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I – VI

I – VI

ANNAMALAI
UNIVERSITY
DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A.)


M.B.A.(HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A.(MARKETING MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A.(FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT)
FIRST YEAR

MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
UNITS : I – VI
Copyright Reserved
(For Private Circulation Only)
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A.)
M.B.A. (HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (MARKETING MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT)
FIRST YEAR

MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
Editorial Board
Members

Dr. R. Rajendiran
Dean
Faculty of Arts
Annamalai University
Annamalainagar.

Dr. C. Samudrarajakumar Dr. A. Rajamohan


Professor and Head Professor and Head
Department of Business Administration Management Wing, DDE
Annamalai University Annamalai University
Annamalainagar. Annamalainagar.

Internals
Dr. M. Kamaraj Dr. A. Auroubindo Ganesh
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Management Wing, DDE Management Wing, DDE
Annamalai University Annamalai University
Annamalainagar. Annamalainagar.

Externals
Dr. R. Thenmozhi Dr. R. Venkatapathy
Professor and Head Professor and Director
Department of Management Studies School of Management
University of Madras Bharathiyar University
Chepauk, Chennai. Coimbatore.

Lesson Writers
Dr. S. Prabakar Dr. J. Tamil Selvi
Professor and Head Assistant Professor
Happy Valley Business School Department of Business Administration
Coimbatore. Annamalai University
Annamalainagar.
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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A.)


M.B.A. (HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (MARKETING MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT)
FIRST YEAR

MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
SYLLABUS
Objectives
The major objectives of this course are to provide communication skills in
general and managerial communication theoretical prespective in particular.
Students will learn various concepts and practices of managerial communication.
Unit–I
Objectives of Communication - Communication Process - Media of
Communication - Principles of Communication - Communication in Organizational
Settings - Barriers to Communication - Guidelines to Overcome Barriers –
Strategies to enhance managerial Communication.
Unit–II
Types of Communication - Interpersonal Communication - Management of
Interpersonal Communication - Models for understanding Interpersonal
Relationship - Gateway to Effective Interpersonal Communication – Critical
Thinking and Communication Skill – Tips on Good Communication Skill.
Unit–III
Group Communication and Performance - Relationship of Leadership
Behaviour with Communication - Formal Organizational Communication -
Management and Communication Problems of the Organization - Informal
Communication Systems as Commentators - External and Internal System Mix and
Approaches to Organizational Communication - Managing Organizational
Communication.
Unit–IV
Oral Communication - Designing and Developing Oral Presentation - Oral
Presentation processes - Speech and Characteristics of Good Speech - Speech at
Committees and Conferences - Visual Communication - Visual Aids in Oral
Presentation.
Unit–V
Written Communication - Writing Processes - Business Letters – Memos - E –
Mail – Agenda - Technological aids to Communication – Mobile – Internet – Blog –
VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) – IM (Instant Messenger) Chat Applet – CALL
(Computer Assisted Language Learning) – TELL (Technology Enhanced Language
Learning) – Pod Casting - Video Conference.
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Unit–VI
Report Writing - Business and Academic Report Writing – Methodology –
Procedure – Bibliography - Works Cited and Works Consulted.
References Books
1) C.S.Tejpal Sheth, Business Ethics and Communication, S. Chand, Chennai,
2008.
2) Dr. Gajanan Malviya and Prof. R.N. Shukla, Communication Skills, S. Chand,
Chennai, 2010.
3) Courtland L. Bovee and John V.Thill, Business Communication Today,
McGraw-Hill, Inc., New Delhi, 2001.
4) Dr.C.S.G. Krishnamacharyulu and Dr.Lalitha Ramakrishnan, Business
Communication, Second Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, 2013.
5) Urmila Rani and S.M.Rai, Business Communication, Fifth Edition, Himalaya
Publishing House, 2010.
Journals and Magazines
1) Journal of Business Communication.
2) International Journal of Business Communication.
3) Business Communication Quarterly.
4) International Journal of Marketing and Business Communication.
5) Communication Journal of Business.
6) Journal of Business and Technical Communication.
Web Resources
1) www.businesscommunication.org
2) en.wikibooks.org/wiki/...and.../Business_Communications
3) www.mitel.com
4) wps.pearsoned.co.uk/ema_ge_bovee_bct_10
5) bigpicturecommunication.com.
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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A.)


M.B.A. (HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (MARKETING MANAGEMENT)
M.B.A. (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT)
FIRST YEAR
MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
CONTENTS
Lesson Title Page No.
No.
1. Introduction to Communication and Communication Process 1
2. Principles of Communication and Communication in
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Organizational Settings
3. Barriers of Communication 29
4. Overcoming the Barriers in Communication 45
5. Inerpersonal Communication 52
6. Models of Interpersonal Relationship 62
7. Critical Thinking and Tips for Good Communication 86
8. Improving Good Communication Skills 98
9. Group Communication and Performance 103
10. Leadership and Communication 116
11. Managing Organizational Communication 122
12. Internal and External Communication Mix 131
13. Oral Communication 141
14. Presentation and Public Speaking 154
15. Committees, Seminars and Conferences 168
16. Visual Communication 177
17. Written Communication – Business Letters 193
18. Memos, Email and Agenda 207
19. Technological Aids to Communication - I
221
Virtual Communication
20. Technological Aids to Communication - II 237
21. Fundamentals of Report Writing 250
22. Business Report Writing 262
23. Academic Reports Proposals, Employment Communication 275
24. Bibliography and Citation 290
UNIT – I
LESSON – 1
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION AND
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
1.1. INTRODUCTION
This topic gives you an overview of communication and introduces you to the
main elements in the communication process. It also highlights the importance of
various media used. You will also learn about some of the advantages and
disadvantages of communication medium.
1.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the meaning and definition of business communication.
 Be able to know the objectives of communication
 Know the Process of communication
 Understand the media used for communication
1.3. CONTENTS
1.3.1. Introduction
1.3.2. Defining Communication
1.3.3. Objectives of Communication
1.3.4. Importance of Communication
1.3.5. Communication Process
1.3.6. Media of Communication
The word “communication” derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ that
means to impart, to participate, to share or to make common. It is a process of
exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions as a means that individual or organization
share meaning and understanding with one another. In other words, it is a
transmission and interacting the facts, ideas, opinion, feeling and attitudes.
Communication is an important aspect of human behavior. It stands for natural
activity of all human beings to convey opinions, feelings, information, and ideas to
others through words (written or spoken), body language, or signs. Communication
is an integral part of life. From birth till death every living being is communicating
in his or her own way, be it birds, animals, trees or human beings.
It is the ability of mankind to communicate across barriers and beyond
boundaries that has ushered the progress of mankind. It is the ability of fostering
speedy and effective communication around the world that has shrunk the world
and made ‘globalization’ a reality. Communicati on had a vital role to play in
ensuring that people belonging to a particular country or a culture or linguistic
group interact with and relate to people belonging to other countries or culture or
linguistic group. Communication adds meaning to human life. It helps to build
relationship and fosters love and understanding. It enriches our knowledge of the
universe and makes living worthwhile.
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1.3.2. DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION


Communication may be defined as interchange of thought or information
between two or more persons to bring about mutual understanding and desired
action. It is the information exchange by words or symbols. It is the exchange of
facts, ideas and viewpoints which bring about commonness of interest, purpose
and efforts.
‘Communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning’.
- American Management Association,
‘Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between
individuals and/or organizations so that an understanding response results’.
- Peter Little
‘Communication is the sum total of all the things that a person does, when he
wants to create an understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic
and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding’.
- Louis A. Allen
Communication has been defined “As the transfer of information from one
person to another whether or not it elicits confidence.”
– Koontz and O’ Donell
“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons.”
– George Terry
Effective communication is “purposive interchange, resulting in workable
understanding and agreement between the sender and receiver of a message”.
– George Vardman
1.3.3. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION
1) For Instruction: The instructive function unvarying and importantly deals
with the commanding nature. It is more or less of directive nature. Under this,
the communicator transmits with necessary directives and guidance to the
next level, so as to enable them to accomplish his particular tasks. In this,
instructions basically flow from top to the lower level.
2) For Integration: It is consolidated function under which integration of
activities is endeavored. The integration function of communication mainly
involves bringing about inter-relationship among the various functions of the
business organization. It helps in the unification of different management
functions.
3) For Information: The purposes or function of communication in an
organization is to inform the individual or group about the particular task or
company policies and procedures etc. Top management informs policies to the
lower level through the middle level. In turn, the lower level informs the top
level the reaction through the middle level. Information can flow vertically,
horizontally and diagonally across the organization. Becoming informed or
inform others is the main purpose of communication.
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4) For Evaluation: Examination of activities to form an idea or judgment of the


worth of task is achieved through communication. Communication is a tool to
appraise the individual or team, their contribution to the organization.
Evaluating one’s own inputs or other’s outputs or some ideological scheme
demands an adequate and effective communication process.
5) For Direction: Communication is necessary to issue directions by the top
management or manager to the lower level. Employee can perform better when
he is directed by his senior. Directing others may be communicated either
orally or in writing. An order may be common order, request order or implied
order.
6) For teaching: The importance of personal safety on the job has been greatly
recognized. A complete communication process is required to teach and
educate workers about personal safety on the jobs. This communication helps
the workers to avert accidents, risk etc. and avoid cost, procedures etc.
7) For Influencing: A complete communication process is necessary in
influencing others or being influenced. The individual having potential to
influence others can easily persuade others. It implies the provision of
feedback which tells the effect of communication.
8) For Image Building: A business enterprise cannot isolate from the rest of the
society. There is interrelationship and interdependence between the society
and an enterprise operating in the society. Goodwill and confidence are
necessarily created among the public. It can be done by the communication
with the different media, which has to project the image of the firm in the
society. Through an effective external communication system, an enterprise
has to inform the society about its goals, activities, progress and social
responsibility.
9) For Employees Orientation: When a new employee enter into the
organization at that time he or she will be unknown to the organization
programs, policies, culture etc.
10) Other: Effective decision-making is possible when required and adequate
information is supplied to the decision-maker. Effective communication helps
the process of decision-making. In general, everyone in the organization has to
provide with necessary information so as to enable to discharge tasks
effectively and efficiently.
Communication helps to make people acquainted with the co-employees,
superior and with the policies, objectives, rules and regulations of the organization.
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1.3.4. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION


The importance of communication in management can be judged from the
following:
1) Gaining acceptance of policies, winning cooperation of others, getting
instructions and ideas clearly understood and bringing about the desired
changes in performance are dependent upon effective communication.
2) Communication helps the management in arriving at vital decisions. In its
absence, it may not be possible for the top-level management to come in closer
contact with each other and discuss the important problems pertaining to the
organization.
3) Constant communication with personnel helps the management to remain
informed about their problems, difficulties and grievances. Appropriate steps can
be taken in time to remove the worker's difficulties. Conflicts often arise because
of communication gap. They can be averted by setting up a regular arrangement
of keeping contact with the workers through communication media.
4) Communication is quite essential for coordination, which is the essence of
effective management. It brings about mutual understanding between the
personnel at all levels and fosters the spirit of cooperation. In the words of
Mary Crushing Niles, "Good communications are essential to coordination.
They are necessary upward, downward and sideways, through all the levels of
authority and advise for the transmission, interpretation and adoption of
policies, for the sharing of knowledge and information, and for the more subtle
needs of good morale and mutual understanding".
5) Greater, better and cheaper production are the aims of all managers. In
today's organizations; the information passes through a variety of filters and
there is always a chance for misinterpretation. An effective system of
communication can play a vital role in avoiding this illusion. The employees
should be told clearly what exactly to do and the way in which an instruction
is to be carried out. In this process certain directions are to be given, certain
feelings must be expressed and a certain amount of interpersonal perceptions
must be exchanged. In the words of Shobhana Khandwala, "For this,
management has to sell ideas, motivate the workers to work with a will, and
build up higher morale in the company. Communication, as an influence,
process, plays a vital role here. It becomes, thus, a part of education,
propaganda leadership and guidance function of the management".
6) Under an effective system of communication it is quite convenient for the
employees to express their grievances, and bring all their problems to the
notice of the management. Proper communications between the interested
parties reduce the point of friction and minimize those that inevitably arise.
Hence by effective communication, a group having 'skill' and 'will' to do is to
be built up.
7) Communication helps in securing the largest possible participation or
consultation in decision making, planning and general administration. This
will give democratic character to managerial process and strengthen the
morale of the staff.
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1.3.5. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


The transmission of sender’s ideas to the receiver and the receiver’s feedback
or reaction to the sender constitute the communication cycle. The process of
communication begins when one person (the sender) wants to transmit a fact, idea,
opinion or other information to someone else (the receiver). This facts, idea or
opinion has meaning to the sender. The next step is translating or converting the
message into a language which reflects the idea. That is the message must be
encoded. The encoding process is influenced by content of the message, the
familiarity of sender and receiver and other situation of factors.
After the message has been encoded, it is transmitted through the appropriate
channel or medium. Common channel in organization includes meetings, reports,
memorandums, letters, e-mail, fax and telephone calls. When the message is
received, it is decoded, by the receiver and gives feedback to the sender as the
conformation about the particular message has been carefully understand or not.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
The process of communication involves the following elements:
1) Sender or transmitter: The person who desires to convey the message is
known as sender. Sender initiates the message and changes the behaviour of
the receiver.
2) Message: It is a subject matter of any communication. It may involve any fact,
idea, opinion or information. It must exist in the mind of the sender if
communication is to take place.
3) Encoding: The communicator of the information organizes his idea into series
of symbols (words, signs, etc.) which, he feels will communicate to the
intended receiver or receivers.
4) Communication channel: The sender has to select the channel for sending
the information. Communication channel is the media through which the
message passes. It is the link that connects the sender and the receiver.
5) Receiver: The person who receives the message is called receiver or receiver is
the person to whom the particular message is sent by the transmitter. The
communication process is incomplete without the existence of receiver of the
message. It is a receiver who receives and tries to understand the messag e.

Sender Message Encoding Channel Receiver

Decoding

Feedback

Bain Drain
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The Communication Process


1) Decoding: Decoding is the process of interpretation of an encoded message
into the understandable meaning. Decoding helps the receiver to drive
meaning from the message.
2) Feedback: Communication is an exchange process. For the exchange to be
complete the information must go back to whom from where it started (or
sender), so that he can know the reaction of the receiver. The reaction or
response of the receiver is known as feedback.
3) Brain drain: On whole process there is a possibility of misunderstandings at
any level and is called brain drain. It may arise on sender side if they do not
choose the adequate medium for delivery of message, by using default channel
and it may also arise when receiver does not properly decode the message. In
other words, we can say that it is breakdown of cycle at any level.
1.3.6. MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION
Medium is the means of transmitting a message. Some media carry written
words and/or pictures/graphics and other me dia carry the voice. Electronic media
can carry both voice and words.
The message can be transmitted by any suitable medium. Each medium has
its own characteristics which are advantageous in one situation and
disadvantageous in another situation. Each medi um makes a different kind of
impression and impact on the receiver.
1.3.6.1. CHOICE OF MEDIUM
The medium of communication is selected keeping in view the following
Considerations:
1) Type of Audience: If the audience we want to reach is educated, then the
written form of communication may be used, but in case of uneducated
audience, pictures, symbols or voice may be more suitable. Similarly,
depending upon who is the receiver, the medium of communication is
selected.
2) Need for Secrecy: If confidentiality is required for the message to be
transmitted, it cannot be sent by media like telex or fax, even if the message is
urgent. The choice of the media will definitely be influenced by the
requirement of secrecy.
3) Need for Accuracy: Need for accuracy in transmission is not the same for all
the messages. The alphabetical data may not need as much accuracy as the
numerical data does, so the selection of media to send such data must be
done with due consideration.
4) Need for Reliability: Need for reliability of the medi um is an important
factor. Sending a message by hand delivery is more reliable than ordinary
mail; similarly, registered post is more reliable than ordinary mail.
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5) Speed/ Time Considerations: The pressure of time and the distance between
the sender and the receiver influence the choice of the medium. Media like
telephone, telex, fax and email are the fastest in this case.
6) Cost of the Medium: Cost of the medium, keeping in view its urgency and
relative importance is one major factor to be considered. If the message is not
very urgent or important, low cost media, like ordinary post, etc. may be
chosen.
7) Availability of a Medium: A particular medium should be available to the
sender as well as the receiver for the message to be transmitted. The sender
can send the message through telephone only if the receiver has this facility
available.
8) Feedback Capacity: For some messages, immediate feedback is required. In
such a case, that medium should be chosen, which has the capacity for
immediate feedback, like the telephone.
9) Availability of a Printed (hard copy) for record: If a printed copy of the
message is require for record, and then the message cannot be transmitted by
oral or vocal mediums like telephone. In this case, letter, e mail or fax may be
suitable.
10) Requirement of the Situation: Sometimes, a particular situation may create
the need for a particular medium of transmission. For example, to offer a
formal note of thanks or to officially congratulate somebody, a written
communication may be more suitable.
11) Intensity and complexity of the message: Many messages have an
emotional content, or may be complex in nature or carry an intense result
with them. Care has to be taken while choosing the medium for such
messages.
1.3.6.2. MEDIA
Media refers to the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to
store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication
media, or the specialized communication businesses such as: print media and the
press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television),
and/or publishing.
“A medium is a device for moving information through time or space.”
- Defleur and Dennis,

Below diagram represents the various media used for effective communication.
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(A) Verbal communication: Verbal communication is the expression or


exchanged of information or messages through written or oral words. Forms of
verbal communication are as follows:
1. ORAL COMMUNICATION
Oral communication is the process of communication in which messages or
information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through the
word of mouth.
Different forms of oral communication are discussed below:
i) Talking: Talking is the most common form of communication. It is the
easiest, quickest and the most economical way of communication.
A person can talk to another person or to a large number of a person.
Talking is very helpful in situations like when a supervisor is talking to the
employees while resolving a dispute. Such disputes can be solved through
oral or verbal communication only and written communication can not
provide speedy solution to such disputes.
ii) Interview: An interview is also a form of oral communication. It serves
three purposes. (i) to obtain information (ii) to provide information and
(iii) to motivate people. Interviews provide and appraisal of the training,
educational qualifications, working experien ce and personality of the
interviewee. It helps in checking the responsiveness, alertness, presence of
mind and manners and poise of the persons being interview.
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iii) Tours: Business organization commonly send their representatives like


salesmen, advertising agents, market surveyors and research personnel to
get quick information. During these tours the representatives discuss the
matter, provide information and also collect information for the
organization. The dealers may ask several questions or certain matters
regarding their commission on sales or the acceptability of the products of
the company are also discussed during these tours.
iv) Group discussion: A group of trainees is assigned a problem much in
advance together with necessary reference of books to be consulted. The
group prepares a paper for discussion. The leader of the groups discussion
the problem and the rest of the trainees can contribute come ideas during
the course of discussion which is controlled by the leader of the class.
Group discussion is possible along persons of equal status. In that case
the chairman of the group shall act as group leader. Most of the time the
attitude of the leader is passive and most of the discussion is made by
group members.
v) Seminars: Oral discussions are a main part of seminars also. The seminars
are used to collect information to deal with a problem. Usually the
research scholars are informed in advance about the research
methodology. The familiarity with the proper methodology of research
helps in dealing with the problem in hand quickly and accurately. The
names of the participants and their assignments are announced well in
advance.
vi) Others: Other than these oral communication can also take place through
a public address system, radio telephone, speaker tubes, tel e-printer and
messengers.
ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION
Oral communication involves many advantages. In a recent survey about
communication it is clear that more than 55% of the executives choose this
communication. The advantages of oral communication are as follows:
1) Time saving: When action is required to be taken immediately it is best to
transmit a message orally. If the executives work load is high then they stop
writhing and by oral instructions they complete their message transmission
and released their work load and also it saves time.
2) Cost savings: Cost is involved in any communication. When the
communication is needed within the organization and if it and is completed in
orally, it has not needed any paper, pen or stamp or computer. So it saves the
money of the organization.
3) More powerful: Speech is a more powerful means of persuasion and control.
Therefore executives often prefer to transmit messages orally.
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4) Effectiveness: With the help of variations in the tone, pitch and intensity of
voice, the speaker can convey shades of meaning. This factor also contributes
to the effectiveness of oral communication.
5) Immediate feedback: The speaker can get immediate feedback on whether it
is creating a favorable impression on the receiver or whether the rece iver will
protest or whether the receiver has receiver has clearly understood his
meaning or is feeling perplexed or baffled and he can mold and adjust his
message accordingly.
6) More suitable: The employees felt more suitable when the message transmits
in orally. They get an opportunity for feedback and clarification.
7) A relationship develops: Oral communication is mostly carried out helps to
promote friendly relations between the parties communicating with each
other.
8) Flexibility: By the demand of the situations oral instructions can be changed
easily and for these cases maintain the formalities are not necessary. So it is
very much flexible and effective.
9) Easiness: It is so easy method of communication. It needs little preparation to
send a message. No need of pens, pencils and other writing equipment’s which
are needed in written communication.
10) Correction of errors: If any error is expressed at the time of oral
communication. It was possible to rectify at that time or within a very short
time.
11) Motivation: In oral communication system, top executives and sub ordinates
staff can sit face-to-face and exchange their views directly, so sub-ordinates
are motivated day by day.
12) Special applications: Oral communication is more helpful in communicating
messages to groups of people at assembly meetings etc.
13) Maintaining secrecy: Interested parties of oral communication can maintain
the secrecy of messages easily.
DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION
Oral communication contains many advantages. In spite of this, there are oral
some disadvantages which are given below:
1) No record: In oral communication, messages are difficult to record. So it is
impossible to preserve the message for future.
2) Expensive: It is also expensive media of communication. Sometimes the
audience can be managed by paying T. A and D. A. On the other hand
Technological devices that are used in this system are costly.
3) Distortion of the word: If distortion of the word occurs in oral
communication then main goals of the organization may be filed.
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4) Inaccuracy: There is very possibility of inaccurate messages to reach the


destination. So, the reverse result of expected plan may be occurred.
5) Limited use: The scope of usage of oral communication is limited. It is not
suitable for lengthy messages. It should be sued for short message.
6) Probability of omitting main subject: Sometimes, main subject may be
omitted to express a word for communicating. So, expected result may not be
achieved.
7) Confused speech: Sometimes the receiver fails to understand the meaning of
a message due to habitual productions of the speaker.
8) No legal validity: there is any legal validity of the oral message. As, the oral
messages are not taped and kept records, so it can be denied easily if the
situation goes against the speaker.
9) Late decision: It takes time to reach a decision. At the beginning stage,
sometime is killed in the discussion of any personal matters. Besides some
time is also wasted for irrelevant discussion. In this way decision making is
delayed.
10) Less important: In oral communication, meaningless speech can mislead the
main effects of the communication. But when the information comes out in
written, we take it seriously.
11) Lack of secrecy: In oral communication, the important and secret
information may be disclosed.
12) Defective: Oral communication is defective for company’s policy, procedure,
programs, law and other important information.
13) Creates misunderstanding: The speaker often gives message without having
properly organized it earlier. So, it is possible that he may not be able to mak e
himself properly to communicate with the receiver. As a result,
misunderstanding May develops.
2. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Written communication is the process of communication in which messages or
information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through
written form. It can be divided into two ways: a. writing b. Reading.
In a business organization written communication is sent to following persons,
organizations or agencies. These could be the employees, consumers, management,
labor, suppliers, distributors or the stock holders of the company. Written
communication is also sent to government departments, bankers, insurance
companies and security agencies. The different forms of written communication are:
(i) Reports: Reports are prepared to show the working results of the
organization, department, factory, plant or any other institution. These are also
prepared to show the result of an enquiry. Many institutions like banks, insurance
companies, educational institutions and other business enterprises prepare annual
reports which show their achievements in the past year an also the obstacles, the
impact of economic conditions, working results and the plans for the future. Some
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reports are of confidential nature also. A report must be based on facts and cover a
specific period of time. It must serve an objective and suggests the future course of
action.
(ii) Business Letters: The business letters are also an important form of
written communication. A business letter should be written in a formal way and in
simple language without any scope for confusion. It should be polite and courteous
but should also convey and idea impressively. Usually business letters are written
on printed paper containing the name and address of the company along with the
date and reference number. As business letters can be used for legal purposes also,
these should be written with great care.
(iii) Newsletters: Business houses often use business letters to inform their
customers about new products, change in channel of distribution, enhancement of
commission for distributors, improvement in the quality of the produce, reduction
in price, improvement in packaging, increase in weight and a new use of their
product etc. News letters are used for promotional activity. They must be lucid,
impressive, forceful simple convincing and precise.
(iv) Advertisements : Advertisements are meant to inform the people, of
company products and service ; The more a company carries on advertising
campaign, the more it succeeds in increasin g its sales Advertisements are made in
newspapers, magazines, periodicals, evening issues, radio commercials, T.V.
programmes, cinema slides and sales demonstrations. All advertisements must be
appealing, attractive, convincing and should succeed in achieving the objectives of
the company i.e., increase in sales. Advertising is not a waste of money but it helps
both the company as well as the customers. By advertising the sales of the
products and services of the company increase, providing the company with
economies of large scale production consequently the profits increase, cost of
production falls down and the company enjoys ability to complete.
(v) Manuals: Job manuals are a form of written communication and help in
defining duties and responsibilities of the employees. All big companies have job
manuals. In the absence, they follow standard job manuals. The specific duties of
an executives or high officials of the company can be ascertained, through job
manual. A job manual denotes exactly what are the powers and duties of the
person. How many people would work under him? What would be the reporting
relations and who would be responsible to whom? Job manuals also mention the
levels of structure of wage and salaries.
(vi) Signs: Signs are also used to communicate information. If a van with ‘+’
sign in red color passes on the road it indicates that it belongs to hospital or Red
Cross. A signal over the railway track also indicates the arrival or non -arrival of the
train. If the signal is down passengers shall get ready and wait anxiously for the
arrival of the train.
(vii) Annual Reports: Usually all the companies publish their annual reports
for the consumption of their shareholders, employees, public and government
13

agencies. These reports consist of workin g results, information about public liking
and admiration of company products and services. Annual reports also mention the
economic problems faced by the company and efforts of the directions to solve
them. What company’s plans are for future action?
(viii) Bulletins: Some companies publish their bulletins informing people
about the products and services provided by the company, the standard of
workmanship and technical know-how, place of the company in reaction to share of
the market, future plans and efforts of the company to fulfill its obligations towards
social responsibility. Universities also publish bulletins mentioning their
educational programs, areas of specialization, names of degrees, diplomas, tuition
fee for each programme, other charges, hostel facilities provided, scholarships and
fellow-ships offered and mode of admissions.
(ix) Charts, Graphs and Diagrams: Charts, graphs and diagrams are also
used for written communication. Doctors use graphs to indicate the changing
temperatures of the patient in morning, noon and evening. Statisticians use graphs
to show the results over a period of few years like India’s exports and imports as
compared to those of last year. Banks use charts for public consumption and to
invite more bank deposits. Banks provide charts showing the amount invested,
duration covered and the amount of interest to be earned etc.
(x) Memoranda: Memoranda are of a great use to the executives. These are
sent to the concern executives so that they are well informed and their decisions
may be appropriate under the circumstances. The memoranda also called memo
could contain information concerning the industry or the industrial enterprise,
employees, labor productivity, cost of production and such other matters. Other
than the technical information the memos could also contain information about the
employees. This could be regarding a fringe benefit or a revision in wages or any
other matter concerning the employees. The memos supply upto date information
to the executives and also make them aware of the ongoing trends in the business.
This is a low cost of method of keeping the executives well informed.
(B) NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal communication is the expression or exchanged of information or
messages through without using any spoken or written word. Some of the forms of
non-verbal communications are as follows:
1. Facial expression
2. Gestures
3. Body language
4. Proximity
5. Touch
6. Appearance
7. Silence
8. Paralinguistic
9. Eye Gaze or eye contact etc.
14

1. Facial Expressions
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal
communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a
frown. The look on a person face is often the first thing we see, even before we hear
what they have to say. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary
dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness,
anger, and fear are similar throughout the world.
2. Gestures
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate
meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using
fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to
culture. In courtroom settings, lawyers have been known to utilize different
nonverbal signals to attempt to sway junior opinions. An attorney might glance at
his watch to suggest that the opposing lawyer's argument is tedious or might even
roll his eyes at the testimony offered by a witness in an attempt to undermine his or
her credibility. These nonverbal signals are seen as being so powerful and
influential that some judges even place limits on what type of nonverbal behaviors
are allowed in the courtroom.
3. Para linguistics
Para linguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual
language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and
pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a
sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval
and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey
disapproval and a lack of interest.
Consider all the different ways simply changing your tone of voice might
change the meaning of a sentence. A friend might ask you how you are doing, and
you might respond with the standard "I'm fine," but how you actually say those
words might reveal a tremendous amount of how you are really feeling. A cold tone
of voice might suggest that you are actually not fine, but you don't wish to discuss
it. A bright, happy tone of voice will reveal that you are actually doing quite well. A
somber, downcast tone would indicate that you are the opposite of fine and that
perhaps your friend should inquire further.
4. Body Language and Posture
Posture and movement can also convey a gre at deal on information. Research
on body language has grown significantly since the 1970's, but popular media have
focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-
crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast's book Body Language.
While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research
suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously
believed.
15

5. Proxemics
People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important
type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount
of space we perceive as belonging to us is influe nced by a number of factors
including social norms, cultural expectations, situational factors, personality
characteristics, and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space
needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies
between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed
when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.
6. Eye Gaze
The eyes play an important role in nonverbal communication and such things
as looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When
people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and
pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions including
hostility, interest, and attraction.
People also utilize eye gaze a means to determine if someone is being honest.
Normal, steady eye contact is often taken as a sign that a person is telling the truth
and is trustworthy. Shifty eyes and an inability to main tain eye contact, on the
other hand, is frequently seen as an indicator that someone is lying or being
deceptive.
7. Haptics (Touch)
Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There
has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy
and early childhood. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity,
sympathy, and other emotions.
Women tend to use touch to convey care, concern, and nurturance. Men, on
the other hand, are more likely to use touch to assert power or control over others.
8. Appearance
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles, and other factors affecting appearance
are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color
psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods.
Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments, and interpretations.
Just think of all the subtle judgements you quickly make about someone based on
his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts
suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.
Researchers have found that appearance can play a role in how people are
perceived and even how much they earn. One 1996 study found that attorneys who
were rated as more attractive than their peers earned nearly 15 percent more than
those ranked as less attractive. Culture can have an important influence in how
appearances are judged. While thinness tends to be valued in Western cultures,
some African cultures relate full -figured bodies to better health, wealth, and social
status.
16

9. Artifacts
Objects and images are also tools that can be used to communicate nonverbally.
On an online forum, for example, you might select an avatar to represent your
identity online and to communicate information about who you are and the things
you like. People often spend a great deal of time developing a particular image and
surrounding themselves with objects designed to convey information about the
things that are important to them. Uniforms, for example, can be used to transmit a
tremendous amount of information about a person. A sol dier will don fatigues, a
police offers will wear a uniform, and a doctor will wear a white lab coat. At a mere
glance, these outfits tell people what a person does for a living.
1.4. REVISION POINTS
Communication: “‘Communication is the process by which i nformation is
transmitted between individuals and/or organizations so that an understanding
response results”
Objective of communication: The objective is to provide clear instruction, for
issuing direction, influencing others, integration and evaluation o f activities
Process of Communication: Process involves elements like sender, message,
encoding, communication channel, receiver, decoding and feedback
Medium for Communication: Communication involves verbal and non verbal
communication medium. Verbal in volves oral like speaking, listening and written
includes writing and reading. Non verbal media includes Facial Expression,
gestures, body language, proximity, touch, personal appearance and silence.
1.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) How do you define communication?
2) What is the importance of Communication?
3) What are the different objectives of communication? Briefly explain any five of
them.
4) Discuss the different situations when the communication exists.
5) “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions and emotions by two
or more persons.” Explain the statement and discuss the role of feedback in
communication.
6) Discuss the elements of communication process.
7) Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. Elaborate the statement
with suitable examples.
1.6. SUMM ARY
Communication may be defined as interchange of thought or information
between two or more persons to bring about mutual understanding and desired
action. It plays a major role in organizations related with managerial decisions and
effective functioning. Choosing the medium for effective communication depends on
the type of audience, accuracy, secrecy, speed and time considerations, cost and
availability etc.,
17

1.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES


1) Define Communication.
2) What is meant by communication media?
3) Differentiate between sender and receiver in communication.
4) Give the meaning of feedback.
1.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Faye Rice, “Champions of Communication”, Fortune, 3 June, 1991, pp.111,
222, 116, 120.
2) Vanessa Dean Arnold, “The Communication Competenci es Listed in Job
Description”, The Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication LV,
No.2. (June, 1992); pp. 15-17.
1.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) A presentation on the merits and demerits of communication media can be
made.
2) A news article may be interpreted by different individuals and asked for this
option.
1.10. SUGGESTED READINGS / REFERENCE/SET BOOKS
1) Sehgal M.K., Khetarpal Vandana, Business Communication, Excel Books.
2) Urmila Rai and S.M. Rai, Business Communication, Himalaya Publishing
House.
3) P.D. Chaturvedi, Mukesh Chaturvedi, Business Communication, Concepts,
Cases and Applications, Pearson Education.
4) Bowman, Joel and Branchaw, Business Communication: From Process to
Product, Dryden Press.
5) Courtland Bovee and John Thill, Business Communication Today, Random
House, New York.
1.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
1) To save time and money, your company is considering limiting all memos to
one page or less. The CEO asks your opinion. Is it a good idea?
2) Name three ways you might encourage your employees to give you feedback
on daily operations.
1.12. KEY WORDS
Communication, Sender, Message, Encoding, Channel, Receiver, Decoding,
Feedback, Medium.

18

LESSON – 2

PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION IN


ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS
2.1. INTRODUCTION
Communication can be effective only when the receiver receives the message
on the same form and context as is sent by the sender. When there is no mistake in
interpretation and the sender gets the correct feedback, then communication can
be termed as effective.
To compose effective Oral and Written messages, one must apply certain
communication principles. These principles provide guidelines for choice of content
and style of presentation, adapted to the purpose and receiver of the message. To
some extent, the principles overlap because they are based on a common concern
for the audience, whether that audience consists of listeners or readers.
2.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Know the major seven C's of effective communication
 Know the importance of courtesy, clarity, completeness, concreteness,
credibility, completeness and conciseness in oral and written messages.
 Understand the basic principles of communication
 Know the major four S’s of Communication
2.3. CONTENTS
2.3.1. Seven C's of Effective Communication
2.3.1.1 Courtesy/Consideration
2.3.1.2 Clarity
2.3.1.3 Correctness
2.3.1.4 Concreteness
2.3.1.5 Credibility
2.3.1.6 Completeness and Consistency
2.3.1.7 Conciseness
2.3.2. Four S’s of Communication
2.3.2.1 Shortness
2.3.2.2 Simplicity
2.3.2.3 Strength
2.3.2.4 Sincerity
2.3.3. General Principles of effective Communication
2.3.4. Communication in Organizational Settings
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2.3.1. SEVEN C’S OF COMMUNICATION


There are Seven C's of effective communication. These are also called
principles of effective communication. They are discussed in the subsequent
paragraphs:
2.3.1.1 Courtesy/Consideration
Consideration means preparing every message after keeping the receiver in
mind, by putting yourself in their place. A considerate person does not lo ose
temper, does not accuse others and is aware of the desires, circumstances,
emotions and requests of the receiver. The sender has to be tactful and sincere, use
expressions that show respect, emphasize the fact, be aware of the feelings of
others. In business world, almost everything starts and ends with courtesy and
consideration. Much can be accomplished if tact, diplomacy and appreciation of
people are woven in the message. Courtesy involves being aware not only of the
perspective of others, but also their feelings. Courtesy stems from a sincere you -
attitude. It is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others.
The suggestions to be followed in this regard are:
1) Focus on "You" attitude, instead of "I" attitude. The "I" attitude should be
discarded in favour of "you" attitude to show respect and consideration
towards the listener of receiver of the message.
2) Show interest in the receiver and emphasize the benefits the receivers will
gain out of the message.
3) Emphasize positive and pleasant facts about the receiver of the message.
4) Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative.
5) Use expressions that show respect.
6) Choose nondiscriminatory expressions.
2.3.1.2. Clarity
Getting the meaning from your head into the head of the listener or reader –
accurately is the purpose of Clarity. It is difficult to attain as we all carry our own
unique interpretations, ideas and experiences associated with words. Clarity of
ideas adds much to the meaning of the message. The first stage is clarity in the
mind of the sender. The next stage is transmission of the message in a manner
which makes it simple for the receiver to comprehend. The mind of the sender as
well as the message should be clear. Clarity is achieved in part through a balance
between precise language and familiar language. Simple language, words and
expressions should be used. Choose familiar words.
Familiar words are often conversational and appropriate for the situation, so
they make a good part of speech or written communication. Technical terms and
business jargon may be used in professional situations, but it should be avoided if
the communication is with the person who is not acquainted with the terminology.
Make effective paragraphs and sentences. Consider the characteristics like
Length of sentences and paragraphs, Unity and Coherence of paragraphs and
Emphasis on the important parts of the paragraphs.
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2.3.1.3. Correctness
Message should not contain any wrong information, it should be authentic.
Choose the right level of Language. At the time of encoding, the sender should
ensure that his knowledge about the receiver is comprehensive. The level of
knowledge, educational background and status of the decoder help the encoder in
formulating his message. In case of discrepancy between the usage an d
comprehension of terms, miscommunication can arise. If the sender decides to
back up his communication with facts and figures, there should be accuracy in
stating the same.
At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation and spelling.
However, a message may be perfect grammatically, but still insult or lose a
customer. Following are the guidelines for assuring correctness in the message:
 Use the right level of language: formal or informal and avoid substandard
language or words.
 Check accuracy of figures, facts and words
 Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
2.3.1.4. Concreteness
Communicating concretely means being specific, definite and vivid rather that
vague and general. Often it means using denotative (direct, explicit) rather than
connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or
phrase).
The benefits of the business professionals of using concrete facts and figures
are obvious; your receivers know exactly what is required or desired. Using concrete
language has some additional, less obvious advantages. When you supply specifics
for the reader or listener, you increase the like hood that your message will be
interpreted the way you intended. Moreover, concrete messages are more richly
textured than general or vague messages; they tend to be more vivid, dynamic, and
interesting.
The following guidelines can be used to compose concrete, convincing
messages:
 Use specific facts and figures
 Put action in your verbs
 Choose vivid, image-building words
2.3.1.5. Credibility
If the sender can establish his credibility, the receiver has no problems in
accepting his statement. Establishing credibility is not the outcome of a one shot
statement. It is a long drawn out process in which the receiver through constant
interaction with the sender understands his credible nature and is willing to accept
his statement as being truthful and honest.
21

2.3.1.6. Completeness and Consistency


The business message is complete when it contains all the facts the reader or
listener needs for the reaction the sender of the message desires. The sender and
receiver differ in their mental filters; they are influenced by their backgrounds,
viewpoints, needs, experiences, attitudes, status and emotions. Because of these
differences, communication sender needs to assess his message through the eyes of
the receiver to be sure that he has included all relevant information. While striving
for completeness, the following guidelines are to be observed:
A. Provide all necessary information
B. Answer all questions asked
C. Give something extra, when desirable
Provide All Necessary Information
To help one to make a message complete, it is helpful to answer the five W
questions who, what, when, where, why - and any other essentials, such as how.
The five question method is especially useful to write requests, announcements, or
the other informative messages.
For instance, while ordering for any goods, one needs to make clear, what is
wanted, when it is required, to whom and where it is to be sent and how the
payment will be made.
Answer all Questions Asked
Whenever an inquiry is replied, the sender of the message should try to answer all
questions - stated and implied. An incomplete reply definitely leads to loss of
customers and shows the carelessness of the sender. In case of lack of information on
a particular topic, one must state so clearly, instead of giving wrong information. In
case the answer to a particular question is unfavorable, it must be tackled carefully.
Give Something Extra, when Desirable
Sometimes, one must do more than answering the specific questions of the
customer, as he may not be clear and complete in asking what he wants to know.
This should be done, only when desirable, that is, when the situation requires so.
For example, if a Hotel Manager receives a query about the types of rooms available
, he must mention the rent per night as well as the availability of the rooms and the
seasonal changes in the rent. This is an additional piece of information, which
would be quite useful to the customer. The approach to communication should be
as far as possible, consistent. There should be not much ups and downs that might
lead to confusion in the mind of the receiver. If a certain stand has been taken, it
should be observed without there being situations in which the sender is left
groping for the actual content and meaning. If the sender desires to bring about a
change in his understanding of the situation, he should ensure that the shift is
gradual and not hard for the receiver to comprehend.
2.3.1.7. Conciseness
Conciseness is saying what you have to say in fewest possible words. A concise
message is complete without being wordy. The message to be communicated should
be as brief and concise as possible. Weighty language definitely sounds impressive,
22

but people would be suitably impressed into doing precisely nothing. As far as
possible, only simple and brief statements should be made. Excessive information
can also sway the receiver into either a wrong direction or into inaction. Quantum
of information should be just right, neither too much nor too little. Conciseness is a
prerequisite to effective business communication. A concise message saves time
and expense of both the sender and the receiver. Conciseness contributes to
emphasis, by eliminating unnecessary words.
To achieve Conciseness, following suggestions are observed:
A. Eliminate wordy expressions
B. Include only relevant material
C. Avoid unnecessary Repetition
Eliminate Wordy Expressions
Wordiness in expressions can be removed by suing single word substitutes
instead of phrases, replacing long conventional statements with concise versions,
avoiding overuse of phrases, omitting the use of "which" and "that" clauses and by
limiting the use of passive voice.
Examples:
Wordy: In most of the cases it has been seen that the date of the policy
lapses…
Concise: Usually, the date of the policy lapses….
Wordy: Allow me to say how helpful your last response was…
Concise: our last response was very helpful.
Wordy: It was known by Mr. Rajan that we must increase the production
Concise: Mr. Rajan knew that we must increase production
Include only Relevant Material
The effective concise message should not only omit wordy expressions but also
irrelevant statements. The following suggestions are to be observed in this regard:
1) Stick to the purpose of the message.
2) Delete irrelevant words and rambling sentences.
3) Omit information obvious to the receiver.
4) Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations, excessive adjectives, etc.
5) Get to the important point tactfully and concisely.
Avoid Unnecessary Repetition
Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis, but unnecessary repetition
leads to dullness and makes the message boring. Following suggestions can be
followed in this regard:
1) Use a shorter name after you have mentioned the longer one once.
2) Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long names.
3) Combine two or more sentences by using subordinate clauses or phrases.
23

2.3.2. FOUR S'S OF COMMUNICATION


Though seven C's of communication are sufficient as Principles of effective
communication, but some authors also consider Four S's. Though these are
overlapping to the seven C's, but an understanding of the 4 S's of communication is
equally important:
2.3.2.1. Shortness
If the message can be made brief, and verbosity done away with, then the
transmission and comprehension of messages is going to be faster and more
effective. Flooding messages with high sounding words does not create a very
lasting impact, as most of the time of the receiver will be lost in actually
deciphering and comprehending the message.
2.3.2.2. Simplicity
Simplicity both in the use of language an ideas reveals a clarity in the thinking
process. It is normally a tendency that when an individual is himself confused, he
tries equally confusing strategies to try and explain his point of view to the receiver.
Simplicity should be reveled in the communication by using simple terminology and
equally simple concepts.
2.3.2.3. Strength
The strength of the message emanates from the credibility of the sender. If the
sender himself believes in a message that he is about to transmit, there is bound to
be strength and conviction in whatever he tries to state. Half hearted statements
add a touch of falsehood to the communication process.
2.3.2.4. Sincerity
If the sender is genuine and sincere, it will be reflected in the manner he
communicates. Suppose there is a small element of deceit involved in the
interaction and the receiver is a keen observant, he would be able to sense the
make believe statement and no concrete relationship between the sender and
receiver will materialize.
2.3.3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
It is very difficult to suggest a comprehensive list of vital features of system of
communication. It will depend on the spec ific needs of the situation. The following
guidelines or principles may be followed to achieve effective communication .
1) Clarity of message: The basic principle in communication is clarity. The
message must be as clear as possible. No vagueness should creep into it. The
message can be conveyed properly only if it is clearly formulated in the mind
of the both sender and receiver.
2) Speed: A good system of communication must ensure a speedy transmission
of message. The time taken to transmit a message to its destination and speed
of the communication system should be considered on the basis of the
urgency of communicating the message. If message not delivered at time it
create problem for organization.
24

3) Two-way process: Communication is the two-way process that provides


feedback to the sender from the receiver. Feedback refers to transmission of
information concerning the effect of any act of communication.
4) Reliability: Communication starts on the basis of belief. This atmosphere is
built by performance on the part of the expert. The receiver must have
confidence in the sender. He must have a high regard for the source’s
competence on the subject.
5) Completeness: Every Communication must be complete as adequate.
Incomplete messages create misunderstanding, keep the re ceiver guessing and
delay action.
6) Content: The message must be meaningful for the receiver, and it must be
compatible with his value system. It must have significance for him. In
general, people select those items or information which promises them the
greatest rewards. The content determines the response of the audience.
7) Accuracy: The communication medium should ensure accuracy in the
transmission of messages. Whatever medium chooses by the sender should be
accurate for that particular kind of information which they want to send.
8) Capability: Communication must take into account the capability of the
audience. Communications are most effective when they required the least
effort on the part of the recipients. This includes factors like reading ability
and receiver knowledge.
9) Economy: The communication system should be as much economical as
possible. But efficiency of the system should not be sacrificed to achieve
economy.
10) Secrecy: The communication system should ensure secrecy and there should
be no leakage of information. It becomes more essential when messages are of
confidential nature.
2.3.4. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS
Whether an organization is large, small or virtual, sharing information among
its parts and with the outside world is the gl ue that binds the organization together.
When you join a company, you become a link in its information chain. Whether
you’re a top manager or an entry-level employee, you have information that others
need in order to perform their jobs, and others have information that is crucial to
you. To succeed organization must share information with people both inside and
outside the company. It includes the internal and external structure through which
messages pass and the way information is presented, as well as the actual content
of the messages themselves. As you exchange information with people inside and
outside the organization you use a variety of formal and informal forms of
communication.
25

COMMUNICATION
INTERNAL EXTERNAL
Planned communication among Planned communication with outsiders
FORMAL with insiders (letters, reports, (letters, reports, memos, speeches,
memos, e-mail ) that follows the websites and news release)
company’s chain of command
Casual communication among Casual communication with suppliers,
INFORMAL employees (email , face-to-face customers, investors and other
conversations and phone calls outsiders(Face- to-face conversations,
that do not follow the company’s email and phone calls)
chain of command)
A. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
It refers to the exchange of information and ideas within an organization. As
employee, you are in a position to observe things that your supervisors and co -
workers cannot see: a customer’s first reaction to a product display, a supplier’s
brief hesitation before agreeing to a delivery date or a slowdown in the flow of
customers. Managers and co-workers need these little gems of information in order
to do their jobs. Internal communication helps employees do the ir jobs , develop a
clear sense of the organization’s mission and identify and react quickly to potential
problems. To maintain a healthy flow of information within the organization,
effective communicators use both formal and informal channels.
Formal Internal Communication Network: The formal flow of information
follows the official chain of command. There are organizational charts in many
company’s which commands good communication flow. In organization information
flows down, up, and across the formal hierarchy.
Downward Flow: Organizational decisions are usually made at the top and
then flow down to the people who will carry them out. Most of what filters
downward is geared towards helping employees do their jobs. From top to bottom,
each person must understand each message, apply it , and pass it along.
Upward Flow: To solve problems and make intelligent decisions, managers
must learn what’s going on in the organization. Because they can’t be everywhere at
once, executives depend on lower-level employees to furnish them with accurate,
timely reports on problems, emerging trends, opportunities for improvement,
grievances, and performance.
Horizontal flow: Communication also flows from one department to another,
either laterally or diagonally. This horizontal communication helps employees share
information and coordinate tasks, and it is especially useful for solving complex
and difficult problems.
Formal organization charts illustrate how information is supposed to flow. In
actual practice, however, lines and boxes on a piece of paper cannot prevent people
from talking with one another.
Informal internal communication: Every organization has an informal
communication network known as grapevine that supplements official channels. As
26

people go about their work, they have casual conversations with their friends in the
office. Although many of these conversations deal with personal matters, about 80
percent of the information that travels along the grapevine pertains to business.
The informal communication network carries information along the organization’s
unofficial lines of activity and power. The grapevine is an important source of
information in most organizations.
B. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
The external communication network links the organization with the outside
world of customers, suppliers, competitors, and investors, journalists, and
community representatives. Sometimes this external communication is carefully
orchestrated – especially during a crisis. At other times it occurs informally as part
of routine business operations.
Formal external communication: Companies use external communication to
create a favorable impression. Whether by letter, website, phone, fax, internet, or
videotape, good communication is the first step in creating a favorable i mpression.
Carefully constructed letters, reports, memos, oral presentation, and websites
convey an important message to outsiders about the quality of your organization.
Messages such as statements to the press, letters to investors, advertisements,
price increase announcements and litigation updates require special care because
of their delicate nature. Therefore, such documents are often drafted by a
marketing or public relations team – a group of individuals whose sole job is
creating and managing the flow of formal messages to outsiders. The public
relations team is also responsible for helping management plan for and responds to
crises – which can range from environmental accidents or sabotage situations to
strikes, massive product failure, major liti gation, or even an abrupt change in
management. To minimize the impact of any crisis, expert communicators advise
managers to communicate honestly, openly and often. If handled improperly, crises
can destroy a company’s reputation.
Informal external communication: Although companies usually
communicate with outsiders in a formal manner, informal contacts with outsiders
are important for learning about customer needs. As a member of an organization,
you are an important informal conduit for communicating wi th the outside world.
Every employee informally accumulates facts and impressions that contribute to
the organizations collective understanding of the outside world. In the course of
your daily activity you unconsciously absorb bits and pieces of information that add
to the collective knowledge of your company. Top managers rely heavily on informal
contacts with outsiders to gather information that might be useful to their
companies. Much of their networking involves interaction with fellow executives.
Many top level employees recognize the fact that keeping constant touch with the
external real world, front line employees, customers by making an opportunity to
talk to them and getting feedback helps in organizational improvement. Receiving
feedback is considered to be the most important aspect of communication.
27

2.4. REVISION POINTS


1) Seven C's of Effective Communication: Consideration, Courtesy, Clarity,
Correctness, Concreteness, Conciseness and Completeness. These are the
Seven terms, starting with the letter C, which make communication more
understandable, valuable and effective.
2) Four S's of Communication: Sincerity, Simplicity, Shortness and Strength:
Four terms starting with letter S, which add to the value of the message in
Communication.
3) General Principles of Effective Communication: Clarity of message, speed,
two way process, reliability, completeness, content and accuracy .
2.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What is meant by "Effective Communication"?
2) What are the Seven C's of Effective Communication?
3) Explain "Brevity is the soul of wit". Comment on this in the context of effective
Communication.
4) How can Completeness be achieved in communication?
5) Explain the Four S's of Communication.
6) Explain the general principles of effective Communication
7) Discuss the communication followed in Organizational setting.
2.6. SUMMARY
1) Effective Communication means that the receiver gets and understands the
message in the same form and context as sent by the sender.
2) There are Seven C's which make communication effective.
3) Consideration means preparing every message after keeping the receiver in
mind, by putting yourself in their place
4) Courtesy is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others.
5) Getting the meaning from your head into the head of the listener or reader -
accurately- is the purpose of Clarity
6) Following are the guidelines for assuring Correctness in the message:
 Use the right level of language: formal or informal and avoid substandard
language or words.
 Check accuracy of figures, facts and words
 Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
7) The following guidelines can be used to compose concrete, convincing
messages:
 Use specific facts and figures
 Put action in your verbs
 Choose vivid, image-building words
8) The business message is complete when it contains all the facts the reader or
listener needs for the reaction the sender of the message desires
28

9) A concise message saves time and expense of both the sender and the
receiver.
10) Conciseness contributes to emphasis, by eliminating unnecessary words.
11) Four S's of Communication are Sincerity, Simplicity, Shortness and Strength
2.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) What is Communication in an organizational setting?
2) List out the principles of communication.
2.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Keith Denton, “Imporving Community Relations”, Small Business Reports,
August 1990, pp.33-34, 36-41.
2) Selwyn Feinstein, “Remedial Training”, Wall Streat Journal, 20, February,
1990.
2.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) What are your strengths and weaknesses as a writer and as a speaker?
Present your analysis in a way that will help your instructor plan this course
to meet your needs.
2.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Lesikar & Pettit, Business Communication, Theory and Practice, A.I.T.B.S.,
Publishers and Distributors.
2) Asha Kaul, Business Communication, Prentice Hall of India
3) Hatch, Richard, Communicating in Business, Science Research Associates
2.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
1) A model of inter-departmental note, circular, inters –office memo, a sales
letter, a complaint letter, an appreciation letter, a letter requesti ng for grant
and the take may be granted.
2) A sample of print communication can be made use of to highlight the
principles of communication followed.
2.12. KEY WORDS
Seven C's of Effective Communication, Four S's of Communication, General
Principles of Effective Communication, Internal Communication, External
Communication, Formal communication, Informal Communication .

