = Dissatisfied
10 9 Satisfaction with a festival (Y) 3 = Average
4 = Satisfied
5 = Very satisfied

The results of the data coding of the survey used in the final analysis are shown in Table 3.

190 Copyright ⓒ 2014 SERSC


International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

Table 3. Results of the Data Coding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 4
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 3 3
3 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3
4 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 5
5 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 4

․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․
150 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 4

2.4. Survey Results


As a result of the surveys, the general characteristics of CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada
Anseong were as follows: The genders were classified between males and females as males
accounted for 53.3% and females 46.7%. In terms of the residential district, they were
classified between the metropolitan area and regions outside the capital area. The
metropolitan area consisted of 91.3% and the regions outside the capital area were analyzed
as 8.7%. For the types of ticket purchase, site purchase took up for 94% and online purchase
as 6%. Therefore, it was analyzed that spectators who entered by making prior site purchase
were displayed to be high. In terms of the types of entrance tickets, normal tickets consisted
of 94.7%, group tickets as 5.3%, and special tickets as 0%. In the exhibition entrance types,
site entrance accounted for 55.3% and entrance after prior reservation accounted for 44.7%.
Thus, it was analyzed that most spectators entered on the spot. In terms of the entrance time,
those who enter during the mornings were counted as 47.3%, 32.7% for those who entered
during afternoons, and 20% for those who entered during the night. As a result, it was
analyzed that the greatest number of spectators enter during mornings. The waiting time for
entrance were analyzed as 12.7% for less than 2 hours waiting time, 22.6% for less than 1
hour waiting time, and 64.7% for within 30 minutes. In terms of the amenities of the festival,
they were analyzed as 14.7% for “dissatisfaction,” 67.3% for “average,” and 18% for
“satisfaction”. In the festival satisfaction evaluation, very dissatisfied was resulted as 0%,
dissatisfied as 7.3%, average as 48%, satisfied as 36%, and very satisfied as 8.7%. Therefore,
the “average” was analyzed as being highest. In this paper, the general characteristics of
responders from CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada Anseong are as shown in Table 4.

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Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

Table 4. CIOFFⓇ World Folkloriada Anseong General Characteristics of


Samples
Frequency Rate Frequency Rate
Distinction Distinction
(Persons) (%) ( Persons ) (%)
Male 80 53.3 Morning 71 47.3
Gender Time
Female 70 46.7 Afternoon 49 32.7
of entry
Capital area 137 91.3 Evening 30 20.0
Residential Other regions
area Less than
than 13 8.7 19 12.7
2 hours
the Capital area
Reservation on Waiting time Less than
141 94.0 34 22.6
Types of the spot 1 hour
reservation Reservation on Less than
9 6.0 97 64.7
the Internet 30 minutes
Ordinary ticket 142 94.7 Dissatisfied 22 14.7
Types of
Group ticket 8 5.3 Amenities Average 101 67.3
tickets
Special ticket 0 0.0 Satisfied 27 18.0
Very
0 0.0
dissatisfied
Types of Entry on Dissatisfied 11 7.3
Satisfaction with
entry to an the spot 83 55.3 Average 72 48.0
a festival
exhibition hall Satisfied 54 36.0
Reservation 67 44.7 Very
entry 13 8.7
satisfied

3. Festival Satisfaction Evaluation


In order to analyze the factors which cause the most influence on the festival satisfaction
evaluation, multiple regression analysis was conducted. The 8 evaluation criteria were fixed
as the independent variables and festival satisfaction was set as the dependent variable. The 8
factors are the gender, residential district, types of ticket purchase, types of ticket, exhibition
entrance types, entrance time, waiting time during entrance, and amenities. The regression
model formula of the satisfaction evaluation is the same as follows.