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LESSON – 3
BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION
3.1. INTRODUCTION
Communication is the process of transfer of ideas and expressions from one
person to another. It is the way of self expression. The information to be
communicated should be clear and accurate. If an individual sends the message,
and the other one receives it and interprets it in the same way as the sender had
intended to express, the process of communication is said to be complete and
successful. However, Communication is not always successful. Certain barriers in
communication affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness of the message. These
barriers hamper the growth of communication and relegate it to the status of a
conversation where feedback is not expected. If either the speaker or the listener
has problems in adjusting his frequency with the co-interactants, barriers would
automatically be erected.
3.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Realize the Existence of Pitfalls or Barriers in Communication
 Know the principal barriers in Communication
3.3. CONTENTS
3.3.1. Categorization of Barriers
3.3.2. Technical Aspects in Communication Barriers
3.3.1. CATEGORISATION OF BARRIERS
The Barriers or negative forces may affect the effectiveness of communication by
acting upon any or all of the basic elements of communication process and
sender/receiver/ channel. As the barriers to communication influence the major
variables in the communication process, they may be categorized on various bases.
Though the list of Barriers is exhaustive and there are many ways in which the
Barriers can be categorized, one of the oldest categorization of barriers is stated below:
1) Semantic barriers: Different people assign different meanings to one specific
message. This is due to the problems with meaning, significance, and the
sending and reception of the meaning and content of the massage.
2) Organizational barriers: This type of barrier develops due to the problems
with physical distance between members with respect to their functional
specialization of tasks, power, authority and status relationship, values held,
and ownership of information.
3) Interpersonal barriers: These barriers also develop in the process of
communication. They are based upon the relationships, values held, and
attitudes of the participants in the process of communication.
4) Individual barriers: These are also called psycho-sociological barriers. The
problem of this barrier arises due to differences in individual competencies to
think and act, which would include physical ailments or handicaps. It is also
30

because of individual skills in receiving and transmitting information, which


would include poor listening and improper reading skills and adverse
psychological conditions.
5) Cross Cultural (geographic) barriers: Culture is a shared set of values and
attributes of a group. The communication barriers are also seen because of
time, geographic locations, and the effects of time upon reception of the
message and other cross cultural factors.
6) Physical Barriers/Channel and media barriers: The effectiveness and
accuracy of communication is also affected by the physical barriers like
distance, noise or channel and the media used in the process. In this category,
problems that confront the media used in the process. In this category,
problems that confront the issue of how best to communicate a message are
included. (For example, it is best to transmit a massage face to face rather
than in writing).
7) Technological barriers: They are barriers which arise due to technological
advancements in the field of communication. Technology generates lot of
information, which is beyond the capacity of the recipient. Further, the media
advancements on account of technological process increase the barriers.
The ideas and message have to reach from the transmitter to receive in the
same sense. If it does not happen, it is on account of barriers in communication.
Some of these barriers can be explained as follows:
3.3.1.1. Semantic Barriers
"Semantics" is the science of meaning. It is contrasted with phonetics, the
science of sounds. This barrier is related to the process of coding and decoding the
message. There are various disruptions in understanding of the meanings of the
words and information exchanged in the communication process. Various types of
semantic gaps found in day to-day use of people are as follows:
(a) Words having similar pronunciation but multiple meaning: Sometimes, in
our conversation we use several words, which have the same pronunciation but are
having many meanings. The words may be homophones and thus there may arise
difficulty in getting to the right meaning of the message.
For example: sight, site, cite. In verbal communication, a particular word may
have a variety of meanings. For example, the English word 'round' has 110 different
meanings. (As adjective 23, as noun 42, as verb 16, as prepositi on 13 and as
adverb 13.)
(b) Badly expressed message: Lack of clarity and precision make the message
badly expressed. Lack of coherence, awkward sentence structure, jargons etc. is
common faults, which lead to such messages.
(c) Wrong interpretation: Whenever one interprets a symbol, his understanding
may differ with others. The Hindi word 'kaka' means uncle in one part of the
31

country but small boy in another part of the country. As inferences can give a
wrong signal, more information may be sought to clari fy doubts.
(d) Unqualified assumptions: Sometimes, the sender may send information is
not clarified to the receiver, as he does not understand the assumptions clearly.
(e) Technical Language: When technical language is used in the
communication process, it creates barriers in understanding the message in the
same sense and in the same spirit. When technical jargons or specialist languages
are used in the communication and conversation process, they create tension,
confusion and misunderstanding between the sender and the receiver.
Example: Consider the new meanings given to ordinary words by computer
technology; to people who are not familiar with computers, "mouse" is only an
animal, where as in computer jargon, it is a device.
3.3.1.2. Organizational Barriers
Interference may arise from the relative status and power of the participants,
the exercise of traditional roles, and incompatible needs and expectations. It may
arise because of centralization or decentralization in an organization. It may
originate in contradictory management policies, or too many levels of management
or the clash between line and staff operations. The specialized nature of functions
or even the special language of those functions may cause it. It may have its source
in formal informal, or grapevine transactions. Following are the organizational
barriers in communication:
(a) Organization culture and climate: In every organization, there exists a
unique culture and climate. The climate and culture of an organization ultimately
influence the freedom, thrust and interaction pattern among people in an
organization. As people working over there take time to adapt themselves,
bottlenecks in communication are inevitable.
(b) Organizational rules and regulations: The rules and regulations of the
organization vary widely from one organization to another. They may be so rigid
that they may influence the flow of information in a wrong direction.
(c) Status relationships: The status, power and position relationship acts as
the hurdle in the effectiveness of communications. Individuals may not be able to
say what they wish to say because of their fear for the position and power of the
other party in the communication process.
(d) Complexity in organizational structure: The complex hierarchical structure
of the organization like too tall or too much of divisionalization of the organization
may not facilitate the free flow of communication.
(e) Inadequate facilities and opportunity: The organization may not have
adequate communication facilities, equipment and mechanisms. Open door
employment system, conferences, seminars and meetings being held in the
organization also influence it.
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(f) Lack of cooperation between superior and subordinate: There may not be
proper cooperation between the superior and subordinate for various personal or
organizational relationships, which may held to improper communication in an
organization.
3.3.1.3. Interpersonal Barriers (Relating to Superior-subordinate)
Effectiveness of Communication depends a lot upon the interperson al
relationship between two people. If and when the sender and receiver are at the
same economic, educational and status level and also have good rapport among
each other, there is hardly any barrier arising in communication. But, in case of a
difference at any level, there is a greater chance of Miscommunication. The most
common example for this in an organization is the Barriers relating to Superior and
Subordinate.
The subordinate must follow the order of the superior, carry out all work
efficiently, and provide full information related to any matter, which arises in the
organization or in any work. Moreover, the superior should have full confidence
upon himself and the subordinate. In cash he wishes to gives some important
message to the subordinate, the barriers existing between them in communication
will be reduced. There are two types of superior- subordinate barriers. They are
barriers emanating from both superiors and subordinates:
1) Barriers emanating from superiors: Following are the barriers with respect
to the superiors:
i. Shortage of time for employees: Superior may not devote enough time for
their employees due to their busy schedule or other preoccupations. As a
result, a gap is created between the superior and subordinates. In the later
stage, it acts as a hurdle in the communication process.
ii. Lack of trust: Sometimes, the supervisors may not trust their subordinates
because of variety of reasons, which can act as a hurdle in the free flow of
communication in a organization.
iii. Lack of consideration for employee's needs: The employer may not devote
enough time for the employees. As a result, they are enabling to understand
their needs and genuine problems. It may lead to miscommunication.
iv. Wish to capture authority: The superior may hide the confidenti al and
important information from employee in view of capturing and retaining
their authority, which acts as the barrier to communication between the
superior and subordinates in the organization.
v. Fear of losing power of control: The supervisor may have a fear of losing
power of control if they freely express their ideas and view with their
subordinate. Therefore, they may hide certain important information from
their employees, which ultimately affect the communication process in the
organization.
33

vi. Bypassing: Bypassing also effects communication and acts as a barrier.


Due to by passing the inner feelings of employees are not freely expressed
which is essential for free exchange of information. The employer may not
like by passing as an effective means of communication.
vii. Information overload: Due to extra information provided to employees,
they may miss certain important information, which ultimately acts as the
barrier in communication.
2) Barriers emanating from subordinates: There can be communication
barriers because of the subordinates. They may be facing certain problems
like:
i. Lack of proper channel: There may be complexity in the organizational
structure, which may influence proper and effective communication from
subordinate. They may not feel free to communicate because of pressure of
position power and authority.
ii. No interest to communicate: There may not be any interest on the part of
subordinates to have a dialogue, discussion and interaction with their
superiors, which affect the communication process adversely
iii. Lack of cooperation: lack of cooperation and mutual understanding also
leads to hiding of certain information between the superior and subordinates
in the organization.
iv. Lack of trust: There may be lack of trust and coordination between the
superior and the subordinate, which may lead to infective communication.
v. Poor relationship between superior and subordinate: A good relationship
must develop between superiors and subordinates frequently and freely. They
must interact to improve the upward and downward communication system.
The superior must listen to the subordinates' suggestion, their problems, and
must have faith in them. In the absence of all this, it may so happen that
what the superior speaks, the subordinate may not understand it.
vi. Fear of penalty: If a subordinate fees that because of free expression and
upward communication he will face some type of penalty, there is possibility
that he may not provide full or correct message to the superior.
3.3.1.4. INDIVIDUAL / PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL BARRIERS
Individual or Psycho-sociological barriers are the prime barriers in
interpersonal communication. People have different styles of communication.
People also have personal feelings, desires, fears, hopes, likes, dislikes, attitudes,
views and opinions. The meaning assigned to a message depends upon the
emotional or psychological status of both the parties involved in the process of
communication.
1) Style: Style, the manner in which a person communicates, involves many
elements, though style overlaps with several of the other factors in analysis, it
adds its own distinct flavor. A few barriers related to style are as follows:
34

i. Linguistic accent in oral exchanges are stylistic in nature. It often affects


people. For example, the accent of Bengalis may create a reaction in
North India.
ii. The form of expression (idiom) colors a transaction. Suppose you use an
idiom familiar in Andhra Pradesh, but strange to someone from Shimla;
the listener will be distracted by the style - the use of "strange"
expressions.
iii. The level of drama greatly affects a situation. People do not react to
highly dramatics situations as they do to subdued ones.
iv. Types of humor also play a part in style. People not only use varying
styles of humor, they react differently to different kinds of jok es and
sometimes fail to convey the proper massage which is intended to be
conveyed.
v. The choice of brevity as opposed to full detail in a presentation is also
another element of style. Style can also be reflected through the use of a
direct approach rather than an indirect one.
vi. The choice of discriminatory or non discriminatory communication
modes is another element of style. Symbol can discriminate on the basis
of sex, race, age, religion, handicap, or other characteristics. Many
people react negatively to the discriminatory styles, whereas others,
regrettably, practically try to insist one to join them in name calling and
sirs.
vii. The qualities of credibility and charisma override many other aspects of
style. Both the presence and the absence of these qualiti es can affect the
flow of communication.
2) Selective perception: The receiver may make a world of his own around
himself. He projects his interest and expectations as he decodes messages. He
may only take that much piece of information, which may suit his world of
thinking. As a result, the person acquires incomplete and inappropriate
information, which influence the communication process. Having a poor self-
concept or self-understanding, or a poor understanding of other can cause
perceptual distortions.
3) Halo effect: People do not listen carefully because of impressions based on
earlier encounters. Even one of the parties having a halo effect will disrupt the
flow of communication.
4) Status relationship: There may be status and power relationship, which may
hinder the communication process and affect the effectiveness of
communication. Status effects also hinder communication is as much as
people occupying higher positions in the organization have a tendency to "tell
a lot to subordinates but not to listen, effective communication is not possible.
35

5) Poor attention and Retention: About half of the information, if not properly
retained, is lost. The sender may suffer from each a problem. It also said that
about 30% of the information is lost in each oral transmission. Human
memory may not always retain what it is told. This causes communication
breakdown and necessitates the repetition of the message using several
channels
6) Inattention: The preoccupied mind of the receiver and the reluctant non -
listening is one of the major psychologies barriers. It is because of it that
people do not react to ideas/massages received in communication.
7) Undue importance of written words: The undue importance given to the
written words may lead to loss of information. The successive information is
not accurate and right. Written communication often tells what is to be done
but not why it should be done. It takes the persuasive quality.
8) Defensiveness: If one feels threatened by a message, one becomes defensive
and responds in such ways that reduce the understanding. Such defensive
behaviour prevents understanding.
9) Closed Mind: Limited intellectual background, limited reading and narrow
interests can cause a person's mind to be narrow. This limits the ability to
take in new ideas. People with closed minds do not take in any new
information or suggestions to change.
10) State of Health: Physical condition can affect the efficiency in all
communication skills. In case of poor health condition, the communicating
ability is reduced as the mind is not alert and perception is low.
11) Filtering: Filtering is the process of reducing the details or aspects of a
message. Each person who receives the message reduces it according to his or
her understanding of the situation. In this process, much of the important
information may be lost or misinterpreted and the sender will fail to convey
what he wants to convey.
3.3.1.5. CROSS - CULTURAL/ GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS
Culture is a shared set of values and attributes of a group; it is the sum total
of the ways of living built up by a group and transmitted from one generation to
another. Culture is so much a part of an individual's manner of talking, behaving
and thinking, that communication style and competence are influenced by it.
Some of the significant differences betwee n cultures are:
(a) National Character/ Basic Personality.
(b) Language
(c) Values and norms of behaviour
(d) Social relationships
(e) Concepts of time
(f) Concepts of space
36

(g) Non verbal communication


(h) Perception
Words, colours and symbols have different meanings in different cultures. For
example:
 In most parts of the world nodding your head means agreement, shaking
your head means no-except in some parts of India, where the reverse is true.
 When the Japanese say "Yes", they mean, "Yes, I am listening ". The
Americans may take it to mean, "Yes, I agree".
 For some cultures, "Time is money", while in other cultures, it may be
subordinate to relationships.
 Wearing white colour on marriage may be forbidden in some cultures,
whereas, in other cultures, the main wedding dress is white in colour.
Communication can be very difficult at times due to these cross cultural
barriers.
3.3.1.6. PHYSICAL BARRIERS/ CHANNEL AND MEDIA BARRIERS
Physical distractions cause a lot of noise, often literally: insufficiently insulated
rooms with car noises filtering through, poor lighting, and such things as frequent
movement of bodies postures, with a pen in the hand, even the arrival of coffee at a
critical stage on the communication process are the causes of communication
barriers in organizations.
Constant telephone interruptions are one of the commonest physical
distractions. These obstacles prevent a message from reaching the intended
recipient.
The following obstacles are considered under this category:
1) Noise: Noise is any disturbance which occurs in the transmission process. In
face to face conversation without a microphone, the air may be disturbed by
noise in the environment such as traffic, factory work, a typewriter clattering
away in a nearby office and people talking, and so on. Wider connotation of
noise includes many other factors that are likely to hinder communication.
Sometimes, the inner chatting going on in the mind of the listener, which
distracts the message received, is also termed as Noise.
2) Environment: Interferences may also arise from external trans receivers,
number of links in the chain and circumstantial factors:
a) External trans receivers: people often delegate to others such acts as
typewriting, drawing, photographing, listening, reading, and taping. Whe n
one does so, he still remains responsible for controlling such external
process. Evaluation has to be done which has been transmitted or received
by someone else. Reliable people and equipment should be selected to
accomplish the communication-related tasks.
37

b) Number of links in the chain: The major barriers to effective communication


lie in the number of links in the chain between the sender and the ultimate
receiver. Larger the chain less is the accuracy of message towards to end of
the chain. For example, when one person whispers, the whispered "chaining"
continues until the massage moves from one to another through all people in
the circle. The last person to receive the massage states it aloud, and the
originator orally compares the final received message with the original
massage. The final massage usually bears little resemblance to the serious for
purposive communication endeavors. Thus, efforts are made to reduce the
number of intermediate links. With each added station, the chances of a
massage accomplishing its purpose diminish significantly.
c) Circumstantial Factors: The same sort of differentiation in circumstances
counts for the channels within each of the levels and in broader terms for the
oral, written, and non-verbal communication. For example, a speech delivered
before a small dinner gathering will be different from the same speech
delivered before an auditorium full of people. Everyone is markedly different
while sitting to watch cricket match rather than a legal hearing. Still another
circumstantial feature a listener who has to stand because the seats are all
taken is generally not the same as he or she would be if seated comfortably.
3) Defects in the Medium: Defects in the devices used for transmitting
communication are external and usually n ot in the control of the sender or
receiver. The telephone, the postal system, the courier service or even the
electronic media may fail or break down.
3.3.2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS IN COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
A few technical aspects in communication barriers are briefly narrated by
Murphy's Law on communication: Following are the basics in this law on
communication:
a. Communication usually fails. Except by chance, it succeeds. On account
of various barriers, the possibility of success in the flow of communication is
rare.
b. If the message can be understood, in different ways, it will be understood
in just the way that does the most harm. People receive the massage in their
own way. In most of the cases, the most harmful side of communication is
considered.
c. Filtering. It refers to the sender manipulating information so that the
receiver will see it as more favourable. In organizations, the information is
condensed and synthesized. Objective information does not reach to the
authority. The more the vertical levels in the organization's hierarchy, the
more opportunities there are for filtering.
d. Meta communication. In a communication apart from the message, there is
a Meta message. Meta message exists in the people's minds because of their
38

actions such as being hard to contact. It is the most important thing in seat
word language.
e. Noise in communication process. Noise can enter the communication
process because of situational factors. It is one of the factors influencing the
communication process. Noise is mostly related to mechanical distractions.
A few noise distractions are as follows: (i) Human sounds, (ii) Traffic, (iii)
Telephone instruments (iv) Channel defects (v) Birds (vi) Trees (vii) Fans (viii)
Chalk writing (ix) Use of Duster (x) Projector and (xi) Nasal Voic e.
3.3.3. OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION
Constant effort is required to overcome the barriers which unconsciously creep
up in the process of Communication. Barriers can be overcome if sufficient effort is
put into the communication process and it is desired that communication be
effective and efficient. One way of reducing the effects of these barriers is to check
continuously during the communication process what the massage really is. The
actions to be taken by the Sender, Receiver and together the two of them, to achieve
this are listed below:
Sender:
The sender should be clear about the following Ws and H:
WHO: To whom should the message go?
WHY: Why should I communicate? What are the motives?
WHAT: Decide what to communicate. Be clear about what one needs to
communicate.
WHEN: The best time for optimum reception is chosen.
HOW: Use a language, which the receiver will understand and which is
unambiguous.
WHERE: Choose a location which will not interfere with the reception,
understanding and acceptance of the message: Privately? Home or away? In a
group? At work or outside?
Receiver:
The receiver can be aware about the following, to overcome the barriers: Be
fully attentive to sender.
 Listen actively to the message being sent.
 Ask for clarification and repetition wherever necessary.
 Keep checking the receipt of information with sender.
 Both: Receiver and Sender can make the Communication Flawless if
they:
 Realize that misunderstandings are bound to occur, and be alert for all
cues to this effect.
 Listen, listen, listen, and listen again.
 Share opinions, feelings and perceptions generated by the message.
39

 Thus, both parties separately as well as together have to work to remove


the barriers and achieve the communication effectiveness. For example, a
manager tries to get things done through other people. The management
of people can be called leadership, and all
 of us have our own preferred leadership styles, which affect the ways in
which we communicate with others, especially our staff.
3.3.3.1. Measures to Overcome Barriers in Communication
Following are some of the additional measures to overcome the barriers to
communication:
1) Fostering good relationship: Strong relationships must be fostered between
the employer and the employee in order to avoid misunderstanding and accept
each other's viewpoints in order to remove the barriers and to facilitate proper
communication in the organization.
2) Purposeful and well focused Communication: Communication should be
purposeful and directed to an individual. At the end of the Communication,
the receiver should not be left to feel that communication had been
meaningless or useless.
3) Coordination between superior and subordinates: In case the superior
thinks on one line, which is different from the subordinate an d vice versa, it
will affect the effectiveness of communication. Therefore, there should be good
and proper coordination and cooperation between the superior and
subordinate for effective communication.
4) Avoid technical language: The specialized language should be avoided.
There should be all efforts to use the language commonly understood by the
receiver and sender of the message. There should be least use of technical
jargons in communication process.
5) Feedback: The selective perception of receiver should be minimized through
proper feedback. The drawback of the selective perception should be explained
to minimize the barriers.
6) Accuracy: There should be accuracy in the message to be transmitted
between parties to the communication to improve its effectiveness.
7) Clarity in message: The message to be transferred should be clear, practical
accurate and without any ambiguity.
8) Communication of organizational philosophy: Efforts have to be made in a
planned way to sensitize people with the organizational philosophy. It should
be properly communicated to its employees so that they give proper attention
to their day to day communication.
9) Flat organizational structure: The organization should have clear cut and
simple organization structure. Tall hierarchical structure should be removed,
and it should be changed to flat structure to avoid excessive control of
information. Wrong information to be transferred to any one in the
organization will prove detrimental.
40

Proper redesign of organizational structure will reduce the status gap. Status
effect can occur when one person is considerably higher in the hierarchy than
another.
10) Division of labour: There should be proper division of labour between the
persons in order to reduce information overload and prevent delay in
information transfer.
11) Organization policies: The organization should formulate their policies in
such a way that it will give full advantage to all members of the organization.
It should be flexible and easy to implement. While organization's goal must be
clear, everyone must know about his position, his right in the organizational
communication. The network has to be fully developed so that no such type of
barriers exists. Moreover, there should be consistency when message a passed
from sender to receiver. One should not introduce his own view in the
message. It must be clear and understood by everyone easily. Timeline in
message should be there. If it is not passed in time, such message will be of
no use.
12) Minimize semantic problem: People use either the same word in different
ways or different words in the same way. One will be surprised to know that
there are 15 different meanings of the word 'charge' in the English language.
They also occur when people use jargons or professional shorthand which
they expect other to understand, or language which is outside the other's
vocabulary.
13) Proper communication channels: If one wants immediate action from the
receiver, there is no need to send a lengthy discussion report. One would
probably pick up the telephone or go to hi s office to tell him what to do.
Remember also that one picture is worth a thousand words, and in this age of
computer graphics, the information can be produced more quickly in this way
too.
14) Right feedback: Although one -way communication is quicker, two –way
communication is more accurate. In complex situations, it helps both sender
and receiver to measure their understanding and improves their joint
commitment to the task. It enables both parties to identify and correct
misunderstanding leading to a higher quality of reception and acceptance. To
communicate effectively, we need to overcome all the barriers and own skills
to improve the existing communication abilities.
3.3.4. GUIDELINES TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
(1) Clarify Ideas before Communication:
The person sending the communication should be very clear in his mind about
what he wants to say. He should know the objective of his message and, therefore,
he should arrange his thoughts in a proper order.
41

(2) Communicate According to the Need of the Receiver:


The sender of the communication should prepare the structure of the message
not according to his own level or ability but he should keep in mind the level,
understanding or the environment of the receiver.
(3) Consult Others before Communication:
At the time of planning the communication, suggestions should be invited from
all the persons concerned. Its main advantage will be that all those people who are
consulted at the time of preparing the communication plan will contribute to the
success of the communication system.
(4) Be Aware of Language, Tone and Content of Message:
The sender should take care of the fact that the message should be framed in
clear and beautiful language. The tone of the message should not injure the feelings
of the receiver. As far as possible the contents of the message should be brief and
excessive use of technical words should be avoided.
(5) Convey Things of Help and Value to the Listener:
The subject matter of the message should be helpful to the receiver. The need
and interest of the receiver should specially be kept in mind. Communication is
more effective in such a situation.
(6) Ensure Proper Feedback:
The purpose of feedback is to find out whether the receiver has properly
understood the meaning of the information received. In the face-to- face
communication, the reaction on the face of the receiver can be understood.
But in case of written communication or some other sort of communications
some proper method of feedback should be adopted by the sender.
(7) Consistency of Message:
The information sent to the receiver should not be self- contradictory. It should
be in accordance with the objectives, policies, programmes and techniques of the
organization. When a new message has to be sent in place of the old one, it should
always make a mention of the change otherwise it can create some doubts.
(8) Follow up Communication:
In order to make communication effective the management should regularly
try to know the weaknesses of the communication system. In thi s context effort can
be made to know whether to lay more stress upon the formal or the informal
communication would be appropriate.
Similarly, suggestions can be invited in respect of the medium of
communication (oral, written and gestural) to know as to which medium would be
more effective and appropriate.
(9) Be a Good Listener:
It is the essence of communication that both the sender and the receiver
should be good listeners. Both should listen to the each other’s point of view with
attention, patience and positive attitude. A sender can receive much relevant
information by being a good listener.
42

3.6. STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION


It is very important for the management to recognize and overcome barriers to
effective communication for operational optimization and this would involve diagnosing
and analyzing situations, designing proper messages, selecting appropriate channels
for communicating these messages, assisting receivers of messages in correct decoding
and interpretation and providing an efficient and effective feedback system. Some of
the steps that can be taken in this respect are as follows:
1) Feedback: Feedback helps to reduce misunderstandings. The information is
transferred more accurately when the receiver is given the opportunity to ask
for clarifications and answer to any questions about the message. Two -way
communication, even though more time -consuming, avoids distrust and
leads to trust and openness, which helps in building a healthy relationship
contributing to communication effectiveness.
2) Improve Listening Skills: Good listening habits lead to better understanding
and good relationships with each other. Some guidelines for effective listening
are:
 Listening requires full attention to the speaker. Do not let your mi nd wander
or be preoccupied with something else, otherwise you will not be able to
grasp the meaning of the message in its entirety.
 The language used tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper
attention. Listen for feelings in (he message conten t and respond positively
to these feelings.
 Ask questions to clarify any points that you do not understand clearly and
reflect back to the speaker, your understanding of what has been said.
 Make sure that there are no outside interruptions and interference during
the course of conversation.
 Do not prejudice or value the importance of the message due to your
previous dealings and experiences with the sender or your perceptions about
him, positive or negative.
 Do not jump to conclusions before the message is over and is clearly
understood.
 Summarize and restate the message after it is over to make sure about the
content and the intent of the message.
3) Develop Writing Skills: Clearly written messages can help avoid semantic
and perception barriers. A well-written communication eliminates the
possibility of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. When writing message
it is necessary to be precise thus making the meaning as clear as possible so
that it accomplishes the desired purpose. Some helpful hints in written
communication are suggested by Robert Degise as follows:
43

 Keep words simple: This will reduce your thoughts to essentials and the
message will be easier to understand for the receiver. The message will be
lost if the words are complex and do not lend to a clear single meaning.
 Do not be boggart down by rules of composition: While the rules of
grammar and composition must be respected, they should not take priority
over the ultimate purpose of the communication.
 Write concisely: Use as few words as possible. Do not be brief at the cost of
completeness, but express your thoughts, opinions and ideas in the fewest
number of words possible.
 Be specific: Vagueness destroys accuracy, which leads to misunderstanding
of the meaning or intent of the message . Accordingly, be specific and to the
point.
4) Avoid Credibility Gaps: Communication is a continuing process and the goal
of the communication is complete understanding of the message as well as the
creation of trust among all members of. the organization. A ccordingly, the
management must be sincere and should earn the trust of the subordinates.
Management should not only be sensitive to the needs and feelings of workers
but also its promises should be supported by actions. According to the studies
conducted by J. Luft, openness and an atmosphere of trust builds healthy
relationship and closes credibility gaps, thus contributing to communication
effectiveness.
3.4. REVISION POINTS
1) The Communication Barriers are the negative forces that may affect the
effectiveness of communication by acting upon any or all of the basic elements
of communication process and sender/receiver/channel.
2) The barriers to communication can be categorized as follows:
 Semantic Barriers: Arising out of different meanings assigned to same
words by different people or difference in interpretation
 Organizational Barriers: Arising out of to Organizational Policies, Culture,
Climate, Rules, etc
 Interpersonal Barriers: Arising due to the relationship between the sender
and receiver, especially between Superior and subordinate
 Psycho sociological/ Individual Barriers: Arising due to personal
characteristics of the sender and receiver and factors like filtering, style,
state of health, etc.
 Cross Cultural Barriers: Arising due to difference in Cultural Values and
Beliefs of sender and receiver. They may be on account of difference in
Language, National Character, Time, etc.
 Physical barriers: Barriers of Distance, Defects of Medium, Environment,
Noise, etc.
 Technological barriers: Arising due to Technological advancements.
44

3.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS


1) What is meant by Communication Barriers? How and why do they occur?
2) What can be done to overcome the Barriers to Communication?
3) "The responsibility for the Success of Communication always depends on the
Superiors and not the Subordinates." Comment.
4) Discuss the Semantic Barriers to Communication.
5) What are the Cross Cultural Barriers to Communication?
6) Communication is most often distorted by Noise. Explain.
3.6. SUMMARY
Communication is the process of transfer of ideas and expressions from one
person to another. It is the way of self expression. The Barriers or negative forces
may affect the effectiveness of communication by acting upon any or all of the basic
elements of communication process and sender/receiver/ channel.
3.7. TERMINAL EXERCISE
1) How are semantic barriers defined?
2) Brief on the inputs in managerial communication.
3.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Mary Munter, Guide to Managerial Communication, Englewood Clitts, N.J.,
Prentice Hall, 1982, p.9.
2) Roger P. Wilcox, Communicatio at Work: Writing and speaking (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1997) p30.
3.9. ASSIGNMENTS
Briefly describe a miscommunication you have had with a co-worker, fellow
college student, friend or family member. Can you identify what barrie rs prevented
your successful communication?
3.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Lesikar & Pettit, Business Communication, Theory and Practice, A.I.T.B.S.,
Publishers and Distributors.
2) Asha Kaul, Business Communication, Prentice Hall of India.
3) Hatch, Richard, Communicating in Business, Science Research Associates.
3.11. LEARNING ACTIVITY
The barriers of communication may be listed out with an example and identify
the organizational context, where the barriers usually come into picture through a
role play exercise.
3.12. KEY WORDS
Semantic Barriers, Organizational Barriers, Interpersonal Barriers. Psycho
sociological/Individual Barriers, Cross Cultural Barriers, Physical barriers,
Technological barriers, Semantic difficulties.

45

LESSON – 4

OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION


4.1. INTRODUCTION
Several things can prevent the message from reaching the intended recipient
or from having the desired effect on the recipient. There may be some fault in the
communication system which may prevent the message from reaching. Some of
these defects are in the mechanical devices used for transmitting, that is, the
medium; some are in the tools we use for communicating, that is, language or other
symbols used for encoding; Some are related to the sender or the receiver.
4.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand some basic facts about Language, Personality, Relationship,
Culture, etc, which act as Barriers to Communication
 Know how to overcome the Barriers and make Communication effective.
4.3. CONTENTS
4.3.1. Overcoming the Barriers in Communication
4.3.2. Guidelines to Overcome Barriers to Communication
4.3.3. Strategies to Enhance Managerial Communication
4.3.1. OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION
Constant effort is required to overcome the barriers which unconsciously creep
up in the process of Communication. Barriers can be overcome if sufficient effort is
put into the communication process and it is desired that communication be
effective and efficient. One way of reducing the effects of these barriers is to check
continuously during the communication process what the massage really is. The
actions to be taken by the Sender, Receiver and together the two of them, to achieve
this are listed below:
Sender:
The sender should be clear about the following Ws and H:
WHO: To whom should the message go?
WHY: Why should I communicate? What are the motives?
WHAT: Decide what to communicate. Be clear about what one needs to
communicate.
WHEN: The best time for optimum reception is chosen.
HOW: Use a language, which the receiver will understand and which is
unambiguous.
WHERE: Choose a location which will not interfere with the reception,
understanding and acceptance of the message: Privately? Home or away? In a
group? At work or outside?
46

Receiver:
The receiver can be aware about the following, to overcome the barriers: Be
fully attentive to sender.
 Listen actively to the message being sent.
 Ask for clarification and repetition wherever necessary.
 Keep checking the receipt of information with sender.
 Both: Receiver and Sender can make the Communication Flawless if
they:
 Realize that misunderstandings are bound to occur, and be alert for all
cues to this effect.
 Listen, listen, listen, and listen again.
 Share opinions, feelings and perceptions generated by the message.
 Thus, both parties separately as well as together have to work to remove
the barriers and achieve the communication effectiveness. For example, a
manager tries to get things done through other people. The management
of people can be called leadership, and all
 of us have our own preferred leadership styles, which affect the ways in
which we communicate with others, especially our staff.
Measures to Overcome Barriers in Communication
Following are some of the additional measures to overcome the barriers to
communication:
1) Fostering good relationship: Strong relationships must be fostered between
the employer and the employee in order to avoid misunderstanding and accept
each other's viewpoints in order to remove the barriers and to facilitate proper
communication in the organization.
2) Purposeful and well focused Communication: Communication should be
purposeful and directed to an individual. At the end of the Communication,
the receiver should not be left to feel that communication had been
meaningless or useless.
3) Coordination between superior and subordinates: In case the superior
thinks on one line, which is different from the subordinate and vice versa, it
will affect the effectiveness of communication. Therefore, there should be good
and proper coordination and cooperation between the superior and
subordinate for effective communication.
4) Avoid technical language: The specialized language should be avoided.
There should be all efforts to use the language commonl y understood by the
receiver and sender of the message. There should be least use of technical
jargons in communication process.
47

5) Feedback: The selective perception of receiver should be minimized through


proper feedback. The drawback of the selective perception should be explained
to minimize the barriers.
6) Accuracy: There should be accuracy in the message to be transmitted
between parties to the communication to improve its effectiveness.
7) Clarity in message: The message to be transferred should be clear, practical
accurate and without any ambiguity.
8) Communication of organizational philosophy: Efforts have to be made in a
planned way to sensitize people with the organizational philosophy. It should
be properly communicated to its employees so that they give proper attention
to their day to day communication.
9) Flat organizational structure: The organization should have clear cut and
simple organization structure. Tall hierarchical structure should be removed,
and it should be changed to flat structure to avoid e xcessive control of
information. Wrong information to be transferred to any one in the
organization will prove detrimental.
Proper redesign of organizational structure will reduce the status gap. Status
effect can occur when one person is considerably higher in the hierarchy than
another.
10) Division of labour: There should be proper division of labour between the
persons in order to reduce information overload and prevent delay in
information transfer.
11) Organization policies: The organization should formulate their policies in
such a way that it will give full advantage to all members of the organization.
It should be flexible and easy to implement. While organization's goal must be
clear, everyone must know about his position, his right in the organizational
communication. The network has to be fully developed so that no such type of
barriers exists. Moreover, there should be consistency when message a passed
from sender to receiver. One should not introduce his own view in the
message. It must be clear and understood by everyone easily. Timeline in
message should be there. If it is not passed in time, such message will be of
no use.
12) Minimize semantic problem: People use either the same word in different
ways or different words in the same way. One will be surprised to know that
there are 15 different meanings of the word 'charge' in the English language.
They also occur when people use jargons or professional shorthand which
they expect other to understand, or language which is outside the other's
vocabulary.
13) Proper communication channels: If one wants immediate action from the
receiver, there is no need to send a lengthy discussion report. One would
probably pick up the telephone or go to his office to tell him what to do.
48

Remember also that one picture is worth a thousand words, and in this age of
computer graphics, the information can be produced more quickly in this way
too.
14) Right feedback: Although one -way communication is quicker, two –way
communication is more accurate. In complex situations, it helps both sender
and receiver to measure their understanding and improves their joint
commitment to the task. It enables both parties to identify and correct
misunderstanding leading to a higher quality of reception and acceptance. To
communicate effectively, we need to overcome all the barriers and own skills
to improve the existing communication abilities.
4.3.2. GUIDELINES TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
(1) Clarify Ideas before Communication:
The person sending the communication should be very clear in his mind about
what he wants to say. He should know the objective of his message and, therefore,
he should arrange his thoughts in a proper order.
(2) Communicate According to the Need of the Receiver:
The sender of the communication should prepare the structure of the message
not according to his own level or ability but he should keep in mind the level,
understanding or the environment of the receiver.
(3) Consult Others before Communication:
At the time of planning the communication, suggestions shoul d be invited from
all the persons concerned. Its main advantage will be that all those people who are
consulted at the time of preparing the communication plan will contribute to the
success of the communication system.
(4) Be Aware of Language, Tone and Content of Message:
The sender should take care of the fact that the message should be framed in
clear and beautiful language. The tone of the message should not injure the feelings
of the receiver. As far as possible the contents of the message should be brief and
excessive use of technical words should be avoided.
(5) Convey Things of Help and Value to the Listener:
The subject matter of the message should be helpful to the receiver. The need
and interest of the receiver should specially be kept in mind. Communication is
more effective in such a situation.
(6) Ensure Proper Feedback:
The purpose of feedback is to find out whether the receiver has properly
understood the meaning of the information received. In the face -to- face
communication, the reaction on the face of the receiver can be understood.
But in case of written communication or some other sort of communications
some proper method of feedback should be adopted by the sender.
(7) Consistency of Message:
The information sent to the receiver should n ot be self- contradictory. It should
be in accordance with the objectives, policies, programmes and techniques of the
49

organization. When a new message has to be sent in place of the old one, it should
always make a mention of the change otherwise it can create some doubts.
(8) Follow up Communication
In order to make communication effective the management should regularly
try to know the weaknesses of the communication system. In this context effort can
be made to know whether to lay more stress upon the formal or the informal
communication would be appropriate.
Similarly, suggestions can be invited in respect of the medium of
communication (oral, written and gestural) to know as to which medium would be
more effective and appropriate.
(9) Be a Good Listener
It is the essence of communication that both the sender and the receiver
should be good listeners. Both should listen to the each other’s point of view with
attention, patience and positive attitude. A sender can receive much relevant
information by being a good listener.
4.3.3. STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
It is very important for the management to recognize and overcome barriers to
effective communication for operational optimization and this would involve
diagnosing and analyzing situations, designing proper messages, selecting
appropriate channels for communicating these messages, assisting receivers of
messages in correct decoding and interpretation and providing an efficient and
effective feedback system. Some of the steps that can be taken in this respect are as
follows:
1) Feedback: Feedback helps to reduce misunderstandings. The information is
transferred more accurately when the receiver is given the opportunity to ask
for clarifications and answer to any questions about the message. Two-way
communication, even though more time -consuming, avoids distrust and
leads to trust and openness, which helps in building a healthy relationship
contributing to communication effectiveness.
2) Improve Listening Skills: Good listening habits lead to better understanding
and good relationships with each other. Some guidelines for effective listening
are:
 Listening requires full attention to the speaker. Do not let your mind
wander or be preoccupied with something else, otherwise you will not be
able to grasp the meaning of the message in its entirety.
 The language used tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper
attention. Listen for feelings in (he message content and respond positively
to these feelings.
 Ask questions to clarify any points that you do not understand clearly and
reflect back to the speaker, your understanding of what has been said.
50

 Make sure that there are no outside interruptions and interference during
the course of conversation.
 Do not prejudice or value the importance of the message due to your
previous dealings and experiences with the sender or your perceptions
about him, positive or negative.
 Do not jump to conclusions before the message is over and is clearly
understood.
 Summarize and restate the message after i t is over to make sure about the
content and the intent of the message.
3) Develop Writing Skills: Clearly written messages can help avoid semantic
and perception barriers. A well-written communication eliminates the possibility
of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. When writing message it is
necessary to be precise thus making the meaning as clear as possible so that it
accomplishes the desired purpose. Some helpful hints in written communication
are suggested by Robert Degise as follows:
 Keep words simple: This will reduce your thoughts to essentials and the
message will be easier to understand for the receiver. The message will be lost if
the words are complex and do not lend to a clear single meaning.
 Do not be boggart down by rules of composition: While the rules of grammar
and composition must be respected, they should not take priority over the
ultimate purpose of the communication.
 Write concisely: Use as few words as possible. Do not be brief at the cost of
completeness, but express your thoughts, opinions and ideas in the fewest
number of words possible.
 Be specific: Vagueness destroys accuracy, which leads to misunderstanding of
the meaning or intent of the message. Accordingly, be specific and to the point.
4) Avoid Credibility Gaps: Communication is a continuing process and the goal of
the communication is complete understanding of the message as well as the
creation of trust among all members of. the organization. Accordingly, the
management must be sincere and should earn the trust of the subordinates.
Management should not only be sensitive to the needs and feelings of workers but
also its promises should be supported by actions. According to the studies
conducted by J. Luft, openness and an atmosphere of trust builds healthy
relationship and closes credibility gaps, thus contributing to communication
effectiveness.
4.4. REVISION POINTS
1) To overcome barriers, the Sender should be aware, as to Whom, Why, Where,
What message is to be transmitted and How is it to be transmitted. The
Receiver should listen to the message attentively.
2) There are various Measures to Overcome the Barriers to Communication, like
removing Semantic difficulties, giving proper feedback, removing
organizational bottlenecks, and so on.
51

4.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS


1) "The individual factors of a person act as Barriers to Communication." Is this
statement true? How?
4.6. SUMMARY
Constant effort is required to overcome the barriers which unconsciously creep
up in the process of Communication. Barriers can be overcome if sufficient effort is
put into the communication process and it is desired that communication be
effective and efficient.
4.7. TERMINAL EXERCISE
1) State the concept of communication strategy.
4.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Mary Munter, Guide to Managerial Communication, Englewood Clitts, N.J.,
Prentice Hall, 1982, p.9.
2) Roger P. Wilcox, Communication at work: Writing and Speaking (Boston:
Roger Mifflin, 1997, p30.
4.9. ASSIGNMENT
List out the common communication barriers you have experienced with your
superior during an official meeting.
4.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Lesikar & Pettit, Business Communication, Theory and Practice, A.I.T.B.S.,
Publishers and Distributors.
2) Asha Kaul, Business Communication, Prentice Hall of India.
3) Hatch, Richard, Communicating in Business, Science Research Associates.
4.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Listen an exclusive interview programme of a corporate CEO during the press
meet and identify the communication barriers you experienced. Find out the
strategies to overcome them.
4.12. KEY WORDS
Communication barriers, overcome communication barriers.

52

UNIT – II
LESSON – 5
INERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
5.1. INTRODUCTION
Interpersonal communication is the foundation of human interaction. Its
importance for innovation and change can hardly be overemphasized. In this section,
communication from different viewpoints including listening and speaking is ex.
5.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
 Understand the different types of Communication,
 Business application of different types of Communication
 Interpersonal communication
 Common barriers to Interpersonal Communication and its uses.
5.3. CONTENTS
5.3.1. Types of Communication
5.3.2. Interpersonal Communication
5.3.3. Common Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
5.3.4. Uses of Interpersonal Communication
5.3.1. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is the exchange of information, news, ideas, feelings and views
between persons. In the process of communication, information flows form sender
to receiver. Organizations are mainly concerned with two types of communication.
These are internal communication and external communication. Internally,
communication occurs horizontally and vertically. Moreover, these communications
may occur formally and informally. The following diagram shows the various types
of communication:
53

Here you will get about kinds or classification or Types of communication.


There are several types of communication in our practical life. It depends on
organizational pattern; parties of organization involved; number of workers, pattern
of activates etc. The above diagram shows the various types of Communication .
5.3.1.1. Based On Parties
1) External communication: External communication is the process of
exchanging information with the people of various external or outside parties
of the organization. Generally these parties are stakeholder of the
organization.
2) Internal communication: Internal communication is the process of
exchanging information among the people of different level or internal
participants within the organization.
i. Horizontal communication: Horizontal communication is the
communication where information or messages flows between or among the
parallel or same level or statuses people of the organizational structure.
ii. Vertical communication: Vertical communication is the communication
where information or messages flows between or among the subordinates
and superiors of the organizational.
 Downward communication: Downward communication is the
communication where information or messages flows from the top of the
organizational structure from the bottom of the organizational structure.
 Upward communication: Upward communication is the communication
where information or messages flows from the down/bottom of the
organizational structure from the top of the organizational structure.
 Cross or diagonal communication: Diagonal or cross communication
occurs when information flows between persons at different levels who
have no direct reporting relationship. It is used to speed information
flow, to improve understanding to coordination etc. for the achievement
of the organization.
5.3.1.2. BASED ON FORMALITY
1) Formal communication: Formal communication is the process of exchanging
information by following the prescribed or official rules, procedures, systems
formalities, chain of command etc. in the organizational structure.
2) Informal communication: Informal communication is the process of
spontaneous exchange of information among various people of different status
in the organizational structure.
5.3.1.3. BASED ON MEDIA
1) W ritten communication: Written communication is the process of
communication in which messages or information is exchanged or
communicated within sender and receiver through written form.
54

2) Oral or verbal communication: Oral or verbal communication is the process


of communication in which messages or information is exchanged or
communicated within sender and receiver through without using any spoken
or written word.
3) Non verbal communication: Nonverbal communication is the process
of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues
between people. It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as body
language (kinesics), but nonverbal communication encompasses much more,
such as use of voice (paralanguage), touch (haptics), distance (proxemics), and
physical environments/appearance.
OTHERS
1) Mass communication: Mass communication is a process of transmitting
information, thoughts, opinions or attitude through specific channel or media
to a large number of heterogeneous audiences.
2) Personal communication: When people exchanged information related to
their personal life or personal affair is known as personal communication.
3) Interpersonal communication: Interpersonal communication occurs when
two individuals are involved or exchanging information, ideas, opinions,
feelings relating to the personal, social, organizational, national and
international matter who are located in the same place. It is a process of face -
to-face communication between individuals where messages may be verbal
(that is, expressed in words) or they may not involve words at all but consist of
gestures, facial expressions, and certain postures (body language).
5.3.2. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Interpersonal communication is real‐time, face‐to‐face or voice‐to‐voice
conversation that allows immediate feedback. Interpersonal communication plays a
large role in any manager's daily activities, but especially in organizations that use
teams.
Direct Interpersonal Communication
Direct interpersonal communication involves a direct face-to-face relationship
between the sender and receiver of a message, who are in an interdependent
relationship. Because of interpersonal communication’s immediacy (it is taking
place now) and primacy (it is taking place here), it is characterized by a strong
feedback component. Communication is enhanced when the relationship exists
over a long period of time. Interpersonal communication involves not only the words
used but also the various elements of nonverbal communicati on. The purposes of
interpersonal communication are to influence, help and discover, as well as to
share and play together.
Interpersonal communication can be categorized by the number of
participants.
 Dyadic communication involves two people. Example: Two friends talking.
55

 Group communication involves three or more persons, though communication


scholars are inconsistent as to the top end of the number scale. The smaller
the number in the group, the more closely this mode resembles interpersonal
communication. Often group communication is done for the purpose of
problem solving or decision making. Example: University study group.
 Public communication involves a large group with a primarily one -way
monologue style generating only minimal feedback. Information sharing,
entertainment and persuasion are common purposes of public
communication. Example: Lecture in university class.
Another way of categorizing interpersonal communication is on the function or
setting of the communication.
 Organizational communication deals with communication within large
organizations such as businesses. This is sometimes considered part of group
communication, but communication scholars have built up a body of
knowledge focused primarily on organizations. Example: Work focused
discussion between employer and employee.
 Family communication focuses on communication patterns within nuclear,
extended and blended families. Like organizational communication, this too
is sometimes seen as part of the general category of group communication,
but much research has been focused specifically on communication within a
family relationship. Family communication can be enhanced by the long
standing and close relationships among participants as well as the likelihood
that families have shared heritage, similar values, and social rituals. Patterns
differ in communication between spouses, between parent and child, among
siblings, and within the wider family context.
Example: Conversation during a holiday meal. Additionally, some scholars
identify a category of impersonal communication. This is a distinction between
impersonal and interpersonal communication on the basis of the quality of the
interaction.
Impersonal communication is that which involves functional short-term
exchanges such as might occur between a shopper and a salesman; the label of
interpersonal is reserved for communication that functions in deeper and more
meaningful relationships.
Knapp outlined a reverse pattern for the unraveling of interpersonal
relationships:
 Differentiating mirrors the initiating phase but focuses instead on the
differences that people notice about each other.
 Communication likewise plays a central role in the circumscribing stage,
during which time participants in the relationship begin to minimize their
communication and confine it to mainly functional topics.
 Stagnating is the next stage, in which the relationship becomes flat and
personally unfulfilling and is continued mainly for reasons beyond the
56

relationship, such as religious or family obligation, contractual obligation, or


social expectation.
 Overt unpleasantness is evident in the avoidance stage, in which the
participants in interpersonal communication both avoid each other and
express mutual annoyance when they encounter each other.
 Termination if the final stage of breakdown, at which time legal, religious or
other formal contracts are abrogated and the demise of the relationship is
announced to others.
5.3.3. COMMON BARRIERS TO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
1) Expectations of familiarity (or hearing what one is expected to hear). After
hearing the beginning comments, employees may not listen to the remainder
of the communication because they think they already know what a manager's
going to say.
2) Preconceived notions. Many employees ignore information that conflicts with
what they “know.” Often referred to as selective perception, it's the tendency to
single out for attention those aspects of a situation or person that reinforce or
appear consistent with one's existing beliefs, value, or needs. Selective
perception can bias a manager's and employee's view of situations and people.
3) Source's lack of credibility. Some employees may negatively size up or
evaluate the sender based on stereotypes. Stereotyping is assigning attributes
commonly associated with a category, such as age group, race, or gender to an
individual. Classifying is making assumptions about an individual based on a
group he or she fits into. Characteristics commonly associated with the group
are then assigned to the individual. Someone who belie ves that young people
dislike authority figures may assume that a younger colleague is rebellious.
4) Differing perceptions caused by social and cultural backgrounds. The
process through which people receive and interpret information from the
environment is called perception. Perception acts as a screen or filter through
which information must pass before it has an impact on communication. The
results of this screening process vary, because such things as values, cultural
background, and other circumstances in fluence individual perceptions.
Simply put, people can perceive the same things or situations very differently.
And even more important, people behave according to their perceptions.
5) Semantics and diction. The choice and use of words differ significantly
among individuals. A word such as “effectiveness” may mean “achieving high
production” to a factory superintendent and “employee satisfaction” to a
human resources specialist. Many common English words have an average of
28 definitions, so communicators must take care to select the words that
accurately communicate their ideas.
6) Emotions that interfere with reason. Tempers often interfere with reason
and cause the roles of sender and receiver to change to that of opponent and
adversary.
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FOUR PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION


These principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal
communication. They are basic to communication. We can't ignore them
Interpersonal Communication Is Inescapable
We cannot communicate. The very attempt not to communicate communicates
something. Through not only words, but through tone of voice and through gesture,
posture, facial expression, etc., we constantly communicate to those around us.
Through these channels, we constantly receive communication from others. Even
when you sleep, you communicate. Remember a basic principle of communication
in general: people are not mind readers. Another way to put this is: people judge
you by your behavior, not your intent.
Interpersonal Communication is Irreversible
You can't really take back something once it has been said. The effect must
inevitably remain. Despite the instructions from a judge to a jury to "disregard that
last statement the witness made," the lawyer knows that it can't help but make an
impression on the jury. A Russian proverb says, "Once a word goes out of your
mouth, you can never swallow it again."
Interpersonal Communication is Complicated
No form of communication is simple. Because of the number of variables
involved, even simple requests are extremel y complex. Theorists note that whenever
we communicate there are really at least six "people" involved: 1) who you think you
are; 2) who you think the other person is; 30 who you think the other person thinks
you are; 4) who the other person thinks /she is; 5) who the other person thinks you
are; and 6) who the other person thinks you think s/he is.
We don't actually swap ideas, we swap symbols that stand for ideas. This also
complicates communication. Words (symbols) do not have inherent meaning; we
simply use them in certain ways, and no two people use the same word exactly
alike.
STEPS TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AT WORK
Anyone can master interpersonal communication. There are few people who
are naturally good at it. For most people, it takes conscious effort and practice to
master this skill. Here are 7 steps to achieve effective interpersonal communication
at work — today!
Start with self awareness
Do you know how well you communicate right now? What works and what
doesn’t? If you don’t know, gather feedback so you can know your strengths and
weaknesses. Use the rest of this list to help with your self-assessment.
Always keep the other person in mind
For any instance of interpersonal communication, plan out your approach
ahead of time. Start with the other person in mind — Try your best to put yourself
in their shoes and figure out what might be their mindset, sensitivities, and how
they may receive your words. Effective interpersonal communication can only
happen if you understand where the other person may stand.
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Determine your desired “win-win” outcome:


The outcome of any conversation must be a “win-win,” as not all outcomes you
desire are good for the relationship. For example, you may want to prove that you
are right, but that would mean the other person needs to be proven wrong. You
may win the argument, but lose the relationship. That’s not a good outcome.
Gather the facts:
While facts can’t be the only focus of your conversation, you need the facts to
keep the discussion as unbiased as possible. It’s hard to resolve anything if all you
have is “he said she said.”
Practice a calm approach/tone:
This will require the most time, especially if you are emotional about the
situation. You need to calm down first, and then communicate with an open tone.
This requires time, since our instinctive reaction is to take a defensive or offensive
tone. An open tone can be one that gives the benefit of the doubt, or focuses on
“we” instead of “you vs. me.” Your openness and calmness will invite the other
people to listen, and your tone will show that you are there to build the
relationship.
Listen as much as you speak:
Effective interpersonal communication is a two way street. You should spend
50% of the conversation listening. We are sometimes prepared so much that all we
focus on is talking. You can lose the listener quickly that way. Pause after a few
sentences so the other party can respond. That way you can adapt your
communication based on how they react. Sometimes it takes fewer words than you
think to achieve the “win-win” outcome.
Don’t expect anything:
We cannot control or change anyone else. This is an easy concept that is easy
to forget. After all this work we put into structuring an interpersonal
communication, there is no guarantee about how the other person will react.
Everyone is responsible for their own actions. All you can do is play your part the
best you can, accept whatever you get, and adapt your actions from there.
5.3.4. USES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Most of us engage in some form of interpersonal communication on a regular
basis, how well we communicate with others is a measure of our interpersonal
skills. Interpersonal communication is a key life skill and can be used to:
 Give and collect information.
 Influence the attitudes and behaviour of others.
 Form contacts and maintain relationships.
 Make sense of the world and our experiences in it.
 Express personal needs and understand the needs of others.
 Give and receive emotional support.
 Make decisions and solve problems.
 Anticipate and predict behaviour.
 Regulate power.
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5.4. REVISION POINTS


1) External communication: the process of exchanging information with the
people of various external or outside parties of the organization.
2) Internal communication: the process of exchanging information among the
people of different level or internal participants within the organization.
3) Horizontal communication: the communication where information or
messages flows between or among the parallel or same level or statuses people
of the organizational structure.
4) Vertical communication: the communication where information or messages
flows between or among the subordinates and superiors of the organizational.
5) Downward communication: the communication where information or
messages flows from the top of the organizational structure from the bottom of
the organizational structure.
6) Upward communication: the communication where information or
messages flows from the down/bottom of the organizational structure from the
top of the organizational structure.
7) Cross or diagonal communication: information flows between persons at
different levels who have no direct reporting relationship. It is used to speed
information flow, to improve understanding to coordination etc. for the
achievement of the organization.
8) Formal communication: the process of exchanging information by following
the prescribed or official rules, procedures, systems formalities, chain of
command etc. in the organizational structure.
9) Informal communication: the process of spontaneous exchange of
information among various people of different status in the organizational
structure.
10) Written communication: the process of communication in which messages
or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver
through written form.
11) Oral or verbal communication: the process of communication in which
messages or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and
receiver through without using any spoken or written word
12) Non verbal communication: the process of communication through sending
and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. It is sometimes
mistakenly referred to as body language (kinesics), but nonverbal
communication encompasses much more
13) Mass communication: Mass communication is a process of transmitting
information, thoughts, opinions or attitude through specific channel or media
to a large number of heterogeneous audiences.
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14) Personal communication: When people exchanged information related to


their personal life or personal affair is known as personal communication.
15) Interpersonal communication: Interpersonal communication occurs when
two individuals are involved or exchanging information, ideas, opinions,
feelings relating to the personal, social, organizational, national an d
international matter who are located in the same place. It is a process of face -
to-face communication between individuals where messages may be verbal
(that is, expressed in words) or they may not involve words at all but consist of
gestures, facial expressions, and certain postures (body language).
5.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Explain the different types of communication and its advantages and
disadvantages
2) How is Oral Communication different from Written Communication?
3) What is Interpersonal Communication and state the four principles?
4) Highlight the uses of Interpersonal Communication
5) State the steps to be followed in making interpersonal communication effective
6) Identify the barriers in interpersonal communication and the strategies to
overcome them .
5.6. SUMMARY
Informal communication is the process of spontaneous exchange of
information among various people of different status in the organizational structure
Written communication is the process of communication in which messages or
information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through
written form. Oral or verbal communication is the process of communication in
which messages or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and
receiver through without using any spoken or written word. Nonverbal
communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving
wordless (mostly visual) cues between people.
5.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) List the types of communication.
2) How is upward communication different from downward communication?
3) What is horizontal communication?
4) Brief on vertical communication.
5) What is meant by interpersonal Communication?
5.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Henry Mintzberg, “The Communication competencies listed in Job
Descriptions”, The Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication
LV, No.2, (June, 1992): 15-17.
2) Faye Rice, “Champions of Communication”, Fortune, 3 June 1991, pp.
111,112,116, 120.
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5.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) A block diagram depicting the types of communication may be presented.
2) A Management game to improve interpersonal communication like T -group
training may be conducted.
5.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Sehgal M.K., Khetarpal Vandana, Business Communication, Excel Books
2) Urmila Rai and S.M. Rai, Business Communication, Himalaya Publishing
House
3) P.D. Chaturvedi, Mukesh Chaturvedi, Business Communication, Concepts,
Cases and Applications, Pearson Education
4) Bowman, Joel and Branchaw, Business Communication: From Process to
Product, Dryden Press
5) Courtland Bovee and John Thill, Business Communication Today, Random
House, New York.
5.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
You have just been promoted to manager and you have developed a good
support with most of your employees, but Thoman and Murugan are always going
to your supervisor with matters that should go through you. Both employees have
been at the company for atleast 10 years longer than you have, and both know your
supervisor very well. Should you speak with them about this? Should you speak
with your supervisor?
5.12. KEY WORDS
Interpersonal communication, Upward and Downward Communication,
Horizontal and vertical communication, Formal and informal communication, Uses
and Barriers in communication. Management of interpersonal communication.

62

LESSON – 6

MODELS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP


6.1. INTRODUCTION
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or
acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to
enduring. This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular
business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal
Relationship model explains an individual’s outlook towards relationship and how
one’s perception changes in due course .
6.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the meaning of Interpersonal Relationship
 Be able to know various models in Interpersonal relationship
 Know the principles and steps in Interpersonal communication.
6.3. CONTENTS
6.3.1. Introduction to Transaction Analysis (TA)
6.3.2. Models in Interpersonal Relationship
6.3.3. Benefits of Transactional Analysis
6.3.4. Principles of Interpersonal Communication
6.3.5. Steps to achieve effective Interpersonal Communication at Work
6.3.1. INTRODUCTION TO TRANSACTION ANALYSIS (TA)
Study of human behaviour is very complex. Human behaviour is affected by
behaviour of others. It is based on basic psychological facts like perception,
learning, motivation and personality of the individuals interacting with each other.
Interpersonal behaviour could be mutually cooperative where complementary
transactions take place, such behaviour is possible where there is mutual trust,
respect for each other’s view point and ideas, concern for each other’s needs and
when both have a complementary ego state. Such behaviours are mutually
gratifying to each other. On the other hand, interpersonal behaviours can be
conflicting. Reasons for such behaviour can be attributed to personality
differences, different value system, and conflict of interest and last but not the least
role ambiguity between the two individuals.
Transactional analysis is the study of individual in the organization when he is
interacting with other individual on social front or professional front. Eric Berne is
credited to the movement for psychotherapy, which he started in 1950s. He observed
that there are several persons within one person and therefore an individual
transacts in different ways with different persons in different situations. People spend
considerable time interacting with each other. They transact in a way that may
provide connecting tissues between two individuals, which may hold them together.
This type of pair relationship is called Dyadic relationship. Transactional analysis
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offers a mode of expression of personality and dynamics of self and its relationship
with others. It is a method of analyzing and understanding inter personal behaviour.
Transactional analysis involves the analysis of the following factors:
(a) Study of awareness
(b) Ego State
(c) Analysis of transactions
(d) Life Script
(e) Psychological games
(f) Study of life positions
(g) Stroking
(f) Games analysis
Definitions
“Transactional analysis is a technique used to help people better understand
their own and other’s behaviour, especially in interpersonal relationship.”
6.3.2. MODELS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
6.3.2.1. Study of Awareness- Johari Window
Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham have developed a model to look at one’s
personality that can be known and unknown to self and known and unknown to
others. The concept known as Johari Window is shown in Figure below. It is a
technique to analyze and improve interpersonal transaction.

The above figure indicates that there are four parts (self) in all of us that has
been indicated by four quadrants. These are explained below:
(a) Open Self: Open Self is known as Public area. This quadrant indicates
information about self is known to oneself and also to others. The information
relates to feelings, motivation and behaviour of an individual, which he is willing to
share with those whom he comes in contact. The individual be haves in a straight
forward manner and is sharing. In an organizational setting, because of the
openness of the individual the chances of conflict are reduced to minimum.
(b) Blind Self: This quadrant is related to information is not known to self but
known to others, who interact with you, know more about you. This is known as
blind area. It is important that an individual should reduce blind area to the
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minimum by interacting with people more intimately and by asking questions about
self. For example, an individual may not be aware of the fact that he is extremely
task oriented and employees do not like it. In other words, others know and perceive
the individual as a hard taskmaster and dislike him because of this. This is blind
area that a person is blind to the fact that he interacts with others in the professional
manner. This situation is likely to create an unpleasant atmosphere in the
organization. Individual therefore should reduce blind area and increase public area.
This will reduce conflict situations to a great extent in interpersonal behaviour.
(c) Hidden Self: Certain aspect of personality has formed this quadrant. Self
knows information but others do not know it. There are certain aspects, which are
private. Individual therefore does not want to share it with subordinates and wants
to keep hidden. The area is also called Private Area.
(d) Unknown Self: This area is characterized by facts unknown to the self and
to others. This is dark area, which is not pregnable. There is nothing much that can
be done about it. It should be an endeavor to improve upon oneself by obtaining
feedback from others about self. Individual should carry out improvement and
perceive oneself correctly so that one perceives each person in the right manner.
There are certain factors to improve Interpersonal relations. (Public area).
Development of Inter-Personal Relationship
(a) Develop positive attitude: We have already studied attitude, perception
and values and its relationship towards accomplishment of given task. It shou ld be
an endeavour of every manager to look at the individuals, situations from positive
point of view and remove distortion if any in a particular situation. Personal bias is
dangerous and acts as bloc in improving relationship. If a manager is unbiased,
have positive feeling towards his subordinates, advices them when in trouble and
supports them in day-to-day functioning will develop a positive feeling about the
workers, which will reduce blind area and convert it in to public area. This will
bring an excellent work environment in the organization.
(b) Be Empathetic: Manager must look at from the employees’ point of view.
He should be able to identify subordinates need pattern and try and fulfill them. He
should display high degree of sensitivity towards the subordinates and rise above
the personal interest for the well being of employees.
(c) Improve Self Concept: Every individual must improve his self-image. This
is possible when work is assigned to an individual based on his skills, aptitude,
experience, knowledge and qualification. In case there is distortion between the
individual’s expectations and job requirement, a person is bound to develop
frustration that would lead to the feeling of inadequacy (for a highly skilled person).
In this situation a job rotation or even change of organization is recommenced. This
will bring to him new challenges, and have a greater degree of freedom of action and
job satisfaction that will lead to increased degree of self-concept. In nutshell, self-
concept is achieved by achieving an ideal fit between individual competency and job
requirement.
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(d) Communication: Communication is an important factor in developing an


ideal interpersonal relationship. All barriers of communication should be removed.
Managers should conduct themselves in such a manner that the subordinates feel
that the former is approachable. One must also be a good listener. Mis-perception
should not be allowed to set in for want of communication. Subordinates should be
kept posted about the latest happing in an organization so that they are prevented
from imagining the situation that may distort perception. In the organization
vertical, horizontal, diagonal communication be permitted. Formation of social
clubs should be encouraged.
(e) Perception errors: Common perceptual errors like stereotyping, halo effect,
selective perception, attribution errors and distortion should be avoided. Managers
must be able to lend credence to what they preach by practicing. This will enhance
their image in an organization.
(f) Culture: Development of organization culture emanates from top level.
Work ethics, value based practices must be rewarded. Development of culture is a
continuous process, which is unending. For short-term gains compromise on
ethical practices will doom the best of the organizations.
Principles of Changes in Awareness
Awareness in self is not static and subject to change. Quadrant to which
Psychological state (information known to self and information known to others) is
assigned also changes.
Joneward has assigned eleven principles of such change.
1) Change in one quadrant will affect change in other quadrant and hence the
changes in interpersonal behaviour can be noticed.
2) It takes energy to hide, deny or be blind to behaviour.
3) Threat tends to decrease awareness while mutual trust increases awareness.
4) Forced awareness (exposure) is undesirable and usually ineffective.
5) Interpersonal learning means a change has taken place. Therefore when one
quadrant enlarges the other becomes smaller.
6) A large enough area of free activity, more resources and skill facilitates
working with others.
7) If No 1 quadrant is smaller it is indicative of the poor communication.
8) There is universal curiosity about the unknown area due to customs, social
training and diverse fears.
9) Sensitivity means appreciating the covert aspect of behaviours in quadrant
numbers 2, 3 and 4, and desire of others to keep them so.
10) Learning about group processes help to increase awareness. It will increase
quadrant number 1 for both group and individual s.
11) Value system of a group and its members may be observed in the way the
group deals with unknown in the life of group itself.
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6.3.2.2. EGO STATE


Study of ego state is an important part of transactional analysis, it explains
psychological behaviour pattern of an individual. Study of ego state is related to the
way an individual thinks, his feelings and subsequent behaviour. People interact
with each other in terms of psychological positions of behaviour known as ego
state. Sigmund Freud was the first to advocate that in every individual there are
three ego states residing within him i.e. parent ego, adult ego and child ego. They
stimulate, monitor and control individual behaviour.
The ego state is not related to the age of an individual. He further states that a
person can change ego state depending upon situation and modify his behaviour.
Berne states, “Although we cannot directly observe these ego states, we can observe
behaviour of an individual and can infer which of the three ego states an individual
is transacting at a particular moment”. Let us study these ego states.
Parent Ego
Parent Ego refers to the personality attributes like value, attitude and
behaviour of parent like people, inherited by a person when he was child. This
behavioural pattern becomes basics for behaviour as individual copy parent figures
like teacher, father, mother, brother or any other person who is elderly and displays
an advisory behaviour, which is copied by a child and subsequently displayed in his
lifetime when such situations arise. Parent ego can be of two types.
(a) Nurturing parents
Nurturing parent ego is characterized by over protectiveness, helpful, distant,
dogmatic, indispensable and upright parent behaviour. When such behaviour is
displayed to a child, he inherits the same pattern of behaviour.
(b) Critical parents
Critical parent’s ego state is characterized with the behaviour, which is
hurtful, waging finger at the other and conveys displeasures. The behaviour is strict
which usually quotes rules, laws and has gre at reliance on successful people.
Adult Ego
Adult Ego is based on reasoning, seeking from subordinates and providing
information. A person having adult ego views people equal, worthy of undertaking
any job and responsible. They behave rationally and think logically. Physical signs
can identify their behaviour, which displays controlling type. People with adult ego,
verify their behaviour and update their parent and child ego continuously. They
block parent and child ego state based on experience. The person updates data to
determine what is valid thus he controls emotional expression. Adult ego is
considered to be valid ego state comparatively.
Child Ego
Child ego state is inner feelings, experience and adaptation. Person having
child ego generally displays creativity in his action. He conforms to the situation
and people who interact with him and displays anxiety, depression, dependence,
fear and hate. Child ego can be perceived by observing an individual who displays
physical signs like silent compliance, attention seeker in certain situations he
67

displays temper, tantrums, giggling and coyness. The individual thinks non -logical
and wants immediate action on various issues. Such behaviour is formed unto 5
years of age by accepting inputs of behaviour of various individuals around in
childhood days. Child gets a social birth and inherits various patterns within the
child ego state. These are:-
(a) Natural Child
Natural child generally displays following behavioural pattern
 Affectionate
 Does what come in the way
 Fearful
 Self-indulgent
 Self-centered
 Aggressive
(b) Adaptive child
Adaptive child is psychologically trained in obeying instructions from parents
though not to his liking and does whatever because parents insist to do so. It has
the tendency to get involved in NOT OK transaction. Rebellion, frustration becomes
part of his personality.
(c) The little professor
The little professor is intuitive, creative and manipulative. He believes in magic
and uses this ego state with adult ego state and achieves go od interpersonal
relationship. He responds to non-verbal communication and play hunches. He is
imaginative.
6.3.2.3. Analysis of Transactions
One of the barriers of communication is crossed transaction. TA is a technique
for examining the nature of interpe rsonal communication between the two
individuals and to analyze its effectiveness. Every piece of conversation is treated as
a transaction. For example when A talks to X it is one transaction and when X
replies to A it is another. Each transaction of an in dividual emanates from parents
ego, adult ego or child ego state. As stated earlier, parent ego state (P) is
authoritarian, the adult ego state (A) is rational and logical in approach and lastly
the child ego state (C) is impulsive. Every person transacts from all the three ego
states but each one of us has one ego state as dominant. Transaction is effective
when stimulus and response is from the same ego state and the complementary in
nature. Crossed transactions create conflict and problems for interperso nal
behaviour.
Let us study patterns of complementary transaction.
(a) Complementary Transaction
Complementary transactions are those communications where stimulus and
response (S—R) is from identical ego state. Message from one person gets almost
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predicted response and the transaction is parallel. There are nine such
complementary transactions:-
(i) Adult – Adult Transaction
Both individuals are transacting from adult ego state. The stimulus and
response are based on logical thinking and rationale. This ty pe of communication is
considered most ideal in any organization. There is least chance of conflict among
the workers. See figures below:

(ii) Adult – Parent Transaction


In adult – parent ego state, manager speaks from adult ego state which is
rational and backed by rules and regulations while the employees speak from the
parent ego state which is authorization, is not likely to smooth in the long run.
Parent ego state (workers) will try to control and dominate the manager. The
employees may develop hostile attitude towards the boss. See figure below:
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(iii) Adult – Child Transactions


Adult-child ego transactions are shown below:

This type of transaction is effective if child ego is of little professor category


where employees can work with certain amount of creativity. Manager in this type
of situation has to keep guiding and tolerating childlike behaviour of employees
which is characterized by lose control and lot of fun and enjoyment, which is not
productive for the organization.
(iv) Parent – Parent transactions
Parent ego state is characterized by admonitions, rewards, and work by rule,
praise and punishment. If both i.e., the manager and employees have the above
characteristics of ego state, the stimuli and response will be dominating from eithe r
side. While manager would put forward his ideas, the employees would reject it and
put up a fresh idea and would want to be accepted by the manager. Manager will
have to take up a nurturing parent attitude for transaction to be fruitful and thus
have a productive communication. See figure below:

(v) Parent – Adult ego state


The boss is transacting from parent ego while he subordinate is responding
from adult ego state. Such type of relationship may not last long. Employees
rational and logical thinking will be marred by parent ego state, which may
diminish good working relationship of the two parties. One will have to switch over
to the corresponding ego state. See figure below:
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(vi) Parent – Child ego state


This transaction is workable in the organization where the manager will get the
work done from subordinates by advising, guiding, and by assigning rewards for
good work and punishment for non-performance. The subordinates (Child ego) will
listen to manager and look forward for advice, guidance, and assistance at each
stage of production cycle. Manager may get frustration because he may develop the
feeling that he is controlling an inefficient work force. See figure below:

(vii) Child – Parent ego state


This is not a very effective style of commun ication whose manager has a child
ego state and employee’s parent ego state. In such situation employees would
control the manager. The latter would always perceive employees as threat and look
forward for their advice from time to time. It will be lassie -faire type of command.
Instances of manager being ridiculed and talked about loosely by subordinates will
be a common phenomenon. See figure below:

Child – parent ego state


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(viii) Child – Adult ego state Transactions


When manager acts from child ego, there will be poor decisions based on
whims and fancies and emotions. This will pose a problem for employees who want
to work rationally. Unless the ego state of the manager is changed, this is going to
be problem in the organization. No growth can be expected with child ego manager
at the helms of affairs.
See figure below:

(ix) Child – Child ego state


Such transaction is not good for the organization. This organization even can
be called as leaderless. Manager with child ego dominant is more of a liabili ty to the
organization. Performance of the organization will be poor, no growth, no new ideas,
and lithargy will prevail in the system. In such situation, the manager should be
replaced. See figure below:

.
(b) Non-Complimentary Transactions
Non-Complimentary transactions are those transactions which a sender sends
the message on the basis of his ego state, but the response is from an uncompatible
ego state on the part of receiver. Such behaviour occur when stimulus and
response is not parallel. Following figure depicts non complimentary transaction.
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(c) Ulterior Transactions


Ulterior transactions are most complex transactions because if involves more
than two egos states working at the same time with double meaning in the
stimulus. This type of transaction is very common i.e. diplomatic circles when you
say something but mean the other. For example read the following newspaper
reports. “Newly appointed Pakistani Ambassador to UN, Mr. Munir Akram said
“India would have license to kill’ (Pakistani) if Pakistani relied only on its non -
nuclear firepower. If India reserves the right to use conventional weapons (because
of no first use of nuclear weapons) how can Pakistan – a weaker power – be
expected to rule out all means of deterrence”? In the above message, Pak
Ambassador is speaking to India from child – parent ego state when he says Pak is
a weaker power but at the same time conveys (from Adult to Adult ego state) that
she reserves the right of using nuclear weapon (all means of deterrence) this type of
communication where ulterior meaning is different are dangerous and should be
avoided understanding.

6.3.2.4. Life Script


Script is a text of play motion picture, TV serial or a radio programme. Life of a
person is compared with the play or motion picture or a Radio programme. Because
human being’s life script emerges out of the role he plays all his life and life is
quasi- programmed. In transactional analysis the script is compared with life span.
Every person writes his or her own script ri ght from childhood under the personal
influence and form attitude, behaviour pattern that does not change with age.
Whatever has been learnt in the childhood is enacted by all of us all our life as if we
are enacting a play on the stage of life. If you have been told not to speak lie by
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your parents, you would not like a person to speak lie and in turn you will teach
your children “Not to lie”. If you have been told in childhood that one must not butt
in when two people are speaking, you would also practice and preach the same in
life what one is doing is what one has learnt. One is repeating (enacting) the script
of what has been learnt. Berne states that life script is a complete plan of living.
He further states that the script is full of offering based on structures of
injections, prescriptions for various situations as to how one should behave and
permissions. In the process, the person is either successful called winner or
unsuccessful called loser. Winner programming (of script) is more adaptive because
the person with above life script enjoys more autonomy in his dealings, while the
loser has strong injunctions and inner demon who disturbs the whole life plan and
therefore a person does not succeed in life. Joneward has gone further and stated
that every person plays a drama on public stage and private stage in life. She
further states that life script resembles as a script of drama whose characters,
dialogues, actions, scenes and themes is learned in life and enacted as drama/play
culminating towards a climax and ends in final curtain. Life script is nothing but a
formation of personality in early stage and its display in life span that has a great
impact on how a person transact with other person.
If he is winner, the organization where he is employed will achieve growth and
display positive outlook in all his dealings. If one has a looser script, he will behave
negatively, be critical and may bring negative growth to the organization. It is
therefore necessary to know about a person, his childhood, environment, society he
comes from, schooling, habits, likes and dislikes so that one knows, though partly
about the life script of a person on being employed. Mc Cl elland states that stories
read or heard by children and movies seen have an impact. When a child reads or
hears stories based on successful leaders, the reader turns out to be achiever in
life. If the stories of risks are read or told to children they turn out to be power-
oriented leaders.
6.3.2.5. Life Positions
Child develops life philosophy by experience. As child grows he tries to develop
philosophy for itself based on self-identity, sense of worth and an ability to perceive
people in the right sense. Harris identified life positions where individual knows
about himself and the perception of people about him. Transactional analysis
constructs the following four life positions.
(a) I am Okay you are Okay.
(b) I am Okay you are not Okay.
(c) I am not Okay you are Okay.
(d) I am not Okay you are not Okay
For above analysis see figure 10.2.
Let us discuss the above four life positions.
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1. I am Okay your Okay (C)


This is an ideal life position because this position is rationally chosen one. In
this position individual behaves rationally and accept significance of others. People
feel happy and life is worth living. Individual with this life position expresses
confidence in his subordinates, work with high level of delegatation of authority,
and believes in give and take. Manages enjoys good communication network, work
with confidence and there is work sharing and positive attitude towards work.
People remain happy and have high level of job satisfaction. People work with adult
ego state. There is no conflict situation and there is total understanding among
subordinates and peer group. An Ideal life position.

2. I am Okay, you are not okay (B)


This is distrustful psychological life position taken by individual who feel that
others are wrong. They blame others for their failure. People who have been neglected
by parents in their childhood take this position. They generally operate from rebellion
child ego state that feel victimized and blame others for their miseries. Mangers lack
trust, confidence in the intellectual level, skills and talent in their subordinates and
do not believe in delegation of authority. They perceive delegation as threat to their
personal existence. Managers are critical, oppressive and point out flaws in the
working of subordinates. They operate from critical parent ego state and rarely give
positive remarks. They feel their workers lazy, irresponsible and find them as stated
in theory X of Mc Gregor. Expresses bossing attitude.
3. I am not okay, you are okay (D)
This life position is common to persons who feel powerless in comparison to
others. Persons in this life position always grumble and feel at the mercy of others.
They have tendency to withdraw and at times experience depression that may lead
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to suicide in extreme cases. People with this life position operate from child ego
state. Managers tend to give and receive bad feelings. They are unpredictable and
display erratic behaviours. It is not a good life position. People are diffident in this
life position.
4. I am not okay, you are not okay (A)
This is the worst life position in which individual feel defeated and sees whole
world as miserable. It is a desperate life position where people loose interest in
living. In extreme cases people commit suicide or homicide. This position is caused
due to children having brought up by servants and very scant or no attention
having been paid by the parents. At managerial level, no decision is taken in time
and managers make mistakes. They at times provoke others in the neg ative
direction and display a lack of personal potency. Manager with this position look to
others for final decision and often delegate in -appropriately.
On analysis, it is seen that everybody has elements of various life position. But
one of the four-life positions is dominant. “I am okay your are okay” is the best life
position All- individual must try and modify life position in various situations. Adult
– adult transaction from the above life position and positive life script will make an
outstanding manager.
6.3.2.6. Stroking
Stroking is an important aspect of transactional analysis. Stroking is an act of
implying recognition to other person. Stroking is recognition that a person gives to
his subordinates for good work done or even bad work done. Lack o f stroking has
an adverse psychological and physiological effect on individual.
Stroking is a basic unit of motivation that can be seen from the following
(a) The quantity and the quality of strokes serve as either positive or negative
motivation for employees.
(b) Good share of psychological satisfaction we get from work is from strokes
available from other persons.
(c) We get strokes from the work itself.
There are positive and negative strokes. Positive strokes are recognition, pat on
the back and affection shown by superiors, who make subordinate feel okay. It is the
recognition of the work that employees get boost to do even better. Negative strokes
on the other hand are the feeling “you are not okay” conveyed by superiors by way of
criticism, hating and by scolding for the job not done well. It serves as negative
encouragement and a feeling of failure is created among the workers. Negative
strokes received by individual also serves as positive strokes because an individual
who has done a mistake expects a negative stroke from his boss, so that mental
tension is relieved and a social equilibrium is achieved in the relationship. When the
work is challenging, the worker gets an ultimate satisfaction from the work itself that
serves as a motivator. It is therefore necessary that managers/supervisors assign to
their subordinates the work, which, in itself is rich and has a motivational value.
Positive strokes must be used as frequently as possible.
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6.3.2.7. Psychological Games


Psychological games are set of transaction, which has following characteristics:
(a) Transactions are repetitive
(b) Transactions tend to make sense on superficial or social level.
(c) One or more transaction has ulterior value.
The set of transactions, which has negative pay offs, preven t people/
organizations becoming winners. Psychological games are played by individuals to
fill up time, provoke attention and re-enforce early opinion about self and others to
fulfill a sense of destiny.
Psychological games are not good as they prevent open, warm and intimate
relationship.
These must be discouraged. Joneward has suggested the following steps:
(a) Avoidance of complementary hand.
(b) Avoidance of victim role
(c) Avoid putting other people down.
(d) Avoidance of putting one-self down.
(e) Practice giving positive strokes in all transactions and avoidance of negative
strokes.
(f) Investing more of life’s time in activities of intimacy.
(g) Leveling of thinking with others.
6.3.3. BENEFITS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
1. In this chapter we have studied awareness improvement, ego state, and
analysis of transactions, script analysis, life positions, Psychological games and
stroking. These are all psychological factors that must be applied intelligently in
working environment so that performance of each element is positive and
contribute to better understanding. Some of the benefits of TA are given below
(a) Development of positive thinking
Transaction analysis brings positive feelings in the individual, which has
remarkable impact on attitude change
Present states Transformation
Confusion Clear thinking
Defect Victory
Fear Courage, achievement
Frustration Gratification
Loneliness Feeling of togetherness
Pessimism Optimism
Suppression Friendship
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(b) Interpersonal effectiveness


Transactional analysis improves:
 Interpersonal relationship
 Understanding of ego state
 Better Communication
 Problem solving
(c) Motivation
Transactional analysis is basically applied to improve motivation of employees.
When applied, it satisfies the human needs. Enrichment of job is achieved by
helping fellow workers thereby achieving intrinsic value. It helps to change
management style from theory X to Theory Y whose transformation takes place
from parent – Child relationship to transaction involving adult – adult relationship,
from “I am Okay, you are not okay to I am Okay – You are okay life positions.
(d) Organizational development
Organization development refers to development of humanistic value system in
the organization. Joneward has recommended that TA plays an effective role in the
following area:-
(i) Maintaining adult – adult transactions.
(ii) To give an okay to natural child.
(iii) To identify and avoid crossed transactions.
(iv) To minimize destructive game playing.
(v) To maximize and development of various support systems and policy and
improvement of work environment.
(vi) In transaction analysis, leadership theory propagated by Blake and Mouton
can be fruitfully practiced. Manager who works from 9:1 position actually behaves
from parent to child ego state, 1:9 acts from child to parent ego state and, 9:9
position is nothing but managers working from adult ego state. These ego states
can be modified based on the situation and ability of subordinates.
6.3.4. PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Our first look at interpersonal communication suggests eight basic principles
for effectiveness.
We Cannot Not Communicate
Whenever people are together, they communicate. We cannot avoid
communicating when we are with others, because they interpret what we do and
say as well as what we don’t do and don’t say. Even if we choose to be silent, we’re
communicating. What we mean by silence and how others interpret it depend on
cultural backgrounds. Because Westerners typically are more verbal than many
other cultural groups, they are likely to regard silence as a signal of anger,
disinterest, or lack of knowledge. Some Native Americans and members of many
Eastern cultures might interpret silence as thoughtfulness or respect. Either way,
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silence communicates. Even when we don’t in tend to communicate, we do so. We


may be unaware of a grimace that gives away our disapproval or an eye roll that
shows we dislike someone, but we are communicating nonetheless. Unconscious
communication often occurs on the relationship level of meaning as we express
feelings about others through subtle, often nonverbal communication. Regardless of
whether we aim to communicate and whether others understand our intentions, we
continuously, unavoidably communicate.
Irreversible
Perhaps you have been in a heated argument in which you lost your temper
and said something out later regretted. It could be that you hurt someone or
revealed something about yourself that you meant to keep private. Later, you might
have tried to repair the damage by apologizing, explaining what you said, or
denying what you revealed. But you couldn’t erase your communication; you
couldn’t unsay what you said. You may have had similar experiences when
communicating by e-mail. Perhaps you read a message that made you mad, and
you dashed off a pointed reply, sent it, and then wished you could unsend it. The
fact that communication is irreversible reminds us that what we say and do
matters. It has impact. Once we say something to another person, our words
become part of the relationship. Remembering this principle keeps us aware of the
importance of choosing when to speak and what to say—or not to say!
Involves Ethical Choices
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that focuses on moral principles and codes
of conduct. Ethical issues concern right and wrong. Because interpersonal
communication is irreversible and affects others, it always has ethical implications.
What we say and do affects others: how they feel, how they perceive themselves,
how they think about themselves, and how they think about others. Thus,
responsible people think carefully about ethical guidelines for communication. For
instance, should you not tell someone something that might make him less willing
to do what you want? If you read a message in a chat room that makes you angry,
do you fire off a nasty reply, assuming that you will never meet the person and so
won’t face any consequences? Do you judge another person’s communication from
your own individual perspective and experience? Or do you try to understand her
communication on her terms and from her perspective? In work settings, should
you avoid giving negative feedback because it could hurt others’ feelings? In these
and many other instances, we face ethical choices.
People Construct Meanings in Interpersonal Communication
Human beings construct the meanings of their communication.
The significance of communication doesn’t lie in words and nonverbal behaviors.
Instead, meaning arises out of how we interpret communication. This calls our
attention to the fact that humans use symbols, which sets us apart from other
creatures. Instead, we must interpret them. What does it mean if someone says,
“You’re sick”? To interpret the comment, you must consider the context (a
counseling session, a professional meeting, after a dared evil stunt), who said it (a
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psychiatrist, a supervisor, a subordinate, a friend, an enemy), and the words


themselves, which may mean various things (a medical diagnosis, a challenge to
your professional competence, a compliment on your zaniness, disapproval). In
interpersonal communication, people continuously interpret each other. Although
typically we’re not aware that we assign meanings, inevitably we do so. Someone
you have been dating suggests some time away from each other, a friend turns
down invitations to get together, or your supervisor at work seems less open to
conversations with you than in the past.
The meanings of such communications are neither self-evident nor inherent
in the words. Instead, we construct their significance. In close relati onships,
partners gradually coordinate meanings so that they share understandings of
issues and feelings important to their connection. When a relationship begins, one
person may regard confrontation as healthy, and the other may avoid arguments.
Over time, partners come to share meanings for conflict—what it is, how to handle
it, and whether it threatens the relationship or is a path to growth. The meanings
we attribute to conflict are shaped by cultural backgrounds. Because standing up
for your own ideas is emphasized in the United States, many people who were born
and raised in this country value confrontation more than do many Asians who were
raised in traditional Asian families. Conflict means different things to each group.
Even one person’s meanings vary over time and in response to experiences
and moods. If you’re in a good mood, a playful gibe might strike you as funny or as
an invitation to banter. The same remark might hurt or anger you if you’re feeling
down. The meaning of the gibe, like all communication, is not preset or absolute.
Meanings are created by people as they communicate in specific contexts.
Meta Communication
The word metacommunication comes from the prefix meta, meaning “about,”
and the root word communication. Thus, metacommunication is communication
about communication. For example, during a conversation with your friend, you
notice that your friend’s body seems tense and her voice is sharp. You might say,
“You seem really stressed.” Your statement is metacommunication because it
communicates about your friend’s nonverbal communication. Metacommunication
may be verbal or nonverbal. We can use words to talk about other words or
nonverbal behaviors. If an argument between Joe and Marc gets out of hand, and
Joe makes a nasty personal attack, Joe might later say, “I didn’t really mean what I
just said. I was just so angry it came out.” This metacommunication may soften the
hurt caused by the attack.
We also meta communicate nonverbally. Nonverbal metacommunication
often reinforces verbal communication. For example, you might nod your head
while saying, “I really know what you mean.” Or you might move away from a
person after you say, “I don’t want to see you anymore.” Yet, not all nonverbal
metacommunication reinforces verbal messages. Sometimes, our nonverbal
expressions contradict our verbal messages. When teasing a friend, you might wink
to signal you don’t mean the teasing to be taken seriously. Or you might smile
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when you say to a co-worker, “Oh, rats—you again!” The smile tells your co-worker
that you welcome the visit despite your comment to the contrary.
Metacommunication can increase understanding. For instance, teachers
sometimes say, “The next point is really important.” This comment signals students
to pay special attention to what follows. A parent might tell a child, “What I said
may sound harsh, but I’m only telling you because I care about you.” The comment
tells the child how to interpret a critical message. A manager tells a subordinate to
take a comment seriously by saying, “I really mean what I said. I’m not kidding.” On
the other hand, if we’re not really sure what we think about an issue, and we want
to try out a stance, we might say, “I’m thinking this through as I go, and I’m not
really wedded to this position, but what I tend to believe right now is . . .” This
preface to your statement tells listeners not to assume that what you say is set in
stone. We can also meta communicate to check on understanding: “Was I clear?”
“Do you see why I feel like I do?” “Can you se e why I’m confused about the
problem?” Questions such as these allow you to find out whether another person
understands what you intend to communicate. You may also meta communicate to
find out whether you understand what another person expresses to you. “ What I
think you meant is that you are worried. Is that right?” “If I follow what you said,
you feel trapped between what you want to do and what your parents want you to
do. Is that what you were telling me?” You may even say, “I don’t understand what
you just told me. Can you say it another way?” This question meta communicates
by letting the other person know you did not grasp her message and that you want
to understand.
Interpersonal Communication Develops and Sustains Relationships
Interpersonal communication is the primary way we build, refine, and
transform relationships. Partners talk to work out expectations and understandings
of their interaction, appropriate and inappropriate topics and styles of
communicating, and the nature of the relationship i tself. Is it a friendship or a
romantic relationship? How much and in what ways can we count on each other?
How do we handle disagreements—by confronting them, ignoring them, or using
indirect strategies to restore harmony? What are the bottom lines, the “ thou shalt
not” rules for what counts as unforgivable betrayal? What counts as caring —words,
deeds, both? Because communication has no intrinsic meanings, we must generate
our own in the course of interaction.
Communication also allows us to construct or reconstruct individual and joint
histories. For instance, when people fall in love, they often redefine former loves as
“mere infatuations” or “puppy love,” but definitely not the real thing. When
something goes wrong in a relationship, partners may work together to define what
happened in a way that allows them to continue. Marriage counselors report that
couples routinely work out face-saving explanations for affairs so that they can stay
together in the aftermath of infidelity (Scarf, 1987). Partners ofte n talk about past
events and experiences that challenged them and ones
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Interpersonal Communication is Not A PANACEA


As we have seen, we communicate to satisfy many of our needs and to create
relationships with others. Yet it would be a mistake to think communication is a
cure-all. Many problems can’t be solved by talk alone. Communication by itself
won’t end hunger, abuses of human rights around the globe, racism, intimate
partner violence, or physical diseases. Nor can words alone bridge irreconcilable
differences between people or erase the hurt of betrayal. Although good
communication may increase understanding and help us solve problems, it will not
fix everything. We should also realize that the idea of talking things through is
distinctly Western. Not all societies think it’s wise or useful to communicate about
relationships or to talk extensively about feelings. Just as interpersonal
communication has many strengths and values, it also has limits, and its
effectiveness is shaped by cultural contexts.
Interpersonal Communication Effectiveness Can Be Learned
It is a mistake to think that effective communicators are born, that some
people have a natural talent and others don’t. Although some people have
extraordinary talent in athletics or writing, those who don’t can learn to be
competent athletes and writers. Likewise, some people have an aptitude for
communicating, but all of us can become competent communicators. This book and
the course you are taking should sharpen your understandings of how
interpersonal communication works and should help you learn skills that will
enhance your effectiveness in relating to others.
6.3.5. STEPS TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AT WORK
Anyone can master interpersonal communication. There are few people who
are naturally good at it. For most people, it takes conscious effort and practice to
master this skill. Here are 7 steps to achieve effective interpersonal communication
at work — today!
Start With Self Awareness
Do you know how well you communicate right now? What works and what
doesn’t? If you don’t know, gather feedback so you can know your strengths and
weaknesses. Use the rest of this list to help with your self-assessment.
Always Keep the Other Person in Mind
For any instance of interpersonal communication, plan out your approach
ahead of time. Start with the other person in mind — Try your best to put yourself
in their shoes and figure out what might be their mindset, sensitivities, and how
they may receive your words. Effective interpersonal communication can only
happen if you understand where the other person may stand.
Determine Your Desired “Win-Win” Outcome
The outcome of any conversation must be a “win-win,” as not all outcomes you
desire are good for the relationship. For example, you may want to prove that you
are right, but that would mean the other person need to be proven wrong. You may
win the argument, but lose the relationship. That’s not a good outcome.
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GATHER THE FACTS


While facts can’t be the only focus of your conversation, you need the facts to
keep the discussion as unbiased as possible. It’s hard to resolve anything if all you
have is “he said she said.”
Practice a Calm Approach/Tone
This will require the most time, especially if you are emotional about the
situation. You need to calm down first, and then communicate with an open tone.
This requires time, since our instinctive reaction is to take a defensive or offensive
tone. An open tone can be one that gives the benefit of the doubt, or focuses on
“we” instead of “you vs. me.” Your openness and calmness will invite the other
people to listen, and your tone will show that you are there to build the
relationship.
Listen as much as you Speak
Effective interpersonal communication is a two way street. You should spend
50% of the conversation listening. We are sometimes prepared so much that all we
focus on is talking. You can lose the listener quickly that way. Pause after a few
sentences so the other party can respond. That way you can adapt your
communication based on how they react. Sometimes it takes fewer words than you
think to achieve the “win-win” outcome.
Don’t expect anything
We cannot control or change anyone else. This is an easy concept that is easy
to forget. After all this work we put into structuring an interpersonal
communication, there is no guarantee about how the other person will react.
Everyone is responsible for their own actions. All you can do is play your part the
best you can, accept whatever you get, and adapt your actions from there.
6.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Transactional analysis: Transactional analysis is a technique used to help
people better understand their own and other’s behaviour, especially in
interpersonal relationship
2) Open Self: Open Self is known as Public area. This quadrant indicates
information about self is known to oneself and also to others
3) Blind Self: This quadrant is related to information is not known to self but
known to others, who interact with you, know more about you.
4) Hidden Self: Certain aspect of personality has formed this quadrant. Self
knows information but others do not know it.
5) Unknown Self: This area is characterized by facts unknown to the self and to
others. This is dark area, which is not pregnable. There is nothing much that
can be done about it.
6) Developing Interpersonal Relationship: To develop interpersonal
relationship an individual must be empathetic, improving self concept,
Improving Communication and culture.
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7) Parent Ego: Parent Ego refers to the personality attributes like value, attitude
and behaviour of parent like people, inherited by a person when he was child.
8) Adult Ego: Adult Ego is based on reasoning, seeking from subordinates and
providing information.
9) Child Ego: Child ego state is inner feelings, experience and adaptation.
Person having child ego generally displays creativity in his action.
10) Complementary Transaction: Complementary transactions are those
communications where stimulus and response (S—R) is from identical ego
state. Message from one person gets almost predicted response and the
transaction is parallel.
11) Non-Complimentary Transactions: Non-Complimentary transactions are
those transactions which a sender sends the message on the basis of his ego
state, but the response is from an uncompatible ego state on the part of
receiver.
12) Ulterior Transactions: Ulterior transactions are most complex transactions
because if involves more than two egos states working at the same time with
double meaning in the stimulus
13) Life Positions: Child develops life philosophy by experience. As child grows he
tries to develop philosophy for itself based on self-identity, sense of worth and
an ability to perceive people in the right sense.
6.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) “Transaction analysis offers a mode of expression of personality and dynamics
of self and its relationship with others”. Explain the above statement.
2) Explain Johari Window. How can the awareness be improved? Explain with
suitable diagram.
3) What are various methods to improve interpersonal transactions?
4) What are various ego states? Explain complimentary transactions.
5) Explain crossed (non complimentary) transactions with the help of diagram.
6) What is ulterior transactions? Please quote an incidence of such transaction
you have known in the recent past.
7) What do you understand by life script? How would you ensure that children
form a winner personality?
8) Explain various life positions, explain the model of Harris - I am okay, you are
okay.
9) Write short notes on the following:
(a) Stroking (d) ulterior transactions
(b) Psychological games (e) Life Script
(c) Benefits of transactional analysis
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6.6. SUMM ARY


Transaction analysis is a study of human behaviour. It is based on basic
psychological factors. Interpersonal behaviour could be mutually gratifying or
conflicting. Johari Window is based on two factors i.e. information known to self
and not known to self, and information known to others and not known to others,
about each other (transacting parties). Based on the above parameters four
quadrants are formed namely open self, Blind self, hidden and Unknown self. Ego
state is an important part of transacti onal analysis. It explains psychological
behaviour pattern of individual.
Life Script is inheritance of what one has seen, heard and experienced in
childhood. A person writes his life script right from the childhood under the
influence of parents and form attitude and behavioural pattern, which does not
change with age.
Four life positions where individual knows about himself and the perception of
others about him. These are, one I am okay you are okay, two I am okay you are
not okay, three I am not okay you are okay and four I am not okay you are not
okay. Everybody has elements of all the four life positions, but one of the four life
positions is dominant. Stroking is an act of recognition given to a person for good
work done. It is an encouragement given by superior to his subordinates.
Stroking can be positive or negative. Individual even gets stroke from work
itself when work is challenging and he is able to complete the same. Psychological
games are a set of negative transactions that have negative payoffs. Psychological
games are not good as they prevent open, warm and intimate relationship.
6.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) What are ego states?
2) Differentiate life positions from life scripts.
3) How is transactional analysis defined?
4) State the differences between complimentary transaction and confronting
transaction?
5) Define criterion transaction.
6.8. SUPPLEMENTARTY MATERIALS
1) Iris R. Johnson, “Before you approach the Podium”, Javy, October, 1985, 44.
2) Virginia Johnson, Director of Human Relations, 3M, Person al Communication,
August, 1993.
6.9. ASSIGNMENT
Types of physiological games made use of while communicating may be
presented with a suitable and appropriate organizational example.
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6.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS


1) Organizational behavior by V.G Kondalkar, New age International Publishers,
2007.
2) Interpersonal behavior, Harry Charalambos Triandis, Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.,
1977.
3) Psychology Of Interpersonal Behaviour (Penguin Psychology), Michael Argyle,
5th Edition.
6.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
As a middle manager, you report to your supervisor monthly in an informative
interview. The only problem is, your boss keeps interrupting the interview to accept
phone calls, learing you sitting – starting at the ceiling, until she is finished. Make a
list to what, if anything, you can do about her behavior.
6.12. KEY WORDS
Transaction Analysis (TA), Johari Window, Ego State, Life Script, Life Position,
Psychological games, Stroking, Game Analysis.

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LESSON – 7

CRITICAL THINKING AND TIPS FOR GOOD COMMUNICATION


7.1. INTRODUCTION
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding
the logical connection between ideas. Critical thinking has been the subject of
much debate and thought since the time of early Greek philosophers such as Plato
and Socrates and has continued to be a subject of discussion into the modern age.
7.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the meaning and definition of critical thinking.
 Be able to know the steps in critical thinking
7.3. CONTENTS
7.3.1. Introduction to Critical thinking
7.3.2. General skills needed for critical thinking
7.3.3. Purpose of Critical thinking
7.3.4. Critical thinking strategies in Everyday life
7.3.5. Specific skills needed for critical thinking
7.3.6. Steps in critical thinking
7.3.7. Critical thinking and communication skills
7.3.1. INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding
the logical connection between ideas. Critical thinking has been the subject of
much debate and thought since the time of early Greek philosophers such as Plato
and Socrates and has continued to be a subject of discussion into the modern age.
Critical thinking might be described as the ability to engage in reflective and
independent thinking.
In essence, critical thinking requires you to use your ability to reason. It is
about being an active learner rather than a passive recipient of information.
Critical thinkers rigorously question ideas and assumptions rather than
accepting them at face value. They will always seek to determine whether the ideas,
arguments and findings represent the entire picture and are open to finding that
they do not.
Critical thinkers will identify, analyse and solve problems systematically rather
than by intuition or instinct.
Someone with critical thinking skills can:
 Understand the links between ideas.
 Determine the importance and relevance of arguments and ideas.
 Recognise, build and appraise arguments.
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 Identify inconsistencies and errors in reasonin g.


 Approach problems in a consistent and systematic way.
 Reflect on the justification of their own assumptions, beliefs and values.
 Critical thinking is thinking about things in certain ways so as to arrive at
the best possible solution in the circumstances that the thinker is aware
of. In more everyday language, it is a way of thinking about whatever is
presently occupying your mind so that you come to the best possible
conclusion.
7.3.2. GENERAL SKILLS NEEDED FOR CRITICAL THINKING
The skills that we need in order to be able to think critically are varied and
include observation, analysis, interpretation, reflection, evaluation, inference,
explanation, problem solving, and decision making. Specifically we need to be able to:
 Think about a topic or issue in an objective and critical way.
 Identify the different arguments there are in relation to a particular issue.
 Evaluate a point of view to determine how strong or valid it is.
 Recognise any weaknesses or negative points that there are in the evid ence
or argument.
 Notice what implications there might be behind a statement or argument.
 Provide structured reasoning and support for an argument that we wish to
make.
Critical thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. The ability to think clearly
and rationally is important whatever we choose to do. If you work in education,
research, finance, management or the legal profession, then critical thinking is
obviously important. But critical thinking skills are not restricted to a particular
subject area. Being able to think well and solve problems systematically is an asset
for any career.
Critical thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy. The global
knowledge economy is driven by information and technology. One has to be able to
deal with changes quickly and effectively. The new economy places increasing
demands on flexible intellectual skills, and the ability to analyse information and
integrate diverse sources of knowledge in solving problems. Good critical thinking
promotes such thinking skills, and is very important in the fast-changing
workplace.
Critical thinking enhances language and presentation skills. Thinking clearly
and systematically can improve the way we express our ideas. In learning how to
analyse the logical structure of texts, critical thinking also improves comprehension
abilities.
Critical thinking promotes creativity. To come up with a creative solution to a
problem involves not just having new ideas. It must also be the case that the new
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ideas being generated are useful and relevant to the task at hand. Critical thinking
plays a crucial role in evaluating new ideas, selecting the best ones and modifying
them if necessary
Critical thinking is crucial for self-reflection. In order to live a meaningful life
and to structure our lives accordingly, we need to justify and reflect on our values
and decisions. Critical thinking provides the tools for this process of self-evaluation.
Good critical thinking is the foundation of science and a liberal democratic
society. Science requires the critical use of reason in experimentation and theory
confirmation. The proper functioning of a liberal democracy requires citizens who
can think critically about social issues to inform their judgments about proper
governance and to overcome biases and prejudice.
7.3.3. PURPOSE OF CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. The ability to think clearly
and rationally is important whatever we choose to do. If you work in education,
research, finance, management or the legal profession, then critical thinking is
obviously important. But critical thinking skills are not restricted to a particular
subject area. Being able to think well and solve problems systematically is an asset
for any career.
Critical thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy. The global
knowledge economy is driven by information and technology. One has to be able to
deal with changes quickly and effectively. The new economy places increasing
demands on flexible intellectual skills, and the ability to analyse information and
integrate diverse sources of knowledge in solving problems. Good critical thinking
promotes such thinking skills, and is very important in the fast-changing
workplace.
Critical thinking enhances language and presentation skills. Thinking clearly
and systematically can improve the way we express our ideas. In learning how to
analyse the logical structure of texts, critical thinking also improves comprehension
abilities.
Critical thinking promotes creativity. To come up with a creative solution to a
problem involves not just having new ideas. It must also be the case that the new
ideas being generated are useful and relevant to the task at hand. Critical thinking
plays a crucial role in evaluating new ideas, selecting the be st ones and modifying
them if necessary.
Critical thinking is crucial for self-reflection. In order to live a meaningful life
and to structure our lives accordingly, we need to justify and reflect on our values
and decisions. Critical thinking provides the tools for this process of self-evaluation.
7.3.4. CRITICAL THINKING STRATEGIES IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Most of us are not what we could be. We are less. We have great capacity. But
most of it is dormant; most is undeveloped. Improvement in thinking is like
improvement in basketball, in ballet, or in playing the saxophone. It is unlikely to
take place in the absence of a conscious commitment to learn. As long as we take
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our thinking for granted, we don’t do the work required for improvement.
Development in thinking requires a gradual process requiring plateaus of learning
and just plain hard work. It is not possible to become an excellent thinker simply
because one wills it. Changing one’s habits of thought is a long -range project,
happening over years, not weeks or months. The essential traits of a critical thinker
require an extended period of development.
How, then, can we develop as critical thinkers? How can we help ourselves and
our students to practice better thinking in everyday life?
First, we must understand that there are stages required for development as a
critical thinker:
Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker (we are unaware of significant problems
in our thinking)
Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker (we become aware of problems in our
thinking)
Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker (we try to improve but without regular
practice)
Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker (we recognize the necessity of regular
practice)
Stage Five: The Advanced Thinker (we advance in accordance with our
practice)
Stage Six: The Master Thinker (skilled & insightful thinking become second
nature to us)
We develop through these stages if we:
1) Accept the fact that there are serious problems in our thinking (accepting
the challenge to our thinking) and
2) Begin regular practice.
Strategies that any motivated person can use to develop as a thinker are as
follows:
1) Use “Wasted” Time.
2) A Problem A Day.
3) Internalize Intellectual Standards.
4) Keep An Intellectual Journal.
5) Reshape Your Character.
6) Deal with Your Ego.
7) Redefine the Way You See Things.
8) Get in touch with your emotions.
9) Analyze group influences on your life.
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There is nothing magical about our ideas. No one of them is essential.