(2)
A summary of the model as a result of multiple regression analysis is as follows. When
eight independent variables were inputted, the coefficient of determination was 0.671, thus
explaining the dependent variable (satisfaction with the festival) by 67.1%.
In addition, the modified coefficient of determination, reflecting the degree of freedom
(DF), was 0.643. The coefficient of determination in multiple regression analysis, R2,
represents the ratio at which the dependent variable is explained by the independent variables
(or the regression equation) during variance and has a value between 0 and 1.
The correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable amounted to
0.819, which is somewhat high. In addition, R2 = .671(67.1%), which represents the overall
explanatory power of the independent variables (sex, place of abode, admission ticket
advance purchase type, admission ticket type, exhibition hall admission type, admission time
slot, waiting time upon admission, convenience facilities) regarding the dependent variable,
or satisfaction with the festival.

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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

The summary of festival satisfaction evaluation model is the same as Table 5.

Table 5. A Summarized Model


Standard error of
Model R R square Revised R square
estimated value
1 .819 .671 .643 .456

The results of the analysis of satisfaction with festivals and the eight evaluation categories
are as follows. First, when the correlation between satisfaction with festivals and sex was
examined, the t value was 1.580 and the p value was .118, respectively. As for satisfaction
with festivals and the place of abode, the t-value was 3.069 and the p-value was .003,
respectively, thus being significant to the evaluation of satisfaction with festivals. As for
satisfaction with festivals and the admission ticket advance purchase type, the t-value was –
2.361 and the p-value was .020, respectively. As for satisfaction with festivals and the
admission ticket type, the t-value was 3.585 and the p-value was .001, respectively.
As for satisfaction with festivals and the exhibition hall admission type, the t-value
was .710 and the p-value was .479, respectively, thus significant to the evaluation of
satisfaction with festivals. As for satisfaction with festivals and the admission time slot, the t-
value was 2.630 and the p-value was .010, respectively. As for satisfaction with festivals and
the waiting time at admission, the t-value was 2.610 and the p-value was .001, thus being
significant to the evaluation of satisfaction with festivals. As for satisfaction with festivals
and convenience facilities, the t-value was 4.568 and the p-value was .000, thus being
significant to the evaluation of satisfaction with festivals.
The results of the determination coefficient which causes influence on festival satisfaction
are as shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Determination Coefficient

Model B Standard Error Beta t p


(Constant) .078 .378 .207 .836
Gender .180 .114 .118 1.580 .118
Residential area .380 .124 .196 3.069 .003
Types
-.478 .203 -.212 -2.361 .020
of reservation
Types of tickets .988 .276 .332 3.585 .001
Types of entry to
.089 .126 .059 .710 .479
an exhibition hall
Time of entry .129 .049 .181 2.630 .010
Waiting time .347 .133 .286 2.610 .011
Amenities .519 .114 .431 4.568 .000

According to the analysis result, the multiple regression formula is expressed as followed
due to the non-standardized coefficient(B).

(3)
Consequently, the factors that affect satisfaction with festivals, derived from the research
model, are as shown Table 7.

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Table 7. Factors that Affect Satisfaction with Festivals

Satisfaction with a festival (Y) = Gender (X1), Residential area (X2), Types of reservation (X3),
Types of tickets (X4), Types of entry to an exhibition hall (X5), Time of entry (X6),
Waiting time (X7), Amenities (X8)

Because the residuals were not large and the coefficient of determination amounted to
approximately 67% based on the results of multiple regression analysis, the model seems to
explain the phenomenon comparatively well.
The normal P-P diagram of regression standardized residuals is as shown Figure 2.
Dependent variable : Satisfaction with a festival

Expect the
cumulative
probability

Cumulative probability of the observed

Figure 2. Normal P-P Diagram of Regression Standardized Residuals

4. Application Measures of the Festival Satisfaction Evaluation


The application measures of the multiple regression analysis are as follows.
For example, let's consider that the spectator evaluating the festival satisfaction is a male.
His residential district is outside the capital area. He purchased his ticket online and selected
“very satisfied” for the amenities. If this independent variable is applied to substitute festival
satisfaction, the dependent variable, into the formula for calculation, then a ratio can be
predicted for around what degree of festival satisfaction this type of person experiences.
This analysis result can identify satisfaction through the consideration of specific spectator
groups during the opening of other festivals and can predict the most influential evaluation
criteria. Also, if the independent variables are selected in advance and predicated by
considering the evaluation criteria per festival scale, it will take an important role in
identifying the satisfaction level.