Nevertheless, each represents a plausible way to begin to do something concrete to
improve thinking in a regular way. Though you probably can’t do all of these at the
same time, we recommend an approach in which you experiment with all of these
over an extended period of time.
1) USE “WASTED” TIME
All humans waste some time; that is, fail to use all of their time productively or
even pleasurably. Sometimes we jump from one diversion to another, without
enjoying any of them. Sometimes we become irritated about matters beyond our
control. Sometimes we fail to plan well causing us negative consequences we could
easily have avoided (for example, we spend time unnecessarily trapped in traffic —
though we could have left a half hour earlier and avoided the rush). Sometimes we
worry unproductively. Sometimes we spend time regretting what is past. Sometimes
we just stare off blankly into space.
The key is that the time is “gone” even though, if we had thought about it and
considered our options, we would never have deliberately spent our time in the way
we did. So why not take advantage of the time you normally waste by prac ticing
your critical thinking during that otherwise wasted time? For example, instead of
sitting in front of the TV at the end of the day flicking from channel to channel in a
vain search for a program worth watching, spend that time, or at least part of i t,
thinking back over your day and evaluating your strengths and weaknesses. For
example, you might ask yourself questions like these:
When did I do my worst thinking today? When did I do my best? What in fact
did I think about today? Did I figure anything out? Did I allow any negative
thinking to frustrate me unnecessarily? If I had to repeat today what would I do
differently? Why? Did I do anything today to further my long -term goals? Did I act
in accordance with my own expressed values? If I spent every day this way for 10
years, would I at the end have accomplished something worthy of that time?
It would be important of course to take a little time with each question. It
would also be useful to record your observations so that you are forced to spell out
details and be explicit in what you recognize and see. As time passes, you will
notice patterns in your thinking.
2) A PROBLEM A DAY
At the beginning of each day (perhaps driving to work or going to school)
choose a problem to work on when you have free moments. Figure out the logic of
the problem by identifying its elements. In other words, systematically think
through the questions: What exactly is the problem? How can I put it into the form
of a question? How does it relate to my goals, purposes, and ne eds?
1) Wherever possible take problems one by one. State the problem as clearly and
precisely as you can.
2) Study the problem to make clear the “kind” of problem you are dealing with.
Figure out, for example, what sorts of things you are going to have to do to
solve it. Distinguish Problems over which you have some control from
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problems over which you have no control. Set aside the problems over which
you have no control, concentrating your efforts on those problems you can
potentially solve.
3) Figure out the information you need and actively seek that information
4) Carefully analyze and interpret the information you collect, drawing what
reasonable inferences you can.
5) Figure out your options for action. What can you do in the short term? In long
term? Distinguish problems under your control from problems beyond your
control. Recognize explicitly your limitations as far as money, time, and power.
6) Evaluate your options, taking into account their advantages and
disadvantages in the situation you are in.
7) Adopt a strategic approach to the problem and follow through on that
strategy. This may involve direct action or a carefully thought-through wait-
and-see strategy.
8) When you act, monitor the implications of your action as they begin to
emerge. Be ready at a moment’s notice to revise your strategy if the situation
requires it. Be prepared to shift your strategy or your analysis or statement of
the problem, or all three, as more information about the problem becomes
available to you.
3) INTERNALIZE INTELLECTUAL STANDARDS
Each week, develop a heightened awareness of one of the universal intellectual
standards (clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, depth, breadth, logicalness,
significance). Focus one week on clarity, the next on accuracy, etc. For example, if
you are focusing on clarity for the week, try to notice when you are being unclear in
communicating with others. Notice when others are unclear in what they are saying.
When you are reading, notice whether you are clear about what you are
reading. When you orally express or write out your views (for whatever reason), ask
yourself whether you are clear about what you are trying to say. In doing this, of
course, focus on four techniques of clarification:
1) Stating what you are saying explicitly and precisely (with careful consideration
given to your choice of words),
2) Elaborating on your meaning in other words,
3) Giving examples of what you mean from experiences you have had.
4) Using analogies, metaphors, pictures, or diagrams to illustrate what you
mean.
4) KEEP AN INTELLECTUAL JOURNAL
Each week, write out a certain number of journal entries. Use the following
format (keeping each numbered stage separate):
1) Situation. Describe a situation that is, or was, emotionally significant to you
(that is, that you deeply care about). Focus on one situation at a time.
2) Your Response. Describe what you did in response to that situation. Be
specific and exact.
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3) Analysis. Then analyze, in the light of what you have written, what precisely
was going on in the situation. Dig beneath the surface.
4) Assessment. Assess the implications of your analysis. What did you learn
about yourself? What would you do differently if you could re -live the
situation?
5) RESHAPE YOUR CHARACTER
Choose one intellectual trait---intellectual perseverance, autonomy, empathy,
courage, humility, etc., to strive for each month, focusing on how you can develop that
trait in yourself. For example, concentrating on intellectual humility, begin to notice
when you admit you are wrong. Notice when you refuse to admit you are wrong, even
in the face of glaring evidence that you are in fact wrong. Notice when you become
defensive when another person tries to point out a deficiency in your work, or your
thinking. Notice when your intellectual arrogance keeps you from learning, for
example, when you say to yourself “I already know everything I need to know about
this subject.” Or, “I know as much as he does. Who does he think he is forcing his
opinions on me?” By owning your “ignorance,” you can begin to deal with it.
6) DEAL WITH YOUR EGOCENTRISM
Egocentric thinking is found in the disposition in human nature to think with
an automatic subconscious bias in favor of oneself. On a daily basis, you can begin
to observe your egocentric thinking in action by contemplating questions l ike these:
Under what circumstances do I think with a bias in favor of myself? Did I ever
become irritable over small things? Did I do or say anything “irrational” to get my
way? Did I try to impose my will upon others? Did I ever fail to speak my mind
when I felt strongly about something, and then later feel resentment? Once you
identify egocentric thinking in operation, you can then work to replace it with more
rational thought through systematic self-reflection, thinking along the lines of:
What would a rational person feel in this or that situation? What would a rational
person do? How does that compare with what I want to do? (Hint: If you find that
you continually conclude that a rational person would behave just as you behaved
you are probably engaging in self-deception.)
7) REDEFINE THE WAY YOU SEE THINGS
We live in a world, both personal and social, in which every situation is
“defined,” that is, given a meaning. How a situation is defined determines not only
how we feel about it, but also how we act in it, and what implications it has for us.
However, virtually every situation can be defined in more than one way. This fact
carries with it tremendous opportunities. In principle, it lies within your power and
mine to make our lives more happy and fulfi lling than they are. Many of the negative
definitions that we give to situations in our lives could in principle be transformed
into positive ones. We can be happy when otherwise we would have been sad.
We can be fulfilled when otherwise we would have been frustrated. In this
strategy, we practice redefining the way we see things, turning negatives into
positives, dead-ends into new beginnings, mistakes into opportunities to learn. To
make this strategy practical, we should create some specific guidelines for
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ourselves. For example, we might make ourselves a list of five to ten recurrent
negative contexts in which we feel frustrated, angry, unhappy, or worried. We could
then identify the definition in each case that is at the root of the negative emotion.
We would then choose a plausible alternative definition for each and then plan for
our new responses as well as new emotions. For example, if you tend to worry
about all problems, both the ones you can do something about and those that you
can’t; you can review the thinking in this nursery rhyme: “For every problem under
the sun, there is a solution or there is none. If there be one, think til you find it. If
there be none, then never mind it.”
Let’s look at another example. You do not have to define your ini tial approach
to a member of the opposite sex in terms of the definition “his/her response will
determine whether or not I am an attractive person.” Alternatively, you could define
it in terms of the definition “let me test to see if this person is initial ly drawn to
me—given the way they perceive me.” With the first definition in mind, you feel
personally put down if the person is not “interested” in you; with the second
definition you explicitly recognize that people respond not to the way a stranger is,
but the way they look to them subjectively. You therefore do not take a failure to
show interest in you (on the part of another) as a “defect” in you.
8) GET IN TOUCH WITH YOUR EMOTIONS:
Whenever you feel some negative emotion, systematically ask yourself: What,
exactly, is the thinking leading to this emotion? For example, if you are angry, ask
yourself, what is the thinking that is making me angry? What other ways could I
think about this situation? For example, can you think about the situation so as to
see the humor in it and what is pitiable in it? If you can, concentrate on that
thinking and your emotions will (eventually) shift to match it.
9) ANALYZE GROUP INFLUENCES ON YOUR LIFE:
Closely analyze the behavior that is encouraged, and discouraged, i n the
groups to which you belong. For any given group, what are you "required" to
believe? What are you "forbidden" to do? Every group enforces some level of
conformity. Most people live much too much within the view of themselves
projected by others. Discover what pressure you are bowing to and think explicitly
about whether or not to reject that pressure.
7.3.5. SPECIFIC SKILLS REQUIRED FOR CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Among the main
characteristics are the following:
Rationality
We are thinking critically when we
 Rely on reason rather than emotion,
 Require evidence, ignore no known evidence, and follow evidence where
it leads, and
 Are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right
analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions.
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Self-awareness
We are thinking critically when we
 Weigh the influences of motives and bias, and
 Recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or point of view.
Honesty
We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish
motives, nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
Open-mindedness
We are thinking critically when we
 Evaluate all reasonable inferences
 Consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives,
 Remain open to alternative interpretations
 Accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the
evidence better, is simpler, or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more
data
 Accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of the evidence or
reassessment of our real interests, and
 Do not reject unpopular views out of hand.
Discipline
We are thinking critically when we
 Are precise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive
 Resist manipulation and irrational appeals, and
 Avoid snap judgments.
Judgment
We are thinking critically when we
 Recognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and
perspectives
 Recognize the extent and weight of evidence
In sum,
 Critical thinkers are by nature skeptical. They approach texts with the
same skepticism and suspicion as they approach spoken remarks.
 Critical thinkers are active, not passive. They ask questions and
analyze. They consciously apply tactics and strategies to uncover
meaning or assure their understanding.
 Critical thinkers do not take an egotistical view of the world. They
are open to new ideas and perspectives. They are willing to challenge
their beliefs and investigate competing evidence.
7.3.6. STEPS IN CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking involves the use of a group of interconnected skills to analyze,
creatively integrate, and evaluate what you read and hear. To become a critical
thinker you must be able to decide whether an individual’s opinions are true or
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false, whether he or she has adequately defended those ideas, whether certain
recommendations are practical, as well as whether particular solutions will be
effective.
Step 1: Knowledge
In terms of critical thinking, the basic level of acquisition of knowledge
requires that you be able to identify what is being said: the topic, the issue, the
thesis, and the main points.
Step 2: Comprehension
Comprehension means understanding the material read, heard or seen. In
comprehending, you make the new knowledge that you have acquired your own by
relating it to what you already know. The better you are involved with the
information, the better you will comprehend it. As always, the primary test of
whether you have comprehended something is whether you can put what you have
read or heard into your own words.
Step 3: Application
Application requires that you know what you have read, heard, or seen, that
you comprehend it, and that you carry out some task to apply what you
comprehend to an actual situation.
Step 4: Analysis
Analysis involves breaking what you read or hear into its component parts, in
order to make clear how the ideas are ordered, related, or connected to other ideas.
Analysis deals with both form and content
Step 5: Synthesis
Synthesis involves the ability to put together the parts you analyzed with other
information to create something original.
Step 6: Evaluation
Evaluation occurs once we have understood and analyzed what is said or
written and the reasons offered to support it. Then we can appraise this
information in order to decide whether you can give or withhold belief, and whether
or not to take a particular action.
7.3.7. CRITICAL THINKING AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Communication and critical thinking are connected in many important ways.
On a basic level, the ability to think critically, reason through a pro blem, and
develop a cogent argument or explanation is important for all types of daily
communication. People with the capability to really think about an issue and see it
from a different perspective will then most likely be better communicators, and be
less likely to react quickly in anger. On another level, critical thinkers often
examine the way other people are thinking and making their arguments before they
choose to respond themselves. This type of analysis is another very important
aspect of the connection of communication to critical thinking.
In many cases, problems with communication are based on an inability to
think critically about a situation, and see it from different perspectives.
Communication and critical thinking are linked in this way bec ause people who do
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possess the ability to problem-solve and consider other perspectives tend to be


better communicators than those who do not. Though this is important for friendly
argument and debate, it is also beneficial for all different types of commu nication,
including workplace relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. Despite
this, many people are never taught the positive link between communication and
critical thinking.
Another important link between communication and critical thinki ng is the
ability to learn how to follow another person's thought process and line of
reasoning. An individual who is able to think critically about how another person is
making an argument will be able to formulate a more effective response, more
quickly, than someone who is not. In certain practices such as law, this skill can be
invaluable. Fortunately, it is something that can be learned and practiced, and is
certainly a skill that can be improved over time; by the same token, however, it
cannot be learned overnight, and must be developed with practice and experience..
In some situations, critical thinking ability improves communication in an
indirect way. Someone who is interested in a certain topic, for instance, and has the
ability to think and form questions about what he or she still needs to learn, will
likely take steps to gain this knowledge. Increased knowledge and wisdom will
always be beneficial in different types of communications with others. Regardless,
recognizing the important links between communication and critical thinking skills
is important for people of all ages and all professions; educators especially may
want to bring some of this theory into their lesson plans in order to teach students
not just how to solve problems, but how to be better communicators in the process.
7.4. REVISION POINTS
Critical thinking: It might be described as the ability to engage in reflective
and independent thinking and it include observation, analysis, interpretation,
reflection, evaluation, inference, explanation, problem solving, and decision
making.
Critical thinking strategies: Use “Wasted” Time, A problem a day,
Internalize Intellectual Standards, Keep an Intellectual Journal, Reshaping
character, Dealing with ego, Redefining the ways of things, Getting in touch with
emotions, Analyzing group influences on life.
Specific skills required for critical thinking: Rationality, Self-awareness,
Honesty, Open-mindedness, Discipline, and Judgment.
Steps in critical thinking: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application,
Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
Communication and critical thinking: On the basic level, the ability to
think critically, reason through a problem, and develop a cogent argument or
explanation is important for all types of daily communication and in the other part
ability to learn how to follow another person's thought process and line of
reasoning.
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7.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS


1) What is critical thinking? Explain the skills needed for critical thinking
2) Discuss few purpose of critical thinking
3) Mention few strategies used in everyday life for critical thinking
4) Elaborate the specific skills need for critical thinking
5) Comprehend on the steps in critical thinking
7.6. SUMMARY
Critical thinking has been the subject of much debate and thought since the
time of early Greek philosophers such as Plato and Socrates and has continued to
be a subject of discussion into the modern age. Critical thinkers rigorously question
ideas and assumptions rather than accepting them at face value. Critical thinking
involves the use of a group of interconnected skills to analyze, creatively integrate,
and evaluate what you read and hear.
7.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) What is meant by critical thinking?
2) List out the skills required for good and effective communication.
7.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Joseph P. Buckley, “Nobody’s Perfect”, Security Management, May 1987, pp.
77.
2) N.R. Kleinfield, “The Ever-Father Business of Thinness”, New York Times, 7,
September, 1986, Sec.3, 15.
7.9. ASSIGNMENT
1) A situation may be narrated and the group members may be asked to provide
solutions based on critical thinking.
7.10 SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Source URL: http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/critical/ct.php.
2) Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2001). Modified from the book by Paul, R. & Elder, L.
(2001). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and
Your Life
7.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Plan to interview a classmate about his on her career goals. Your purpose is to
evaluate your classmate’s knowledge of the necessary course work, the desi red
personal charecreristcs, and the level of industry demand for graduates persuing
this carrer. Plan the tone and structure of the interview and the type of question
you will ask. Develop at least five specific questions. Explain your plan and list your
questions in a memo to your instructor. Then conduct the interview.
7.12. KEY WORDS
Critical thinking, strategies of critical thinking, critical thinking and
communication.

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LESSON – 8
IMPROVING GOOD COMMUNICATION SKILLS
8.1. INTRODUCTION
People with the capability to really think about an issue and see it from a
different perspective will then most likely be better communicators, and be less
likely to react quickly in anger.
8.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Know the ways of improving communication as a manager and an
employee
8.3. CONTENTS
8.3.1. Improving Communication skills
8.3.1. IMPROVING COMMUNICATION SKILLS
8.3.1.1. Improving as an Individual
1) Be A Good Listener
People often focus on what they should say, but effective communication is
more about listening than it is about talking. Listening well means not just
understanding the words or the information being communicated, but also
understanding how the speaker feels about what they’re communicating. When you
really listen, you make the other person feel heard and understood, which c an help
build a stronger, deeper connection between you.
If your goal is to fully understand and connect with the other person, listening
effectively will often come naturally. If it doesn’t, try the following tips. The more
you practice them, the more satisfying and rewarding your interactions with others
will become.
2) Pay Attention to Nonverbal Signals
When we communicate things that we care about, we do so mainly using
nonverbal signals. Nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial
expressions, body movement and gestures, eye contact, posture, the tone of your
voice, and even your muscle tension and breathing. The way you look, listen, move,
and react to another person tells them more about how you’re feeling than words
alone ever can.
Developing the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication can
help you connect with others, express what you really mean, navigate challenging
situations, and build better relationships at home and work.
 You can enhance effective communication by using open body language—
arms uncrossed, standing with an open stance or sitting on the edge of your
seat, and maintaining eye contact with the person you’re talking to.
 You can also use body language to emphasize or enhance your verbal
message—patting a friend on the back while complimenting him on his
success, for example, or pounding your fists to underline your message.
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3) Keep Stress in Check


To communicate effectively, you need to be aware of and in control of your
emotions. And that means learning how to manage stress. When you’re stressed,
you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal
signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior.
How many times have you felt stressed during a disagreement with your
spouse, kids, boss, friends, or coworkers and then said or done something you later
regretted? If you can quickly relieve stress and return to a calm state, you’ll not
only avoid such regrets, but in many cases you’ll also help to calm the other person
as well. It’s only when you’re in a calm, relaxed state that you'll be able to know
whether the situation requires a response, or whether the other person’s signals
indicate it would be better to remain silent.
4) Assert Yourself
Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help
boost self-esteem and decision-making. Being assertive means expressing your
thoughts, feelings, and needs in an open and honest way, while standing up for you
and respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding.
Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not
about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.
To improve assertiveness:
 Value yourself and your opinions. They are as important as anyone
else’s.
 Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing
on the rights of others.
 Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but
you must be respectful as well.
 Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from
your mistakes, ask for help when needed.
 Learn to say “no”. Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage
of you. Look for alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.
8.3.1.2. Improving Communication Skill as a Manager
There are a number of things a manager can do to improve his or her
communication skills:
1. Consider the Situation before Taking any Action
Our emotions tempt us to make quick decisions based upon superficial
evidence which may not reflect the true nature of the problem. The manager
assumed that the poor appearance of the store was due to the employees’ lack of
effort or attention. He failed to consider that several store employees had been
terminated due to the financial situation, while the store ’s workload remained the
same. Each assistant manager was responsible for more areas with fewer people to
do the work.
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Furthermore, each assistant had been required to take a pay reduction due to
the loss of the large customer, and each was concerned that the customer loss
would slow their own promotion to store manager. Though not intended, their effort
probably suffered due to their own worries.
2. Gather and Confirm Information before Making a Decision
We have a tendency to confuse symptoms with disease, and consequently treat
the symptom rather than the underlying illness. Technology enables us to capture
massive amounts of data and slice and dice it to make it appear any way we want.
But data is a representation of the problem, not the problem itself. Observing the
work of the assistants and talking and listening to them about the aspects of their
job might have led to a different conclusion than the one the manager reached.
3. Focus on Problems, Not Personalities
The manager’s memo attacked the character of each assistant by implying they
were lazy, derelict, or had betrayed him. The implications intensified the emotional
context of the memo, overshadowing its factual content and purpose.
The assistants, in response, reacted with emotion without stopping to consider
the validity of the facts or attempting to give the manager any explanations.
Whenever dealing with any issue that might have emotional content, the “24 -Hour
Rule” should be in effect: Don’t send any email, message, letter, memo, or report to
others until you’ve had a day to reflect upon its content and are sure it
communicates the facts and the tone you wish.
4. Manage Individuals, Not Groups
The manager’s memo was directed to everyone and no one. The lack of
specificity enabled each recipient to avoid personal responsibility, since each felt his
own effort had met expectations. As a consequence, the memo failed to get the
desired result and aggravated an already touchy work environment. Group
communications are perfect for providing general in formation, education, and
praise; however, they should not be used for individual direction or criticism.
Remember, praise in public and criticize in private.
5. Meet Subordinates Face-To-Face
The meaning and intent of written words without the context of a physical
presence is often misunderstood, and can lead to confusion and conflict. There is
no substitute for looking someone in the eye and seeing their reaction to your
conversation to clarify content and assure comprehension and agreement.
Managers often hide behind memos and notes as if their subordinates were
robots to be moved into place and programmed. However, successful leaders seek
personable commitment and build bridges of trust, mutual respect, and shared
experience. Be physically available and “walk the walk,” and let your people know
you are with them through the good and the bad.
6. Assign Tasks Directly and Clearly
People work best when they know what is expected of them. Good managers
identify the goals and measures in simple, understandabl e terms, assign
responsibility unequivocally, and confirm that the information is understood by
those to whom it is directed. Good managers follow up and give corrective input to
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ensure that each of his subordinates is on the same page and working toward the
same objective.
Managers should always remember that no employee takes a job with the
expectation that he or she will be overlooked, ignored, or insignificant at work.
Employees want to be liked and respected by their peers and proud of their
employer. Management’s challenge is to maintain and further develop this employee
enthusiasm and commitment, even during times of stress.
Mistakes are part of growing, and falling short and correcting the course are
regular occurrences in business and in life. Deali ng with subordinates the way you
would wish to be dealt with in a similar situation is the best course any manager
can take.
8.3.1.3. IMPROVING COMMUNICATION SKILL AMONG EMPLOYEE
1. Never Personalize Criticism
Whether you’re giving or receiving criticism, it should be based upon observed
actions and results, not intent. It is impossible to know the motivations behind
any activity, only the physical actions and outcome of the activity. As a
consequence, criticism should be given and accepted unemotionally, considered for
its validity and pertinence, and implemented when action is justified.
In other words, don’t be too sensitive or defensive when you receive feedback.
Consider the information received as intended to get a different result, not a
personal attack.
2. Understand the Situation
In this case, the precipitating cause for the criticism was the physical
condition and appearance of the store. At other times, constructive criticism is part
of a regular employee performance review, designed to give both parties feedback.
Use both opportunities to build your relationship and get information. Use a review
as an opportunity to receive and give intelligence that might otherwise be missed.
3. Be Understanding
Whenever you receive what you consider to be an unjustified personal attack
or criticism, recognize the source and their circumstances before jumping to a
conclusion. Unfortunately, people have bad days, and they often respond by
assailing others for little or no reason. When heads are cooler and pressures are
less, contact the assailant to learn more about the problem and how you can be
part of the solution. You may discover that the sti mulus for the assault was an
overreaction on the sender’s part or had nothing to do with you or your work.
4. Learn From Your Mistakes
Whatever the stage of your career, you can and should continue to learn. Over
your working life, you’ll work for and with superiors of varying capabilities and
talents. Some you will remember because of their great leadership, while others
you’ll remember because they were such poor managers. Even the latter can teach
you something.
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8.4. REVISION POINTS


Improving Communication Skills
As an Individual: one can improve communication by being a good listener,
paying attention to nonverbal signals, keeping stress in check and assert oneself
As a Manager: Considering the situation before taking any action, gather and
confirm information before making a decision, focus on problems, not personalities,
manage individuals, not groups, meet subordinates face -to-face , assign tasks
directly and clearly.
8.5. INTEXT QUESTION
1) Mention few tips for improving communication skills as an i ndividual and as a
manager.
8.6. SUMMARY
Critical thinkers often examine the way other people are thinking and making
their arguments before they choose to respond themselves.
8.7. TERMINAL EXERCISE
1) Differentiate verbal communication from non verbal communication in terms
of skills to be possessed.
8.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Joseph P. Buckley, “Nobody’s Perfect”, Security Management, May, 1987,
pp.77.
2) N.R. Kleinfield, “The Ever-Fatter Business of Thinness”, New York Times, 7,
September, 1986, Sec.3. 15.
8.9. ASSIGNMENT
1) A portray of do’s and don’ts in oral and written communication may be done.
8.10 SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Source URL: http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/critical/ct.php.
2) Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2001). Modified from the book by Paul, R. & Elder, L.
(2001). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and
Your Life
8.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
As a senior manager, how can you improve your subordinate’s,
communication skills? Identify the different strategies and write an essay.
8.12. KEY WORDS
Good listerner, Nonverbal signals, Communication skills.

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UNIT – III
LESSON – 9
GROUP COMMUNICATION AND PERFORMANCE
9.1. INTRODUCTION
The ability to communicate well in small groups is an important and necessary
skill in both professional and social contexts. People join groups and/are
appointed to committees for a variety of reasons. Small group communication
scholars traditionally have studied secondary or task groups—those who meet to
make a decision or solve a problem. Each particular small group develops its own
unique norms, roles, networks, climate and symbol ic identity, which adds to the
complexity of studying small group communication. Although communication
scholars agree that working in groups is advantageous, there are also
disadvantages to working in groups.
9.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the concept of group communication.
 Be able to know the essentials of communication in developing trust and
cooperation
9.3. CONTENTS
9.3.1. Group Communication
9.3.2. Group Communication and Performance
9.3.3. Communication in Small Group
9.3.4. Factors Influencing Group Communication
9.3.1. GROUP COMMUNICATION
Much communication takes place in the context of small groups, which are
defined as those of three or more participants. The various and overlapping types of
small groups lead to various types of communication patterns.
 Social groups are units such as families, friends living as roommates, and
voluntary recreational groups such as soccer teams.
 Families also form primary groups, which are defined as those in which
people share living and financial arrangements.
 Families also are an example of reference groups, through which
participants gain a sense of identity and an awareness of expected behavior.
 Work groups are another pattern of relationships. These are built by people
who are drawn together by a common task, such as students working
together on a project or company employees assigned to a common job
activity.
 Decision-making groups are brought together for the purpose of dealing with
a question or policy.
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 Similarly though distinctly, problem-solving groups focus on resolving a


problem. The working of groups has been the subject of much study,
particularly from the framework of organizational communication.
Leadership styles of small groups have been identified – generally in a three-
part continuum ranging from high control (authoritarian leaders) through
moderate control (democratic leaders) to low control (laissez-faire leaders). A
fourth type, called abdacratic, involves the total collapse of leadership over
uncontrolled group dynamics.
 Psychologists and communication scholars have observed a pattern of group
development, usually presented in a four-fold model
 The process begins with an orientation phase in which participants get to
know each other and learn what is expected of them as a group.
 In the conflict phase, they deal with sources of conflict, usually in an effort
to avoid conflict within the group. Too much conflict can prevent the group
from functioning. However, some conflict is useful to avoid the pressure
toward conformity known as groupthink.
 This norm emergence phase centers on compromise, the convergence of
ideas, generation of alternative solutions, and eventually consensus. A
technique often used to enhance the early part of this phase is
brainstorming, in which unrestrained possible solutions and options are
generated with no self-censorship or initial group evaluation. The purpose of
brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible. Only after the ideas
have been generated will they be evaluated, keeping the two steps separate
and thus allowing the group to consider all possible options.
 The closure phase completes the process by concluding the group’s work.
9.3.2. GROUP COMMUNICATION AND PERFORMANCE
Communication Behaviors for Effective Group Work
Successful working groups are marked by a range of different communication
behaviors—actions people do with words and gestures, which they can practice and
improve over time. Among the behaviors you should practice:
1) Listening: hear and make sense of what your colleagues are saying; use good,
active non-verbal behaviors like looking at people when they speak, nodding
your head when you agree with something, and sitting forward to show
involvement.
2) Making clarifying statements: offer an explanation of a concept or issue the
group is trying to understand.
3) Deliberating and discussing: respond to other people, don’t simply push
your agenda regardless of what anyone says; engage them by agreeing and
extending what they say or by respectfully disagreeing with it and offering
reasons.
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4) Keeping the discussion on task: if the conversation drifts, bring the group
back onto task.
5) Eliciting viewpoints from others: ask people who haven’t spoken what they
think about an issue.
6) Offering feedback: give a colleague constructive comments on a project they
did.
7) Mediating conflicts: if there are disagreements and conflicts, try to find
middle ground that satisfies everyone.
Communication is about expressing and conveying your thoughts, feelings,
opinions and ideas to another person or a group of people. Good communication
skills can help you keep your head up and confidently take charge of unfamiliar
situations. People are more likely to listen to you, if you can express yourself well,
and this is particularly useful in influencing and negotiating important personal,
social or business matters. It also comes in handy while resolving conflicts and
dealing with difficult people. Some people are born with effective communication
skills, but others need to develop them. Developing effective communication skills
requires repeated practice, which you can do by putting yourself frequently in
situations where you have to interact with a variety of people. Consider joining
social clubs or public speaking and debate clubs to polish up your skills.
9.3.3. COMMUNICATION IN SMALL GROUP
Small group communication is, of course, the communication that is carried
out within a small group. A small group is generally defined as a group that
consists of at least three members or a maximum of around twelve to fifteen
members. A group that has just two members or more than fifteen members would
not come in the category of a small group. A small group may be a professional
group, an educational group or a social group. The members belongi ng to it will
have a common bond or interest or goal that brings them together. Even though the
number of members is less in a small group, effective communication between them
is still important. Let us take a look at the various aspects of effective team
communication in a small group.
9.3.3.1. Importance of Team Communication
Let us consider team communication with regard to the workplace. Most
companies and organizations have people working in small teams. This has been
found to be more effective and productive than a single individual toiling away at a
project. When you have three, four or more people working on an issue, you have
the advantage of having access to more ideas and solutions for the project. Such
groups will have more checking safeguards against any flaws in the plan and will be
able to establish more network connections. When compared to a single person, a
group is also more likely to take on and complete large -scale, complex projects,
efficiently and quickly. However, for the team to operate smoothly, there must be
open and efficient communication between its members.
Team communication is important for the following reasons:
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 Project-related information needs to be shared.


 Each member of the team needs to be acquainted with the team goal and
his/her role in the team.
 Each team member has specific skills and knowledge that must be utilized
and imparted to other members in the course of the work.
 Any question or issue about the project must be broached and shared in
order to resolve them.
 Any decision taken must be conveyed to all the members.
 Effective and open communication creates a feeling of trust and a sense of
belonging to the team. The more the members feel valued, the more
dedicated they are likely to be, and this in turn makes it easier for the
team as a whole to achieve its goals. On the other hand, poor group
communication between team members can unnecessarily botch up an
entire project.
 The members may not understand what is needed and may waste time
and energy in doing what is not required.
 The members may misunderstand one another and develop personal
animosities. This can affect their desire to work together and thereby the
quality of the work.
 The members may not be clear of the sequence of the things to be done
and this can either hold up the project or play havoc with the deadlines.
 The members may not know what to change or how to make themselves
more efficient.
9.3.3.2. Effective Team Communication in a Small Group
 Effective team communication in a small group is a mix of good manners,
good attention and open-mindedness. You should think before you speak
and never raise your voice unnecessarily. Listen carefully to what others
speak. Here are some tips about effective small group communication.
 Ask if everyone understands what the team goals are. Ask for inputs and
feedback from all members.
 Listen carefully to what the other person is saying and don't interrupt until
someone has finished talking.
 Give feedback on what they've said. Speak slowly and clearly and make
your points in a clear, logical manner.
 Include facts and details and make sure they are all accurate. Don't
ramble on. Be concise. Stick to the matter at hand.
 Make sure every member of the group gets the chance to speak.
 Be open minded. If you've come to the mee ting with your mind already
made up, there's little point in having a discussion.
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 When responding to someone's question or statement, repeat it to make


sure you have heard and understood correctly.
 If you are taking a certain stand, take full responsibility for it.
 Do not disparage anyone for their views and don't refute any point by
taking personal shots at the speaker. Address the issue.
 Watch your body language. It is more effective than what you say. So if you
are angry and look angry, that is going to convey itself to the other
members in your small group.
 Don't make rash decisions or issue any statements when you are angry.
Give yourself time to cool down.
 If there are any misunderstandings, clear them up in a calm manner.
 If you don't understand any point, speak up and ask questions. Get it
clarified before you all move on.
 When considering the pros and cons of any issue, study the exact pros and
cons and not the opinion of the majority.
 If you have an opinion, express it as such, with the reasons behi nd it, not
as an ironclad fact.
 Be polite always.
The above said is only a brief overview about effective team communication in
small groups. Indulging in group activities is an effective method to build a good
rapport between the team members. If you want to foster effective team
communication in a small group, you may resort to some team building activities
that can be conducted in the workplace. Occasional classes and seminars are also
beneficial for this purpose. Hope the above said guidelines help you in fostering
effective team communication in your small group.
9.3.3.3. Essentials of Communication in Developing Trust and Cooperation
Developing trust and cooperation includes elements such as expressing one's
thoughts clearly and listening and interacting with others effectively. Among the
many factors that account for group trust and cooperation, effective communication
skills have historically been linked with successfully fostering a positive group
dynamic. Elements of group communication include group communication and
interactions, active listening, and body language.
Group Communication
Groups with a low level of communication have less trust and cooperation.
Lower levels of trust and cooperation lead to increased conflicts. A group can be
most effective when all members communicate with one another. As group
members interact, question, disagree with, and support decisions, communic ation
increases. Increased communication promotes overall group success.
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Keep communication simple; people absorb information differently and at


varying rates. Use the best practices below for increasing effective group
communication:
During a Meeting
Restate group goals when a new member joins the group for the first time.
Restate the purpose of the group as often as needed to help group members
focus on what is important.
Encourage the creativity and the exchange of ideas and open dialogue.
Complex Information:
Provide step-by-step instructions in a logical order.
Present complex information to the group in multiple ways: (for example, both
verbally and in print).
Check for understanding by asking, “Would someone share their interpretation
of this information?”
Other effective communication techniques:
Use ice breakers and get-acquainted activities to help establish a positive,
cooperative group climate.
Provide regular feedback to help the group to stay focused on goals.
Groups with a low level of communication have less trust and cooperation. To
increase cooperation and trust:
1) Practice effective communication during group meetings;
2) Simplify complex information;
3) Ensure all group members have a voice and understand the topics presented.
Encourage group members to pay attention to one another.
Discuss one topic at a time.
Work through group conflicts rather than avoiding them.
Ensure that all group members have an opportunity to state their views.
Clearly state decisions so that all members understand.
Active Listening
Applause is the only appreciated interruption.
– Arnold Glasgow
Active listening is a multistep process of mindfully hearing and attempting to
comprehend the meaning of words spoken by another person in a conversation or
speech (McNaughton, Hamlin, McCarthy, Head-Reeves, and Schreiner 2008). In
group settings, the goal has been to develop a clear understanding of the speaker’s
concern and also to clearly communicate the listener’s interest in the speaker’s
message. When all members of a group practice effective active listening,
communication can be improved, this builds trust and cooperation. The following
techniques have helped develop good active listening skills:
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Acknowledging what you're hearing


Example: "I see . . . Hmmm" (nodding).
Asking for more information
Example: "That sounds interesting. Tell us more."
Paraphrasing
Example: "So, do I hear you saying that although the plans aren't finished, we
should start marketing the workshop while the committee works on the details?"
Sharing Information
Example: "I have some names of people in my office that could help us with
this problem. I will send those to you before we make the final decision."
Checking feelings
Example: "It seems like you're frustrated. Tell us what concerns you about this
situation."
Reporting feelings
Example: "It's been a long day. I'm not productive anymore. I'd like to think
about this and get back together on Wednesday."
Offering or requesting more options
Example: "We've listed some good ideas. Can we expand any of those ideas
now?"
Body Language
Body language has been defined as communication without words. Body
language includes “overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye contact,
touching and tone of voice. Group members’ body language helps communicate
their interest, boredom or confusion, as well as whether they are in agreement or
disagreement with other members.
When verbal and nonverbal messages are in alignment the most effective
group communication and synergy tends to occur. Care should be taken so that
group members do not come to false conclusions. Observe nonverbal
communication and then use it as a “check point” to confirm what group members
have communicated. Check information with a question, such as:
Example: "I’m having a tough time guaging your reaction to the news. How are
people feeling about this proposal right now?" Or, "I see some frowns. Would
someone like to share a concern?"
9.3.4. FACTORS INFLUENCING GROUP COMMUNICATION
1) Group Size
 The optimum size for a group depends on the nature of its task. On one
hand, enough members are needed to provide diversity of specialization and
interest. On the other, if the group becomes too large, participation will be
stifled. As group members are added, the potential for new combinations of
ideas increases significantly. However, there comes a point of diminishing
returns as each new member simply limits the amount of speaking time
available to other members.
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 Usually, groups smaller than five feel they lack enough diversity. Once the
group has grown beyond seven or eight, the more reticent members may stop
contributing. In groups of 15 or more, the forceful members often monopolize
the discussion. Two or three members may do all the talking. The other
members' ideas may never surface.
 When the group is large, it is helpful to break it down into smaller groups for
discussion. After the smaller groups have discussed matters, ideas generated
in the smaller groups can be brought before the whole group for
consideration. Methods such as the Nominal Group Technique are designed
to facilitate this process.
2) Physical Arrangements
 Studies observing numerous small groups have demonstrated a strong
relationship between physical arrangements and communication interaction.
They have shown interpersonal communication is enhanced by comfortable
surroundings. In a classic study done in 1956, Maslow and Mintz examined
the influence of meeting places on group productivity. They selected two
different meeting rooms: an ugly room such as a janitor's store room, and a
beautiful room with carpets and drapes. The ugly room was described as
producing fatigue, headaches, irritability and hostility. The beautiful room
produced feelings of enjoyment, importance
 and a desire to continue the group activity.
 Where people sit also has an influence on how they interact. Kenneth Short
reports that in any group with a designated leader, tension will develop
between the leader and the person sitting directly across. The person directly
across will either lead support for the leader, lead the opposition, or withdraw
from the discussion, leaving a curious leadership vacuum. Further, the
person to each of these leaders' right will offer the greatest support for the
leader, and the person to their left will offer the next greatest support. You
may want to look for this phenomenon in your meetings. By seating known
adversaries side by side instead of across from each other, you may be able to
reduce group tension.
 Member status and eye contact are key considerations in seating
arrangements. Where a person sits indicates his or her status in the group.
Those who sit at the head of rectangular tables are most often chosen for
leadership. People talk much more freely if they have eye contact with other
members. Those who sit at the corners of tables have the least eye contact
and tend to contribute the least.
Typical Arrangements
 The Face-Off: Direct eye contact does not pull this group together; rather it
tends to put members into confrontation with the individual directly across
the table. This arrangement is often used in negotiations.
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 The Headman: The headman arrangement automatically focuses attention


toward one person. This member has better eye contact with all the members
than does any other. It is frequently used when one person desi res to have an
authoritarian relationship in the group.
 We're All in This Together: In these arrangements, members have
opportunity for equal eye contact with all members. It is best used when the
group is working on an equal basis, as did King Arthur's Kn ights of the
Round Table.
3) Psychological Factors
 Each group develops its own ways of handling information. These include the
method for making decisions-determining what information is needed to
make decisions, how that information is gained and shared, who makes the
decisions, and how decisions are implemented. Attitudes of group members
and leaders influence these processes. To what extent do they listen to each
other? Which topics are or are not acceptable for discussion? What
information is expressed openly? What is suppressed? Who controls the flow
of information?
 In most groups, interaction is not free and equal; there is more interaction
between some members than others. Lack of participation by members may
be due to the presence of higher status authority figures, poor self-image, or
to excessive speaking by a few, which leaves no time for the rest to
contribute. The underlying dilemma in group participation is that not
everyone's needs or goals can be met. Phillip Hanson points out, "The basic
universal concern is about whose needs are being met - How much for me
and how much for you?"
 If we are to maximize group participation, it is important from the beginning
to establish a climate that allows everyone to participate. Anything that
suggests some members' ideas are unworthy damages the chance for
balanced participation.
 Members may be reluctant to contribute for several reasons. The quiet person
may be self-critical, succeeding in destroying his or her ideas before
presenting them. Then the self-critic doesn't have to open up and be exposed
to criticism from others. The member who does not feel fully accepted by the
group may restrain his or her output until he or she feels more secure.
Another member may hesitate to speak unless she knows that what she
wants to say is important enough for the group to consider.
 One who is sensitive may read hostility into the simplest expression of
criticism and adopt the role of chronic dissenter, objecting to everything,
anticipating rejection and feeling the nee d to strike back at the group.
 Members may be prevented from participation because a few others dominate
the discussion. Excessive verbal domination by a few is likely to evoke
hostility and loss of morale in the many. Groups may suffer along silently for
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years, enduring such domination. The larger the group or the more dominant
a few, the more the others are denied speaking time.
 Finally, member listening skills have an impact on the effectiveness of group
communication. if we are busy rehearsing our own statements while another
is talking, we are likely to consider his remarks more of a distraction than a
help
4) Non-Verbal Communication
 While only one person at a time may be talking in a group, all of the members
may be sending non-verbal signals. Non-verbal signals consist of facial
expressions, eye movements, gestures and body postures that give clues as to
how we are feeling. While one member is speaking, the others may be
reacting to his or her nonverbal signals as well as to each other. Some may be
leaning forward nodding agreement and signaling to continue. Others may be
turned away ignoring the speaker, sending quite different messages by their
posture. Some faces may show openness, others antagonism. Still other
members may be trying to send deliberate non-verbal messages to other
speakers. All this may be going on at the same time.
 In verbal communication, you can choose whether to speak or not. But if you
are in the presence of others, you have no choice but to communicate
something. Voluntarily or involuntarily, you will be communicating
something to others as they observe you. Because much non -verbal
communication actually is involuntary, many people consider non -verbal
signals more accurate sources of information as to what we are really feelin g
than our words. If there is discrepancy between our verbal and non -verbal
signals, chances are it is the non-verbal signals that will be believed. In a
sense, our actions speak louder than our words.
 Unfortunately, most of us are notoriously inaccurate i nterpreters of non-
verbal signals. Study after study has shown we are very poor at reading
others' non-verbal communication correctly. This is especially true if we do
not know the other person well. In any form of communication, it is
important to check with the message sender to be sure your understanding of
the message is the one the sender intended. Such checking is especially
important for correct interpretation of non -verbally communicated messages.
Yet, in a group this is usually impossible. Someone may give us a peculiar
look while another is speaking and expect that we gained some information
from it. Not only did we probably not receive the message as intended, but
our attention was distracted from the speaker, and we have no chance to
check back with either message sender. Likewise, others may be incorrectly
interpreting our non-verbal signals.
 There are two requirements to non-verbal reception: attention and
interpretation. We have touched on the difficulties in interpreting nonverbal
communication in groups. We also need to consider the problem of attention.
113

If we are to correctly interpret non-verbal signals, we first need to know what


we're looking for and pay attention to those signals. Several potential
measures of non-verbal receiving ability have been devised in the past
decade. Studies using these instruments have found that our culture
influences which non-verbal cues we attend to and which we ignore. The ones
we tend to ignore may actually give us the most accurate clues. In a study of
non-verbal clues to honesty, evasiveness and deception, it was found that leg
movements were the most accurate clues to the sender's intentions. We learn
to control our voices and eye movements, but we rarely learn to control our
leg movements, so they may offer the best clues. Yet, few of us pay much
attention to leg movements.
 The difficulty of paying attention to non -verbal clues is compounded by their
numbers and the rapidity with which they take place. Ray Birdwhistle claims
the human face is capable of making some 250,000 different expressions.
Ross Buck reports the average involuntary non -verbal signal is very brief,
usually lasting only 1/30th of a second. When you consider the number of
non-verbal signals that are being fired off every minute in a grou p and the
9,000 words per hour spoken in group discussion, it becomes apparent what
a staggering task we face in attempting accurate group communication.
9.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Small group: It is generally defined as a group that consists of at least three
members or a maximum of around twelve to fifteen members.
2) Elements of group communication: Elements include group communication
and interactions, active listening, and body language.
3) Non-verbal signals: Consist of facial expressions, eye movements, gestures
and body postures that give clues as to how we are feeling.
9.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What is group communication? Explain the communication behaviors for
effective group work
2) Discuss the importance of team communication
3) Elucidate on effective team communication in a small group
4) Substantiate the essentials of communication in developing trust and co -
operation
5) Discuss on the elements of group communication
6) Describe the factors influencing group communication
9.6. SUMMARY
Communication is about expressing and conveying your thoughts, feelings,
opinions and ideas to another person or a group of people. Good communication
skills can help you keep your head up and confidently take charge of unfamiliar
situations. A small group is generally defined as a group that consists of at least
three members or a maximum of around twelve to fifteen members. A group that
114

has just two members or more than fifteen members would not come in the
category of a small group. People join groups and/are appointed to committees for a
variety of reasons. Much communication takes place in the context of small
groups, which are defined as those of three or more participants.
9.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) How is individual communication different from the group communication?
2) Define organizational performance.
9.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Adopted from Nancy Jeffrey, “Preparing for the Worst: Firms setup plans to
Help Deal with Corporate Crises”, Wall Street Journal, 7, Decembe r, 1987, 23.
2) Bob Smith, “The Evolution of Pinkerton”, Management Review, September
1993, pp. 54-58.
9.9. ASSIGNMENT
1) A group decision moderated by a leader may be conducted to solve an
organizational issue.
9.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) http://www.speaking.pitt.edu/student/groups/smallgroupbehavior.html
2) http://www.buzzle.com/articles/small-group-communication-effective team-
communication.html
3) http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1378
4) http://www.msucommunitydevelopment.org/groupcommunication.html
5) http://www.researchgate.net/profile/TT_Haswiny_Deva/publication/2562963
44_THE_REVIEW_OF_COMMUNICATION_METHODS_USED_BY_LEADERS_E
MPLOYING_VARIOUS_BASIC_LEADERSHIP_STYLES/links/0deec5223546cc6
edb000000.pdf
6) http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effective-communication-leadership-
5090.html
7) http://www.brighthubpm.com/resource-management/101627-top-ten-team-
communication-issues-and-how-to-avoid-them/
8) Barker, Larry et. al. Groups in Process: An Introduction to Small Group
Communication, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1979.
9) Buck, Ross. "Non-verbal receiving ability" in Non - Verbal Interaction,
Wiemann and Harrison ed., Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1983.
10) Crosbie, Paul V., Interaction in Small Groups. Macmillan Publishing Co., New
York, 1975.
11) Hanson, Philip G., Learning Through Groups, University Associates, San
Diego, 1981.
12) Kell, Carl L. and Paul Corts. Fundamentals of Effective Group
Communication, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1982.
115

13) Lind, Robert. "Talk About Listening," MontGuide 8303, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1983.
14) Lionberger, Herbert F. and Paul Gwin. Communication Strategies: A Guide for
Agricultural Change Agents, Interstate Printers, Danville, 111. 1982.
15) Maslow, A. H. and N. L. Mintz. Effects of esthetic surroundings, initial effects
of three esthetic conditions upon perceiving energy and well-being. journal of
Psychology, 1956, 41:247-254.
16) Phillips, Gerald. Communication and the Small Group, The Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
Indianapolis, 1973.
17) Sharpe, David."Setting Group Goals," MontGuide 8401, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Servi ce, 1984.
18) Sharpe, David, "Planning Meeting Agendas," MontGuide 8405, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1984.
19) Short, Kenneth. "Watch Where They Sit" in Adult Learning in Your Classroom,
Lakewood Publications, Minneapolis, 1982.
20) Verderber, Rudolph F. Working Together-Fundamentals of Group Decision
Making, Wadsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, CA 1982.
21) Zander, Alvin. Making Groups Effective, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco,
1982.
9.11. LEARNING ACTIVITY
In a momo to your instructor, prepare a detailed agenda of the off-campus
class meeting.
9.12. KEY WORDS
Group communication, Communication in small groups, Team
Communication.

116

LESSON – 10
LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION
10.1. INTRODUCTION
Leadership may be defined as a communicative process where the ideas
articulated in talk or action are recognized by others as progressing tasks that are
important to them. This definition of leadership suggests that leadership may take
many different forms and be associated with many different styles of
communication.
10.2. OBJECTIVE
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand leadership and the communication methods used in leadership
style.
10.3. CONTENTS
10.3.1. Important principles for effective Leadership Communication
10.3.2. Basic Leadership Styles
10.3.3. Communication Methods used in each Leadership Style
10.3.1. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:
 Effective leadership communication connects with the hearts and minds of
followers.
 At some level, effective leadership communication connects with the
important values, attitudes, and commitments of followers and is viewed as
addressing significant issues and facilitating task accomplishment.
 Effective leadership communication manages competing goals and tensions.
Effective leadership communication balances the needs to create strong
interpersonal relationships and accomplish tasks, maintain a balance
between order and chaos within the organization, and use rewards and
punishments to motivate followers. Rather than take an either-or position,
effective leaders try to create a “both-and” position where oppositions are
integrated constructively.
 Effective leadership communication is context dependent. Every context is
unique, and effective leadership communication is appropriate to the special
combination of people, time, place, and topic.
10.3.2. BASIC LEADERSHIP STYLES
Research in the field of leadership has revealed that the basic leadership styles
consist of three categories; namely‟ the autocratic leadership style, democratic
leadership style and the laissez-faire leadership styles. Researchers also found that
effective leaders had similar behaviours while ineffective leaders also had common
behaviours. Hence, it is evident that leaders who fall under a certain leadership
category are also likely to have similar behavioural characteristics.
117

a) Autocratic Leadership Style


The autocratic leadership style has often been regarded as the most classical
and orthodox approach to organizational leadership. In this style of leadership the
leader is solely in charge on making all decisions and closely supervising
employees. Employees or subordinates have no say in the decision making process
and has to completely obey the deci sions of the leader without question. As would
any other leadership style; this leadership style has its very own pros and cons. For
example, this mode of leadership would work well given the employees are of low -
skill and experience or are new to the job. The autocratic leadership style might
also work well when employees require disciplinary action or have a track record for
making huge mistakes resulting in loss to the organizations. However, leaders who
use the autocratic style have to be mindful of the ir intensity especially when dealing
with employees of higher calibre. This is because such employees might tend to
become more closed up and unwilling to provide suggestions for the betterment of
the organization. Employees who cannot stand the pressure l eave eventually;
leading to high turnover and talent loss for the company.
b) Democratic Leadership Style
Leaders who employ the democratic leadership style are usually those who give
importance to employee participation and empowerment. Employees in such
organizations are given the opportunity to express their thoughts and suggestions
in the context of organizational improvement. Having said that, organizations that
employ the democratic leadership style still has a functional leader who acts to
compile and improvise on employee suggestions as well as make the final decision.
This leadership style works best for most organizations as employees are pleased
with the prospects of growth and trust whilst leaders get better input from their
subordinates.
c) Laissez- faire Leadership Style
On the contrary from the rigidness of the autocratic leadership style; the
laissez-faire style provides minimal or no guidance and supervision to employees. A
specific instruction is often never given to employees, they are e xpected to set their
own goals as well as find their own way to solve problems in work. Just like the
other two leadership styles, the laissez-faire style too has its pros and cons. The
laissez-faire leadership style has great potential to bring about the best in
employees provided these employees have a lot of experience or they serve as
external consultants to the organization. Nevertheless, this leadership style can
also be the cause for many organizational problems if the employees are
incompetent or are used to being precise instructions on their respective tasks.
10.3.3. COMMUNICATION METHODS USED IN EACH LEADERSHIP STYLE
a) Autocratic Leadership Style
 As mentioned earlier, the autocratic leadership style places a high importance
on the leader as the sole entity in charge of all decision making processes. In
this leadership style, leaders tend to use a more authoritative communication
style.
118

 Autocratic leaders give order in a certain manner, which shows directness and
straightforwardness. This is called The Eiffel Tower Culture as orders come from
the top to the bottom. Also, leaders who employ this style are most likely to have
a high task, low relationship manner. This goes to show that employees who
have leaders who fall under this category will usually receive information
specific to their task.
 However, this also means that they will be given no room for protest or even
questioning for that matter. In this autocratic communication style, leaders are
the only ones who initiate a conversation and the response of subordinates to
the matter is hardly taken into account. All in all, leaders make the presentation
of their information in a close manner where employees have to comply with the
instruction exactly without having any say or input towards the matter.
 It is observed that, when an entire organization from the top to the bottom of
the hierarchical pyramid employs this method of leadership; they also seem to
adopt a vertical communication strategy. This means that only upward or
downward communication occurs throughout the organization. The weakness of
this kind of communication is usually that it may take a longer time for the
initial message to reach the final audience as it has through travel through
various channels before arriving at its final destination. Other than that, there
may also be discrepancies in the final message received when compared to the
initial message sent out.
b) Democratic Leadership Style
 Democratic leadership is a form of leadership that has undergone a paradigm
shift when compared to the previous definitions of leadership which were
usually denoted a position of undeniable authority.
 Democratic leadership has defined its performance in terms of three aspects,
namely, distributing responsibility, empowering subordinates and allowing for
input in the decision making process. This shows us that democratic leaders are
likely to use communication styles such as the consultative communication
style and participative communication style.
 Democratic communication is the result of a dialectical tension between social
factors including the concentration of a social power and complementary factors
causing the distribution of that power. The communication style used by leaders
operating by this leadership style plays an important role in eliciting the co -
operation and response of their employees.
 Leaders are still the key initiators in this type of communication. However, the
difference between this style of communication and the autocratic style is that,
this style of communication places a higher importance on the feedback and
inputs from the employees.
 In the democratic leadership style, leaders may use a high task -high
relationship approach or a low task-high relationship approach depending on
119

the importance and complexity of the task. Either way, leaders express concern
and care towards the employees‟ emotions and feelings.
 Also in terms of the openness of the communication used by democratic leaders,
it depends solely on the subordinates‟ response. Often, the leaders are bent on
employees understanding and executing their tasks seriously; only then do they
accept suggestions and solutions from the receiver. Democratic leaders, just like
their autocratic counterparts, have zero tolerance for employees who fail to see
the importance of the task at hand.
c) Laissez-faire Leadership Style
 The laissez faire leadership style can be described as the most free leadership
style out of the three basic leadership styles. The leaders who adopt this
leadership style are most commonly known to demonstrate low task -low
relationship behavior. This is because leaders under this category often present
employees with information regarding the tasks their required to complete but
the strategies and solutions used are left entirely up to the employees‟
discretion. Leaders using this style of leadership are also less likely to pay
attention to employees‟ feelings and emotions as well as have periodic checks
on the employees‟ work progress.
Effective leadership in a small business requires knowing how to communicate
with all elements of the organization, including employees, other managers,
customers and investors. Each group may require a different communication style
and leadership style. Leaders must be able to adapt based on the group they are
communicating with at the time. Effective communication skills are an important
aspect of any leader’s portfolio of skills and experience.
10.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Leadership: May be defined as a communicative process where the ideas
articulated in talk or action are recognized by others as progressing tasks that
are important to them.
2) Autocratic Leadership Style: places a high importance on the leader as the
sole entity in charge of all decision making processes. In this leadership style,
leaders tend to use a more authoritative communicati on style.
3) Democratic leadership: defined its performance in terms of three aspects,
namely, distributing responsibility, empowering subordinates and allowing for
input in the decision making process. Communication style used is
consultative and participative communication style.
4) Laissez faire leadership: style can be described as the most free leadership
style out of the three basic leadership styles. The leaders who adopt this
leadership style are most commonly known to demonstrate low task -low
relationship behavior.
10.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Explain the principles for effective leadership communication .
2) Elaborate the Communication methods used in different leadership styles.
120

10.6. SUMMARY
Leadership may be defined as a communicative process where the ideas
articulated in talk or action are recognized by others as progressing tasks that are
important to them. This definition of leadership suggests that leadership may take
many different forms and be associated with many different styles of
communication.
10.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) How is leadership defined?
2) List the types of leadership styles.
10.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Adapted from Nancy Jeffrey, “Preparing for the Worst: Firms setup plans to
Help Deal with Corporate Crises”, Wall Street Journal, 7, December, 1987, 23.
2) Bob Smith, “The Evolution of Pinkerton”, Management Review, September
1993, pp. 54-58.
10.9. ASSIGNMENT
1) Nominal group technique may be made use of to bring consensus in group
communication.
10.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) http://www.speaking.pitt.edu/student/groups/smallgroupbehavior.html
2) http://www.buzzle.com/articles/small-group-communication-effective team-
communication.html
3) http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1378
4) http://www.msucommunitydevelopment.org/groupcommunication.html
5) http://www.researchgate.net/profile/TT_Haswiny_Deva/publication/2562963
44_THE_REVIEW_OF_COMMUNICATION_METHODS_USED_BY_LEADERS_E
MPLOYING_VARIOUS_BASIC_LEADERSHIP_STYLES/links/0deec5223546cc6
edb000000.pdf
6) http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effective-communication-leadership-
5090.html
7) http://www.brighthubpm.com/resource-management/101627-top-ten-team-
communication-issues-and-how-to-avoid-them/
8) Barker, Larry et.al. Groups in Process: An Introduction to Small Group
Communication, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1979.
9) Buck, Ross. "Non-verbal receiving ability" in Non -Verbal Interaction,
Wiemann and Harrison ed., Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1983.
10) Crosbie, Paul V., Interaction in Small Groups. Macmillan Publishing Co., New
York, 1975.
11) Hanson, Philip G., Learning Through Groups, University Associates, San
Diego, 1981.
121

12) Kell, Carl L. and Paul Corts. Fundamentals of Effective Group


Communication, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1982.
13) Lind, Robert. "Talk About Listening," MontGuide 8303, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1983.
14) Lionberger, Herbert F. and Paul Gwin. Communication Strategies: A Guide for
Agricultural Change Agents, Interstate Printers, Danville, 111. 1982.
15) Maslow, A. H. and N. L. Mintz. Effects of esthetic surroundings, initial effects
of three esthetic conditions upon perceiving energy and well -being. journal of
Psychology, 1956, 41:247-254.
16) Phillips, Gerald. Communication and the Small Group, The Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
Indianapolis, 1973.
17) Sharpe, David."Setting Group Goals," MontGuide 8401, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1984.
18) Sharpe, David, "Planning Meeting Agendas," MontGuide 8405, Montana State
University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1984.
19) Short, Kenneth. "Watch Where They Sit" in Adult Learning in Your Classroom,
Lakewood Publications, Minneapolis, 1982.
20) Verderber, Rudolph F. Working Together-Fundamentals of Group Decision
Making, Wadsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, CA 1982.
21) Zander, Alvin. Making Groups Effective, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco,
1982.
10.11. LEARNING ACTIVITY
Visit to a business organization as your choice, identify the formal and
informal communication techniques are handled by the different supervisors,
executives and manages according to their leadership styles.
10.12. KEY WORDS
Automatic leadership style, Democratic leadership style, Laissez-Faire
leadership style.

122

LESSON – 11

MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION


11.1. INTRODUCTION
Formal communication refers to interchange of information officially. The flow
of communication is controlled and is a deliberate effort. This makes it possible for
the information to reach the desired place without any hindrance, at a little cost
and in a proper way. Informal communication system is the opposite system
of formal communication. In this system the communication is made without
following any predetermined rules of policy. Informal communication plays a vital
role to operate the organization’s activities.
11.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the concept of formal and informal communication.
 Be able to know the advantages and disadvantages of formal and informal
communication
 Know the various approaches towards communication
11.3. CONTENTS
11.3.1. Organizational Communication
11.3.2. Formal Communication
11.3.3. Classification of formal Communication
11.3.4. Informal Communication
11.3.5. Difference between Formal and Informal Communi cation
11.3.1. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Organizational structure influences communication patterns within an
organization. Communications flow in three directions—downward, upward, and
horizontally. Downward communication consists of policies, rules, and procedures
that flow from top administration to lower levels. Upward communication consists
of the flow of performance reports, grievances, and other information from lower to
higher levels. Horizontal communication is essentially coordinative and occu rs
between departments or divisions on the same level. External communication flows
between employees inside the organization and a variety of stakeholders outside the
organization.
11.3.2. FORMAL COMMUNICATION
Formal communication refers to official communication which takes place
through a chain of commands. It flows in formally established channels & is
concerned with work related matters. Members of the enterprise and expected to
communication with one another strictly as per channels laid down in the
structure.
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Formal communication is more thought-out and prepared from learned


experiences or organized training that present rules and conventions authorities by
business and formal etiquette.
With formal communication, more accountability is expected. In an
organizational setting, such as business, corporations or associations and the like,
communication is connected with official status-quo or protocols of the formal
channels of structure and company culture which the line of manager/subordinate
reporting system is expectedly accepted.
In business, the different forms of formal communication including
departmental functionality, activities taking place within meeting and conference
settings, verbal and written communication through telephone, memos, letters and
bulletins, etc., all add up to the formality.
In a formal setting, people take the time to recognize the consequences of
transmitting any wrong or incomplete information.
11.3.2.1. Characteristics of the Formal Communication
(1) Written and Oral
Formal communication can both be written and oral. Daily works are handled
through oral communication, while the policy matters require written
communication.
(2) Formal Relations
This communication is adopted among those employees where formal relations
have been established by the organization. The sender and the receiver have some
sort of organizational relations.
(3) Prescribed Path
The communication has to pass through a definite channel while moving from
one person to another. For example, to convey the feelings of a worker to the
manager, the foreman’s help has to be sought.
(4) Organizational Message
This channel is concerned with the authorized organizational messages only
and the personal messages are out of its jurisdiction.
(5) Deliberate Effort
This channel of communication is not established automatically but effort has
to be made for its creation. It is decided keeping in view the objectives of the =
organization.
11.3.2.2. Advantages of Formal Communication
The formal communication has the following advantages:
1) Maintenance of Authority of the Officers: Formal communication maintains
constant relations among the superiors and the subordinates as a result of
whom the dignity of the line superiors is maintained. Consequently, it is
convenient to control the subordinates and fix their responsibility which i s
absolutely needed for effective and successful control.
124

2) Clear and Effective Communication: In formal communication, there is a


direct contact among the managers and the subordinates. Both understand
the capability, habits, feelings, etc. of one another. Managers know as to when
and under which conditions their subordinates need information. In this way,
this communication is capable of making available timely information. Hence,
it is clear and effective.
3) Orderly Flow of Information: The information has to pass through a definite
route from one person to another. Hence, the flow of information is
systematic.
4) Easy Knowledge of Source of Information: In this type of communication,
the source of each information can be easily located.
11.3.2.3. DISADVANTAGES OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION
A formal organization has many advantages both for its internal and external
environment but it has some disadvantages too. The common disadvantages can be
listed as follows:
1) Limited Flexibility: As this type of organization is very specific in every
activates there is very little margin of flexibility and spontaneous decision
making in the company. Such practice in the company can be de motivating to
the employees.
2) Slowness of processing: In a formal organization for performing a task needs
many formal procedures to accompany. Such formalities often slow down the
implementations of decision making.
3) Communication Barrier: As in a formal organization a task needs the co-
ordination of different departments so communication needs to clear in this
process. Any kind of miscommunication may lead to ultimate inefficiency.
4) Quality of decision: Sometimes the quality of the decision made in the top
management may not be most compatible for the company but the chance of
correction is very scarce.
5) Slowness in Problem detection and processing: As every procedure goes
through lot of formalities any problem detected in the operation level can’t be
instantly corrected. The right process will take some time to detect the
problem and correction and its implementation. In such a process the
organization may suffer financial loss.
11.3.3. CLASSIFICATION OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION
The formal communication may be divided into three categories which are
given as follows:
11.3.3.1. Downward Communication
Under this system, the flow of communication from the top management
downward to be operating level. It may also be called a communication from a
superior to a subordinate. It follows the line of authority from the top to the bottom
125

of the organization hierarchy. Downward communication consists of plans &


policies, orders and instructions, procedures & rules etc.
11.3.3.2. General Purposes of Downward Communication
1) Implementation of goals, strategies, and objectives: Communicating new
strategies and goals provides information about specific targets and expected
behaviors. It gives direction for lower levels of the school/school district,
community college, or university. For example: "The new reform mandate is
for real. We must improve the quality of student learning if we are to succeed."
2) Job instructions and rationale: These are directives on how to do a specific
task and how the job relates to other activities of the school organization.
Schools, community colleges, or universities need to coordinate individual and
departmental objectives with organization -wide goals. We often fail to provide
enough of this kind of information, leaving it to the individual staff member to
get the big picture.
3) Procedures and practices: These are messages defining the school
organization's policies, rules, regulations, benefits, and stru ctural
arrangements in order to get some degree of uniformity in organization
practices. In school organizations, this information is transmitted to staff
members through board and organization -wide policy manuals, handbooks,
and the day-to-day operation of the school organization.
4) Performance feedback: Departmental progress reports, individual
performance appraisals, and other means are used to tell departments or
individuals how well they are doing with respect to performance standards
and goals. For example: "Mary, your work on the computer terminal has
greatly improved the efficiency of our department."
5) Socialization: Every school organization tries to motivate staff members to
adopt the institution's mission and cultural values and to participate in
special ceremonies, such as picnics and United Way campaigns.
11.3.3.3. Upward Communication
It means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the
higher level of authority. It passes from subordinate to superior as that from worker
to foreman, foreman to manager. From manager to general manager & so on. This
communication includes opinions, ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances,
appeals, reports etc.
It is very important as it serves as the feedback on the effectiveness o f
downward communication. Management is able to know how well its policies, plans
& objectives are followed by those working at lower levels of the organization. It
keeps the management informed about the progress of the work & difficulties faced
in performance. On the basis of upward communication, the management revises
its plans & policies & makes further planning.
126

11.3.3.4. Horizontal Communication


The transmission of information and understanding between people on the
same level of organization hierarchy is called the horizontal communication. This
type of communication is also known as lateral or sideward or crosswise
communication. Usually, it pertains to inter departmental managers working at the
same level of organization or among subordinates work ing under one boss.
Horizontal communication speeds up information and promotes mutual
understanding. It enables the managers working at the same level to exchange
information and co-ordinate their activities without referring all matters to the
higher level of management. The horizontal communication is generally of an
informal nature. Whenever a departmental head requires some information from
another departmental head, he tends to contact him directly. However, this type of
communication can be oral or written.
1) Intradepartmental problem solving: These messages take place between
members of the same department in a school or division in a school -wide
organizational system and concern task accomplishment.
2) Interdepartmental coordination: Interdepartmental messages facilitate the
accomplishment of joint projects or tasks in a school or divisions in a school -
wide organizational system.
3) Staff advice to line departments: These messages often go from specialists
in academic areas, finance, or computer service to campus-level
administrators seeking help in these areas.
In brief, horizontal communication flows exist to enhance coordination. This
horizontal channel permits a lateral or diagonal flow of messages, enabling units to
work with other units without having to follow rigidly up and down channels. Many
school organizations build in horizontal communications in the form of task forces,
committees, liaison personnel, or matrix structures to facilitate coordination.
External communication flows between employe es inside the organization and
with a variety of stakeholders outside the organization. External stakeholders include
other administrators external to the organization, parents, government officials,
community residents, and so forth. Many organizations create formal departments,
such as a public relations office, to coordinate their external communications.
11.3.4. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
When an organization does not follow any prescribed or official rules or
procedures of the organization is called informal communication. The basis of
informal communication is spontaneous relationship among the participants.
Informal communication system is the opposite system of formal
communication. In this system the communication is made without following any
predetermined rules of policy. Informal communication plays a vital role to operate
the organization’s activities. When the employees cannot understand the subject
matter of the communication, they can discuss with their authority anywhere about
the matter as like in the dining table or in the play ground or in the club. Some
definitions of informal communication are as follows:
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According to Bartol and Martin, Informal communication takes place without


regard to hierarchical or task requirements.”
According to Bovee and his associates, “Informal communication is the flow of
information without regard for the formal organizational structure, hierarchical or
reporting relationship.”
So, grapevine or informal communication is the process of spontaneous
exchange of information between two or more person at different status without
following any prescribed or official rules, formalities and chain of command in the
organizational structure.
11.3.4.1. Characteristics of Informal Communication
Informal or grapevine communication has the following characteristics:
1) Formation through Social Relations: This communication is born out of
social relations who mean that it is beyond the restrictions of the organization.
No superior-subordinate relationship figures therein. A more sociable superior
can gather much information through this channel.
2) Two types of Information: Through this communication, information about
the work and the individual can be collected.
3) Uncertain Path: Since it is beyond the restrictions of the organization, it
follows no definite channel. Like a grapevine, it moves in a zigzag manner.
4) Possibility of Rumor and Distortion: Responsibility for the true or false
nature of communication does not lie on any i ndividual and, therefore, not
much attention is paid to its meaning while communicating. Consequently,
the rumors keep floating.
5) Quick Relay: Informal communication makes news spread like wildfire. Not
only this, people start adding something of their own which sometimes
changes the real meaning of the communication.
11.3.4.2. Advantages Of Informal Communication
The informal channel of communication has the following advantages:
1) Fast and Effective Communication: Under this communication, the
messages move fast and their effect is equally great on the people.
2) Free Environment: Informal communication is done in a free environment.
Free environment means that there is no pressure of any office -big or small.
The reactions of the employees can easily be collecte d.
3) Better Human Relations: Informal communication saves the employees from
tension. Freedom from tension helps the establishment of better human
relations. This also affects the formal communication.
4) Easy Solution of the Difficult Problems: There are many problems which
cannot be solved with the help of formal communication. There is more
freedom in informal communication which helps the solution of difficult
problems.
5) Satisfying the Social Needs of the W orkers: Everybody wants good relations
with the high officers at the place of his work. Such relations give satisfaction
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to the employees and they feel proud. But this can be possible only with the
help of the informal communication.
11.3.4.3. Reasons for Existence of Grapevine Communication in Organizations
1) Grapevines are faster than formal communication networks and can easily
bypass individuals without restraint.
2) Grapevines can carry useful information quickly throughout an organization.
3) Grapevines can supplement information being disseminated through formal
communication networks.
4) Grapevines provide outlets for individual’s imaginations and apprehensions.
5) Grapevines satisfy individuals’ need to know what is actually going on within
an organization.
6) Grapevines help people feel a sense of belonging within the organization.
7) Grapevines serve as early warning systems for organizational crises and to
think through what they will do if the crises actually occur.
8) Grapevines help to build teamwork, motivate people, and create corporate identity.
11.3.5. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
BASIS OF
FORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
COMPARISON
Meaning A type of verbal communication in A type of verbal communication in
which the interchange of information which the interchange of information
is done through the pre-defined does not follow any channels i.e. the
channels is known as formal communication stretches in all
communication. directions.
Another Name Official Communication Grapevine communication
Reliability More Comparatively less
Speed Slow Very Fast
Evidence As the communication is generally No documentary evidence.
written, documentary evidence is
present.
Time Yes No
Consuming
Advantage Effective due to timely and Efficient because employees can
systematic flow of information. discuss work related problems, this
saves time and cost of the
organization.
Disadvantage Distortion due to long chain of Spread of rumors
communication.
Secrecy Full secrecy is maintained. It is difficult to maintain the secrecy.
Flow of Only through predefined channels. Can move freely.
Information
11.4. REVISION POINTS
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Formal communication: refers to official communication which takes place


through a chain of commands.
Downward Communication: flow of communication from the top
management downward to be operating level. It may also be called a
communication from a superior to a subordinate
Upward Communication: It means the flow of information from the lower
levels of the organization to the higher level of authority.
Horizontal communication: The transmission of information and
understanding between people on the same level of organization hierarchy is called
the horizontal communication. This type of communication is also known as lateral
or sideward or crosswise communication.
Informal communication: flow of information without regard for the formal
organizational structure, hierarchical or reporting relationship.
Grapevine communication: Process of spontaneous exchange of information
between two or more person at different status without following any prescribed or
official rules, formalities and chain of command in the organizational structure .
11.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Discuss Types of formal communication.
2) Whether informal communication is good for any organization?
11.6. SUMMARY
Different communication channels are more or less effective at transmitting
different kinds of information. Some types of communication are information rich
while others are medium rich. In addition, communications flow in different
directions within organizations.
11.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) What is formal Communication?
2) State the meaning of informal communication?
3) Differentiate formal communication from informal communication?
4) Define leadership behavior.
5) What is a communication system?
11.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Jeniffer Lawson, “How I did It: Pesuadling Staffers to get with the Program”,
Working Woman, April, 1991, pp.57-58, 60.
2) Sproule, Communication Today, 69.
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11.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Practice your Presentation thoroughly in advance. Be sure to make eye contact
and to speak so that everyone can understand you. If you encounter difficult
questions how you will remain unemotional ? Explain.
2) The advantages and disadvantages of formal and informal communication
may be presented through a role playing exercise based on an imaginary
organizational situation.
11.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Mishra, J. (1990). Managing the grapevine. Public Personnel Management, 19,
213–228, extrapolated from pg. 215.
2) http://thebusinesscommunication.com/informal -communication/
3) http://thebusinesscommunication.com/what-is-formal-communication/
4) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_communications
5) Clampitt, P. (2005). Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
6) Duhe, S. (2008). Public Relations and the Path to Innovation: Are Complex
Environments Good for Business? Public Relations Society of America.
7) FitzPatrick L & Valskov V (2014) "Internal Communication: A Manual for
practitioners, Kogan Page.
8) Grunig, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing public relations. New York:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
9) Hargie, O and Tourish D (eds) (2004) The handbook of Communications audits
for Organisations, Routledge.
10) McNamara, C. (2008). Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Minneapolis,
MN: Authenticity Consulting, LLC.
11) Quirke, B (2003) Making the Connections, Gower.
12) Theaker, A (2011). The Public Relations handbook, Routledge, Abingdon.
13) Wright, M ed (2009) The Gower handbook of internal communication, Gower.
14) http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/management-principles-v1.1/s16-
05-communication-channels.html.
11.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
What similarities and differences would you expect to see in the introduction
to a formal presentation and the introduction to a formal reprt? Prepare and
present clearly.
11.12. KEY WORDS
Formal communication, Downward Communication, Upward Communication,
Horizontal communication, Informal communication, Grapevine communication.


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LESSON – 12

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION MIX


12.1. INTRODUCTION
Internal communication function is the responsible for effective
communications among participants within an organization. External
communication is the transmission of information between a business and another
person or entity in the company’s external environment.
12.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
 Understand the concept of formal and informal communication.
 Be able to know the advantages and disadvantages of formal and informal
communication
 Know the various approaches towards communication
12.3. CONTENTS
12.3.1. Internal and External Communication Mix
12.3.2. External Communication
12.3.3. Approaches to Organizational Communication
12.3.4. Managing Organizational Communication
12.3.1. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION MIX
Internal Communications
Internal communication is the transmission of information between
organizational members or parts of the organization. It takes place across all levels
and organizational units of an organization. It is the function responsible for
effective communications among participants within an organization. Many
practitioners highlight that they are not responsible for the day to day intercourse
between colleagues but rather in helping an organization achieve its goals by
building understanding and engagement.
Modern understanding of internal communications is a field of its own and
draws on the theory and practice of related professions, not
least journalism, knowledge management, public relations (e.g., media
relations), marketing and human resources, as well as wider organizational
studies, communication theory, social psychology, sociology and political science.
Internal Communication Strategy
There are two sides to strategy in internal communications. In the first
instance there is the organization's strategy — what it hopes to achieve and how it
plans to go about achieving it. That strategy will be supported and, to some extent,
delivered through effective internal communications.
In this context internal communication can help on several different levels:
 Tell: simply informing people of the direction, non-negotiable
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 Sell: anticipating some form of backlash, requiring some persuasion


 Consult: seeking specific areas of input to the decision -making process
 Involve: seeking varying degrees of involvement and co-creation
Secondly, and more importantly, internal communications needs a strategy of
its own. It should be positioned more than a simple plan of tactical interventions in
support of business activities. The strategy should consider the following:
 Market: What does the organization know about its audiences' needs?
How should its audiences be segmented?
 Message: What is it the organization's message is trying to achieve? In
what tone should it be conveyed?
 Media: Which channels work best for the different audience segments?
How will it maximize reach and cut-through? Are there clear editorial
guidelines for each?
 Measurement: Are there clearly defined success criteria? What are the
leading and lagging measures? As well as informing all of the other three
M's, it should be used to demonstrate value and measures of performance
(ROI, message penetration, hit rates, quality of feedback, etc.)
General Modes of Internal Communication
Message Distribution
Formal channels typically fall into one of four broad categories:
 Electronic: Communications that are delivered and/or accessed
electronically, either by computer, telephone, television or other devices.
Examples include email, intranet, video and webcasts, DVD,
electronic newsletters, podcasts, blogs, wikis, voicemail, conference
calls, SMS textmessaging, screensaver messaging, Desktop
alert messages, desktop news feeds and internal social media tools
 Print: Paper-based communications. Examples include magazines,
newsletters, brochures, postcards and other 'desk drops', posters, memos,
communication packs or 'toolkits' for line managers, etc.
 Face-to-face: One-to-one and one-to-many forums where people are
physically present. Examples include a 'cascade' of team meetings or
briefings, conferences, site visits, 'back to the floor', consultation forums,
'brown bag' lunches, round-table discussions, 'town meetings', etc.
 W orkspace: The working environment. Examples include notice boards,
plasma and LCD screens, accessories, window decals, etc.
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Selecting Right Channel for Internal Communication


One of the key challenges any internal communicator will face is how to select
the right channels - and the right mix of channels - for both the audience and the
message. The practical considerations are:
 Availability: what channels either already exist within the organization or
can be introduced effectively?
 Audience: who are they, where are they based, how do they prefer to
access information and how effective will the proposed channel be in
reaching them and engaging them?
 Objectives: what does the organisation want people to learn, think, feel or
do as a result of the message?
 Content: what is the context and substance of the message? (For
example, sensitive messages may need to be communicated face -to-face,
rather than by, say, SMS text message.)
 Timing: how urgent is the message? (For example, communications in
times of crisis which require quick dissemination of important messages.)
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
External communication is the transmission of information between a
business and another person or entity in the company's external environment.
Examples of these people and entities include customers, potential customers,
suppliers, investors, shareholders, and society at large.
Importance of External Business Communication
External communication is any communicative effort specifically for people
and organizations operating outside of the business. While internal
communications are specifically for employees and management, external
communications focus on spreading news and information about the corporation to
the public, customers, and company stakeholders. Common examples of external
business communications include direct mailings, financial records, press releases,
and newsletters. Few specific external busin ess communication mix are as follows
a) Public Relations
Although many companies focus on sales as a measure of business success,
public perception is just as important to the organization's bottom line.
Communications are one way to shape and define a corporation's image to the
community, clients, and potential investors. External communications such as
newsletters, media stories and press releases let the public know about the
company workplace, philanthropic and environmental efforts, and other image -
related activities, all of which serve to strengthen the public relations efforts of a
company.
The Message of a public relations effort may be b2b (business to
business), b2c (business to consumer), or media related. The Message can take
different forms. Press releases try to convey a newsworthy message, real or
manufactured. It may be constructed like a news item, inviting editors or reporters
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to reprint the Message in part, or as a whole, with or without acknowledgment of


the Sender’s identity. Public relations campaigns create Messages over time,
through contests, special events, trade shows, and media interviews in addition to
press releases.
b) Advertisement
Advertising places external business Messages before target Receivers through
media buys. A media buy is a fee that is paid to a television network, Web site, or
magazine by an advertiser for an on-air, site, or publication ad. The fee is based on
the perceived value of the audience who watches, reads, or frequents the space
where the ad will appear.
In recent years, Receivers have begun to filter advertiser’s Messages, a
phenomenon that is perceived to be the result of the large amount of ads the
average person sees each day and a growing level of consumer wariness of paid
Messaging. Advertisers, in turn, are trying to create alternative forms of advertising
that Receivers won’t filter. The advertorial is one example of an external
communication that combines the look of an article with the focused Message of an
ad. Product placements in videos, movies, and games are other ways that
advertisers strive to reach Receivers with commercial Messages.
c) Web Pages
A Web page’s external communication can combine elements of public
relations, advertising, and editorial content, reaching Receivers on multiple levels
and in multiple ways. Banner ads, blogs, and advertiser-driven “click-through”
areas are just a few of the elements that allow a business to deliver a Message to a
Receiver online. The perceived flexibility of online communications can impart a
less formal (and, therefore, more believable) quality to an external communication .
d) Customer Communications
Customer communications can include letters, catalogs, direct mail, e -mails,
text messages, and telemarketing messages. Some Receivers automatically fil ter
bulk messages like these. Others will be receptive. The key to a successful external
communication to customers is to convey a business message in a personally
compelling way—dramatic news, a money-saving coupon, and so forth.
12.3.3. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Functional Approach
The Functional approach helps us understand organizational communication
by describing what messages do and how they move through organizations. This
perspective describes communication as a complex organizatio nal process that
serves organizing, relationship, and change functions: what messages do. The way
messages move through organizations is described by examining communication
networks, channels, message directions, communication load, and distortion. The
Functional approach suggests that communication transmits rules, regulations,
and information throughout the organization. Communication establishes and
defines human relationships, helps individuals identify with goals and
opportunities, and is the process by which the organization generates and manages
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change. These functions occur during the repetitive patterns of communication


interactions in which organizational members engage.
The Functional approach describes organizations as dynamic communication
systems with the various parts of the system operating together to create and shape
organizational events.
Organizational Communication Systems: Component Parts
Before we can examine what messages do and how they move in organizations,
we need to understand the concept of an organizational communication system
on which the Functional approach is based. What are the main parts of the system?
What parts work together to create and shape organizational events? How does
communication contribute to keeping a system dynamic? What role did
communication play in organizations that cease to exist? In the Functional
approach, information processing is seen as the primary fun ction of organizational
communication systems. It takes place in a number of related units that when
taken together are called organizations or supra systems. The individual units,
sometimes called subsystems, are related by some degree of structure and when
described as a whole can be distinguished from other organizations in the
environment by their boundary. The individual units are interdependent and
permeable to other units and the external environment.
Communication Inputs
This relationship between external environment information and internal
information processing is important for understanding organizational
communication systems. Information in the external environment, commonly
known
Communication inputs as communication inputs, is any information that
can potentially influence the decision making of the supra system (organization). It
is crucial for an organization to have accurate and timely information inputs to
adapt and change.
Communication Throughput
When information enters the organization , the communication system begins a
process known as communication throughput, or the transforming and changing
of input information for internal organizational use. Bill Drake, in taking the
consultant’s report and evaluating what to do, is taking inputs and transforming
them into organizational action. His decisions and the decisions of people in sales
and manufacturing can be described as throughput communication. In other
words, the internal subsystems (management, sales, manufacturing) of Coronado
are moving messages through the organization that will influence the production of
products and ultimately customer satisfaction. The quality of throughput
communication will determine whether the defects problem is solved.
Communication Output
Messages to the external environment from within the organization
Communication output are known as communication output. Outputs can be
thought of as the results of the input and throughput process and are both
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intentional and unintentional. Coronado Manufacturing, through its sales force and
advertising, generates intentional output communication. The defects in its
products, however, have become unintentional output messages with important
consequences. The low-quality message from the defective products is a potential ly
more powerful message than positive messages from advertising and sales
campaigns.
The Meaning Centered Approach
The second major approach for understanding organizational communication
is the Meaning-Centered approach. This approach asks what communication is,
not how and why it works. The Meaning-Centered perspective is concerned with
how organizational reality is generated through human interaction. As such,
message purposes (functions) and message movement (structure) are secondary to
understanding communication as the construction of shared realities (human
interaction). Specifically, the Meaning-Centered approach describes organizational
communication as the process for generating shared realities that become
organizing, decision making, sense makin g, influence, and culture.
Key Assumptions of the Meaning-Centered Approach
1) All ongoing human interaction is communication in one form or another.
2) Organizations exist through human interaction; structures and technologies
result from the information to which individuals react.
3) Shared organizational realities reflect the collective interpretations by
organizational members of all organizational activities.
4) Organizing and decision making are essentially communication phenomena.
5) Sense making combines action and interpretation.
6) Identification, socialization, communication rules, and power all are
communication processes that reflect how organizational influence occurs.
7) Organizing, decision making, and influence processes describe the cultures of
organizations by describing how organizations do things and how they talk
about how they do things.
8) Organizational cultures and subcultures reflect the shared realities in the
organization and how these realities create and shape organizational events.
9) Communication climate is the subjective, evaluative reaction of organization
members to the organization’s communication events, their reaction to
organizational culture.
Emerging Perspectives
Emerging Perspectives for organizational communication critique and
challenge many of the basic assumptions and interpretations found in the
Functional and Meaning-Centered approaches and provide important value
propositions for our consideration. In the next section of this chapter, the concept
of communication as a constitutive process is introduced and three approaches—
postmodernism, critical theory, and feminist theory—are described as important
perspectives for the study of organizational communication. The rising interest in
postmodernism, critical theory, and feminist theory can be understood when we
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consider the magnitude and rate of change in almost all aspects of our lives and the
failure of more traditional approaches to guide our uncertainty. Organizations are
increasing in size and complexity, with communications technologies changing even
the most basic of organizational processes.
Globalization both influences organizing processes and changes the very
nature of work itself. Almost simultaneously we experience the influence of mass
culture and the fact that fewer and fewer of us use similar information sources. In
addition, our awareness of issues of diversity, difference, and marginalization
grows. Put simply, this current time of turbulence and rapid change has given rise
to a contemporary context in which new questions and new challenges are
important for understanding our organizational lives.
Communication as Constitutive Process
“Communication cannot be reduced to an informational issue where meanings
are assumed to be already existing, but must be seen as a process of meaning
development and social production of perceptions, identities, social structures, and
affective responses”
Postmodernism and Organizational Communication
Postmodernism: The term postmodernism has been variously defined and
hotly come known as theoretical perspectives that represent an alienation from the
past, skepticism about authority structures, ambiguity of meanings, and mass
culture. Historical modernism is viewed as preceding post modernity in time and
experience, with postmodernism presenting challenges to the established traditions
of modernism. Postmodern theorists reject the claims of the Functional and Meaning-
Centered perspectives as overly simplistic and lacking in understanding of a world
characterized by rapid change, multiple meanings, and pervasive ambiguity. The
notion of grand master narratives (stories with broad application and explanatory
power, e.g., principles of scientific management or prescriptions for strong cultures)
are replaced by the micro narratives of individual organization members. Postmodern
theorists look at individual behaviors without implying relationships to underlying
values, assumptions, and rationales. In particular, post modern organizational
communication seeks to understand how multiple meanings and multiple
interpretations of organizational events influence multiple and diverse behaviors.
Deconstruction is the method of postmodern analysis. Put simply,
deconstruction refers to the examination of taken -for-granted assumptions, the
examination of the myths we use to explain how things are the way they are, and
the uncovering of the interests involved in socially constructed meanings. The value
base of postmodern organizational communication rests with shared power,
concepts of empowerment and interdependenc e, and multiple interpretations of
everyday events. Postmodern analysis challenges traditional notions of ratio such,
rejects many of the tenets of the Functional approach as well as on shared realities
in the Meaning-Centered perspective.
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Critical Theory Approach


The critical theory approach depicts organizations as systems in which power
is hidden from ready observation and examination and is maintained through
legitimate controls over employees. This notion of pervasive power that is not visible
or overt and is generally accepted based on our myths of “how things came to be” is
called hegemony. Hegemony is a process of control based on a dominant group
leading others to believe that their subordination is normal or the norm. Hegemony
implies to some (but not all) critical theorists that certain people in organizations
are oppressed even when they do not recognize their experience as such. This
perspective is in direct contradiction to both the Functional and Meaning-Centered
approaches, which rely heavily on overt communication actions and practices.
12.3.4. MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
1) Use Multiple Channels for Organizational Communication – One of the
most effective ways to ensure that people get your message is to send it across
multiple channels. Some of the more effective channels include meetings,
face-to-face talks, e-mail, faxes, telephone conversations, bulletins, postings,
and memos. The key is to make sure you always employ multiple methods to
disseminate your message, and never rely on a single channel.
2) Make Important Messages Repetitive – In addition to using multiple
channels, you can improve organizational communication by repeating
important messages from time to time.
3) Focus on Listening – This is vital during individual (i.e ., one-on-one)
communication. The biggest reason that most of us are poor listeners is that
we don’t take the time to actively listen. You can do this by utilizing reflective
listening skills (paraphrasing what your speaking partner has said to confirm
understanding), using good nonverbal behaviors and body posture (e.g., face
your communication partner with an open stance), and focusing on your
partner by making a conscious effort to listen first instead of trying to get your
message across first. Do this by saying to yourself, “for the next three
minutes, I am only going to listen”.
4) Get Your Message Across – After you listen and fully understand your
communication partner, you must make sure you can get your message
across in the exact way it is intended. To do this, speak openly and honestly,
and be as straightforward as possible (i.e., no “beating around the bush”);
speak inclusively and use terms that will be understood and respected by a
diverse array of individuals; and check for understanding to make sure your
message has been received accurately.
5) Handle Communication Problems – Finally, we must become more effective
at managing the communication problems that will inevitably arise during
human interaction. Such problems include conflict, difficulty in resolving
problems, misunderstandings, dealing with difficult people and managing
cultural differences. I will address these issues in future posts.
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SUMMARY
Organizational structure influences communication patterns within an
organization. Communications flow in three directions—downward, upward, and
horizontally. Downward communication consists of policies, rules, and procedures
that flow from top administration to lower levels. Upward communication consists
of the flow of performance reports, grievances, and other information from lower to
higher levels. Horizontal communication is essentially coordinative and occurs
between departments or divisions on the same level. External communication flows
between employees inside the organization an d a variety of stakeholders outside the
organization.
12.4. REVISION POINTS
External communication: transmission of information between a business
and another person or entity in the company's external environment.
Internal communication: Transmission of information between
organizational members or parts of the organization. It takes place across all levels
and organizational units of an organization.
12.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
Explain the difference between internal and external communications in an
organization, giving examples of each.
12.6. SUMMARY
A major internal communication channel is e -mail, which is convenient but
needs to be handled carefully. External communication channels include PR/press
releases, ads, Web pages, and customer communications such as letters and
catalogs.
12.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) What is an internal system mix?
2) State the meaning of system mix.
3) Differentiate internal system mix from the external system mix.
4) Define organizational communication
12.8. SUPPLEM ENTARY MATERIALS
1) Jeniffer Lawson, “How I did It: Pesuading Staffers to get with the Program”,
Working Woman, April, 1991, pp.57-58, 60.
2) Sproule, Communication Today, 69.
12.9. ASSIGNMENTS/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES
A debate on approaches and the strategies to manage organizational
communication may be conducted.
12.10. SUGGESTED READING/ REFERENCE/ BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Mishra, J. (1990). Managing the grapevine. Public Personnel Management, 19,
213–228, extrapolated from pg. 215.
2) http://thebusinesscommunication.com/informal -communication/
3) http://thebusinesscommunication.com/what-is-formal-communication/
4) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_communications
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5) Clampitt, P. (2005). Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. Thousand


Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
6) Duhe, S. (2008). Public Relations and the Path to Innovation: Are Complex
Environments Good for Business? Public Relations Society of America.
7) FitzPatrick L & Valskov V (2014) "Internal Communication: A Manual for
practitioners, Kogan Page.
8) Grunig, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing public relations. New York:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
9) Hargie, O and Tourish D (eds) (2004) The handbook of Communications audits
for Organisations, Routledge.
10) McNamara, C. (2008). Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Minneapolis,
MN: Authenticity Consulting, LLC.
11) Quirke, B (2003) Making the Connections, Gower.
12) Theaker, A (2011). The Public Relations handbook, Routledge, Abingdon.
13) Wright, M ed (2009) The Gower handbook of internal communication, Gower.
14) http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/management-principles-v1.1/s16-
05-communication-channels.html.
12.11. LEARNING ACTIVITY
“Communication as constitute process, hence, it cannot be reduced to an
informational issue, where meanings are assumed to be already existing” – Justify
this with reference to a business organization’s internal and external environment.
12.12. KEY WORDS
External communication, Internal communication.

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UNIT – IV
LESSON – 13
ORAL COMMUNICATION
13.1. INTRODUCTION
Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one person
to another person or from one place to another place.
A message or communication is sent by the sender through a communication
channel to a receiver, or to multiple receivers. The sender must encode the
message (the information being conveyed) into a form that is appropriate to the
communication channel, and the receiver(s) then decodes the message to
understand its meaning and significance. Hence, communication is neither
transmission of message nor message itself. It is the mutual exchange of
understanding, originating with the receiver.
13.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you should be able to
 Understand the importance of oral communication
 Know the types of Oral communication
 Know the merits and demerits of Oral communication
 Effectively communicate with others
 Maintain better communication in the workplace and in work teams
13.3. CONTENTS
13.3.1. Importance of Communication in Business
13.3.2. Categories of Communication
13.3.3. Oral Communication
13.3.4. Forms of Oral Communication
13.3.5. Dyadic Communication
13.3.6. Face to Face Communication
13.3.7. Telephonic Communication
13.3.8. Effective Oral Communication
13.3.9. Advantages of Oral Communication
13.3.10. Limitations of Oral Communication
13.3.1. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS
Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities.
Communication serves as a foundation for planning. All the essential information
must be communicated to the managers who in -turn must communicate the plans
so as to implement them.
Communication is the essence of management and it needs to be effective in
business. The basic functions of management cannot be performed well without
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effective communication. Business communication involves constant flow of


information. Feedback is integral part of business communicati on. Organizations
these days are very large. It involves number of people. There are various levels of
hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the
job of managing the organization. Communication here plays a very i mportant role
in process of directing and controlling the people in the organization. Immediate
feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided. There
should be effective communication between superiors and subordinated in an
organization, between organization and society at large (for example between
management and trade unions). It is essential for success and growth of an
organization. Communication gaps should not occur in any organization.
13.3.1. CATEGORIES OF COMMUNICATION
There are various categories of communication and more than one may occur
at any point of time.
The different categories of communication are:
 Verbal Communication: Usage of words and sentences
 Spoken or Oral Communication: face -to-face, telephone, radio or
television and other media.
 Non-Verbal Communication: Usage of body language, gestures, facial
expressions, Posture,
 Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet
or via other media.
 Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos, si gns, colours and other
visualizations that can communicate messages.
Business Communication is goal oriented. The rules, regulations and policies
of a company have to be communicated to people within and outside the
organization. Business Communication is regulated by certain rules and norms. In
early times, business communication was limited to paper-work, telephone calls
etc. But now with advent of technology, we have cell phones, video conferencing,
emails, and satellite communication to support business communication. Effective
business communication helps in building goodwill of an organization.
Managers devote a great part of their time in communication. They generally
devote approximately 6 hours per day in communicating. They spend great time on
face to face or telephonic communication with their superiors, subordinates,
colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers also use Written Communication in
form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.
Business Communication can be of two types:
1) Oral Communication - An oral communication can be formal or informal.
Generally business communication is a formal means of communication,
like: meetings, interviews, group discussion, speeches etc. An example of
Informal business communication would be - Grapevine.
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2) W ritten Communication - Written means of business communication


includes - agenda, reports, manuals etc.
Communication involves the imparting or interchanging thoughts, opinions, or
information among people by speech, writing, or signs. People communicate in
different ways.
Verbal Communication
Verbal communication entails the use of words in delivering the intended
message. The two major forms of verbal communication include written and oral
communication.
 Written communication
Written communication includes traditional pen and paper letters and
documents, typed electronic documents, e-mails, text chats, SMS and anything else
conveyed through written symbols such as language. This type of communication is
indispensable for formal business communications and issuing legal instructions.
Communication forms that predominantly use written communication include
handbooks, brochures, contracts, memos, press releases, formal business
proposals, and the like. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the
writing style, grammar, vocabulary, and clarity.
 Oral Communication
The other form of verbal communication is the spoken word, either face -to-face
or through phone, voice chat, video conferencing or any other medium. Various
forms of informal communications such as the grapevine or informal rumour and
formal communications such as lectures, conferences are forms of oral
communication. Oral communication finds use in discussions and causal and
informal conversations. The effectiveness of oral conversations depends on the
clarity of speech, voice modulation, pitch, volume, speed, and even non-verbal
communications such as body language and visual cues.
Verbal communication makes the process of conveying thoughts easier and
faster, and it remains the most successful form of communication. Yet, this makes
up only seven percent of all human communication!
Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication entails communicating by sending and receiving
wordless messages. These messages usually reinforce verbal communication, but
they can also convey thoughts and feelings on their own.
Physical nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial
expressions, eye contact, body posture, gestures such as a wave, pointed finger and
the like, overall body movements, tone of voice, touch, and others.
Facial expressions are the most common among all nonverbal communication.
For instance, a smile or a frown conveys distinct emotions hard to express through
verbal communication. Research estimates that body language, including facial
expressions, account for 55 percent of all communication .
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 Paralanguage
The way something is said, rather than what is actually said, is an important
component of nonverbal communication. This includes voice quality, intonation,
pitch, stress, emotion, tone, and style of speaking, and communicates approval,
interest or the lack of it. Research estimates that tone of the voice accounts for 38
percent of all communications.
Other forms of nonverbal communication usually communicate one’s
personality. These include:
 Aesthetic communication or creative expressions such as dancing,
painting, and the like.
 Appearance or the style of dressing and grooming, which communicates
one’s personality.
 Space language such as paintings and landscapes communicate social
status and taste.
 Symbols such as religious, status, or ego-building symbols.
 Visual Communication
A third type of communication is visual communication through visual aids
such as signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, color and other
electronic resources.
13.3.3. ORAL COMMUNICATION
When messages or information is exchanged or communicated orally is called
oral communication. Oral communication is the process in which messages or
information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through the
word of mouth. It is word based communication system but in oral form. Most of
the time, we use oral communication. It includes individuals conversing with each
other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations,
discussions are all forms of oral communication.
Executive spend 60 to 90 percent of their time talking to people. Face to face
conversations, group discussions, counselling, interview, radio, television,
telephone calls etc. is used to express meaning in oral communication. Oral
communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of
temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face
communication like meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc. is significant
so as to build a rapport and trust.
Principles of Oral Communication
1) Clear pronunciation: Clear pronunciation of message sender in the main
factor or oral communication. If it is not clear, the goal of the message may
not be achieved.
2) Preparation: Before communicating orally the speaker should take
preparation both physically are mentally.
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3) Unity and integration: The unity an integration of the speech of the message
sender is a must for successful oral communication.
4) Precision: Precision is needed to make oral communication effective. The
meaning of the words must be specific.
5) Natural voice: The speaker’s must not be fluctuated at the time of oral
communication. On the other hand artificial voice must be avoided.
6) Planning: Organized plan is a must for effective oral communication. The
speaker should take proper plan for delivering speech.
7) Simplicity: The speaker should use simple an understandable words in oral
communication. It should be easy and simple.
8) Legality: The speaker’s speech should be legal and logical at the time of oral
communication.
9) Avoiding emotions: At the time of oral discussion, excessive emotions can
divert a speaker from main subject. So, the speaker should be careful about
emotion. The speech must be emotionless.
10) Acting: Many people lose concentration after listening for a few minu tes. So
speech must be emotionless.
11) Efficiency: Speakers efficiency and skill is necessary for effective oral
communication.
12) Vocabulary: Words bear different meanings to different people in different
situations. In oral communication, a speaker should use the most familiar
words to the receiver of the message to avoid any confusion in the meaning of
the words.
Elements of Good Oral Communication
The techniques of good communication may be summarised by four basic
elements:
 Voice quality – Voice quality refers to the pitch and resonance of the
sounds made. Good voice quality in communication involves pitch, delivery,
speed and volume.
 Style – It is the blending of pitch, speed and volume to forming a set of voice
behaviour that give uniqueness to a person. a unique talking personality
 W ord choice – Word choice is related to one’s vocabulary. The larger the
vocabulary, the more choice of words one has. Choose appropriate word and
avoid more jargons and acronyms.
 Adaptation – Adaptation is fitting the message to the intended listener.
13.3.4. FORMS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION
There are seven forms of oral communication that includes:
Intrapersonal communication is self-talk or a conversation you hold with
yourself under certain circumstances. It is a form of thinking that goes on inside us
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which relies on language to express itself. Intrapersonal communication often


increases self-awareness and mindfulness, and hones critical thinking skills.
Interpersonal communication is communication between several people.
This form of communication may range from the impersonal to the very personal.
Impersonal communication is when you talk with a person you do not really care
about – there is often coldness or indifference in your attitude when you engage in
this kind of communication.
Then, there is social communication where you engage in niceties with people
you meet in a social context. The most personal type of communication occurs
when you talk with people who are close to you, for example, your best friend,
family members and colleagues. Such relationships are interdependent, meaning
that the actions of one party very often directly affect the other party. Interpersonal
communication can take place face to face as well as through electronic channels
like video-conferencing, chat rooms, e-mail and Twitter.
Small group communication takes place in a group, usually comprising five
to 10 people. This form of communication serves relationship needs (like
companionship, family bonding and affection or support) as well as task -based
needs, for example, deciding on disciplinary action or resolving conflict in the
workplace.
In academic institutions, students often form small groups which meet
regularly for study discussions or to work collaboratively on projects. At the
workplace, small groups may meet to discuss issues related to work, or for
problem-solving or team-building purposes. Learning to communicate effectively in
teams contributes to success and advancement in many careers. Small group
communication allows you to interact with others, be it at home, in school, at the
workplace or in public. You learn to exchange ideas, solve problems and share
experiences.
Public communication, also known as public speaking, involves
communication between a speaker and an audience. This audience may range from
just a few people to thousands or even millions of people. The aim of the speaker is
usually to inform or to persuade the audience to act, buy, or think in a certain way.
A teacher may address an assembly of students on codes of behaviour or school
rules. A politician may make speeches on how he will be dealing with certain issues
in order to win their votes. An executive may give a business presentation to get
more sales. It is important to understand some of the basic principles of effective
public speaking so that you are able to influence, persuade as well as entertain
your audience when you communicate with them.
Mass communication is communication that is sent out from a source to
many receivers all over the world. It takes plac e through media like films, radio,
videos and television. Modern avenues of mass communication like the Internet and
blogs can be very powerful indeed as information is disseminated instantly.
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Corporate communication is communication that takes place among


members of an organisation, within that organisation. Interacting in teams,
conferencing with co-workers, talking with a supervisor or manager, giving
employees explanations and directions, interviewing and making presentations are
some examples of corporate communication. Effective corporate communication
skills enhance corporate image and impact positively on morale, commitment, and
productivity in corporations.
Intercultural communication is communication between people of diverse
cultures and ethnicity. The world is increasingly becoming a global village and every
country has people of various ethnicities. Thus, it is important to note differences in
the communication practices of different cultures if intercultural harmony and
understanding is to be maintained. For example, in many Asian countries, students
will seldom contradict or disagree with a teacher in the classroom as this shows
disrespect. In Western academic institutions, however, it is the norm for students
to think for themselves and engage their teachers in debate and discussion. It is
important to make efforts to recognise and respect the communication practices of
people from different cultures and nationalities.
13.3.5. DYADIC COMMUNICATION
The types of oral communication common ly used within an organization
include staff meetings, personal discussions, presentations, telephone discourse,
and informal conversation. Oral communication with those outside of the
organization might take the form of face -to-face meetings, telephone calls,
speeches, teleconferences, or videoconferences.
The term dyadic communication refers to oral communication or an
interaction between two persons. Even if more than two persons are present in a
given situation, it is only two communicators who play a fundamental role. This is a
person-person transaction and it is one of the more common forms of oral
communication.
Characteristics of Dyadic Communication
 There is an exchange in roles from the speaker to the listener between two
persons.
 Purpose of communication can vary from serious to not serious; interaction
can vary from formal to not formal.
 The social relationship between the persons can be intimate or not intimate.
 There is no definite time limit.
 It has no specified venue for it to occur.
 The structure or outline can be pre-planned or not planned at all.
The basic forms of oral dyadic communication include Conversation, Dialogue
and Interview.
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Conversation
This form of dyadic communication is the most informal, least purposive and
least intimate.
Dialogue
This form of dyadic communication is most purposive and intimate compared
to a conversation. Youhold a dialogue when you have a definite topic to
speak about. There is also a kind of social relationship between thepersons involved
in the dialogue. It can be semi-formal to formal but is more formal to conversation.
Interview
Communication is an integral part of the interview process. Interviews are the
most popular, formal and least intimate form of dyadic communication. There is a
definite objective in mind and you ask questions in order to meet that objective. The
ability to communicate is among the top considerations of employers in hiring
potential employees.
13.3.6. FACE-TO-FACE CONVERSATION
Face-to-face conversation is an informal discussion through spoken language
and words on a particular issue among the people to exchange their views freely
and fairly weighs each other.
Advantages of face-to-face conversation
In modern society, with the rapid development of technology, people have more
choices ways to communicate each other such as face -to-face, letters, emails or
telephones. However, I believe that face-to-face communication is much better than
other types of communication, such as a letter, email or telephone calls. The
advantages of face-to-face communication are described as below:
Responses immediately: When people communicate each other in person, they
can get a response immediately without misunderstanding. During the
conversation, people can not only hear a response from others, also see how they
are feeling; people can guest what will take place next, how the conversation is
about, which is very important to have a successful talk.
Express of feelings: Using face-to-face communication helps people express
their feelings, ideas much better. Instead of using words only when people choose
letters, emails or phone for communication, people can use eye contact, verbal
language in order to show their opinions. Scientists show that more than seventy
percent people use body or verbal language in communicating; thus, it’s very
important for people use actions to express views.
Suitable for respect: Face-to-face communication enjoys yet another distracts
advantage, the message being communicated also gets the assistance of facial
expressions and gestures.
Suitable for discussion: Face-to-face communication is particularly suitable for
discussion, for there is immediate feedback from the listener. Face -to-face
communication provides the speaker with a much better opportunity for
adjustment. A twist of the lips, a frown on the forehead, a contraction of the facial
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muscles point out that the message is not welcomed, then changes of tone or
sympathetically looking is to be needed. These adjustments are possible only in
face-to-face communication.
Conversation to learn: We learn a great deal via conversation, including
conversations with ourselves. We learn highly valuable life lessons.
Conversation to coordinate: Coordinating our action in ways that are mutually
beneficial. Anytime we negotiate one favor for another, we use conversation to reach
an agreement to transact.
Collaborate: Coordination of action assumes relatively clear goals, but many
times social interaction involves the negotiation of goals. Conversation is a requisite
for agreeing on goals, as well as for agreeing upon and coordinating our actions.
Disadvantages of face-to-face conversation: The limitations of face-to-face
communication are given below:
Difficult to practice in large-sized organization: Face-to-face communication is
extremely difficult to practice in large -sized organizations, particularly if their
various units or departments are situated at different places.
Not effective in large gatherings: It is very difficult to get a message across to
large gatherings. Even though the speaker is addressing them face-to-face, the vital
personal touch is missing. In the absence of a satisfactory feedback, his speech
lapse into a monologue.
Ineffective if the listener is not attentive: A limitation which the face -to-face
communication shares with oral communication is that its effectiveness is closely
linked with the listener’s attentiveness. Since human beings can listen to grasp the
message faster than the speed at which they are delivered, they will easily get
delivered thus making communication ineffective.
13.3.7. TELEPHONIC CONVERSATION
Telephonic conversation is an exchange of information between two persons
over telephone. Talking over telephone is an art. Good telephoning techniques can
help you win friends and create goodwi ll. You voice may convey a first impression of
your business or organization.
The following suggestions are recommended to follow while making telephone
calls-
 Make the call at an appropriate time. 9.00 a.m to 5.00 p.m is appropriate
time for office or office or business calls and 9.00 a.m to 9.00 p.m is for
personal calls. Be careful of time difference when making international calls.
 Make sure about the number and dial it correctly.
 Give the call receiver enough time to answer the call, up to ten rings.
 Smile and provide details about your identity like name, company,
department, etc.
 Identify clearly the person you want to talk to.
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 Share greetings and provide the reason of your calling.