5. Conclusion
This study made suggestions so that the evaluation factor which causes the most influence
on festival spectators' festival satisfaction for diverse festivals from the planning stage can be
determined, and multiple regression analysis was suggested for application in order to
evaluate the festival satisfaction level.

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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

In this paper, the evaluation factors which cause influence on the festival satisfaction
evaluation of spectators visiting the festival were derived to design a study model. In order to
design the study model, the factors which cause influence on the evaluation were classified
between dependent variables and independent variables. 8 independent variables (X1~X8)
and 1 dependent variable (Y) was applied.
The input and output variables were set as the basis and the resources collected from the
surveys were processed through data coding and multiple regression analysis was conducted.
According to the multiple regression analysis results, during openings of other festivals,
specific spectator groups are considered to identify the satisfaction level, and prediction can
be made on which is the most influential evaluation criteria.
In terms of the limits of this paper, verification has to take place after survey analysis
following the selection of different festivals after the study model is designed. In order to
resolve this limit, diverse festivals are to be researched for the verification of the model
during the progress of future studies. The results of this study are expected to suggest
implications when evaluating the satisfaction of local festivals which will be held in the future.
If the evaluation criteria which can cause the most influence are predicted during the openings
of other festivals and applied for marketing, it will optimize the festival satisfaction level.
As the future assignments of this paper, survey analysis is needed for more various events
as well as small and medium sized events. Additionally, comparison analysis is needed
regarding mega events and small and medium sized events. Furthermore, in terms of
programs which display high satisfaction in the program satisfaction evaluation, similar
programs are to be developed for other festivals, and it is expected that satisfaction of the
spectators regarding the program can be increased during the festival opening.

References
[1] Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Yearly local festivals and cultural tourism festival, (2012).
[2] B. H. Jung, “A Festival Satisfaction Evaluation Method using Multiple Regression Analysis and Neural
Network Model”, Joongbu University doctor's degree paper, (2013).
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Visitors` Satisfaction, Revisit Intention, and Recommendation”, Korean Journal of Hotel Administration, vol.
14, no. 2, (2005), pp.1-20.
[4] K. H. Uk, “An Assessment on the Management of Local Festival Service and Customer Satisfaction”,
Dongguk University doctor's degree paper, (2006).
[5] P. W. Jin, “The Effect of the Service Characteristic Factor of Festivals on Visitors’ Satisfaction and Behavior
Intentions”, Donga University, master's degree paper, (2010).
[6] P. Ho Chang, “A Study on the Evaluation of the Accomplishments of and Satisfaction with Local Festivals in
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[8] K. C. Soo and J. Dae-Hee, “Comparative Analysis of 2005-2006 MUJU Firefly Festival's Service Quality
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[9] C. Tae young, “An Influence of Images of Local Festivals on Satisfaction Level Studied Based on
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International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications
Vol.8, No.4 (2014)

Authors
Bok-Hee Jung, she received Ph. D. degrees from Joongbu University,
Seoul Korea, in Information Science in 2013. Her research interests
include Distributed Computing, DataBase, DataBase Application and so
on.

SoonGohn Kim, he received Ph.D. degrees from Chonbuk National


University, Seoul Korea, in Computer Engineering in 1999. He has been
working as an Professor in Joongbu University from March 1995. His
research interests include Ubiquitous Computing, Distributed Computing,
Database Integrity, Cryptographic Protocol, A methodology of Software
Development, Software Evaluation, Networks and so on.

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