 Be careful and courteous when delivering the message, and try to be sure
that the receiver understands you.
 Be patient when calling with a problem. You are to explain the reason
several times to make your counterpart understand the difficulty.
 Give complete information to your listener if you want him call you back.
 If you do not reach the intended person and want your call returned, leave a
complete message including your name, number, organization, etc.
 Make sense when you are to end the conversation. Do not forget to offer
“Thanks” and “Good-bye” at the end of the call.
 Be considerate of other who may share your phone.
13.3.8. EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION
For oral communication to be effective, it should be clear, relevant, tactful in
phraseology and tone, concise, and informative. Presentations or conversations that
bear these hallmarks can be an invaluable tool in ensuring business health and
growth. Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business communication, on the
other hand, can waste valuable time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy
goodwill toward management or the overall business.
Misunderstanding can occur at any stage of the communication process.
Effective communication involves minimising potential misunderstanding and
overcoming any barriers to communication at each stage in the communication
process.
An effective communicator understands their audience, chooses an
appropriate communication channel, hones their message to this channel and
encodes the message to reduce misunderstanding by the receiver(s). They will also
seek out feedback from the receiver(s) as to how the message is understood and
attempt to correct any misunderstanding or confusion as soon as possible.
Receivers can use Clarification and Reflection as effective ways to ensure that the
message sent has been understood correctly.
How to make oral communication effective
 Active listening
 Keep an open mind
 Adjust your pitch and tone to promote interest
 Use common words and avoid jargons
 Respond with a question
 Emphasize key points and pause at intervals
 Summarise your message to enhance understanding
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13.3.9. ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION


 There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral
communication as it is interpersonal.
 There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for
allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.
 The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions
can be made quickly without any delay.
 Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money
and efforts.
 Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts,
disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them
over.
 Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.
 Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging moral e among
organizational employees.
 Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential
information/matter.
13.3.10. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION
 Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business
communication is formal and very organized.
 Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they
are informal and not as organized as written communication.
 Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are
concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and
are unproductive at times.
 Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.
 There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and
may lack essentials.
 It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the
receivers/audience.
 Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal
records except in investigation work.
13.4. REVISION POINTS
 Communication is neither transmission of message nor message itself. It is
the mutual exchange of understanding, originating with the receiver.
 Communication is the essence of management and it needs to be effective in
business.
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 Oral communication is the process in which messages or information is


exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through the word of
mouth.
 The four basic elements of oral communication includes: voice quality, style,
word choice and adaptation.
 The seven forms of oral communication are Intrapersonal communication,
Interpersonal communication, Small-group communication, Public
communication, Mass communication, Corporate communication and
Intercultural communication.
 The basic forms of oral dyadic communication include face -to-face
conversation, telephonic conversation, i nterview, instruction and dictation.
 An effective communicator understands their audience, chooses an
appropriate communication channel, hones their message to this channel
and encodes the message to reduce misunderstanding by the receiver(s).
13.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What are the elements and principles of oral communication?
2) Explain the advantages and limitations of oral communication.
3) Give two examples each for oral communication internal and external to the
organisation.
4) Suggest some guidelines for effective communication in workplace.
13.6. SUMMARY
Oral communication is the channel through which the information is directly
passed to the receiver. It requires meticulous planning, preparation of script,
programme the presentation. Guidelines such as make the receiver interested in
receiving the message, get the feedback assess the emotional dimensions, persuade,
convince, discuss, deliberate based on the purpose of communication. Presentation
styles also need to be understood in clear terms.
13.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) Define communication
2) What is oral communication?
3) Give any three examples of formal, oral communication.
4) Adaptation in oral communication means ____________
5) What are the forms of dyadic communication?
13.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) http://lms.oum.edu.my/e-
content/OUMH1303KDP/content/24094922OUMH1303_OralCommunication
_v1/OUMH1303_Topic1/OUMH1303_1_3.html
2) http://thebusinesscommunication.com/what-is-oral-communication/
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13.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Discuss the importance of oral communication in work place.
2) Describe the different types and form of oral communication .
13.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Krishna Mohan and Meera Banerji (2009), Developing Communication Skills,
2nd Edition, MacMillan Publishers India Ltd., New Delhi.
2) Neera Jain and Shoma Mukherji (2012), Effective Business Communication,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.
13.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
In the multinational organisations certain factors like their style, language and
body language are to be clearly understood before communicating with such
audience.
13.12. KEY WORDS
 Oral communication  Corporate communication
 Business communication  Dyadic communication
 Intrapersonal communication  Telephonic conversation
 Interpersonal communication  Face to Face conversation
 Mass communication  Interview


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LESSON – 14

PRESENTATION AND PUBLIC SPEAKING


14.1. INTRODUCTION
Speech is a gift of nature. It differentiates human from other living beings.
Speaking is the purposeful process by which people communicate meaning in the
minds of their listeners. Thus it is an interactive communicative process by which
the message is transmitted in an oral form.
Students need to interact orally with their teachers, class mates, make
explanations during practical sessions, take part in seminars and workshops,
technical presentations, academic discussions, interactions, viva voce tests, and so
on. Professionals in different fields are required to take part in discussions,
meetings, conferences, seminars, business presentations, telephonic conversations,
teleconferences and video conferences, and so on. Whether it is informal
conversation or formal business meeting, the function of oral communication is to
create and deliver messages that bring about desired change in the listener’s
understanding or opinions.
14.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you would be able to
 Understand the importance of pre-presentation planning and effective
presentation
 Understand the importance of preparation for presentation and identify the
most appropriate style of presentation for the context
 Understand the importance of non-verbal factors and para-verbal factors to
improve presentation
 Conquer fear of speaking in public and practise the various methods of
making a public speech.
14.3. CONTENTS
14.3.1. Fundamentals of Public Speaking
14.3.2. Elements of Public Speaking
14.3.3. Vocal Elements of a Speech
14.3.4. Characteristics of a Speech
14.3.5. Profile of a Speaker
14.3.6. Methods of Speaking
14.3.7. Non-Verbal Cues
14.3.8. Formal Presentation
14.3.9. Effective Communication
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14.3.1. FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING


Speech Objectives
The ability to speak publicly hold audience’s attention, persuade them to
believe in what you say or convince them. Summers and Smith (2006) make a
distinction between two types of speeches:
 those that Inform and Instruct, and
 those that Persuade and Convince.
Kinds of Speech
There are four different methods of speech that includes,
 Speeches that are read – well prepared and read usually done by politicians
and some formal academic presentations
 Speeches that are rehearsed and memorised -
 Extemporaneous speech
 Impromptu speech
14.3.2. ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
The most important step of Public speaking is planning. There are six elements
in any speech or presentation that includes: 5Ws and 1H.
Why : The Purpose
In public speaking, the speaker’s specific purpose is to get a particular
response from the audience. This preconceived purpose chosen before a talk, is the
only characteristic that distinguishes public speaking from more random
communication. It is, therefore, essential for you to clear the purpose of the speech
by asking yourself the following crucial questions:
 What is the objective?
 What does the speaker want the audience to take away?
 What exactly is the purpose: to inform, persuade or entertain?
Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivating,
influencing, explaining, persuading, informing, educating or simply entertaining.
To Inform
The purpose of this kind of communication is to increase the receiver’s
knowledge and understanding of the subject. The main concern of the speaker is to
have the audience understand, learn and remember the information presented.
To Direct
The objective is to direct the subordinates or followers to do something in a
specific way or certain approach or the instructors to perform certain activity.
To Explain
An explanatory note or speech is given to demonstrate, to elaborate the
methodology, or to pass the information for making the receiver to understand,
follow and adopt.
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To Persuade
A persuasive speech induces the listeners to belie ve, feel or act in a manner
decided by the speaker. Dynamic leaders like Gandhi, Nehru and Kennedy are
known for their persuasive speeches. The objective of such speeches is to either
make the audience discard the old beliefs, opinion or attitude or adopt new ones.
The speaker may also choose to induce an action at the end of it. The topics in such
speeches are generally controversial since they have opposing points of view. For a
persuasive speech to be effective, the speaker has to think critically about the best
ways to persuade someone within the constraints of a situation.
To Motivate
The objective is to motivate the audience towards some action or reaching a
goal. It could be used by the teachers to motivate the students, the managers to
increase the productivity, the sales personnel to understand the customer
requirements and build customer relationship.
To Inculcate
This form of speech has the basic objective to create belongingness towards
the organisation and develop the spirit of the organisation. It details the need for
values to be imbibed and the discipline expected to perform and achieve.
To Educate
The objective is to enrich the existing knowledge. It could be to explain the new
idea or thought, concept, process or methodology.
To Entertain
The speaker’s objective is to simply make the listeners enjoy themselves while
at the same time learning can be infused. Such speeches are used to stimulate a
pleasurable response from the audience. It can be done in either a humorous or
dramatic manner. The after-dinner speeches and farewell speeches are some of the
occasions where this format is practiced. It just relieves the stress and refreshes the
mind.
Who: Knowing the Audience
When the speaker addresses the “who” of the message, the person is better
able to relate with the audience. The listeners feel they are being directly spoken to
and, hence give their complete attention. Since the compos4tion of every audience
is different the speaker must consider their unique needs. Apart from considering
the interests, knowledge level, educational level and position in business or society,
also consider what level of audience interaction and participation is appropriate.
These would not only give the speaker an insight into their attitudes and values but
also help the speaker structure the speech in such a way so as to develop a rapport
with the audience. It sometimes helps to greet some of the audience as they arrive.
Since, it is easier to speak to a group of friends, than to a group of strangers.
What: Knowledge of the Topic
What is the message which needs to be communicated? What are the issues?
What are the solutions? The “what” in the message is the backbone of the speech?
It is the utmost objective of the speech and the reason why people come to hear the
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speaker. Selecting the topic, therefore, becomes very important. In business


meetings, it is likely that the topic would be dictated by the occasion.
Whatever be the type of topic, it requires deliberate effort to make the subject
interesting. The speaker can begin with self by listing down his personal interests,
experiences, convictions, any special knowledge based on his own experiences. A
primary and secondary search through the Internet, encyclopaedia, books,
newspapers and magazines enable further de velopment of the topic in hand.
Requesting a sample group of respondents to raise questions on the topic may add
more value and provide further insight.
When and where: Knowing the Room and Equipment
It is less stressful to speak in public when one is familiar with the place in
which one will speak. It could be a good idea to arrive a little early, walk around the
speaking area and practice using the microphone and any visual aids. Different
contexts will present different presentation environments.”
Other environmental factors include time of day, since presentations later in
the day may require more activity to stimulate a tired audience. Physical
environment factors such as the size of the room, the amount of lighting, the
availability of computer/laptop, the quality of the acoustics and effectiveness of a
PA system, need to be checked beforehand. In case of untoward incidents during a
presentation, instead of panicking one should remain calm and say something
witty.
How
Ideas in a speech should be logically sequenced and an appropriate structure
developed. There are a number of sequencing methods that could be used. To some
extent this is dictated by the topic, the audience and the purpose of the speech.
Every presentation should have an introduction, middle and conclusion. A
memorable introduction and conclusion are absolutely vital because the audience
is far more likely to remember these portions of speech than the body. In fact the
audience is unlikely to listen at all if they are not persuaded to do so by the
introduction. Hence, they must be given a reason to listen by showing them that
the speech is going to be relevant and interesting to them.
The introduction sets the scene and creates a first impression on the audience.
One may start with an ‘attention grabber’ such as a dramatic story, interesting fact
or statistic or question. Creativity can be practiced here. However, be careful with
humor as the audience must share the speaker’s belief that the humor is funny!
The middle provides the message that is being delivered. The speaker must be
aware of the interest of the audience throughout this section and be flexible enough
to change his style to maintain their interest. The conclusion should summarize the
message and encourage the audience to take action if a persuasive message is
being delivered.
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14.3.3. VOCAL ELEMENTS OF SPEECH


The basic vocal elements of speech are pitch, volume, rate, quality, animation
and pause.
 Pitch refers to the tone of sounds depending upon the rate of vibration of
the vocal chords. When a speech is delivered, there is continued variation
in pitch for attributing s specific meaning the word. The variation ranges
from high–pitched soprano level to low–pitched bass level.
 Volume refers to the power of the sound and that ranges from very loud to
very soft. Rate is speed at which persons speak words.
 Rate is the degree of speed at which you speak words. Rate of delivery
must be at the level at which the audience could absorb the message.
 Animation is the vibrancy of the speech and it must be lively simulation of
the message.
 Pause refers to the breaks in speech. At the appropriate place stop for a
moment and make the people to listen.
14.3.4. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SPEECH
Academic Institutions are the only place where we can hear good speech. The
field of sales warrants good speech for getting a reasonable slice in the market
share. The characteristics of a good speech are narrated in the fo llowing few
paragraphs.
Clarity
The speech delivered for influencing the people, persuading the consumers or
convincing the employees. You should convey the facts, ideas, emotions, feelings in
an understandable language. It must be simple and easy to comprehend.
Speed
The speech must be faster and flamboyant. There is time gap between the rate
at which you can deliver the speech and rate at which the audience could absorb.
Do not allow his mind to wander and think on some other topic.
Brevity
During the speech brevity is important. Do not use unnecessary words and
show your vocabulary talent. The audience will not have patience to listen to
lengthy speeches. In the past due to admiration people listened to the speeches of
political leaders. In this knowledge age, people are conscious of time. So brevity
must be the aim of the speaker.
Attractiveness
The speaker must draw the attention of the audience and make them
interested in the speech if it pertains to themes where they evince interest. Use
quotations, jokes and stories for maintaining their interest level.
Credible
While delivering the speech give the message that is believable, convincing and
realistic. Always talk about facts and not about imaginary information.
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14.3.5. PROFILE OF GOOD SPEAKER


The qualities of good speaker vary from environment to environment.
A good speaker is lively, interested, enthusiastic, and vivid. He treats his
audience as a group of living people. He reveals his interest and talent in the
subject and make sure that the audience also show interest.
A good speaker is serious in his job. He speaks because he was invited or
wants to show his erudition.
A good speaker is a good listener. He realizes that time is precious and tries to
say something worth the time being spent by his audience.
A good speaker has a sense of responsibility to his subject.
A good speaker has a responsibility to others on the Programme. He does not
take more time than what has been allotted to him.
A good speaker has a sense of leadership; he stands up tall; he talks eye to
eye; speaks responsibility and with authority as a leader should.
A good speaker tries to be balance, sane
A good speaker keeps his sense of humour
A good speaker keeps his head. He is not carried off by his over enthusiasm or
over confidence.
14.3.6. METHODS OF SPEAKING
Once the purpose and topic has been finalized, the speaker needs to choose a
relevant method of speaking. While it is not always up to the speaker to choose the
method, in case the judgment falls on him, it is advisable to practice the method to
the finest detail. There are four fundamental ways of presenting a speech.
From Manuscript
In such a speech, the speaker generally reads directly from the paper prepared
well in advance. The style is best suited for formal occasions such as an Annual
General Meeting where shareholders need to be apprised of the company’s activities
and financial status, or during a sudden crisis situation. Since the speakers at
such occasions are accountable for each word spoken they need to be extremely
accurate about every remark. Sometimes, even the hard copy of the speech needs
to be circulated amongst a large group of audience. This style gives the person
sufficient time to prepare the speech with the exact words, phrases and anecdotes.
Thus, there is no strain on the speaker’s memory.
There is little risk of wrong grammatical pattern and the speech can be within
time limits. Moreover it allows the speaker to rehearse on different aspects of
paralanguage—tone voice and pause. However, the biggest challenge lies in the use
of different aspects of body language. In the absence of eye contact, the speaker
might fail to establish a rapport with the audience and they might lose interest and
involvement.
Moreover a prepared speech does not allow for last minute adjustments or
alterations to suit the mood of the audience or the environment. An effective way of
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overcoming the challenges is to write in simple language from the perspective of the
audience. Rehearsals and reading aloud repeatedly with proper voice modulation
and relevant expressions would allow the text to sink in memory and leave the
speaker to maintain brief eye contacts while speaking. Do not forget to keep a
neatly typed text of large print with clear markings for pauses, emphasis, humour,
etc.
From Memory
Memorized speech is one where the entire speech is memorized word-by word
and not merely for its ideas or key words. A memorized speech provides an
advantage of carefully planned and well worded text. During the speech, emphasis
can be on the delivery style by making it a little dramatic and passionate. However,
just be a little cautious. Focus on ideas and avoid putting high-sounding words.
Unlike a prepared manuscript this speech is more flexible, allowing for last
minute modifications to be done like new words, phrases, a joke or anecdote, etc.
However, it depends upon the expertise of the speaker, how well can he blend in
new ideas into the already memorized speech. There is a risk also since the
introduction of new ideas may make the speaker forget the rest of the speech a nd
he finds himself in an embarrassing situation on the stage. There are also instances
when the speaker wishes to memories only certain paragraphs, such as quotations,
verse and figures, in the speech rather than the entire speech
Extemporaneous Speech
This is by far the most desirable style and recommended for business planning
based on research and effective delivery without memorizing. Since no time is
wasted in writing or memorizing, the speaker can spend the time in doing relevant
research and making the content strong.
All the ideas then need to be organized sequentially according to the principle
of a beginning, middle and an end. The best part about this style is that even new
data or information or anecdote remembered at the last moment can be i ncluded in
the speech. Once the outline is prepared, the speaker should practice on ideas and
not the specific words. While some parts of data or quotes, etc. can be memorized,
only the central idea and the main points need to be practiced.
A successful extempore speech has an introduction that catches the listener’s
attention, introduces the theme of the speech and answers the question through
three, or sometimes two, areas of analysis, which develops an answer to the
question. The conclusion summaries the speech and ties everything together,
relating back to the introduction and body of the speech.
The extemporaneous mode of delivery for business presentations is the style
most likely to retain audience attention and make speech both credible and
interesting. The delivery style here is like a conversation and the speaker has the
opportunity to combine the already prepared content with real life experiences. The
best part is that in the absence of a script the speaker’s enthusiasm and connect
with the audience is tremendous. Since it allows the speaker to maintain eye
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contact with the audience, the speaker appears to be natural and spontaneous. The
speaker also gets feedback through the eye contact and facial expression of the
audience and can respond to audience needs. One can also go for mind mapping
which is a very effective approach to keep in mind all the points.
Mind Mapping
The mind mapping technique was developed by Tony Buzan as an alternative
to outlining. The basic idea behind this concept is that human mind thinks in
terms of images and pictures. Instead of organizing material in a traditional linear
or sequential manner, the mind map approach presents ideas in a radial, graphical,
non-linear manner. It encourages a brainstorming style for plann ing and organizing
ideas.
 Start in the centre by drawing a simple picture of the basic idea
 Then draw lines out that represents the main points you want to cover
 Use colours and symbols for visual stimulation and retention of the idea
 Use only one word per line along with the picture
 The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central
lines are thicker than the branches
 Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support
 Develop your own personal style of Mind Mappin g based on your mental
context.
 Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Map.
14.3.7. NON-VERBAL CUES
Verbal and non-verbal behaviour should be consistent to express passion and
enthusiasm for a topic. These non -verbal elements stimulate the senses of the
audience and make the speech interesting for them. The audience would feel
mentally and emotionally involved with the message. Gestures and facial
expressions are like the seasoning on a well prepared meal, adding to the
experience of a speech. Although these have been explained in detail in the chapter
on non-verbal communication here are a few tips to hi ghlight their importance in
public speaking:
General Appearance
In public speaking, it is important to remember that the audience’ first
encounter with the speaker forms the vital first impression. The posture, the
clothes and accessories, the general grooming, all contribute towards the ultimate
impact that we want to create on audience mind. The speaker needs to pay
attention to his attire and dress according to the environment and sensibilities of
the audience. Even the culture becomes a decisive factor on the appearance and its
effect on human interaction.
Posture
There is no one right posture that is always fit for all occasions. The posture
needs to be determined looking at the objective, the purpose, the type of audience
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and the message to be put across. Deciding upon the right posture, therefore, is a
matter of first understanding the environment and then going for a natural one.
The speaker who slouches conveys resignation, lack of enthusiasm, anxiety
and uncertainty and one who stands erect like a soldier fails to develop the bond
with the audiences. Some sit on the chair while talking. The sitting on the table
posture conveys over confidence, aggression and also slight informality.
Facial Expression
Facial expressions give a clue to the listener about the speaker’s involvement
with the speech. Lack of expressions on the face, to some extent is a sign of lack of
passion and enthusiasm. A confident expression on the face develops a positive
bond with the audience that creates their interest in the topic.
Eye Contact
The eye can transcend all boundaries of space. The speaker can scan the
audience sitting at the farthest corner to engage the person in the talk. Establish
eye contact with the entire audience before beginning to speak. It does not mean
looking at each one, but initially a glance across the entire room, starting from one
side and moving to the next. Look at everybody and all sides while talking. It is a
common mistake to only look at one side of the audience, or only front rows.
Movements and Gestures
Physical movement can be used by the speaker very subtly to draw and
capture the attention of the audience. By moving around, the speaker can involve
those who are otherwise feeling dull or relaxed. Gestures, sweeping movement of
the arms and head nods, help communicate and reinforce the meaning. Natural
body movements help the speaker build a rapport with the audience. It must be
noted, however that any repetitive movement is a sign of restlessness and, therefore
should be avoided. Lectern is a barrier between the audience and a speaker. Use it
only if the size of the audience or the formality of the occasion necessitate s it. If you
are comfortable enough and can use collar mike, come out of lectern as this would
help you talk with the audience.
Voice Modulation
Vocal elements serve as an important tool to support and reinforce your verbal
message. Appropriate voice modulation is essential to maintain audience interest.
Concentrate on changes of tone and rhythm. Varying tone, proper pauses, volume
and pace convey passion and energy level of the speaker and prevent the speech
from getting monotonous.
14.3.8. FORMAL PRESENTATION
A presentation is a means of formal communication, for expressing an idea or
message to an audience. It is a direct and live mode of sharing information and
interacting with a group. A presentation is not only an expression of thought or
emotion to a receiver of the message. It also means, displaying a concept to a group
of people with interest in the topic. It is a form of oral communication using visual
aids, and tools (essentially a power point) to discuss, share and generate new ideas
with a specific audience in an impressive and convincing manner.
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In the business world, face-to-face presentation is the most effective way to


reach the intended audience. The greatest advantage of a presentation is that it is a
technique whereby one person can share thoughts or communicate with many
people. The impact of the presenter is immediate and conveys the confidence,
fluency and readiness of mind. The manner in which a speaker is able to process
thoughts, organize available information and then present the same in a relevant
way is a measure of communication competency. A competent speaker is able to
make every member of the audience feel special, as if that one person is the sole
addressee. Many of us find presentations as the most difficult part of oral
communication. It is true that some people are effective presenters. However, it
does not mean that others cannot learn it. Presentation is a skill that can be
acquired with practice, patience and perseverance. Being a formal communication,
adoption of a proper strategy is essential. There is a need for goal setting,
situational knowledge, communication competence and anxiety management. It
should have a clear purpose and a logical structure. The language used is generally
formal. The delivery style needs to be a little dramatic, if audience attention has to
be sustained.
People who are working for corporate, more or less need to be good presenters.
Every area of corporate life requires presentation. It can be presenting before
existing or prospective customers, suppliers, media or people within the
organisation. It is very important to have necessary presentation skills to present
the service, plan or product before the audience. One should customise one’s
presentation according to the audience. It should be based on the level of
education, interest, requirements and suitable time of the audience. Presentation in
both forms; oral as well as written form, should be well taken care of by the
managers.
Oral Presentation Process
Here are few tips to ensure a great presentation...
1) State the Objectives: A presenter must ensure that he / she understands the
purpose of the presentation. Sometimes a good presentation fails to make an
impact because the audience is not clear what the presentation is about. A
good way to start a presentation is to clearly state / mention / include the
objectives in the presentation.
2) Analyze your audience: The presenter must find more about his / her target
audience. Whether the audience has a specific educational background or
whether they are from upper middle class or middle class. Basis the topic /
theme of the presentation, it is very important to know some specific details of
the target audience. This also helps to create a rapport with the audience
during the presentation.
3) Avoid heavy text on PowerPoint slides: Usually presentations are
associated with PowerPoint slides, however, it is always advisable to use a
blend of various forms of learning. It could be a fun activity, a short quiz, or
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small story. More often than not, these are the learning methods that generate
interest of the target audience. If you still wish to use slides, write 10 or less
words in each slide. Use bullet points wherever possible. More words on one
slide carry a risk with them - the audience will get busy in reading what is
written than what the presenter is saying or the audience might just get bored
by seeing a lot of words.
4) Rehearse... Rehearse... and Rehearse: The feeling is quite different while a
presenter is presenting LIVE than when he / she is just practicing in a closed
room. It is a good idea for the presenter to practice at the venue [if possible].
This helps him get familiar with the place and the surrounding. Also, a
presenter should make as many notes as possible and also think of possible
questions that might come up during the course of presentation.
5) Revisit the objectives: Once the notes have been made, a presenter must
critically analyze the presentation with respect to the objectives of the
presentation. He should ask himself questions like - "Does this presentation
match the objectives stated?", "Is this presentation flowing logically?" In
today’s market scenario, if a person is able to think, write, and present
persuasively, he has won half the battle.
How to improve Presentation skills?
1) Understand and explain your content
2) Organise with a beginning, middle and conclude
3) Emphasise key ideas by repeating, rephrasing
4) Use strong and convincing language
5) Use visual aids
6) Practise, Rehearse and Present
7) Prepare for questions
14.3.9. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Effective communication is a part and parcel of any successful organization. A
communication should be free from barriers so as to be effective. Communication is
a two way process where the message sent by the sender should be inte rpreted in
the same terms by the recipient. The characteristics of effective communication are
as follows:
1) Clarity of Purpose: The message to be delivered must be clear in the mind of
sender. The person to whom it is targeted and the aim of the message sho uld
be clear in the mind of the sender.
2) Completeness: The message delivered should not be incomplete. It should be
supported by facts and observations. It should be well planned and organized.
No assumptions should be made by the receiver.
3) Conciseness: The message should be concise. It should not include any
unnecessary details. It should be short and complete.
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4) Feedback: Whether the message sent by the sender is understood in same


terms by the receiver or not can be judged by the feedback received. The
feedback should be timely and in personal. It should be specific rather than
general.
5) Empathy: Empathy with the listeners is essential for effective verbal
communication. The speaker should step into the shoes of the listener and be
sensitive to their needs and emotions. This way he can understand things
from their perspective and make communication more effective.
6) Modify the message according to the audience: The information
requirement by different people in the organization differs according to their
needs. What is relevant to the middle level management might not be relevant
to the top level of management. Use of jargons should be minimized because it
might lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretations. The message should
be modified according to the needs and requirements of the targeted audience.
7) Multiple Channels of communication: For effective communication multiple
channels should be used as it increases the chances of clarity of message. The
message is reinforced by using different channels and there are less chances
of deformation of message.
8) Make effective use of Grapevine (informal channel of
communication): The employees and managers should not always discourage
grapevine. They should make effective use of grapevine. The managers can use
grapevine to deliver formal messages and for identification of issues which are
significant for the employees. The managers can get to know the problems
faced by the employees and can work upon it.
14.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Public Speaking can be a powerful tool to use for motivating, influencing,
persuading, informing or simply entertaining people.
2) A Public speech may be delivered from a manuscript or from memory. It can
also be extemporaneous or impromptu.
3) The basic vocal elements of speech are pitch, volume, rate, quality, animation
and pause.
4) A good speaker is lively, interested, enthusiastic, and vivid.
5) Non-verbal cues sent out to the audience are also very important in imparting
a holistic appeal to the speech.
6) A communication should be free from barriers so as to be effective.
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14.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS


1) Identify vocal elements of speech.
2) Outline the characteristics of good speech.
3) What is an extemporaneous speech?
4) State the profile of a good speaker.
5) Explain Mindmapping technique.
14.6. SUMMARY
Speech refers to the oral presentation before larger audience. The use of
various vocal elements such as pitch, volume, rate, animation and pause will
determine the quality of speech. The characteristics of a good speech consist of
various rudiments like clarity, brevity, speed, attractiveness and credibility. The
profile of the good speaker as pictured by Reader’s Digest present a broad spectrum
activities like showing interest in the audience, taking the speech as a serious job,
be a good listener, adhering to time allotted, interwoven the speech with humour,
maintaining eye contact and keeping the head erect are to be understood by them
in the right perspective.
14.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) _____________________ refers to the tone of sounds depending upon the rate of
vibration of the vocal chords.
2) A good speaker is a good _________________.
3) _____________________ is the vibrancy of the speech and it must be lively
simulation of the message
4) _____________________ refers to the breaks in communication.
5) Mind mapping technique was developed by _______________.
14.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) ‘Write Better Speak Better’, Reader’s Digest publication, developing
communication Mac Millian India Ltd. New Delhi.
2) bizcommunicationcoach.com
14.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Explain the profile of a good speaker.
2) Identify Vocal elements of Speech?
3) Discuss the importance of oral presentations in modern organisations.
4) Describe the ways to make effective communication.
14.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Krishna Mohan and Meera Banajei (1990) Developing Communication Skills,
Macmillan India Ltd, New Delhi.
2) Lucas, Stephen E. The Art of Public Speaking, 12 th Edition, Mc Graw Hill
Education, New Delhi.
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14.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES


The global business environment especially IT industries requires excellent
communication skill.
14.12. KEY WORDS
 Speech Objectives
 Elements of speech
 Good speech
 Profile of Speaker
 Preparation
 Extemporaneous Speech
 Manuscripts
 Mind mapping
 Effective communication
 Oral Presentation.

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LESSON – 15
COMMITTEES, SEMINARS AND CONFERENCES
15.1. INTRODUCTION
The committees are groups set up for making decisions in complex
organizations. Americans do not appreciate committee system whereas in Japan it
is preferred system of decision making. When organizations become large need for
using collective opinion become an inevitable task. Rensis Likert perceive
Committee as interlocking group where the unit chief and subordinates act as
decision making group. Committee usually has a specific operational timeframe and
become part of organization structure. Committees deal with recurring tasks. In
global business environment committee type organization may be limited to critical
issues where pooling of resources become inevitable.
15.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you should be able to
 Understand the role of committees
 Explore the responsibilities of different committees
 Know various types of meeting and how to conduct a meeting
 Explore the different ways of communications that take place in a
workplace
15.3. CONTENTS
15.3.1. Committees - Definition
15.3.2. Types of Committees
15.3.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Committees
15.3.4. Meetings
15.3.5. How to Conduct a Formal Meeting in Effective Way
15.3.6. Other Verbal Communications in Workplace
15.3.1. COMMITTEES - DEFINITION
“A committee is a group constituted by a parent body for a specific purpose to
discuss, deliberate and decide about an issue, problem, crisis and predicament”
15.3.2. TYPES OF COMMITTEES
Committees are classified on the basis of their nature of work, functions
entrusted or the powers vested with them.
 Advisory Committee
 Monitoring Committee
 Standing Committee
 Functional Committees
 Grievance Redressal Committee
Advisory Committee
Advisory committees are constituted with domain expert, for giving
professional advice but they do not take part in implementation process. Those in
advisory committee may discharge staff function and do not take the responsibility
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for implementing the advise. Normally to accommodate retire d persons or


experienced professionals such committees are created.
Monitoring Committee
These committees are appointed to oversee the progress of projects. They have
to report deviations, suggest corrective actions. They may advocate resource
transfer or mobilization of additional resources. The term of the monitoring
committee will end when the project is completed. In research review committees
are appointed for reviewing the progress.
Standing Committee
Standing Committees are permanent committees appointed for definite term
for looking after specific tasks. As per Listing agreement entered into with the Stock
Exchanges the Companies appoint committees to look after specific tasks./ for
example in Raymonds Ltd., Audit Committee, Remuneration Committee and
Shareholders Committee are appointed. In Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals
Audit Committee, Shares and Debentures Committee, Management Committee,
Audit Committee, Banking Committee, Investment committee and Investors
Grievances Committee and Remuneration Committee are in existence.
Functional Committee
In organizations, Production committee, Purchase Committee, Establishment
committee, Investment Committee and other committees are appointed to take care
of certain functions efficiently. In these committees top level managers find place.
Adhoc Committee
These committees are stop gap arrangements or temporary committees. Such
committees are appointed to meet emergency needs. This committee will bother
about the short term goals. In a way the duplication of efforts will be there.
15.3.3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMMITTEES
Advantages of Committees
 Availability of Expert opinion
 Cross Cultural effect due to decisions based on discussions
 Generation new ideas or approach in tackling critical issues.
 Enriching interpersonal relationship
 Easier Coordination
 Development of sense of participation
 Information Spread
 Shared Authority
 Trains young managers in decision making process
 Provide an opportunity for using latent talents.
Disadvantages of Committees
 Delayed decisions
 Waste of efforts in unrelated discussions
 Costly affair
 Unwanted compromises.
 Divided responsibility
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15.3.4. MEETINGS
Verbal communication occurs in meetings when participants share their ideas.
Effective meeting organizers clearly define their objective, such as whether the
intent of the meeting is to make a decision, brainstorm ideas, approve a plan,
communicate a change or get a status report. At the beginning of the meeting, an
organizer uses verbal communication to state the priorities of the meeting, the
desired outcomes and the amount of time allowed to discuss each topic. By asking
for additional input from participants, she ensures the meeting remains relevant for
everyone. The meeting organizer also ensures that every participant gets a chance
to speak without monopolizing the agenda.
Requirements for Meetings
A meeting is a coming together of (generally) three or more people to exchange
information in a planned manner and discuss issues set out before them to arrive
at decisions, solve problems, etc.
A meeting can be formal or informal. As regards a formal meeting there is set
rules for convening it and conducting it, with a written record of its proceedings. It
requires a notice which is a call, an invitation to attend it. A meeting has a
convener who calls it and a leader or chairperson who directs it.
It has an agenda or list of things to deal with, and the outcome is
systematically written in the form of minutes. An informal meeting can be without
any written notice, for instance a staff union meeting in the lunch room to discuss
a picnic.
Types of Meeting
Meetings are broadly of three types:
i. Informative, where the purpose is to give information to the participants
about a new scheme, product, etc.
ii. Consultative, in which the members are consulted to solve a problem.
iii. Executive, in which decisions are taken by those empowered to do so.
iv. In practice, most of the meetings serve more purposes than one. Some
additional classifications of meetings are – meeting for negotiation purpose,
meeting for giving instructions, etc.
Purpose of a Meeting
The purposes of holding meetings are listed here in a skeleton form:
 To reach a common decision/agreement
 To solve a problem
 To understand a situation, exchange ideas and experiences
 To inform, explain, present ideas
 To give and get feedback on new ideas
 To give training
 To plan and prepare for action
 To resolve differences and misunderstandings
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 To generate enthusiasm and seek cooperation


 To review past performance and evaluate it
 To create a feeling of continuity and solidarity in a body’s working.
In this mechanical age, union is strength, and united work is done by means
of meetings. It is estimated that worldwide, millions of meetings are conducted
every day, and their number and usefulness is on the rise.
That is why although many negati ve remarks are made about the use of
meetings; on the whole we find that meeting is a useful device of collective decision-
taking and action.
Advantages of Meetings
1) Save time - Since one can meet a number of people at a time interactively, a
meeting can save time.
2) Addressing groups - One can divide the audiences according to their
background and need, and address them group by group.
3) Cope with information explosion - New technology and new regulations are
coming thick and fast. Meetings enable us to cope wi th this situation.
4) Social and emotional support - Members get personal support from each
other when they meet and exchange ideas.
5) Feeling of being consulted - Members get the feeling that they have been
consulted and this is useful in getting their intelligent and willing cooperation.
6) Democratic functioning - Democracy aims at achieving all people’s welfare
by all people’s involvement. This is possible through meetings.
7) Idea development - Ideas are systematically cross-fertilized, analyzed and
improved by a group.
8) Defusing troublemakers - By the collectivity of constructive forces,
troublemakers can be isolated in a meeting and positive action got going. The
opponents of a plan get a forum to voice their opposition, which can be
overcome before a group of supportive people.
9) Bolder decisions - Collectively we can take more adventurous decisions
because of united strength.
10) Various interest groups represented - In a meeting many interest groups
can be represented and minorities can also be given due attention.
11) Preventing mistakes - A meeting helps to avoid mistakes by a collective and
many-angled focus on issues.
Disadvantages of Meetings
1) Time-consuming - Meetings require a number of people to come together at
the same time and place. This costs time because othe r work has to be set
aside for the sake of the meeting.
2) Inability to arrive at a decision - Just as “two heads are better than one,” it
is also true that “too many cooks spoil the soup.” Multiplicity of views and
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personal stubbornness of members may preven t a meeting from taking a


decision which a chief executive may take alone.
3) Lack of seriousness - Many meetings suffer from the drawback that members
come unprepared and feel that the others will do the thinking and talking.
They feel they can take a free ride. “Everybody’s job is nobody’s job.”
4) Inexpert chairing - Just as an airplane is steered by a pilot, a meeting is
piloted by the chairperson. His lack of skill and personal failings/biases may
fail a meeting.
5) Expensive - Meetings are expensive to arrange – they require a place,
paperwork, prior communication, and travelling by the attendees.
6) Open to disruption - A meeting is prone to being disrupted by an element
that is opposed to its objective. There are times when one passenger’s refusal
to adjust himself delays the entire flight. The same for meetings. The spirit of
give-and-take may be missing in some participants.
15.3.5. HOW TO CONDUCT A FORMAL MEETING IN EFFECTIVE WAY
A. Activities before Conducting Formal Meeting
Determine the objective - The necessity to call a meeting should be clearly set.
If the objective is clear, then it is easy to conduct a meeting.
Invite the Actual Participants - Those members whose presence is essential
should be invited to attend the meeting.
Make proper notification - The time, venue and date of meeting should be
notified to every member before the meeting through proper media.
Select and distribute agenda - An agenda is a road map which should be
determined before the meeting and must be distributed to the every member before
the meeting.
B. Activities during Conduct Formal Meeting
Starting the meeting - The chairman should greet the members and should
open the meeting.
Discussion - The chairman will highlight about agenda and will welcome the
members to deliver speech for discussion.
Point of order - If any point does not belong to legal issue or aspect can cause
any member to raise question on point of order.
Point of Information - If any member has any query can ask for clarification,
which is known as point of information.
Speaking through the chair - If any member wants to contribute in the
discussion can get opportunity if the chairman permits.
Ruling from the chair - If any controversy is found during discussion, then the
chairman can provide ruling on that and stop the discussion. His ruling is final and
binding.
Point out the decision taken - The decision reached should be clearly stated to
every member to avoid any confusion.
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State the course of action - The chairman should clearly state the action to be
implemented. Here, the consent of the members is must.
Close the meeting - When the meeting is over, the chairman declares the
closing of the meeting and thanks the members for attending and contributing.
C. Activities after Conducting Formal Meeting
The Proper recording of the minutes and thereafter its distribution to the
members should be ensured by the chairman.
15.3.6. OTHER VERBAL COMMUNICATIONS IN WORKPLACE
Business professionals demonstrating effective verbal communication skills
use spoken words to convey a message clearly and concisely. To get a message
across, the sender needs to ensure the receiver correctly interprets the words. If
not, confusion and conflict typically results. By successfully delivering a message,
business professionals describe ideas, thoughts and directives that allow colleagues
to work better together. Effective verbal communication begins by acknowledging
what the audience needs. By planning what he wants to say, how he wants to say it
and seeking feedback on how the message was received, a business professional
ensures successful communication.
The Seminar, Symposium, Conference, Colloquium, Convention, Panel
Discussion and Workshop are intellectual exercises where in the participants
discuss, deliberate and disseminate new ideas, new approaches in solving problems
concur contradict, criticize and contribute to the knowledge. In general the
academic institutions and trade associations organize such programmes for the
benefit of human resource in the industries and institutions. These exercises are
conduct at class room level, state, national or international level. Naturally the
knowledge acquisition level will also be varying in different levels.
Seminar
The Seminars are discussion in small groups where the results of original
research or advanced study are presented through oral or written reports. It
becomes a routine affair in Post Graduate and Research Institutions. In seminars
the organizers solicit research papers, scrutinize it through expert committees, edit
and publish the presentations and asked to present the paper among the
knowledgeable participants under the chairmanship of an expert. In many cases it
becomes ritual in academic institutions, where adequate time is not given
discussion and deliberations. In many cases it is waste of time and waste of effort.
Symposium
The symposium is the forum where small group of experts or well informed
persons discuss for the befit of the audience. Usually Institutions specializing in
Science and technology organize symposium in vite erudite scholars who exchange
views and than happen to be information for young scientists and technologists. A
search on the frontier of knowledge takes place for the emancipation of human
beings in their endeavour to and comfort and convenience to l ife. The proceedings
of symposium are valuable documents.
Conference
The conference is the gathering of persons with comparable interests to confer
the views, thoughts and ideas among themselves and pass certain resolutions at
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the end of the conference to strengthen their affiliation, attachment, association or


alliance to that forum, party or intellectual group. It is used for knowledge
development in academic institutions. The subject matter may be broader than the
issues discussed in Seminar or Symposium.
Colloquium
The colloquium is another participative communication process where
specified discussion groups assemble for sharing the developments in that branch
of knowledge. The nuclear scientists all over the country or world may meet and
share their research findings. The other eminent personalities in that field may
concur or contradict, challenge and convince the gathering about the need for
further search in that area for achieving near perfection in the solution to the issue
discussed, debated and decided.
Convention
This is yet another form of fellowship meeting of a closely linked fraternal
group. It is usually well structured than a conference. They discuss only matters of
professional interest. The conventions are organized by industries, trade
associations, societies and political groups.
Panel Discussion
The panel discussion is the forum where issues and not the ideological matters
are discussed. The experienced persons in that industry or field suggest measures
for solving the problems. Naturally the views may be diverse. The panel members
may try to achieve convergence in their thinking process after taking the views of
fellow members. For example the sales managers of different FMGG product
manufacturers may gather a place on the invitation of an institution to assess
changes in behaviour of buyers.
Workshop
The workshops are knowledge acquisitions process where experts impart
education or training and ask the participants to learn through simulated exercises
under the close monitoring by one or more expe rts. Here the method, technique,
process, procedure or modus operandi is taught in a systematic way. For example
in a Case Development Workshop the method by which the information can be
collected, compiled and converted as Case Study for analyzing and und erstanding
the concepts is imparted. In a ISO series workshop, the participants are informed,
educated about the systematic procedure of ISO 9000 or ISO 14000 series and the
participants are asked to evaluate the system adopted in an artificial company
whereby they acquire first hand experience in the role of lead auditors.
Workshop organizers use verbal communication to direct the activities of
participants. By providing clear instructions for group, the facilitator ensures a
positive development experience. For example, a leader describes the rules for
participating a role-playing exercises, talks about the scenario and determines how
long the activity takes. Using effective verbal communication, leaders guide
participants in researching issues, solving problems, negotiating solutions and
making decisions.
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Lectures
Using effective verbal communication, business professionals give
presentations and lectures to convey their expertise on a particular topic. Whether
a business professional provides instruction , describes a product to make a sale or
communicates a vision or strategy, he needs to keep the message clear by preparing
adequately. Using vivid language, descriptive examples and supplementary visuals,
he ensures a successful presentation. By using short words and sentences,
speakers tend to avoid confusion. Effective presenters allow time for the audience to
ask questions and provide comments.
Conversations
Conversations typically involve two people discussing a topic. Effective verbal
communication occurs during conversations when the speaker acknowledges the
sensitivity of the subject, time constraints and types of questions the receiver might
ask. If the conversation occurs face to face, successful communicators use active
listening skills such as repeating back what the other person has said. They also
resist the temptation to interrupt and allow the other person to speak up as well to
convey their thoughts. If the conversation occurs by telephone, the participants
need to pay even more attention.
15.4. REVISION POINTS
1) The Committees are groups set up for making decisions in complex
organizations
2) Committees deal with recurring tasks
3) Organizations become large need for using collective opinion become an
inevitable task
4) The seminars are discussion in small groups
5) The proceedings of symposium are valuable documents.
15.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Enlist various professional gatherings available for interchange of ideas, views
and thoughts
2) Differentiate Seminar and symposium
3) State the communication dimensions of a convention
4) Define the term “Committee”
5) Elucidate the role of committees in an organization
6) State the advantages and disadvantages of committee type organization
7) Differentiate the functions of different committees.
15.6. SUMMARY
Communication in committees is group communication. Normally consensus,
compromise, conflict resolution, pooling of intellectual resources for problem
solving are the aim of forming committees. The committees are classified as
Advisory Committees, Standing Committees, Moni toring committees, Functional
Committees and Ad hoc Committees. Committees may be formed to postpone the
decision, get the expert opinion or for unearthing the hidden talents of managers. It
has certain negative dimensions like delay in decisions, too much expenses and
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forced compromises. The seminar, symposium, conference, convention, colloquium,


panel discussion, and workshop are various forums available in larger group
communication for exchange of ideas and culmination solution and presentation of
new idea or approach in solving live problem.
15.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) The ____________________ are knowledge acquisition process
2) The ____________________ is another participative communication process.
3) _____________________ in committees is group communication
4) _____________________ may be formed to postpone the decision.
5) A search on the frontier of knowledge takes place for the emancipation of
____________________
15.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) http://www.seminar.colostate.edu
2) http://www.mindtools.com/commskill/email.communication.htm
3) http://www.effectiveconferences.com
15.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Enlist various professional gatherings available for interchange of ideas, view
of thoughts?
2) Outline the process of resource Mobilization in organizing a conference
3) Differentiate between the functions of different committees?
4) Advantages and Disadvantages of committee type Organization?
15.10. SUGGESTED READING / REFERENCE BOOKS / SET BOOKS
1) Developing Communication skill, MacMillian India Ltd, New Delhi
2) Krishna Mohan and Meera Banerji(1990), Developing communication skills
MacMillian India Ltd New Delhi
15.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
The sales Managers of different FMCG Product Manufacturers may gather a
place on the invitation of an institution to assess changes in behaviour of buyers.
15.12. KEY WORDS
 Seminars  Panel Discussion
 Symposium  Workshop
 Conference  Committees
 Colloquium  Types of Committees.

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LESSON – 16

VISUAL COMMUNICATION
16.1. INTRODUCTION
A good understanding of the different types of communication
and communication styles can help you know and deal with people better, clear up
misunderstandings and misconceptions, and contribute to the success of the
enterprise. An efficient workplace makes use of several different kinds of
communication. Verbal and visual communications are just two ways that
information and ideas travel from person to person and become integrated into the
company's methods and practices. Visual communication is done through visual
aids such as signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, color and
other electronic resources.
16.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you should be able to
 Understand the significance of visual communication
 Know the various types of visual aids
 Appreciate the support of technology in visual aids
 Utilise the technology aided communication
 Prepare and make effective presentations
16.3. CONTENTS
16.3.1. Importance of Visual Communication
16.3.2. Advantages of Visual Communication
16.3.3. Types of Visuals
16.3.4. Visual communication aids
16.3.5. Professional based on visual communication
16.3.6. Forms of Visual Communication
16.3.7. Over Head Transparencies
16.3.8. PowerPoint Presentations
16.3.1. IMPORTANCE OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION
Visual communication is the process of communicating through pictures,
photographs, posters, diagrams, drawings, tables, charts and graphic arts.
It conveys the message better than the spoken words. As the adage goes “a picture
is worth a thousand words”; such visual communication i s more powerful than
verbal and nonverbal communication on many occasions. The audience could
understand the messages better through visuals than through oral presentations.
Visual communication with graphs and charts usually reinforces written
communication, and can in many case replace written communication altogether.
The international audience could also understand the visuals better than the
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words. Technological developments have made expressing visual communications


much easier than before.
Businesses should strive for the most effective visual communication possible
when looking for alternate ways of transferring data into digestible information for
employees. Whether you're presenting sales projections, marketing strategy or
presenting a new product idea, the way you communicate your information can greatly
impact how well your audience understands. Your communication style and technique
can also heavily influence whether your audience supports the ideas and information
you present. Whether you use written or verbal communication, visual aids can
enhance your presentation and help you overcome barriers of communication.
16.3.2. ADVANTAGES OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION
The visual communication is designed and aimed at
 Quicker understanding
 Retention for a longer period
 Avoiding language and cultural barriers
 Condensing the information
 Reducing the time of presentation
Visual aids can be imaginatively designed and developed and used at
appropriate interlude to keep the audience to listen, remember and recall the
message.
 Visuals attract and hold the attention of the audience.
 Visuals provide better recall effects
 Visuals make understanding complex messages
 Visuals facilitate presentation of technical information to a non –technical
audience.
 Visuals provide breathing gap for the audience
 Visuals enrich the quality of presentation
Functions of Visual Aids
Information Processing
Since people process and digest information differently, combining visual aids
with a presentation or document can present the audienc e with various ways to
receive the information. As a result, you increase your chances of having the
audience understand what is being communicated. Some people understand things
better orally; others prefer the written word, while others prefer a graph or table.
Information Overload
A common communication barrier employers and employees face when
presenting or receiving information is that too much information is presented at
once. When this happens, it's hard to determine which information is most
important and relevant to their tasks and responsibilities. Visual aids, such as
graphs and flow charts, can condense large chunks of information into the most
important portions.
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Information Retention
If you are standing in front of a group presenting information for 30 minutes,
the likelihood of them retaining the information is slim, especially if the audience
has a hard time concentrating or is uninterested in your information. Using visual
aids, along with verbal or written forms of communication, can help the audience
retain the information.
Language Barriers
Language barriers are a common communication barrier, especially as the
workforce becomes more diverse. Nominative speakers may not fully understand
information during a verbal presentation; however, with visual aids they can
perhaps use deductive reasoning to grasp your main ideas.
Limited Time
A picture is still worth 1,000 words; thus, visual aids save time in conveying
ideas. This is true whether an employee is preparing a written report for a busy
executive or that executive has to present information to a group. Visual aids
provide a quick way to get the main points of the sales pitch or idea for product
packaging.
16.3.3. TYPES OF VISUALS
Visual aids are not limited to charts but can also include pi ctographs, pie
charts, schedules, seating charts, financial statements, drawings, videos, slides or
sketches. You can use visual aids as handouts when giving a verbal presentation,
present them on-screen or in written reports. The type of visual aids you u se
depends on the information you are presenting and the audience.
Dealing with Data
Large quantities of data can be easily and quickly made into graphic
representations such as charts, graphs and tables.
Tables
Tables are systematic arrangement of rows an d columns. Tables communicate
specific quantitative data that can easily be confused when written or spoken.
Tables can be classified as single tabulation and cross tabulation. In single
tabulation, a specific variable is presented against another variable . In cross
tabulation one set of variable is segmented for easy understanding.
Charts and Graphs
Charts and Graphs are pictorial form of presentation of data. They represent
statistics or complex numbers. These can be easily made using the computer and
serve as a handy tool for showing projections and trends. It is always recommended
to have a header and footer to the chart explaining the trend rather than Bar graph
for audience to interpret. There are different types of charts as stated below:
 Single Line charts
 Multiple line charts
 Surface charts
 Bar charts
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 Pie charts
 Pictograms
 Gantt charts
In single line chart two variables are compared, where as in multiple line
charts the sub classification one variable is presented against other variable. For
example if sales trend is compared over the years different single line charts are
prepared for different products. In multiple line charts, in a single chart, the sales
figures of different products are shown by means of different lines. The surface
chart is an area chart. The pie charts are representation of data in a circle, where
360 are divided according their share. In pie charts number of classification can be
restricted to three or four. The differentiation can be highlighted by means of
colours or patterns.
Diagrams and Drawings
When technical information is to be presented, it c an be presented by means
of diagrams and drawings. In mechanical engineering machine design are developed
by means of CAD, similar drawings in civil, architecture facilitate changes in the
drawing stage. The recipient of information can visually see and su ggest changes.
The schematic diagrams describe the sequence of activities in a project.
Maps
Maps are used to compare the demand or sales figures in different territories.
It can also be used for presenting dealer concentration in specific locations.
Mapping highlights concentration of customers and the efforts needed in a specific
location. It identifies the infrastructural facilities available for the business like
water sources and power production units, etc.
Flow Charts
The flow charts interconnect information and their direction. In systems the
preceding and succeeding activities are highlighted. It illustrates progression of
events from start to end. The geometric shapes of boxes indicate significance of
those nodal points. This chart facilitates ide ntification of locations where resource
transfer is required. In case the project is large one the interface events are
identified.
Organization Charts
The organization charts describe the hierarchical relationships. It identifies
nodes of decision making and clearly demarcates to whom a person need to report.
It shows the position, the subordinate superior and peer relationships. It depicts
the communication channels and in case strategic intervention is required the
place of intervention can be identifie d. The Graicuna advocates that organization
structure should not have more layers.
Checklist for Tables and Charts
 Use few tables and charts that are important highlights
 More items are there combine them into ca category called others
 By means of colours and patterns make the comparison easier
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 Express the entire information in same units


 Give titles which can give description about the table
 Highlight the valuable information by means of boxes or colour
 Eliminate zeros by a code given at the top right hand corner i.e all
figures in thousands, lakhs or crores.
Selecting the Right Visuals
The selection of the right visuals for that occasion is another creative task. The
under mentioned table depicts the usage of different visuals when messages of
different nature are presented.
Visual Usage
Tables To present exhaustive details and exact values
To illustrate tends
Bar charts/Histogram To illustrate trends over time
To compare one item with another item
Line/Surface charts To exhibit data or fact
Pie chart To show frequency or distribution
Scatter diagram To present correlations
Mapping To describe geographical location
Flow chart To illustrate Process or Procedure
16.3.4. VISUAL COMMUNICATION AIDS
A boring presentation dulls our senses while an exciting presentation
encourages the audience to become mentally and emotionally involved with the
message. Besides delivering a message, a presentation should also stimulate the
senses of the audience.
Since a nice visual at an appropriate place can add both depth and attraction
to the content, the visual must reinforce and complement the message. While using
the visuals in your presentation, keep the following factors in your mind:
 Ensure that the image maintain their impact and resolution when
projected on a larger screen.
 Avoid the use of flashy transitions. These features may seem impressive
at first but are distracting and also give an unprofessional look.
 Overuse of special effects, such as animation and sounds, could
negatively impact your presentation.
In order to make visual presentations, certain visual aids are used and they
are described below:
 Blackboard/Glass Board
 White Board
 Flip Charts
 Prototypes
 Video Tapes/Audio Tapes
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 Film Strip and Slide Projector


 Multimedia Projector / LCD Projectors
 Over Head Projector
Blackboard/Glass Board
It is the time tested, traditional visual aid used for generations. Here the
speaker will write important points he plans to cover in the Black board with the
help of a chalk. He will comprehend point by point. The speaker draw maps,
diagrams, tables and graphical forms of presentation to support his line of
argument. The Glass board is modern day addition for enhancing the visual effect.
The colour chalks can be used for differentiating messages.
White Board
White Boards are pleasing the eyes of the viewers. The marker pens are used
and the pollution effect of chalk dust is eliminated. This is nothing but a variant of
Black board. These are in organization not only during oral presentations but also
used to display events and dates to remember in the chamber of top level
executives
Flip Chart
Flip charts are charts or a sheet of paper used by the speaker to get questions
and feedback from the audience. It can be prepared well in hand or during the
presentation by the speaker. It is an ideal method of visual representation meant
for a small group. But it is an inappropriate method for a large setting and would
also require lots of paper/ chart.
Prototypes
A prototype is a miniature representation of something. When in your
presentation you wish to refer in some detail to a particular object, you can do so
by using a model of that object. It lends a depth of understanding of the topic/
object. It would also evoke considerable interest and attract close attention of the
audience making your explanation more meaningful and easily assumable. The one
challenge in using a model is it may impede the audience focus on the presentation
if the object is passed to the m to be scrutinized.
Video Tape
Video tapes play a critical role in communication. It is used in recording
business communication and replays it in case of disputes. In judicial inquiries,
enquiry officers use video recording for producing it as evidence. Special skill is not
required for operating this equipment. This facilitates reaching medium size
audience.
Film Strip/Slide Projector
Filmstrip Projectors are sequential transparency presentation equipments. In
the latest projectors both the film strips and slides can be used. There lights are to
be switched off and the windows are to be covered using coloured screens. Now the
remote operation facilities are available and that enhances the mobility of the
speaker during presentation.
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Multimedia Projector
The multimedia Projectors are used for power point presentation s. The
information can be stored in floppies or CDs and displayed in the halls where we
make presentations. It is easy to carry and present information in a sophisticated
form. While preparing the power point the fonts and the size are to be carefully
selected. The projector should not obstruct the audience. The computer available
must have the appropriate version to support the presentation.
Overhead Projectors
The overhead projectors facilitate transmission of information prepared for oral
presentation and reduce the strain of the speaker. It helps the speaker to cover
more points in the limited time usually allotted for presentation. The advantages
and disadvantages of using the overhead projector are stated in the following few
lines.
16.3.5. PROFESSIONS BASED ON VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS
Visual communication uses artistic license to communicate thoughts and
ideas through sight. People skilled in visual communications commonly work in
advertising, Web design, journalism and publishing, and in many cases in ow n
their studios to teach their craft. They use simple and advanced techniques to get
their message across – everything from pencils to computers. Most people get a
college degree or attend a specialized school to learn their craft.
Graphic Design
Graphic designers plan and create marketing materials that communicate
visually. They work in a variety of settings, including publishing companies,
advertising firms and corporations where they assist with advertising campaigns
and business promotions. Graphic designers also develop brochures, press packets
and fundraising programs. Some choose to work alone and freelance for clients.
Many graphic designers earn college degrees and stay current on the latest software
programs.
Art
Artists work in many creative fields, such as advertising, public relations and
set design. Others are employed as cartoonists, illustrators, art directors and
interior decorators. While many artists work for someone else, many still create
their own artwork and sell it to supplement their income. Many also teach in
schools and give private lessons. Artists often specialize in sculpture, watercolor,
oil, illustration, pastels, pencils, pens, clay or computer animation.
Photography
Photographers tell stories with their pictures to capture an d to record major
events for future generations. Photographers spend years learning their craft.
Photographers typically earn a college degree or complete specialized training at a
photography school or art institute. Many are self-employed and earn a living
photographing individuals and special family occasions, such as weddings. Others
work as photojournalists or crime scene photographers affiliated with a police
department.
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Multimedia
Professionals skilled in multimedia have solid knowledge and understan ding of
all forms of visual communication in order to produce cutting -edge communication
pieces for a client or business. For example, in order to put together an engaging
company website to attract page hits and customers, a Web page must contain high
quality photography, attractive graphic design, original artwork and, in some cases,
an attention-grabbing video.
16.3.6. FORMS OF VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS
Slide Presentations
Staff members normally create slide presentations with computer presentation
software to accompany the text of an important company meeting. Slide
presentations offer a visual element to meetings that can help employees better
understand the subject matter of a meeting and keep minds from wandering. When
a sales manager is comparing last year's sales numbers with this year's, an effective
way of making the comparison understandable is to use graphs and charts in a
slide presentation.
Memos
Many employees produce memos as a form of visual communication
electronically or on paper. In either form, the memo serves as a way to transport
information back and forth between individuals and groups. Important information
such as changes to company policies or procedures, updates on the company's
financial status or department-specific messages can be effectively communicated
using memos.
Video
Videos can be effective as training aids and ways to introduce new products to
an entire company. The human resources department can create an introductory
training video as part of new employee orientation. Other departments can create
training videos specific to their needs. When a company wants to introduce a new
product to employees, a video is an efficient way of delivering the new product
information to the entire company, allowing the company to see what the product
can do and answering questions employees might have.
Displays
In some cases, hands-on training is most effective for employee
comprehension. When a new employee is being trained on a complicated piece of
equipment, it is more effective to show the employee how the equipment works
firsthand than giving the employee books or manuals to read. Using product
displays can also be an effective way for a company to show staff members the
differences between their products and those of the competition.
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16.3.7. OVER HEAD TRANSPARENCIES


The aim of using transparencies is to support the points you want to make in
speech. The audience will be able to follow better if they can see your key points
and examples as well as hearing them. OHTs can
 Reinforce a point you have made
 Show what something looks like
 Illustrate relationships
 Show information patterns
 Present figures or graphs
 Summarise key points
 Help the audience follow passages or quotations you read aloud
DESIGN
To be effective, OHTs must be attractive and easy to read. Some basic rules
are:
 Use large fonts and images
 Present one key point or example per OHT
 Use headings and bullet points in preference to lines of text
 Use strong colours and don't use too many
 Use simple graphs in preference to tables of fi gures
 Pay attention to layout. Use the centre of the OHT rather than the edges
Using overhead projectors
Overhead projectors are designed to allow the speaker to project an image
while facing the audience. The image may be a picture or graphic, notes indic ating
the points you are making or longer texts that you want to read aloud. Whenever
you use an OHT, the attention of the audience will be divided between you and the
image, so there are a few basic rules to follow:
 Make sure the image can be seen. If possible go to the room in advance
and check that everything on your OHTs can be read easily from the back
of the room.
 If possible, make sure the projector is in a convenient position. Decide
where you want to stand when speaking and then position the projec tor
where you can get to it easily. This will usually be on the side of your body
that you normally use for writing (i.e. your left side if you are left-handed)
 Keep your slides in order in a pile next to the projector and put them back
in order in another pile as you take them off the projector.
 If possible, control the lighting in the room yourself so that there is always
a light shining on you. If your OHTs are easy to read, you will not need to
turn off the lights.
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 When you are presenting, avoid looking at the projected image and the
transparency on the projector. It is a good idea to print out your slides on
paper to keep with your notes so you can refer to them while you are
speaking.
 If you want to draw attention to a point on an OHT, put a pen on top of it
and leave it pointing at the point you want to draw attention to. Don't
point with your finger because you will have to look at the projector while
you do so.
 If you want the audience to read longer texts on OHTs (e.g. quotations or
tables of figures) give them time to do so. There is no point in putting an
OHT on the projector if the audience does not have time to read it.
 Make sure you explain the content and purpose of each OHT.
The main rule is to use OHTs to support your talk. Don't let them dominate it.
OHTs and Handouts
Some speakers give handouts for the audience to read while they are talking.
The advantage of OHTs over handouts is that they focus attention on you and your
talk. If you want to give a handout, it is often a good idea to wait u ntil the end of
the presentation before distributing it. Often members of the audience want to note
down points from your OHTs. This can distract them from following the
presentation, so it is a good idea to distribute information that the audience will
want to note down on handout. As soon as someone starts taking notes, tell the
audience that they do not need to do so because they will get the information on the
handout.
Advantages of Overhead Projectors
 Face to face contact with audience
o Time to make eye contact
o Can pick up verbal and nonverbal cues to understanding
 Projector located in front of room and near speaker for easy access
 Can be used to focus audience's attention
o On to focus attention on visual material
o Off to focus attention on speaker
 Effective in a fully–lighted room; audience can follow handouts or take notes
 Ability to modify transparencies during presentations
o Highlighting important points with transparency pen
o Writing on blank acetate film like a chalk board
 Sequence of material can be modified during presentation
o Accommodates audience questions or interest
o Can abbreviate or extend sections of presentation
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 Unframed transparencies are store and transport; easily fit in file folder
 Overlays can be used to simplify complex information into layers
 Short lead time (minutes) for preparation of transparencies
 Low cost of transparency material
Disadvantages of Overhead Projectors
 Continuous tone colour transparencies are costly
 Overhead projector is bulky and heavy to transport
 Framed transparencies are bulky and difficult to store
 Pages from books cannot be used effectively without modification since text
will usually be too small for audience to read.
 Overhead projection is perceived as being "less professional" than slides in a
formal setting.
Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors
Use ON – OFF switch to focus attention
 ON to focus attention on visual
 OFF to focus attention on speaker
 Turn the projector off when you're not using it for extended periods of time
to reduce distraction for audience.
"Chalk boarding"
 Use projector stage like a chalkboard
o Acetate sheet or roll
o Water soluble transparency pen
 Notes for presentation can be:
o Projected with presentation
o Added in conjunction with presentation
o Revealed one point at a time
 Points in group discussions can be:
o Listed to verify communication
o Used to focus further discussion
 Charts, grids, illustrations can be:
o Prepared in skeleton form prior to presentation
o Modified, filled in labelled, etc. during presentation
 Pointing for emphasis
o Concentrate attention on message being covered
o Use opaque shapes like pens, coins, arrows, etc.
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 Highlighting
o Use pen of different colour from original. (Be sure to use water–soluble
pen if you need to re–use the original transparency.)
o Use underline, circle, arrow, check, bullet, star, etc. as emphasis codes
for your audience
 Progressive disclosure with opaque cover
o Reveal topics one point at a time
o Direct attention to point being covered
o Prevent distraction
 Overlays
o Simplify complex concepts
o One part of complex whole can be presented at a time
o Parts can be joined as a whole
16.3.8. POWER POINT SLIDE PRESENTATIONS
A PowerPoint presentation is the best way to handle information and data as it
incorporates key ideas and helps track and prompt your memory. It also boosts
your confidence because you need not memorise the contents. You feel confident
since all the points are there with you and there is no choice of forgetting a few
points and groping for the content before the audience. It allows for constant
interaction with the audience and instant feedback, leaving room for adjustment.
General Tips
 Develop the presentation around two or three main messages: These
messages should summarize the essence of what you want the audience to
remember. You can have many text and graphic slides that explain each
message, but the audience will follow the presentation better if they have a
simple structure for listening.
 Remember the KISS rule: Keep It Short and Simple. Your slides should
include the key points only, with one idea per slide. A good rule of thumb is
to have about one slide per minute. A 15- to 20-minute presentation would
have about 20 slides maximum.
 Provide clear explanations of all technical terms: Inserting a text slide to
define a term is one way of helping the audience better understand technical
concepts.
 Avoid using complete sentences: Instead, use short phrases that capture the
important points. The only exception is the use of quotations, which can be
cited in their entirety.
 Follow the “6 x 6” rule: Use about six words per line, six lines per slide
(excluding the title).
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 Always use a font large enough to be seen by all audience members: Use 32- to
44-point for titles and no smaller than 28-point for the text or bulleted items.
 Avoid overuse of special effects such as animation and sounds may
negatively impact your credibility.
 Avoid the use of flashy transitions: These features may seem impressive at
first, but are distracting and get old quickly.
 Keep the visuals unified on one thought or idea.
 Keep a consistent look throughout your presentation. Use the same font, size,
color, and capitalization format.
 Use short, strong statements. Open each bulleted point with a noun or verb
in active voice, maintaining the same structure on each slide.
 Make hyperlink to web material if warranted as a supplement.
Tips on Graphics
 Use simple graphs to communicate findings: If too much information is
presented, very little will be remembered.
 Always use data label: Keep labels horizontal so that they can be easily read
by your audience members.
 Use a maximum of six slices when creating pie charts. If you wish to
highlight one slice, place it on the upper right side. You can also pull out the
slice you want to highlight.
 Use a maximum of three to four lines when creating line charts, making the
trend lines thick for easy visibility.
 Remove all superfluous gridlines from your graph so that there is nothing
distracting the audience from your message.
 Always cite the data source and place it beneath your graph
 Use two-dimensional graphs so that information is not distorted and bar
levels can be read easily. The one exception to this rule is pie charts, which
are more effective in three dimensions.
 Avoid border areas; maintain enough “white space” on your slides to ensure
that the graphics or text are easy to read.
 Always label your y-axis unless it is stated in the graph heading: To keep the
heading from becoming cumbersome, detai ls on the data can be written in a
subheading or y-axis label in a smaller (but readable) font.
 Adding photos to a data presentation can enhance audience comprehension
and interest. Photos also help put a “human face” on the numbers.
 Whenever possible, position the legend so that the text is parallel to the
bars. For vertical side-by-side bars, place the legend on the bottom. For
stacked bars, place the legend on the right. (The reverse would be true for
orizontal bars).
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DOS AND DON’TS IN POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS


Factors Do’s Don’ts
Keep slides concise Don't include too many details and
data (no more than 7 words to a line
and 7 lines to a slide)
Font size should range between 18 Don't crowd the information
to 48 (according to importance)
Use fonts that are easy to read, Don't use flashy or curvy fonts
such as Arial, Helvetica, Times
New Roman, etc.
Use uppercase letters for the first Don't use all uppercase letters (they
Text
letter are difficult to read and will appear to
your audience that you are yelling)
Leave space between the lines of Don't use abbreviations
text
Use statements, not sentences Don't use punctuation marks for
bulleted items
Use keywords to help the audience
focus on your message
Use sounds to help convey, Don't use sounds when they aren't
complement, or enhance the appropriate
Noise
message
Effects
Sounds can be distracting and can
make your presentation less effective
Limit the use of color to 2 to 4 Don't have multiple color schemes
colors/shades
Use colors that will stand out and Don't use dark colors on a dark
will be easy on the eyes (dark background (red, blue, and black
backgrounds and light text is best) should not be used together as text
Color
and background)
Remember, the colors projected
from a data projector will look
different than the colors on your
computer screen Color
Include images that make the issue Don't use too many graphics (can be
you are presenting more true to life, distracting)
so your audience will understand
Images and
and identify with it
Shapes
Only include 1 to 2 images per Don't use low-quality images (images
slide should not be pixilated) (Pixilated
images appear unprofessional)
Use shapes to illustrate complex
topics Images and Shapes
Include graphs and charts that Avoid meaningless graphs that are
show relationships, comparisons, difficult to read
Graphs and and change
Charts Illustrate your point by verbally
discussing the graph or chart
Graphs and Charts
Use transitions to help your Avoid flashy transitions (too much
Transitions presentation make more of an movement will distract your audience
impact by varying the way one slide
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Factors Do’s Don’ts


replaces another
Keep transitions to a minimum Avoid using random slide transitions
Use the same transition or a
variation of the transition
Use a data projector to view your Don't read your material directly from
presentation: Is it easy to read the the screen (use the slides as prompts,
Practice
text? Is the amount of information outlines, or conversation points, not
Your
on each slide kept to a minimum? cue cards)
Presentatio Are there any distracting elements?
n
Ask others for feedback Practice Don't leave all the lights on in the
Your Presentation room (be sure people can actually
see the screen)
Points to Ponder while using Visual Aids
 Make the objectives clear
 List out key points
 Identify appropriate visual aids
 Prepare visuals aids in a simple, sequential form.
 Never read the information displayed.
 Avoid grouping information in a complicated format.
 Cogency in the arrangements of thoughts is essential.
16.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Visuals attract and hold the attention of the audience
2) Visual Make Understanding complex Messages.
3) Visual facilitate presentation of technical information to a non -technical
audience
4) Visual provide breathing gap for the audience.
16.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) How can one understand the mindset of the audience?
2) Is it possible to develop into a good orator or is it an inborn skil l?
3) What are the common mistakes made by speakers when they face the
audience?
4) Enlist the different forms of visual communications.
5) List out the features of multimedia.
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16.6. SUMMARY
Visual communication is an important ingredient in the oral presentations.
Several gadgets are available to support the visual presentation. Audiovisual
presentation using videotapes and projectors add more value to the presentation.
The visual aids and audio visual aids mentioned above provide best support
mechanism for the speaker to make an effective presentation.
16.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) ____________________ is the process of communicating through pictures,
photographs
2) Visuals attract and hold the attention of the ____________________.
3) The ___________________ of the presentation covers the main idea of the
presentation.
4) The audience could understand the messages better through visuals than
through ____________________
16.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) The Importance of Creating Effective Visual Aids in the Workplace
2) http://www.prb.org/pdf/connectingpeoplesect3.pdf
3) http://www.ehow.com/info_8159750_types-visual-communications.html
4) Four Effective Styles of Communication in the Workplace
16.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Discuss the advantages and challenges in visual communications
2) Discuss the various visual aids used for effective communication.
3) Develop guidelines for making effective presentation using PowerPoint slides.
16.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Krishna Mohan and Meera Banerji (2009), Developing Communication Skills,
2nd Edition, MacMillan Publishers India Ltd., New Delhi.
2) Siddons Suzy (2000), Presentation Skills, University Press.
3) Neera Jain and Shoma Mukherji (2012), Effective Business Communication,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.
16.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Listen to speakers at two different venues and occasions. Write a comparative
report on their styles and tools used.
16.12. KEY WORDS
 Graphic designing
 Visual aids
 Multimedia
 Over head transparencies
 Powerpoint presentations
 Videotapes
 Organisational charts
 Flow charts.

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UNIT – V
LESSON – 17
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION – BUSINESS LETTERS
17.1. INTRODUCTION
Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is
an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for
preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Business
Correspondence is an instrument of decision making in the business world. It is the
link between people and its significance has increased with growing changes in the
modern world. Written communication is an important segment of communication
in business. The business people send numerous communications in various
formats to variety of audiences. In this global business environment, in the
computerized communication era, a clear vision about written communication is
essential for reaching out the audience.
Everyday business dealings and the ordinary activities of business world
would not be possible without effective written communication. Effective writing
involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences
formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences.
The invention of pictographs or the first written communication in the ancient
world gave us written communication. These writings were on stone and remained
immobile.
The invention of paper, papyrus, and wax, culminating in the invention of the
printing press in the 15th century, made possible transfer of documents from one
place to another, allowing for uniformity of languages over long distances.
Speech Vs. Writing
Though speech came first, writing is considered more unique and formal than
speech. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is
spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
Managers and leaders must express their ideas clearly, concisely, and
completely when speaking and writing. If the written messages aren't clear or lack
important details, people will be confused and will not know how to respond. In
addition, if the written messages are too lengthy people simply don’t read them.
17.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying this lesson you would be able to
 Understand the process of writing
 To know the form and structure of a business letter
 To recognize the different types of letters and the various letter formats
 To understand the importance of written communication
17.3. CONTENTS
17.3.1. Forms of Written Communication
17.3.2. Advantages of Written Communication
17.3.3. Disadvantages of Written Communication
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17.3.4. Importance of Effective Writing


17.3.5. Business Letter Writing
17.3.6. Form and Structure of the letter
17.3.7. Business Letter Formats
17.3.8. Types of Business Letters
17.3.1. FORMS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Written communication consists of information documented or data compiled,
classified presented to specific audience. It is presented in any one of the following
forms.
Notices
The Companies need to organize various meetings like annual general meeting,
extraordinary general meeting, etc., for which they have to issue notices in advance
to the members as per statutes. If there is need to make the information reach large
number of people for getting the best possible rate for the commodity proposed to
be soled through auction or tender, it may be notified. In the case of goods lost and
found, the founder may notify.
Agenda
The Agenda is a document that sketch out the sequence of events in the
proposed meeting. It is usually sent along with the notices and minutes of the
previous meeting. The urgent items may be included in a supplementary agenda,
which may be distributed even at the venue of the meeting. It facilitates the
members to think seriously and come prepared for the ensuing meeting.
Minutes
The minutes are record of official proceedings. It is prepared and circulated to
the members and they may bring to the notice of the chairman, in case there is
discrepancy in the minutes. The company secretaries are custodians of these
documents and they have to record the resolutions, special resolutions and other
information and inform the Registrar of Companies, if there is mandatory
requirement. Usually the date, time and venue of the meeting and the members
present are recorded in the minutes.
Handbooks
The academic Institutions, professional bodies, trade associations, Productivity
Councils often bring out handbooks which provide information about those
organizations.
These books usually contain history of the organization, the governing board,
the objectives of the organization, the programmes offered, the rules and
regulations, health and safety information, the facilities provided. It must be
presented in a simple language.
Manuals
The manual is a concise handbook about the design, drawings, operational
details Service facilities, warrantees, guarantees and other pertinent information
about the vehicles, equipments, gadgets prepared by the manufactures for the
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benefit of the consumers. Nokia users’ guide contain General information like keys,
mode of operation, SIM card insertion procedure, battering changing operation,
switch off and on, basic functions, menu operations, battery operation,
maintenance, safety information and information on accessories. Global business
operators make the manual multilingual. There are different kinds of manuals like
(i) technical manual (ii) laboratory manual (iii) procedure manual (iv) service
manual (v) user’ manual and (vi) Instructor’s manual
Research Papers
A research paper is a structured document on the research work for reporting or
disseminating the new thoughts and processes. The Chicago manual of style or MLA
style manual, Guide to scholarly publishing and Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association can be followed in deciding the style of presentation. The
research papers must present a new idea, innovation or invention in procedures,
system or products or service and the compilation of data is not research.
Technical Proposals
The technical proposals are offers given by technical experts for solving a
technical problem. It is well documented report on the feasibility of implementing
an idea along with the cost estimate and cost benefit analysis. It contains statement
of the problem, background information, scope and objectives, details of the
proposal, cost estimate, evaluation from various angles and conclusion. The style of
the report is direct, unambiguous, structured envisioning about the need for
solving the problem and its impact in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, financial
gains and other benefits.
Articles
Articles are scientific, technical, and social or research papers published in
reputed journals. These contributions enable problem solving, decision making
functions and add new dimensions to the domain of knowledge. Articles are
evaluated on the basis of its usability of the same in the operation of the
organization. Most of the leading journals screen the articles by blind review
method. In case some modifications are suggested by the reviewers, it may be
communicated to the author for rewriting or revising the article.
Literary Criticism
The literature is used in business for softening the attitude of the buyer and
for opening remarks. The critical evaluation will add capability in negotiations. It
will reduce the stress and tension in business situations. Business people read
such criticism for enhancing their lateral thinking.
Review
The review is usually done by an expert in that domain. The reviewer read the
book thoroughly, appreciates the views, criticize as a reader, and evaluate it from
the practical user’s point of view. Harvard Business review present one book review
in every issue. For example in a review written on “Leading Minds; An anatomy of
Leadership by Howard Gardner” the review expert warren Bennis quotes–Gardener
avoids the false dichotomies that mar much of contemporary literature about
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leadership–He shows us that leaders are often both pragmatists and idealists–
Leadership is always a transaction between the leader, the followers and the goal or
dream. The evaluation of the presentation, appreciation of conceptual clarity, style
of presentation, the level to which it is attuned to the present literature in the
market in that domain are analyzed and concluded with uncomplicated comments
on the utility value of the book or article.
Advertisement Copy
Copywriting in advertising is the process of creating an idea though divergent
thinking. Copy is the text of an advertisement that is a powerful description of an
idea comprising of words that are twist, pun or punch for persuading, influ encing,
reminding cajole, appealing or for impressing the potential buyer.
Brochure
The Brochure is the information sheet in the form of booklet or leaflet or
pamphlet used in marketing to reduce the oral communication efforts of
salespersons. The product description, its salient features, technical details, etc.,
are printed in a concise form and handed over to the potential customer for
inducing him to take a purchase decision.
Business Reports
Business reports contain analysis of critical factors and i ssues, development of
a clear statement of a problem, present key information and provide solution,
suggestion and recommendations. Reports are generated for monitoring and
controlling activities and for implementing new policies, procedures, rules,
regulations and system. In case Government enacts new norms for environmental
safety or for ecological balance, the units are asked to comply with those norms. At
times the functioning of the operations may be evaluated and steps are taken for
increasing productivity are undertaken and for that purpose experts may generate
reports.
E-mail
E-mail messages contain a header and body. Write the message in a way we
say in spoken words. Always compose the messages off the line. With the help of
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) large volume of messages can be
transmitted. Large volume of attachments can be sent. Just by apply reply button
the address and other information can be typed and thereby save time.
Websites
The creation of website enables global dissemination of information,
collaborative action like sharing data is possible. In the decade of E–Business,
getting orders, supply for online ordering e –payments, logistics management is
done with the information presented in websites. The trade association s share the
information about the business environment in different countries. Websites are
useful in acting as an advertisement medium and web– polls are conducted for
understanding the consumer attitude towards the product, their brand switching
behaviour and other factors that influence the volume of sales of products.
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Others
Other written communication forms like bulletins, handouts, newsletters are
used for sending required messages or information to the employees or to a closely
knit group. In advertising different written communication forms are used for
arresting the attention of the audience.
17.3.2. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
 Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies
and rules for running of an organization.
 It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record
maintenance is required.
 It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral
communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the
grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse
to acknowledge.
 Written communication is more precise and explicit.
 Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s
image.
 It provides ready records and references.
 Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid
records.
17.3.3. DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
 Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms
of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering
letters.
 Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if
they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
 Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate.
The encoding and sending of message takes time.
 Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in
language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative
impact on organization’s reputation.
 Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.
17.3.4. IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE WRITING
Effective writing is not simply a way of conveying information through a
combination of grammatically correct sentences but also a way of presenting ideas
in such a way that makes comprehension easy. To be really effective, good business
writing should help turn the reader’s focus on the idea being communicated rather
than the words or the author of the words. Thus, care should be taken by the writer
not to draw attention on oneself. Writing with grace and impact requires a careful
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and conscious effort. Such writing is often a product of training, practice and
experience.
Business Writing Differs from Creative Writing
Creative writing is an expression of the self, presented in the form of fiction,
drama, essays and poetry. The writers interpret the reality in their own subjective
way and present their own perceived version of the reality to the reader. Since they
are not expected to define truth or present reality viewed with objective lenses, they
can take liberty with the form and make experiments with the style. As a writer,
you may be passionate, humorous, witty or critical. The focus is on the writer and
the reader may appreciate or reject the idea. These characteristics almost ne ver
occur in business writing.
Business writing is direct, to the point and precise. It follows the established
format to stay within boundaries and conveys the message briefly. Any business
writing starts with understanding the purpose. It involves understanding your
audience, analyzing the situation and then determining how to address it. The
underlying purpose of most business writing is establishing or enhancing good
relationships irrespective of whether you are writing to internal audience or
external one. For this, you structure the information in such a way that the receiver
is always kept in mind. In documents such as business letter, a memo or an email,
the key components are to connect with the reader, relate the main points and then
clarify the action the recipient and writer may take.
In business report and proposal writing keeping in mind the receiver’s
requirement, you start with a problem statement, develop a hypothesis, work on
secondary data to support your arguments, collect primary data to analyze the
problem and make recommendations to seek solution to the problem.
17.3.5. BUSINESS LETTER WRITING
A business letter is a formal written message written in a conventional form for
a specific audience to meet a specific need. It is also a form of dialogue, where the
writer wants to say something and expects a response to the message. However it is
more structured as it follows a set pattern in form and style.
The process of good writing involves three basic steps - preparing, writing, and
editing.
Bovee advocates a three step writing process. He advocates the aim of effective
business writing is to convey your business ideas rather than exhibiting your
literary talents. He says the message must be purposeful, audience centered and
concise. The three step writing process is explained in the following few paragraphs.
Planning the Message
The progression of message development comprise of few stages. The first and
the foremost job is to know the purpose for which we communicate. The message
may be routine, good news, bad news or a good will message or greetings. The
second stage is to understand audience, their fame of mind, expectations and the
possible reaction of them to our message. The third one is to gather the required
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information or facts. The fourth stage is to analyze and transform the information
into message to suit the audience. The fifth stage is identifying the format in which
it needs to be presented if it is likely to be presented in the written form. The final
stage is to interlace it with positive and polite words for maintaining the long term
contact and get repeat orders.
Writing the Message
The second step is to write the message in the appropriate form. The ideas,
facts, information and data are to be compiled in a concise form i n a coherent
manner. Open the format with a clear statement on the main idea, provide details
about it in a logical sequence and conclude it with a cordial close. The global
managers understand the complication in terms of communicating the same to
different organizations in various countries with dissimilar cultural habits and
behavioural patterns and psychographic profile. This phenomenon calls for
simplicity in the writing part and use of popular words rather than occasionally
used hackneyed phrases.
Completing the Message
Though Bovee believes in compile the message, revise, produce and proof read
them to attain perfection, the author opines that the skill of producing perfect
message in one shot must be acquired in this fast changing world instead of
repeating exercise except in certain cases where the written message is prepared for
special occasion. The readability can be ensured by deciding the font, font size and
style of presentation. The print quality, alignment and insertion of photos or
graphic presentations will enrich the quality of written message.
17.3.6. FORM AND STRUCTURE OF THE LETTER
While writing a business letter, attention must be paid to build the parts of a
business letter and to the choice of format. As a letter with a poor and loose
structure cannot get the attention that it may seek correct format and standard
writing convention should be followed while designing the letter. In order to ensure
clarity of presentation, the letter should be divided into sections and sub-sections
each with a clear purpose and place in the body of the letter.
Parts of a Business Letter
A business letter includes ten elements that is sender’s address, date,
reference, inside address, subject, salutation, body, complimentary close,
signature, and enclosures.
Senders Address
The writer’s address should be put in the top right hand corner. The street
address, city pin code, telephone, fax, and email address should be mentioned. The
writer should not include his/her name or tile, as it is included in the letter closing.
If a printed letterhead is used the address should not be written again.
Date
The date line is use to indicate the date the letter was written. The month, day
and year should be written two inches from the top of the page.
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Reference
This is an optional element and may be placed below the dateline. The writer’s
reference number as well as the reference number of the recipient should be
mentioned (your Reference /our reference).
Inside address
The inside address is the receiver address include a personal title such as Ms.
Mrs. Mr. or Dr. The inside address begins one inch below the date. It should be left
justified, no matter which format is used.
Subject
This is also an optional element it may be place either before or below the
salutation. The topic of the letter should be written in phrase form.
Salutation
As salutation is a greeting used to address the receiver of the letter, it should
be, as that used it the inside address, including the personal title. Use the personal
title and the surname should be followed by a comma or colon, formal parses such
as “Dear sir/Dear madam/ Dear consumer” may also be used if the name of the
recipient is not known.
Body
As the body of a business letter contain the message of the letter, it must be
organised carefully. It should be divided into three distinct parts, that is, the
opening segment, the middle segment, the closing segment. In the first segment,
which may consist of one or more than one paragraph, a friendly opening can be
made and then a statement of the main point. The purpose of a business letter is
generally found in the opening segment. The middle segment is the part in which all
the details that support the main points are included. It may begin justifying the
importance of the main point, and the next few paragraphs may contain more
information and supporting details. The closing segment of a letter usually restates
the purpose of the letter and states what action the writer wants the reader to take.
Complimentary close
The complimentary close begins one line after the last body paragraph. The first
word should be capitalised and four lines should be left between the closing and
sender’s name for a signature. The complimentary close can be very formal (sincerely
/respectfully) or somewhat less formal (yours sincerely/yours truly/best regards).
Signature
The signature contains the writers name and the title and, in some cases, the
name of the organisation or company.
Enclosures
This is an optional element, which may be included in the letter. If any documents
are enclosed along with the letter, they should be listed at the end of the letter.
Additional elements such as those mentioned below may be included.
 Addressee notation
 Attention Line
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 Reference
 Copy notation
 Mailing Notation
 Postscript
 Mobile/Landline Number
17.3.7. BUSINESS LETTER FORMATS
There are four popular styles of business letter formatting, that is block,
modified block, semi-block and simplified. Although any of them may be used
according to the writer’s convenience and the need of the reader, consistency
should be maintained and styles should not be mixed.
Block format
The block style is a popular letter format as it is very simple and easy to use.
In this style all parts of a letter that is, date time, line inside address, salu tations,
body and so on, begin and left. The paragraphs are not indented. It is better not to
justify line ending.
Modified Block format
The modified block format is a modified version of the block style. In this style
the date line the complimentary close and the signature block begin at the centre of
the pages to align with the closing lines. The paragraphs are not indented and the
line ending are unjustified.
Semi Block Format
The semi block style is similar to the modified block format expect that eac h
paragraph is indented. The line endings are unjustified.
Simplified Format
The simplified format resembles the block style except that the salutation and
complementary close are omitted. It may also include a subject line in capital
letters. This informal style of formatting is gaining popularity.
Style and Tone
Good business letters are characterised by appropriate style and tone. An
effective style involves clear content, courtesy and consideration, conciseness,
correct tone and correct attitude. In short, the five Cs of business letters should
always be remembered.
Clarity
A clearly written letter is one that is immediately understood by the reader. In
order to be clear simple, familiar and specific work and expressions and clear
references should be used. Vague and unclear words and expressions should be
avoided it is important that the message is simple and clear so that the readers are
able to understand and respond to it accordingly. In addition, short sentences and
paragraphs should be used and the letter should separate ideas into paragraphs
and guide the render through the ideas with appropriate linkers and connectives.
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Courtesy
A good business letter must be courteous as the basic principle of business
interaction is mental understanding and respect. The letter must reflect courtesy
and consideration s the reader is under no obligation to do what the writer
requests. Positive and encouraging phrases should be used and irritating phrases
and expression should be avoided. Moreover it is important to try to build goodwill
by using goodwill expressions that might help establish a long term business
relationship.
Conciseness
Business letters should be concise and direct. The writer has to ensure that
the letter makes it point in the fewest words possible. Unnecessary words, wordy
expression, empty words, wordy compound preparations, repetitions and
redundancies must be avoided. In order to attain exact correspondence between
the message and ones written expression words should be used appropriately.
Moreover direct language should be used in order to avoid misunderstanding and
confusion. Indirect expression, rhetoric, ornamentation, or exaggeration should be
avoided.
Correct tone
Tone in a business letter refers to the manner or mood of expressi on. It helps
establish the relationship that the writer wishes to establish with the reader. A
change of tone leads to a change in the emotional effect of an expression, for
example, the sentence”Your application for the post of Assistant Manager has been
received” will have a dull effect on the reader due to its tactless tone while the
revised statement “Thank for your application for the post of Assistant Manager”
will have appositive effect on the reader due to its tactful tone. It is important to
use a tone appropriate to the situation in order to adopt ones expression to the
demands of the situation and the needs of the readers .,a tactless or negative tone
can lead to misunderstanding , resulting in a negative response from the readers
therefore the tone should be formal tactful personal and positive . Moreover a
conversational tone gives a personal touch to letters.
Correct attitude
Attitude in a business letter refers to the reflection of the opinion of the writer
on the reader. Using the correct attitude involves proper understanding of the role
of positive thinking in business interaction. The writer has to analyse the
communicative context. The following guidelines can help in using correct attitude
in business letters.
In order to establish goodwill and a positive always use and long term
relationship with the reader avoid a poor and negative attitude and a positive
attitude. This is more important in bad news letters, rejection, refusal, denials, and
complaints. Tailor the letter to the needs of the reader.
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17.3.8. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS


Inquiry Letters
Letter of inquiry
Everyday business transaction consists of writing inquiry letter that request
information or seek clarifications. We may need to write inquiry letters to
individuals firms organisation or institutions because we need some information a
letter of inquiry should be organised into three parts.
Opening
The latter should open with a clear statement that tells the reader why the
letter is being written. it is important to make the purpose of the letter clear in the
very first paragraph. Questions or information needed should be listed in a clear
and specific way.
Body
The body gives details that explain the request. The writers may tell the reader
what he/she is working on, and why he /she need the requested information.
He/she may also provide necessary details that the reader needs to know in order
to res pond to the inquiry. If the request involves more than one question they
should be listed.
Closing
The letter should be closed with a goodwill expression seeking an action –
oriented response and specifying the action that the reader should take.
Replies to the inquiry letters
Two kinds of replies may be written to letters of inquiry, that is, letters giving
the information asked for and the letters of regret.
 Letter complying with Request
A direct approach should be used in such letter; a positive response to an
inquiry may be organized into three parts
Opening : Purpose of letter
Body : Required information and other relevant details
Closing : A good will expression
 Letter not complying with request
An indirect plan should be used in such illustrate the three parts
Opening : Buffer statement which could be an expression of
appreciation, a compliment, agreement or understanding
Body : Explanation for not providing the information asked for
Closing : A good will expression
Letter Placing Orders
A letter placing an order is a straight forward written message that orders
supplies, services, or merchandise to order items by letter, the direct pattern may
be used.
Opening : Clearly follow the order language as it is a supply/purchase order
Body : listing of order items with detailed description
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Closing : Mention timeperiod for delivery and mode of payment; close with an
expression of appreciation and goodwill
Instruction Letters
A letter of instruction is a simple routine letter that consists of directions for
the reader. A letter of instruction shoul d be organized into three parts:
Opening : Purpose and instruction/instructions
Body : Details
Closing : Focus on action and courteous close
Letters Urging Action
Letters urging action are persuasive messages that urge the readers to do what
the writer wants. Motivating someone to do what we want is not simple. it needs a
tactful beginning, a reasonable approach and well -presented argument. A tactful
beginning can gain the reader’s attention while a reasonable le approach is required
to convince the audience that a request/project/proposal is worthy. A well -
presented argument is essential to motivate the reader to act. A letter urging action
may be organized into:
Opening : Gain reader’s attention
Body : Details that build reader’s interest and reduc es resistance
Closing : Motivate the action
Compliant and Adjustment Letters
Complaint Letter
A compliant letter is an expression of dissatisfaction the writer complaints
about something that is wrong, that is a defective product, bad service,
misbehavior, mistaken billing, guarantee/warranty problem, and so on. As anger
can spoil a business message, complaint letter should not vent anger. They should
be logical and persuasive based on solid facts and not on personal opinions or
emotions.
As the basic a objective of every complaint letter is to motivate change,
persuasive language has to be used. The key elements in a complaint letter are (1)
mentioning the purpose of the letter. (2) explanting what happened. (3) Convincing
the reader that your compliant is genuine and (4) motivating the reader to act.
Adjustment Letter
An adjustment letter is an attempt to satisfy and aggrieved customer, who has
the potential to damage the goodwill of the company in the market. In order to save
the reputation of the company, the letter writer has to express clear understanding
of the problem conveyed by the customer and offer reasonable solutions. The key
elements in adjustment letter are (1) appreciation and understanding. (2) Apology
and explanation. (3) Investigation and action and (4) expression of goodwill.
In today’s competitive world, a good writing must engage a reader. Whether it
is a proposal or a resume, the reader must feel involved in the write -up.
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17.4. REVISION POINTS


1) The business people send numerous communications in various formats to
variety of audiences.
2) Written communication consists of information documented or data compiled,
classified presented to specific audience.
3) The business letters expose of the personality of the individual who has
written the letter.
4) Good business letters are characterised by appropriate style and tone. An
effective style involves clear content, courtesy and consideration, conciseness,
correct tone and correct attitude.
17.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What are the various parts of a business letter?
2) What are adjustment and complaint letters?
3) What are five Cs of business letters?
17.6. SUMMARY
Written communication is an important segment of communication in
business. In this global business environment, in the computerized communication
era, a clear vision about written communication is essential for reaching out the
audience. It is the process in which words are arranged in a meaningful pattern,
structured in small sentences and every word conveys information. Business letters
are written with a view to achieve some purpose like making enquiries, responding
to enquiries, placing an order, demanding or refusing a credit, selling commodities
or services, requesting or refusing a favour, initiating or attending to a complaint,
making claims for damages, offering a discount, taking measures for maintaining
customer relationship, introducing a new product, intimating changes in terms of
sale, creating awareness about a new product, etc.,
17.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) Letters urging action are ------------------ messages that urge the readers to do
what the writer wants.
2) For a business letter to be complete it must be ___________.
3) In a modified block style layout the date is positioned at ________.
17.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Warren Bennis, The Leader as Storyteller, Book review, Harvard Business
Review, January-February,1996
2) http://www.managementstudyguide.com/written-communication.htm
3) http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/BusinessLetter.html
17.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of written communication.
2) Explain the process of writing
3) Discuss the way of writing Inquiry letters and order l etters.
4) Explain the various formats of letter with illustrations.
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17.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS


1) Meenakshi Raman and Sangeetha Sharma (2004), Technical Communication,
Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
2) Ramachandran K.K., Lakshmi K.K., Karthik K.K., and Krishna Kumar M.
(2007), Business Communication, MacMillan Publishers India Ltd., New Delhi
17.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Collect at least five responses made to complaints lodged with a company.
Rewrite with improvements.
17.12. KEY WORDS
Written communication
Business letter writing
Letter formats
Inquiry letters
Order letters
Instruction letters
Adjustment letters
Complaint letters.

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LESSON – 18

MEMOS, EMAIL AND AGENDA


18.1. INTRODUCTION
Memos are typically used within a business environment as an interoffice
communication tool and can serve many purposes. Today, emails can also be
considered a common type of memo. A listing of what is to take place during the
meeting is an agenda. Creating an effective agenda is one of the most important
elements for a productive meeting.
18.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying this lesson you would be able to
 Understand the strategies and nuances of writing memorandum
 Recognize the importance of E-mail communication
 Draft effective e-mails
 Write agenda for meetings
18.3. CONTENTS
18.3.1 Business Memos
18.3.2. Characteristics of Memos
18.3.3. Form and Structure of Memos
18.3.4. Writing Strategies of Memo
18.3.5. E-mail Messages
18.3.6. Advantages of E-mail Messages
18.3.7. Standard E-mail Practices
18.3.8. Agenda
18.3.1. BUSINESS MEMOS
The two widely recognized categories of communication in the business world
are external communication and internal communication. Internal communication
is essential for the internal functioning of any organization. It integrates the
managerial functions and serves to influence the behavior and attitude of the
people through persuasion and encouragement to contribute in achieving
organizational objectives. Typical internal communication includes business
memos.
Meaning
A business memo is a formal written message, written in a conventional form
for someone within the organization to meet a specific need. A memo, short for the
word memorandum, comes from the Latin word memorandus, which means, "to be
remembered." It is a form of dialogue, where the writer wants to say something and
expects a response to the message. It is an important means of internal
communication used to send information inside an organization. Whether a person
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is managing director in a multinational company, a sales manager in a small firm,


or a junior executive in a government department, all have to write memos.
Purpose
As business memos solve problems an act as a means of decision making, they
serve many purpose. They may
 describe problem;
 request for information or additional resources;
 contain proposal or request for proposals
 explain policy statements
 contains office instruction and guidelines
 persuade the reader to take an action
 invite the reader to business meetings con ferences
 give feedback, suggestions, or recommendations,
 seek explanations or clarifications or
 be just polite reminders
As a link between people within an organization, business memos help
members of the organizations communicate without the need for time-consuming
oral discussion, meeting, and conference.
Channels
Memos can move in all directions as they may involve any of three channels of
communication; downward, upward, and horizontal. Downwards memos are used
to communicate to the subordinates in the hierarchy of the organization. They are
primarily used to
 convey routine information such as new products or services being
introduced , new policy changes, introduction of new procedure, new
market strategies being followed, and so on
 discuss matters relating to personnel practices such as transfers,
official instructions, promotions, and so on
 seek explanations or clarification
 send feedback; and
 Give instructions.
In contrast upward memos are sent by subordinates to their superior. They
might convey grievances, compliant, suggestion findings and recommendations,
new ideas, problems, proposal, and so on. Unlike downward and upward memos,
horizontal memos are sent to peer groups or to people who are hierarchically
equivalent in organization. Although the main purpose of horizontal memos is to
develop cooperation and coordination through peer interaction between different
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individuals working in an organization, they may be sued to persuade the reader to


take an action, such as attend a meeting, and gi ve a presentation and so forth.
Students too are required to write memos. In order to be successful at the
workplace effective memo writing skills are essential. As we advance in our chosen
career, we called up on communicate with others in the organization more often
and more effectively, we may have to write memos for different purposes. We may
need to write a memo to introduce new information to the reader, like new product
or services being introduced, new policy changes, or new market strate gies being
followed ; or to persuade the reader to take an action , such as attend a meeting,
give a presentation, follow guidelines.
Letter versus Memos
Like a business letter, a business memo is a positive functional instrument of
professional exchange of business ideas, opinions, decisions, policies, and
information. As both letter and memos are forms of business writing, they follow
similar writing principles and strategies. Memos like letter are written to inform
and make request. However, a busine ss memo differs from a business letter in
several important ways.
 Unlike letters, which are used as a means to reach out to people outside an
organization, memos are used to send information inside an organization
 A memo is written in a specific format, which is different from the letter
format.
 Memos are less formal than letters
 Memos are less structured than letters
 The tone of memo is more conversational than that of a letter
 Memos contain less background explanation and information than letters.
18.3.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE MEMOS
Memos Play an important role in the decision making process in organization
by facilitating the flow of information within its various parts and units. Good
memos share certain characteristics, which include the following.
Clarity: Clarity is the first t characteristic of good memo. A memo must be
clearly written because an unclear and vague memo will confuse the reader, leading
to delay and inaction.
In order to maintain clarity in memos, the following point must be re membered
 Clear reference should be used
 Simple, familiar, and specific words and expression should be used.
 Clichés and overused proverbs and Phrases should be avoided
 Short sentences and paragraphs should be used. Ideas should be
separated into paragraphs
 Appropriate linkers and transitional signals should be used
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Conciseness: Concise and direct memos are more effective, A memo should
contain only essential information. Unnecessary explanation, repetitions, wordy
expression, and exaggeration must be avoi ded in order to ensure that the memo
make its point with the fewest words possible.
Unity of Theme: A Memo, which does not have unity of theme, distracts the
reader and ceases to be purposeful. An important way of ensuring unity in a memo
is to make sure that deals with only one topic..A single topic is developed, and
related ideas are subordinated. Focusing on a single topic helps the writer unfold
the theme logically.
Informal tone: Although a memo is a formal business document its tone is
usually informal and conversational. As the writer is likely too familiar with the
reader, personal tone may be used in memos. A very formal tone might sound
intimidating.
18.3.3. FORM AND STRUCTURE OF MEMOS
Writing memos is a professional activity that demands efforts and sincerity. In
order to write a memo that works, the correct format should be used and standard
writing conventions followed. The memo should be divided into four segments to
organise the information and to help achieve its purpose.
Parts of Memo
Standards memos contain four parts (1) Heading, (2) Opening, (3) Body and (4)
closing.
Heading
The heading segment a memo includes four elements that is, due the receipts
name, and designation, the senders name and designation, and the subject.
Date : (Complete and current)
As the date line is used to indicate the date the memo was written, it should
include the current date mentioning the month, day and year. The date given
should be placed two inches from the top of the page.
To : (Name and Designation of the Receipt)
From : (Name and Designation of the Sender)
Some experts suggest that it is enough if the designation of the receipt and
sender are mentioned against TO and FROM in layout. However, the sender may
also mention his/her name and the name of the recipient, but care should be taken
to address the render by her/his correct name.
Subject : (Topic of the Memo)
The subject line should mention the topic of the memo. In long memos, it may
included the summary of the central idea of the memo. A complete sentence
should not be used for the subject line. It should be written in a phrase form.
Opening
Most memos begin with short paragraph describing the problem that led to the
need for the memo and the basic ‘purpose’ of the memo. The opening segme nt
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thus, mentions the central idea which may include the context, the specific
assignment of task, and the purpose of the memo. These aspects are encapsulated
in works CAP/C for context. As for assignment P for purpose) while the context is
the circumstance, or background of the problem, the assignment describes the
efforts to solve the problem. The purpose gives the reason for writing the memo
The opening of memo must answer the following question:
 What is the problem?
 What led to the need for the memo?
 What is the purpose of the memo?
Body
The body of business memo contains the message of the memo. It describe,
explains, and discusses the central idea of the memo and includes all the details
that support the sender’ ideas. It may begin justifying the i mportance of the main
point, and the next few paragraphs may contain more information and supporting
details. The body may also contain brief statement of the key recommendation the
sender has reached. Appropriate graphic: techniques and non verbal data may be
used in order to highlight the main parts of the memo.
Closing
Memos should be closed with a courteous ending, stating what action the
reader is required to take. The sender can tell the readers, how they will benefit
from the desired action. If a problem is being discussed in the memo, it may be
closed by assuming up analysis of the problem and key recommendations. Thus
the closing segment of a routine memo may contain action information seeking
action-oriented response specifying the action that the reader is required to take,
while complex and long memo may also contain a summary for the main ideas
Optional Elements
A few optional elements may be used in memos as per requirements. These
elements include references, attachments, and distribution lists. It may be
necessary to provide references to other memos, letter, notice, circulars, reports
and other documents. The standard practice is the list of the references at the top
of the memo. Attachments provide supporting material for the subject of the memo
and may be included lists, graphs, diagrams pictographs, photograph, tables, and
other sources of data. A lot of attachments may either be given at the top of the
memo or at the end. Distribution list include the name of persons who might be
receiving copies of the memo.
18.3.4. WRITING STRATEGIES OF MEMO
As business memos are systematic attempts to solve problems and stimulate
thinking or action in individuals and groups, a systematic writing plan needs to be
followed. However a memo may have to be written at short notice and there may
not be time for detailed planning. That is why it is important to learn writing
strategies that help in writing effective memos.
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The following steps will help in organising and presenting a memo


systematically:
Step 1: Analysing the Problem and Purpose
Understanding/identifying the problem or context for writing the memo is the
first step in composing an effective memo. The purpose of the memo should also be
noted down in one or two sentences. In order to analyse that problem and purpose,
the following questions should be answered:
1) What is the problem?
2) Why is it necessary to write this memo?
3) How should the reader respond or act?
By answering this question briefly, it will be possible to determine what should
be covered to the memo. Therefore, appropriate background information and
supporting data should be gathered.
Step 2: Determining the needs of the Reader
A memo will be effective if the sender is able to connect his/her purpose with
interest and needs of the reader. When planning a memo , the sender should think
about it from the readers perspective. Answer to the following question should be
known.
1) Who is the reader?
2) How is this relevant to the reader?
3) What is in it for the reader?
Step 3: Determining the scope of message
In order to keep the memo precise and to the point, the sender has to select
what he/she will include in his/her memo from a wide range of supporting data.
Determining the scope and meaning of the message may involve using several
prewriting satrapies and a brain storming, mind-mapping, and free-writing. Brain
storming is a planning technique in which ideas are listed as they come to mind,
while mind-mapping is visual technique for groping ideas into categories. Free
writing is a prewriting process that allows us to express ideas without worrying
about spelling, grammatical mistakes, or organisational problem. These techniques
will help in selecting for necessary information to support the central idea of the
memo.
Step 4: Organising the message
After determining what should be covered in the memo, the message and to be
organised by selecting an appropriate pattern. There are two widely recognised
patterns to organise a memo- direct pattern and indirect pattern
Direct pattern
In direct organisational pattern, which is the most common, the sender starts
out by stating the most important points first and then move to supporting details.
Most memos contain routine information and the writer can be the memo in
straight forward manner by telling the reader what he she has in mind.
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In direct pattern, inductive reasoning I used, Thus


 Answer come before explanations;
 Request come before reasons
 Summaries come before details
 Conclusions come before discussion; and
 General statement comes before specifics.
This plan is useful for routine memos where the reader might be more
receptive.
Indirect Pattern
The indirect pattern makes an appeal or spews out evidence first and arrives
at a conclusion based on these facts,. This plan is best used when it is necessary to
arouse the reader’s interest before describing some action that should be taken. It
is also appropriate to use while saying No to something in indirect structure.
 Reasons come before requests;
 Details come before summaries;
 Background comes before conclusions; and
 Explanation come before refusals
This plan is useful for negative message or for memos that contain sensitive
information, which cannot be handled in a straightforward manner.
Step 5: Writing the first draft
Once the problem and purpose have been analysed the needs of the readers
and the scope of the message determined, and an appropriate organisational
pattern has been selected the first draft can be written. While writing the first
working draft, the following points should be remembered.
 Write quickly
 Keep the audience in mind
 Focus on the purpose of the memo
 Do not give too much thought to perfect expression
Step 6: Reviewing and Revising
Once the rough draft has been written, it needs to be reviewed, edited and
revised in order to improve the quality of its content and presentation. While
reviewing is the process of analysing whether the memo archived its purpose,
editing involves correcting its format, mechanics, grammar, spelling, and
punctuation. Revising focuses on improving the content and sentence structure of
the memos.
Step 7: Writing the Final Draft
Once the rough draft has been revised, the final draft of the memo can be
composed. While writing the final draft the following points should be taken care
of:
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 Keep the memo simple, clear, concise, direct, and readable


 Good sentence structure and clear, concise communication should be used.
 Appropriate words, short sentence and meaningful paragraphs should be
used.
 Appropriate linking devices should be used
 Graphic highlighting techniques should be applied to improve readability
and comprehension
 Important points should be emphasised.
18.3.5. E-MAIL MESSAGES
Electronic mail (email) is the medium of communication that sends and
receives messages through specially designed computer networks. With the
revolution in information technology, along with the rapid growth of the Internet,
email has become the most popular communication medium. More and more
people are spending time on the net sending email messages. There is no doubt
that due to its high speed, low cost, efficiency, email is today one of the most
important channels of communication.
Like business letters and memos, the email messages help to reinforce
professional and business relations, every day business dealings and ordinary
activities of business would not be possible without email. Email can be used both
as a means to reach how to people outside and organisation, and to send
information within an organisation. It used within organisation through spec ially
designed international computer network.
We need effective email writing skills because email can be an important
communications channel between us and our peers, subordinates, superiors, other
colleagues, customers , and several other people, we interact with regularly, we may
have to write a number of email messages everybody. As emails are faster than
letters and memos, they are used for quick transmission of information and ideas;
they serve several purposes, which may include:
 Conveying routine information, such as new product or services being
introduced, new policy, changes, introduction of new procedure, new
market strategies being followed , and so on;
 Requesting information or additional recourses;
 Inviting the reader to business meetings, conference, seminar, workshop, or
symposiums
 Containing proposal or requested for proposals;
 Seeking explanation or clarification;
 Describing problems;
 Persuading the reader to take an action , and
 Giving feedback, suggestion, or recommendations
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Writing Effective E–Mail Messages


The e–mail is an electronic message sent through internet from one computer
to another computer. E–mail messages are to be structured as per the features
advocated for written communication in this lesson and incorporate few more
unique characteristics.
E–mail messages may either be a reply to the mail received by you or you may
initiate a new mail. While replying cut and paste the question received through the
e–mail or gives the important point of that message and reply. When you initiate a
mail, clearly state the kind of response expected by you, either yes or no or a
detailed reply. Your message must be clear and simple. Understand the page layout
issues.
Though organizations send e–mail in different styles the basic structure
remains as
To : Address of the recipient
CC : Courtesy copy to persons other then the primary recipient
BCC : Blind courtesy copy–Mailing copy without disclosing the name of the
recipient
Subject : Central theme of the communication
Attachment : File that accompany the message
Message : The information transmitted by the sender
Guidelines
 Follow the under mentioned guidelines (A to Z) for using e –mail facilities.
 Avoid sending personal messages to official e–mail id.
 Brevity is essence in e–mail communication
 Compose it offline and mail it
 Design meaningful messages
 Ensure clarity
 Follow etiquette
 Goal must be clarity
 Hit the right reply button
 Initialism must be avoided
 Justify the need for sending the mail
 Keep backup of every e–mail
 Limit the use of e–mail
 Maintain chain of command
 Never send critical, insulting information
 Observe the code of sending messages
 Password must be kept as secret
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 Respect the recipient through courteous messages


 Send the files in compressed form
 Try to summarize
 Use standard abbreviations only
 Virus free attachments are essential
 Write in the correct language
 Xenophobic messages must be avoided
 Yield to the instruction of the organization
 Zealous over check will kill your time. Use filters
18.3.6. ADVANTAGES OF EMAIL
Speed: Speed is the main advantage of using email. Unlike regular mail, which
may take days or even weeks to reach its destination, email reaches its destination
instantaneously. A message can be sent quickly to anyone anywhere in the world,
distance is immaterial. Just type the name/names and email address /address of
recipient and click the mouse on the send button and your message goes.
Low cost: Low cost is yet another advantage of using the email. As sending
email does not involve printing and copying, it i s less expensive than any other
channels of communication, (that is, postal mail, telephone, fax, etc.). Ten email
messages may be sent in ten minutes and the cost could be as low as five rupees.
Moreover, the sizes of message or the distance to the receipant doesn’t affect the cost.
Quick Distribution: Email makes distribution quick and easy. Messages can
be sent to more than one person, at the same time. There is no wasting of time and
no repetition.
Flexibility: Email allows complete flexibility during composing and drafting.
While using email, the sender may be edit, revise, modify, and redesign his/her
message with printing and copying it. He /she can easily reshape email messages
before sending them. Moreover, he/she has the flexibility to receive or composes
email as per his/her convenience.
Easy attachment: It is easy to attach files , photograph, clippings, drawings,
video clips , sound recording, and so on to and email . For example, resumes,
scanner, copies of testimonials, transcripts, and other documents can be attached
to job application email.
Easy upward communication: Email is less formal and stretched than letter
and memos. It is normally in the form of a private dialogue, where the sender
wants to say something, and expects a response to the message. Thus, email
promotes easier upward communication. Will using email the sender need not
worry about a formal and fixed style of communication. He /she may follow the
norms of any set pattern of writing and is free to choose any style or pattern that
suits the content.
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18.3.7. STANDARD E-MAIL PRACTICES


As email messages are systematic attempts to collaborate with colleagues and
other professionals standard email practice need to be followed. The following
suggestion will help in organising and presenting email messages systematically.
Follow established email conventions
Every organisation maintains certain norms regarding electronic
communication. Some organisation may consider certain messages in appropriate
for the company email system. In most of the organisation , email is not used to
send confidential messages such as confidential employ reports, company secret,
matter related to organisational business, sensitive personal business dealing, and
so on it is important for used to be familiar with the established email convention of
the organisation we work in . As a rule email is not used to sent confidential,
complex, embarrassing, sensitive information. As email creates a permanent record
that can be used against the centre, it shoul d not be used to convey anything that
should not be made public.
Check mail box daily
As speed is the main advantage of using email, everyone want a quick response
to his/her email. We should check our mail box daily so that we can read every
email message sent to us and respond swiftly. In case we cannot respond because
we do not have enough information, and acknowledgement should be emailed.
Be Correct
Many people tend to be casual while sending email messages. Special care
should be taken about accuracy, which includes, both, accuracy of information, as
well as accuracy of presentation. It is very important that the sender assure himself
or herself of the accuracy of information he /she is sending before clicking the send
button. The following should be double checked:
 The electronic address or addresses of the receiver;
 The subject line,
 Basic of content of the email message; and
 Attachments.
Also, it is important to review to edit, and revise email messages in order to
improve there quality of presentation. Email messages should be reviewed to
analysis whether they can achieve their purpose. They should be edited to correct
their format, mechanics, grammar, spelling, and punctuations. The spelling and
grammar check may be used.
Be Brief
Email may be used effectively to convey non-sensitive simple messages. Email
may not be very suitable for conveying complex or non -sensitive information. So,
email messages should be short. No one likes to very lengthy email messages.
Unnecessary information, wordy expressions, reputations, and exaggeration should
be avoided. The email messages should make its point in the fewest words possible
and sentence and paragraph should be short.
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18.3.8. AGENDA
Agenda is an official list of items of business to be transacted at a specific
meeting. An agenda is a list of meeting activities in the order in which they are to
be taken up, by beginning with the call to order and ending with adjournment. It
usually includes one or more specific items of business to be discussed. It may, but
is not required to, include specific times for one or more activities. An agenda may
also be called a docket or schedule.
An effective agenda sets clear expectations for what needs to occur before and
during a meeting. It helps team members prepare, allocates time wisely, quickly
gets everyone on the same topic, and identifies when the discussion is complete. If
problems still occur during the meeting, a well -designed agenda increases the
team’s ability to effectively and quickly address them.
Preparation for a Meeting
An organized meeting needs a well -written agenda. By sticking to a detailed,
yet flexible agenda, the meeting can be kept streamlined and focused, ensuring that
the goal of meeting is achieved in the shortest amount of time.
Agenda provides an outline for the meeting (how long to spend on which
topics). It can be used as a checklist to ensure that all information is covered. It lets
participants know what will be discussed if it's distributed before the meeting. This
gives them an opportunity to come to the meeting prepared for the upcoming
discussions or decisions. It provides a focus for the meeting (the objective of the
meeting must be clearly stated in the agenda). Agenda also helps the Chairman to
control the members from going off the track and to organise the time to be devoted
to individual items.
Thus, Agenda communicates important information such as:
1. Topics for discussion
2. Presenter or discussion leader for each topic
3. Time allotment for each topic
The items of the agenda are arranged in increasing order of importance and
each item bears a number. However, almost every agenda has confirmation of the
minutes of the previous meeting as the first item and any other matter with the
permission of the Chairman as the last item. If there is any matter left over from the
preceding meeting for enquiry and report, it usually appears as the second item of
the agenda.
When the agenda is an annexure to the notice, the following information is
repeated:
 Name of the organisation
 Date of circulation
 Day, date, time and venue of meeting
 Signature of the secretary
The following sources might be used for agenda items:
 Minutes of the previous meeting
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 Suggestions received from members


 Actions and events since the previous meeting
 Correspondence on the subject
Before finalising the Chairman’s approval is to be sought.
Standard Items in Annual General Meeting
Certain items appear in almost every annual general meeting of a company
and also voluntary organisations, such as a club or an association. They are given
below:
Public Limited Company Club or Association
Director’s Report Chairman’s or Secretary’s Report
Annual Accounts Annual Accounts
Auditor’s Report Auditor’s Report
Appointment of Auditors Appointment of Auditors
Declaration of Dividend Subscriptions
Election of Directors Election of Office Bearers
However the sequence of items differs from organisation to organisation. In
some, the routine matter is placed in the beginning and in some at the end.
18.4. REVISION POINTS
Business memos are systematic attempts to solve problems and stimulate
thinking or action in individuals and groups; hence a systematic writing plan needs
to be followed.
 E-mail has replaced many traditional business documents but still needs to
follow basic principles of effective communication, including following
format.
 Always consider the advantages and disadvantages of e -mail before using it
over the traditional business documents.
 An effective agenda sets clear expectation s for what needs to occur before
and during a meeting.
18.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Define a memorandum.
2) Describe the steps involved in writing a business memo.
3) How does a memo differ from letter?
4) List out the guidelines for writing effective emails.
5) Explain the purpose of preparing an agenda.
18.6. SUMMARY
A memorandum is the most frequently used form of communication within an
organisation. It is generally brief, to the point and so professionals find it a
convenience means of communications in all directions. While many texts provide
information on how to use technologies such as the internet to access information,
few business communication texts examine the underlying nature of
communicating in a computer –mediated environment. E-mail has the potential to
provide a new type of communication in business environments.
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18.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES


1) _____________________memos are used to communicate to the subordinates in
the hierarchy of the organization.
2) Grievances and complaints are ________________ memos.
3) _______________ is a new form of business communication.
4) A well-written __________________ delivers the most important information,
without the recipient even having to open the email.
5) __________________ approval is sought before finalizing an agenda.
18.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) http://writing.colostate.edu
2) http://www.umuc.edu/writingcenter/writingresources/effective_memos.cfm
3) https://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/EmailCommunication.htm
4) http://www.effectivemeetings.com/meetingplanning/agenda/agenda.asp
18.9. ASSIGNMENTS
The General Manager of Varshini Appliances, Pune is concerned about the
wastage of paper in almost all sections of the company. Draft a memo to be signed
by him and circumlated to all employees, asking them to avoid such wastage.
18.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Krishna Mohan and Meera Banerji (2009), Developing Communication Skills,
2nd Edition, MacMillan Publishers India Ltd., New Delhi.
2) Siddons Suzy (2000), Presentation Skills, University Press.
3) Neera Jain and Shoma Mukherji (2012), Effective Business Communication,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.
18.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Assume that you have taken over as a Secretary of a Public Limited Company.
Informal discussion with the senior officers reveals, among other things, that the
growth of the organisation has been hampered because of frequent strikes by
labourers. After going through your preliminary report, the Chairman has called a
meeting of the Board of Directors to discuss the issue in depth and to find a lasting
solution to the problem. Draft the agenda for this meeting, inventing the necessary
details.
18.12. KEY WORDS
 Business Memos
 Memorandum
 Channels of Memo
 E-mail
 CC and BCC
 Agenda

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LESSON – 19

TECHNOLOGICAL AIDS TO COMMUNICATION - I


VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION
19.1. INTRODUCTION
The process of human communication has evolved over the years, with many
path-breaking inventions and discoveries heralding revolutions or a lift from one
level to another. Throughout history, developments in techn ology and
communications have gone hand-in-hand, and the latest technological
developments such as the Internet and mobile devices have resulted in the
advancement of the science of communication to a new level.
The latest revolution is the widespread appl ication of electronic technology
such as electronic waves and signals to communication, manifesting in the
electronic creation and transfer of documents over the World Wide Web.
When a person needs to communicate with a colleague within the organization
or a client across the country, one has wide choice of communication technologies.
Communications have a variety of choice of media for transmitting their message.
Oral messages can be sent by mobile phone, Voice messaging system, and sound
clips. Video conferencing technology combines oral and visual message. Written
messages can be transmitted by fax, Email, SMS, IM blog and other social
networking sites.
19.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you would be able to
 Understand the advent of internet and mobile phones as a medium of
communication
 Know the different communication technologies available for
communicating in a formal and an informal context
 Overcome the challenges of virtual communication across different
cultures
 Be aware of video teleconferencing and application of it in modern
business scenario
19.3. CONTENTS
19.3.1. Internet as Medium of Communication
19.3.2. Mobile Phone as Medium of Communication
19.3.3. Internet/Intranet/Extranet
19.3.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Virtual Communication
19.3.5. Challenges of Virtual Communication across Cultures
19.3.6. Virtual Communication Technologies for Informal Context
19.3.7. Instant Messaging
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19.3.8. Blogs
19.3.9. VoIP
19.3.10. Social Networking Sites
19.3.11. Online Forums
19.3.12. Online Chat Rooms
19.3.1. INTERNET AS MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION
Internet has undergone a transformation from primarily a source of market
information to an e–commerce platform; mingle information, transaction, exchange
of ideas and maintaining good customer relationship. It has thrown open new
challenges in the market like creation of virtual organization, creation of new
cartels, developing awareness among the potential buyers, exploiting competitive
advantage factors, ensuring payment, borderless trading and adoption of innovative
strategies. Knowledge products are being developed with the help of information
sourced from Internet. The advantages of Internet in communication domain can be
summarised as follows.
 Speed and Accurate Information
 Accessibility to information at all times
 Ocean of knowledge
 Eliminating middlemen in trade
 Curtailment of unwanted cost
 Bringing variety of entertainment at the doorsteps of consumers
 Developing telescoping facilities
 Conducting survey at Global level through E–Mail Survey
Speed and Costs
The most significant impact of technology on communication is the spread of
the Internet and the possibility of sending emails and chatting. In the pre -
information technology days, a document often required re -typing on the typewriter
before the final version. Sending the letter across a distance to someone else
required a visit to the post office and a postage stamp. Faster methods such as
telegrams had severe limitations in text and were quite costly.
Computers and the Internet have made the process of creating and editing
documents and applying features such as spell check and grammar check
automatically easy and natural. Email let us send documents to any part of the
globe within seconds, making telegrams and even ordi nary letters mostly obsolete.
The Internet has thus increased the speed of communications manifold, and
reduced the costs drastically.
Quality
The huge amount of knowledge accessible by a click of the mouse has helped
improve the quality of communication. Translating a text from an unfamiliar
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language to a familiar language, seeking out the meaning of an unknown word, and
getting follow-up information on an unfamiliar concept are all possible thanks to
the internet.
Technology allows easy storage and retrie val of communication when needed,
especially verbal communication, the storage of which was very difficult before. It
now becomes easier to rewind and clear misconceptions rather than make
assumptions, or contacting the person again to clear doubt.
Change in Style
 The invention of new gadgets such as mobile phones made communication
easier by allowing people to communicate from anywhere. An
underestimated impact of mobile gadgets is the effect they have on the
nature of communication.
 The possibility of high quality communication from anywhere in the world to
anywhere else at low costs has led to a marked decline in face -to-face
communications and to an increased reliance on verbal and written
communication over electronic mediums.
 The small keyboards on mobile phones and other hand-held devices that
make typing difficult has resulted in a radical shortening of words and
increasing use of symbol and shortcuts, with little or no adherence to
traditional grammatical rules. Such change now finds increasing acceptance
in the business community.
 Communication has become concise and short, and the adage “brevity is the
soul of wit” finds widespread implementation, though unintentionally.
Accessibility
The answer to the question of how technology has changed communic ation is
incomplete without a mention of technology's role in the democratization of
communication systems. Technology has brought down the costs of communication
significantly and improved people’s access.
The proliferation of online forums, live coverage of news, and other such
media-related initiatives have resulted in world wide access and participation in
news and information for almost everyone.
In the realm of business, access to communication or privileged information
was hitherto a major source of competitive advantage. Technology helps remove
such barriers and ensure a level playing field in this aspect for the most part.
Nature of Communication
The ease of communication and the spread of interactive communication
methods such as instant messengers and video conferencing have increased the
volume of communications but reduced their average length. People now
communicate whatever comes up instantly, and tend to break up different topics
into different communications.
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Finally, technologies integral to the Internet help spread the net of


communication by tracking down old friends, shedding light on new business
opportunities, creating new opportunities for business and personal purchasing,
and similar ventures.
19.3.2. MOBILE PHONE AS MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION
A wireless form of communication in which voice and data information is
emitted, transmitted and received via microwaves. This type of communication
allows individuals to converse with one another and/or transmit and receive data
while moving from place to place. Some examples include: cellular and digital
cordless telephones; pagers; telephone answering devices; air-to- ground
telecommunications; and satellite-based communications.
The mobile phone or cell phone is a long-range, portable electronic device used
for mobile communication. In addition to the standard voice function of a
telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services such as
SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, and
MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones
connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn
interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Mobile Phones changed the communication the individual makes with
individuals, groups and organisations. The facilities like Short Messaging Service
(SMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), enable the user to exchange
information, save them in distress, facilitates availing information, education and
entertainment while moving. It enables managing organizations even without
restricting their mobility. It enables the record of dialled numbers, missed calls,
received calls and call duration. It allows keeping the names, addresses and phone
numbers of hundreds of people and permits us to record tones, video clippings,
take photographs, makes it possible to do banking operations, investments, fund
transfers, verification of accounts, use media player, music player and radio. Mobile
phones also perform the task of time machines, calendars, reminding device,
calculator, stopwatch countdown device. It facilitates play of games. It can be
described as one of the best products ever produced as the best companion
available to any one irrespective of their status in the society.
19.3.3. INTERNET/INTRANET/EXTRANET
Internet a highly decentralized network, connecting millions of computers, is
one of the most useful communication technologies available today. Internet is
self-sustaining facility accessible by milli ons of people worldwide that has created
and entirely different globalised fabric of social life. It is the virtual space in which
communication is possible between one -to-one, one –to-many and one to group.
Users sitting at distant locations send and re ceive e-mail, login to remote computer,
browse database of information and send and receive programs contained on these
computers. The most widely used part information through millions of web pages
with web browsers (a software application for retrieving , presenting and traversing
information), such as Microsoft Internet explorer, Google Chrome and Mozilla
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Firefox. It popularity can be understood by the fact that nearly everyone, beyond
age, race, cast, color or creed becomes it’s under by simply having an access to
computer with an internet connection.
One can find any type of information on individual, product service or the help
of Telenet, one can access directories, library databases and data files of many
government and private systems organization and agencies. On-line files like full
text copies of classical texts, books, research papers and news articles make
reading and writing an interesting experience. Many other advantages make
internet a very popular and effective medium of the following.
 Networking, with the help of many news groups, these allow real
synchronous communication through ‘forums’, bulletin boards’ and ‘chat
rooms’
 Entertainment. Including video games, music, movies, chat room, and
news, accessible through the internet.
 Commercial business transaction, which allows buying and selling of
products through e-commerce
 Job searching, online banking, buying movie tickets, hotel reservations and
a variety of other consultation services.
Intranet is an internal or private computer network that is accessable only to
people within an organization, company or educational institution for the purpose
of sharing information within that the particular organization. Outsiders cannot
access the intranet, intranets are not connected in any way to the internet, and
instead they are company networks that link employees to their PCs. Intranet used
the same tools, such as browsers like Netscape navigator and standards that people
use in the Net.
The intranet is great tool that many be used to get message across the staff
members, to share and view information within the company employees can be
send e-mail and collaborate as groups. It and procedures can be stored and made
available to the employees. Employees can have access to the most advanced
information like manuals, sales data and product information in the form of
electronic documents. Information can be modified, updated and changed
immediately. Interactive idea sharing and brainstorming session can be held.
An extranet is similar to an intranet but is made accessible to only selected
external parties, such as business partner, suppliers, and key costumers.
Company information can be analyzed at periodic intervals and made available to
all approved members. It can be help in improving relationship with main or
potential customers by giving them access to correct, precise and efficient
information. It can also save a lot of meeting time and cut cost on organization
conferences.
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19.3.4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION


While on the one hand virtual communication can be highly advantageous in
our daily lives as well as for conducting business, it can also create quite a few
problems. While some people enjoy the home alone experience working by
themselves on a laptop with just a pet for company, some miss the camaraderie of
the colleagues in office. Not only do virtual teams offer flexibility, it provides large
savings as communicating and office in fracture can be done away with. Files are
stored in space and , hence can be easily accessed by all. But ‘groupware’ can be
sophisticated, expensive and unwieldy. Initially, members in a virtual team wonder
if it is possible to build trust without actually having met the person. While there is
some amount of chaos and ad-hoc decision making in the initial stage, processes
gradually fall in place and trust and efficiency develop.
Communication problem arise in virtual teams, as though team members
know what they are doing on an individual basis. The big picture remains elusive
and creates frustration. Individual members are often not sure as to how their own
contribution fits into the big puzzle. Culture plays a major role and interpretation
of the communication by the receiver may differ from the one in tended by the
sender. While command and control style of management does not work, schedules
have to be maintained. Thus methods of checks and balance have to be put in
place. It would help to make a list of the main advantages and disadvantages of
virtual communication.
Advantages of Virtual Communication
 Travel costs are nominal-conference calls vis-s-vis face –to-face meetings
 Time management is enhanced-message reaches recipient immediately and
can be read any time anywhere according to convenience.
 Increases communication flow and supports social networking and
knowledge management in organization, for example, company blogs and
wikis
 Groups of people from all over the world who would not normally
communicate are brought together and can share televised pictures,
conversations, graphics, circuits and interactive software.
 Technical tools enable higher quality communication results in faster
processing of important matters related to business finance, trade etc.
 Improved work-life balance is achieved
Virtual communication is useful not only in the case of business transaction.
Governments use it successfully to reach out to constituents in far-flung areas.
Disadvantages of Virtual Communication
Hacking and virus attacks are major concern of virtual communication.
Security of data can be easily compromised. People with malicious intent can create
havoc for the computer system and hold my functioning important work can even
be destroyed through virus attacks, as large volumes of data can be transmitted at
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a fast pace, all of it cannot be properly absorbed by the managers and employees.
The speed of transmission may even later the structure of the message can even be
modified as duplication is not difficult.
As e-mail is sent is in the form of data packets via computer network. These
data packets have to pass through a number of routers (a computer device used for
forwarding packets in the computer network) and computers before it reaches its
destination. So tampering cannot be ruled out and privacy of data is an issue.
While the data packets are transferred from one computer system to another. They
can be lost when one router transfers it to another. if the router is bombarded with
more number of data packets than its carrying capacity, the receiver c an experience
a delay in receiving it.
19.3.5. CHALLENGES OF VIRUTUAL COMMUNICATION ACROSS CULTURES
International business is highly facilitated through virtual communication as it
enables people from different cultural backgrounds to come together and offer
diverse perspective and opinion without spending time and money on travel,.
However as virtual communication prevents sharing of non -verbal gestures and
expressions, which in many cultures is a major part of the communication process.
It is also a challenge
Low context communicators who rely on the meaning of words, such as North
Americans, are likely to find it difficult to communicate virtually with high context
communication, like Indians, who will tend to deliver part of their messages with
silence or non-verbal signs. In this particular case, the virtual method of
communication itself becomes an obstacle. Video conferencing may provide a way
out as it helps to put a face to the name. Dedicated virtual chat rooms on the
corporate intranet can give people the opportunity to have more informal
conversations.
19.3.6. VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR INFORMAL CONTEXT
Instant messaging, blogging and communicating through social networking
sites are the virtual communication technologies for informal context.
19.3.7. INSTANT MESSAGING (IM) OR TEXT MESSAGING
Instant messaging or IM uses Internet technology to send and receive real time
messages to another invited Internet user, your friend or co-worker. It is mostly a
text based service, where one person types a message and the other person
immediately sees it pop up in their IM (Instant Message) window. It is a much faster
and simpler way to communicate than using email. The way it works is very similar
to email, because both IM and Email client software need to connect to a server in
order to work. IM differs from email in that conversations occur instantly, each
party viewing the typed text immediately and that no downloads are required.
Groups can also be set up so that a number of people can chat to each other
whilst online. Each person must have an 'Instant Messaging' (IM) client open on
their computer. Since instant messaging allows users to communicate in real time,
users can respond quickly to questions or comments or send notes back and forth
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to an online friend. Instant messaging in a great way to stay in touch with family
members and friend while providing with additional features such as sharing links
and files, sending and viewing videos and images.
Many corporate users have IM available on their work computers to enable
them connect with colleagues, to ask and answer questions of their team members
and to share their documents. However some organizations have strict rule against
individual installing IM on their own, because of security reasons since corporate
installed IM contains required security features. Many companies have also
adopted policies against excessive or non business use of IM.
While IM is conducted on computer, text messaging is conducted via mobile
phones using abbreviated SMS language to save time and effort. SMSes may be
sent either from one point to another point, or maybe sent to all devices within a
specific geographical region.
Applications of Instant Messaging
The Instant Messaging service finds its applicati on in many areas that include:
Business
This kind of service is used by business people to help keep in touch whilst on
the move. Imagine a work colleague is at the airport waiting for a plane connection,
they can use Instant Messaging to 'talk' to colleagues in the office - it is a good way
to keep on working (and avoid the sheer boredom of waiting for a plane!) despite
being away from the office.
Customer Support
Many online services have a web site that also has a 'chat' facility. This allows
you to make contact in real-time with a customer support assistant. For example,
you may be having a problem filling out the online order form, so you click on the
'chat' and up pops a window where you can ask a question to staff.
Home
It is also used at home. For example, you are online doing your usual stuff on
the Internet, but you have an IM window open because friends and family are also
online. You chat whilst each of you are online.
Online Gaming
Another common use of IM is with online gaming. The gamers fires up their IM
client and joins the group to chat about tactics and so on.
Pros and Cons of Instant Messaging
Advantages Disadvantages
Allows you to chat in 'real time' to As it is immediate, you have no time to reflect on the
other people who also have an IM message you are sending, unlike an email where
client. you can review the draft before sending.
IM allows you to get on with other In order to provide a free service, the IM providers
things and yet be in touch real time send adverts and popup windows to each person. If
with connected friends and you want to avoid this, you need to pay for a
colleagues 'premium' service.
Useful for customer support contact Unless you set up your IM client carefully, anyone
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instead of having to phone a can send you a message - not always a good thing.
support line.
19.3.8. BLOGS
A blog is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web.
Previously, knowledge of such technologies such as HTML and FTP had been
required to publish content on the Web. In late 1990s, the emergence and growth of
blogs coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting
of content by non-technical users. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to
maintain or add content to a blog.
A typical blog has a main page and nothing else. On the main page, there is a
set of entries. Each entry is a little text blurb that may contain embedded links out
to other sites, news stories, etc. When the author adds a new entry, it goes at the
top, pushing all the older entries down. This blog also has a right sidebar that
contains additional permanent links to other sites and stories. The author might
update the sidebar weekly or monthly.
Blogs are relatively recent development. Blogs are usually maintained by an
individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other
materials, such as graphics or video. This provide an opportunity for two -way
online communication as this is popular tool for generating interpersonal
communication models and creating new models of social interaction on the
internet. The interactivity of blog platform allows users to express their opinions,
create dialogues and interact with other by networking, making friends,
communicating and exchanging information.
A Blogger’s Code of Ethics
Bloggers should be honest and fair in gathering, reporting and interpreting
information and not indulge in plagiarism. Acknowledge and link to sources
whenever required. Reference to sources enhances the credibility of the blogger.
Make sure that weblog entries, quotations, headlines and all other content do not
misrepresent, oversimplify, distort or present information out of contexts.
Recognize the reporting information could hurt other’s sensibility or be an intrusion
into anyone’s privacy. Make a distinction between advocacy, commentary and
factual information. Even advocacy writing and commentary should not
misrepresent fact or context. Never distort the images or photos without disclosing
what has been changed. Image enhancement is acceptable only for technical clarity.
Website Vs Blogs
A typical Web site has a home page that links to sub-pages within the site. It
usually has a home page, with links to lots of sub-pages that have more details. Most
traditional Web sites follow this format. If the site is small, it is sort of like an online
brochure. If it is large, it is like an electronic encyclopedia. CNN.com is typical of this
genre. The CNN site contains thousands of articles all organized into big categories.
The categories and all the latest stories are accessed from the home page.
Basically, a blog is a lot like an online journal or diary. The author can talk
about anything and everything. Many blogs are full of interesting links that the
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author has found. Blogs often contain stories or little snippets of information that
are interesting to the author. Majority of blogs are interactive that distinguishes
them from other static websites. The blogs allow the visitors to leave comments and
even message each other via GUI widgets on the blogs. In that sense, blogging can
be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not on ly produce
content to post on their blogs, but also build social relations with their readers and
other bloggers.
Features of a Blog
The incredible simplicity of blogging is one of the things that makes blogging
so popular. But if text isn't enough for you, many blogging toolsets also allow you to
post photos, video, and audio files. You can even post via your cell phone.
 A blog is normally a single page of entries. There may be archives of older
entries, but the "main page" of a blog is all anyone really cares about.
 A blog is organized in reverse-chronological order, from most recent entry
to least recent.
 A blog is normally public -- the whole world can see it.
 The entries in a blog usually come from a single author.
 The entries in a blog are usually stream-of-consciousness. There is no
particular order to them. For example, if I see a good link, I can throw it in
my blog. The tools that most bloggers use make it incredibly easy to add
entries to a blog any time they feel like it.
Functions of Blogs
Even though blogs can be completely free -form, many blogs have a focus. For
example, if a blogger is interested in technology, the blogger might go to the
Consumer Electronics Show and post entries of the things he/she sees there. If a
blogger is interested in a certain disease, he/she might post every news article and
every piece of research he/she finds on the disease. If a blogger is interested in
economic issues, he/she might post links to articles that discuss the economy and
then offer commentary on them.
There are people who use their blogs simply as a scrapbook -- a form of online
memory. Whenever the author finds a link or a snippet of information that he/she
wants to remember, it gets posted in the blog. Even if no one else ever looks at it, it
is still useful to the author because the blog is a searchable electronic medium that
the author can access with a Web browser anywhere in the world.
In other words, a blog can be anything the author wants it to be. It consists of
discrete entries or posts typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most
recent post appears first).
Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject; others function as
more personal online diaries; others function more as online brand advertising of a
particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to
other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability of readers
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to leave comments in an interactive format is an important contribution to the


popularity of many blogs.
Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (art blogs),
photographs (photo blogs), videos (video blogs or "vlogs"), music (MP3 blogs), and
audio (podcasts). Micro blogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short
posts. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources. These blogs are
referred to as edublogs.
The Blogosphere
One thing about blogs that is so fascinating is the interlinking. There are
millions of people keeping active blogs, and bloggers often tend to look at other
people's blogs. When they see something they like in their favourite blogs, bloggers
will often link to and comment on it.
All of this tight interlinking has created a phenomenon known as
the blogosphere. The blogosphere consists of all the cross-linked blogs. Once you
arrive at one blog in the blogosphere, it will often have links that connect you to
many of the other sites in the blogosphere. You can bounce around in the
blogosphere for years if you like that sort of thing.
Creating a Blog
Creating your own blog is now easy because there are Web-based toolsets that
make the management of your blog incredibly simple -- Blogger, Xanga, Type Pad,
and Live Journal are just a few of the services available. You can create basic blogs
for free, and most of these toolsets have additional features available for a price.
There is also software (such as Movable Type) to help you create and self-publish
your blog with even more customization.
With Blogger, you have two options for where your blog can live:
 Your blog can live on the Blogger.com blog site, called Blogspot.com.
You create a custom URL for your blog and Blogspot.com does all the
work of hosting your blog.
 You can host your blog yourself on another Web site. Every time you
"publish" your blog, Blogger uses FTP to send the latest HTML code for
your blog to the chosen location.
Types of Blogs
There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of
content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written.
Personal blogs
The personal blog is an ongoing diary or commentary written by an individual.
Collaborative blogs or group blogs
It is a type of weblog in which posts are written and published by more than
one author. The majority of high-profile collaborative blogs are based around a
single uniting theme, such as politics or technology. In recent years, the
blogosphere has seen the emergence and growing popularity of more collaborative
efforts, often set up by already established bloggers wishing to pool time and
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resources to both reduce the pressure of maintaining a popular website and to


attract a larger readership.
Microblogging
Microblogging is the practice of posting small pieces of digital content—which
could be text, pictures, links, short videos, or other media—on the Internet.
Microblogging offers a portable communication mode that feels organic and
spontaneous to many and has captured the public imagination. Friends use it to
keep in touch, business associates use it to coordinate meetings or share useful
resources, and celebrities and politicians (or their publicists) microblog about
concert dates, lectures, book releases, or tour schedules. A wide and growing range
of add-on tools enables sophisticated updates and interaction with other
applications and the resulting profusion of functionality is helping to define new
possibilities for this type of communication. Examples of these include Twitter,
Facebook, Tumblr, etc.
Corporate and organizational blogs
Blogs used internally to enhance the communication and culture in a
corporation or externally for marketing, branding or public relations purposes are
called corporate blogs. Similar blogs for clubs and societies are called club blogs,
group blogs, or by similar names. It’s typical use is to inform members and other
interested parties of club and member activities.
By genre
Some blogs focus on a particular subject, such as political blogs, health blogs,
travel blogs (also known as travelogs), gardening blogs, house blogs, book blogs,
fashion blogs, project blogs, education blogs, niche blogs, classical music blogs,
quizzing blogs and legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs) or dreamlogs. How
To/Tutorial blogs are becoming increasing popular. Two common types of genre
blogs are art blogs and music blogs.
By media type
A blog comprising videos is called a vlog, one comprising links is called a
linklog, a site containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketchblog or one
comprising photos is called a photoblog. Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media
types are called tumblelogs. Blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned
are called typecast or typecast blogs.
By device
Blogs can also be defined by which type of device is used to compose it. A blog
written by a mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a moblog.
One early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's
personal life combining text, video, and pictures transmitted live from a wearable
computer and EyeTap device to a web site. This practice of semi-automated
blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance. Such
journals have been used as evidence in legal matters.
Reverse blog
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A Reverse Blog is composed by its users rather than a single blogger. This
system has the characteristics of a blog, and the writing of several authors. These
can be written by several contributing authors on a topic, or opened up for anyone
to write. There is typically some limit to the number of entries to keep it from
operating like a Web Forum.
Edu Blogs
An edublog is a blog created for educational purposes. Edublogs can be used
as instructional resources, in which teachers can post tips, explanations or
samples to help students learn. The use of blogs in the classroom allows both the
teacher and student the ability to edit and add content at any time. The ability for
both the teacher and student to edit content allows for study to take place outside
the classroom environment, since blogs can usually be accessed using the URL of
the blog on any computer. Blogs increase exposure to other students from around
the country or world, while improving writing and communication skills. Teachers
are using blogs as a way to post important information such as homework,
important dates, missed lessons, projects, discussion boards, and other useful
classroom information that is accessible by all. As noted, students can access this
information from home, or from any computer that is connected to the Internet.
There are several uses of edublogs. Some bloggers use their blogs as a learning
journal or a knowledge log to gather relevant information and ideas, and
communicate with other people. Some bloggers use blogs to record their own
personal life, and express emotions or feelings. Some instructors use blogs as an
instructional and assessment tool, and blogs can be used as a task management
tool. Blogs are used to teach individuals about writing for an audience as they can
be made public, and blogging software makes it easier to create content for the Web
without knowing much HTML.
Teachers and parents can also use blogs in order to communicate with one
another. They can be used to post class announcements for parents or providing
schedule reminders. Connecting to a teacher's blog is also a convenient way for
parents to find out daily assignments so that they can monitor their children's
progress and understand classroom expectations.
19.3.9. VoIP
VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. Voice over IP (VoIP) is a
methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications
and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony,
broadband telephony, and broadband phone service.
It is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband
Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. The term Internet
telephony specifically refers to the provisioning of communications services (voice,
fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public Internet, rather than via the public
switched telephone network (PSTN). Some VoIP services may only allow you to call
other people using the same service, but others may allow you to call anyone who
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has a telephone number - including local, long distance, mobile, and international
numbers. Also, while some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special
VoIP phone, other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP
adapter.
VoIP services convert your voice i nto a digital signal that travels over the
Internet. If you are calling a regular phone number, the signal is converted to a
regular telephone signal before it reaches the destination. VoIP can allow you to
make a call directly from a computer, a special VoIP phone, or a traditional phone
connected to a special adapter. In addition, wireless "hot spots" in locations such as
airports, parks, and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you
to use VoIP service wirelessly. Probably the most well known VoIP service is Skype.
VoIP is available on many smartphones, personal computers, and on Internet
access devices. Calls and SMS text messages may be sent over 3G or Wi -Fi. VoIP is
a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world's
phone systems.
19.3.10. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES
Social networking sites allow individuals to create a profile and formulate a list
of other users with whom they connect and communicate. It functions like an
online community of internet users. This not only allows users to interact among
themselves but increasingly become a medium to maintain and build relationship.
These new social technologies have altered the underlying architecture of social
interaction and information distribution. Social Networking sites vary in their
features and user base. Some have photo-sharing or video-sharing while others
have blogging and instant messaging technology.
The most popular social networking sites are Facebook. MySpace, Twitter,
LinkedIn, Orkut, Classmates.com, Ning, Bebo, HI5.com, Tagged and My Yearbook.
19.3.11. ONLINE FORUMS
This is an internet based method of communication. A forum, which is also
called a 'message board' or 'bulletin board’, allows you to post messages on any
topic the forum owner wants to cover.
Other visitors can read the forum messages. If they wish to reply, they usually need to
have an account with the forum organiser. Forums can also be searched by keyword so
older messages covering a topic can also be found. They are excellent repository of
knowledge.

Forums have been set up to cover almost any topic imaginable, it can be
informal, such as one for home cinema enthusiasts or they can be for professionals
such as a medical forum for doctors.
19.3.12. ONLINE CHAT ROOMS
This is an internet based method of 'real -time' communication. You join an
online chat room to talk with other people that have the same interests as you.
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The way it works is you open an account with the chat room provider and log
in to one of the 'rooms'. There you meet other people and chat to them by typing a
message.
Each message is seen by everyone else in the room. You can also send private
messages to one another, 'pm' as it is called.
Care should be there when using a chat room as you do not really know if the
person you are chatting to is who they say they are. It is better to avoid providing
any personal or location details. Chat rooms can be a fun place to be for informal
conversations and opinions.
19.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Knowledge products are being developed with the help of information sourced
from Internet.
2) Mobile communication allows individuals to converse with one another and/or
transmit and receive data while moving from place to place.
3) International business is highly facilitated through virtu al communication as
it enables people from different cultural backgrounds to come together and
offer diverse perspectives.
4) There are many teacher-related blogs on the internet where teachers can
share information with one another. Teachers familiarize themselves with
edublogs before implementing them with their students.
5) VoIP telephone calls are similar to traditional digital telephony and involve
signaling, channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signals, and
encoding.
19.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What is Extranet?
2) List any 3 social networking sites.
3) What is an online chat room?
4) Name any two types of blogs.
5) Define Networking.
19.6. SUMMARY
Successfully doing business internationally is now dependent on effective
virtual communication. Virtual communication clearly has many advantages
including increased productivity, reduced business costs and a better work/life
balance of the workforce. However, virtual communication also entails numerous
challenges and obstacles which are often neglected in light of the benefits.
Successfully doing business internationally is now dependent on effective virtual
communication. Instant messaging, blogging and communicating through social
networking sites are the virtual communication technologies for informal context.
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19.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES


1) ______________ is a private computer network that is accessible only for the
purpose of sharing information within that the particular organization.
2) A blog is organized in ______________________ order.
3) The _______________ consists of all the cross-linked blogs.
4) Video blogs are called as __________________.
5) __________ is called as a Bulletin Board.
19.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) http://www.teach-ict.com/
2) https://www.communicaid.com/cross-cultural-training/blog/the-importance-
of-effective-virtual-communication/
3) http://picturephone.com/learn/uses.html
19.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Is life really difficult without virtual communication? Comment.
2) Describe the different types of blogs and its advantages.
19.10 SUGGESTED READING / REFERENCE BOOKS / SET BOOKS
1) Neera Jain, Shoma Mukherji (2012), Effective Business Communication, Mc
Graw Hill Education Private Ltd., New Delhi.
2) Kristen Bell DeTinne, (2001) Guide to Electronic Communication, Prentice
Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey.
3) Collins Sandra D. Et. Al (2013), Communication in a Virtual Organization,
Cengage India.
19.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Speak with people and find at least five cases when virtual communication has
negatively impacted their lives.
19.12. KEY WORDS
 Virtual Communication
 Communication across cultures
 Instant messaging
 Blogs
 Edublogs
 Microblogging
 VoIP
 Social networking
 Chat rooms
 Forums

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LESSON – 20

TECHNOLOGICAL AIDS TO COMMUNICATION - II


20.1. INTRODUCTION
Technology plays an important role in supporting and enhancing language
learning. The effectiveness of any technological tool depends on the knowledge and
expertise of the qualified language teacher who manages and facilitates the
language learning environment. Internet based technologies have continued to
improve and enhance our ability to communicate with one another globally.
Technology adds dimensions to the already multifaceted domain of second language
learning, requiring new knowledge and skills for those who wish to incorporate it
into their professional practice or understand its impact on the language teacher
and learner. A transformation of the radio show form of media is also destined to
occur in the form of Podcasting. Moreover, audio and video signals are transmitted
using computers over a local area network (LAN) or telephone lines or satellites
leading to the growth of teleconferencing and video conferencing.
20.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you would be able to
 Understand the development of Computer Assisted Language Learning
 Identify the different types of video conferencing systems
 Conduct a successful teleconference
 Know how to use and make podcasts
20.3. CONTENTS
20.3.1. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
20.3.2. Advantages of CALL
20.3.3. Technology Enabled Language Learning (TELL)
20.3.4. Podcast
20.3.5. Teleconferencing (Audio/Video Conferencing)
20.3.6. Type of VTC Systems
20.3.7. Tips for Conducting a Meaningful Teleconference
20.3.8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleconferencing
20.3.1. COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is defined as "the search for and
study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning". CALL
embraces a wide range of information and communications technology applications
and approaches to teaching and learning foreign languages, from the "traditional"
drill-and-practice programs that characterised CALL in the 1960s and 1970s to
more recent manifestations of CALL, e.g. as used in a virtual learning environment
and Web-based distance learning.
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Proliferation of CALL Technology


In the early 90's education started being affected by the introduction of word
processors in schools, colleges and universities. This mainly had to do with written
assignments. The development of the Internet brought about a revolution in the
teachers' perspective, as the teaching tools offered through the Internet were
gradually becoming more reliable. Nowadays, the Internet is gaining immense
popularity in foreign language teaching and more and more educators and learners
are embracing it. In the last few years the number of teachers using Computer-
assisted Language Learning (CALL) has increased markedly and numerous articles
have been written about the role of technology in education in the 21st century.
The reasons for using Computer-assisted Language Learning include:
 experiential learning
 motivation
 enhance student achievement
 authentic materials for study
 greater interaction
 individualization
 independence from a single source of information and
 global understanding.
The barriers inhibiting the practice of Computer-assisted Language Learning
can be classified in the following common categories:
 financial barriers
 availability of computer hardware and software
 technical and theoretical knowledge and
 acceptance of the technology.
The term CALI (computer-assisted language instruction) was in use before
CALL, reflecting its origins as a subset of the general term CAI (computer-assisted
instruction). CALI fell out of favour among language teachers, ho wever, as it
appeared to imply a teacher-centred approach (instructional), whereas language
teachers are more inclined to prefer a student-centred approach, focusing on
learning rather than instruction. CALL began to replace CALI in the early 1980s
(Davies & Higgins 1982: p. 3) and it is now incorporated into the names of the
growing number of professional associations worldwide.
The current philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student-centred
materials that allow learners to work on their own. Such materials may be
structured or unstructured, but they normally embody two important features:
 interactive learning and
 individualised learning.
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CALL is essentially a tool that helps teachers to facilitate the language learning
process. It can be used to reinforce what has already been learned in the classroom
or as a remedial tool to help learners who require additional support.
20.3.2. ADVANTAGES OF CALL
Research and practice suggest that, appropriately implemented, network -
based technology can contribute significantly to:
Experiential Learning
The World Wide Web makes it possible for students to tackle a huge amount of
human experience. In such a way, they can learn by doing things themselves. They
become the creators not just the receivers of knowledge. As the way information is
presented is not linear, users develop thinking skills and choose what to explore.
Motivation
Computers are most popular among students either because they are
associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable.
Student motivation is therefore increased, especially whenever a variety of activities
are offered, which make them feel more independent.
Enhanced Student Achievement
Network-based instruction can help pupils strengthen their linguistic skil ls by
positively affecting their learning attitude and by helping them build self-instruction
strategies and promote their self-confidence.
Authentic Materials for Study
All students can use various resources of authentic reading materials either at
school or from their home. Those materials can be accessed 24 hours a day at a
relatively low cost.
Greater Interaction
Random access to Web pages breaks the linear flow of instruction. By sending
E-mail and joining newsgroups, EFL students can communicate with people they
have never met. They can also interact with their own classmates. Furthermore,
some Internet activities give students positive and negative feedback by
automatically correcting their on-line exercises.
Individualization
Shy or inhibited students can be greatly benefited by individualized, student-
centered collaborative learning. High fliers can also realize their full potential
without preventing their peers from working at their own pace.
Independence from a Single Source of Information
Although students can still use their books, they are given the chance to
escape from canned knowledge and discover thousands of information sources. As
a result, their education fulfils the need for interdisciplinary learning in a
multicultural world.
Global Understanding
A foreign language is studied in a cultural context. In a world where the use of
the Internet becomes more and more widespread, an English Language teacher's
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duty is to facilitate students' access to the web and make them feel citizens of a
global classroom, practicing communication on a global level.
20.3.3. TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LANGUAGE LEARNING (TELL)
Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) refers to the use of the
computer as a technological innovation to display multimedia as a means of
complementing a teaching method language teacher. What's important to note is
that TELL is not a teaching method but rather an approach that can be used
alongside a teaching method to help teach. TELL is very supportive of Computer
Mediated Communication (CMC).
Technology-enhanced language learning uses computer technology, including
hardware, software, and the internet to enhance the teaching and learning of
languages by,
 Using a hand-held electronic dictionary to look up a word in class
 Chatting with a friend on Instant Messenger using a little English
 Reading news website
 Creating a video and posting it on YouTube
 Participating in an online discussion board
 Listening pop song and reading the lyrics online
 Doing a computer-based language exercise from the CD that comes with a
textbook
 Searching for a word in a corpus to see how it’s used.
 Texting a classmate in English
Types of Media using TELL
1) Sound (audio): Radio broadcasts, Recorded playback of speeches, Recorded
storytelling
2) Films (video + audio): Short films, Interviews, Full length full feature movies
3) Images/Graphics: Charts, Paintings, Photos
4) Texts: Essays, Journals, Articles, Email, Chatting, Books
20.3.4. PODCAST
The Internet world's form of broadcasting, known as podcasting, is the new
face of radio journalism in a technology driven era. Podcasts are digital media files
(most often audio, but they can be video as well), which are produced in a series. A
podcast, simply put, is no different than a webcast, a show that is broadcast over
the web and is broken up into parts or episodes.
Most podcasts are similar to news radio programs and deliver information on a
regular basis, while some podcasts are comedy shows, special music broadcasts or
even gospel. You can subscribe to a series of files, or podcast, by using a piece of
software called a podcatcher. Once you subscribe, your podcatcher periodically
checks to see if any new files have been published, and if so, automatically
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downloads them onto your computer or portable music player for you to listen to or
watch, whenever you wish.
Podcasting combines the freedom of blogging with digital audio technology to
create an almost endless supply of content. Some say this new technology is
democratizing the once corporate-run world of radio. Podcasting is a free service
that allows Internet users to pull audio files (typically MP3s) from a podcasting Web
site to listen to on their computers or personal digital audio players.
Pod cast – Meaning
The term comes from a combination of the words ‘iPod’ (a personal digital
audio player made by Apple) and ‘broadcasting’. Podcasts are most popular on
Apple's iPod and iPhone devices, hence the name podcast. Even though the term is
derived from the iPod, you don't need an iPod to listen to a podcast. It can be
enjoyed from a number of different sources, virtually any portable media player,
and can even be listened to directly on a computer.
Why Do People Tune In?
Podcasting attracts people who want the ability to choose their own content
(much like using the Internet), i nstead of the TV and radio model of broadcast
where you tune in and select from one of the programs playing. It shares common
ground with other time shifting technologies like TIVO, which allow you to
download programs, automatically record those programs and watch whenever you
want. Many people like the convenience of always having fresh material loaded on
their iPods or personal music players, and listen to their podcasts throughout the
day.
Many consider podcasting an alternative to commercial radio and TV, because
the low cost of producing a podcast allows more voices and viewpoints to be heard.
Also, unlike TV and radio, which produce programs for mass consumption,
podcasts are “narrowcasts,” where only those interested in a certain topic seek out
programs and sign up to listen. There are thousands of podcasts which target very
specific niche interests, producing communities around topics which are too
obscure for traditional broadcasting to cover.
Why Do People Make Podcasts?
Podcasting is an easy and powerful way to communicate your ideas and
messages. You can potentially reach anyone with a broadband connection who is
searching for podcasts and subscribes to your show. People who start podcasts
usually want to deliver their content in a series, stretched out over a period of time.
There are minimal equipment and start up costs if you already own a computer,
and so this allows anyone who ever dreamed of owning a radio station (and some
who didn't) the chance to transmit their ideas far beyond the reach o f a radio
transmitter.
Podcasters often start shows with the intention of building online
communities, and often solicit comments and feedback on their programs. People
use web blogs, groups, and forums to communicate with other listeners and the
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show's producers. Businesses are beginning to realize that podcasting is a cheap


way to advertise to groups with very specific interests. Many large companies are
starting to produce podcasts, both to communicate with their customers, and also
with their own employees.
Using Podcasts in iTunes
For those who own Apple devices like iPods or are simply interested in enjoying
podcasts from the computer, obtaining Apple's iTunes is an important first step.
Apple offers free download of the iTunes software on their website if it is not already
installed.
 An iTunes account must also be registered in order to access the online
podcast library and other Internet based features of iTunes.
 After iTunes has been initially set up, podcasts can be downloaded directly
in iTunes.
 Click on the Podcast Directory link to begin viewing the library of available
podcasts.
 Click on any relevant podcast to expand it and see the episode listing. Single
episodes may be selected or the entire podcast may be played by double -
clicking on the podcast.
 To find a specific podcast in iTunes, click on the arrow next to the Podcast
Directory button.
 After clicking the arrow, type your search for the author, subject, or title of
the podcast into the search box in the left column or at the top right o f the
iTunes screen.
Saving a podcast
 Clicking the Source button gives listeners a list of older podcasts that can be
downloaded and saved in the iTunes library.
 Users can also configure options to determine how often new episodes
should be downloaded making it easy to keep up to date with all of a
listener's favorite podcasts.
Syncing Podcasts with an iPod
 Podcast listeners wanting to get their podcast fix on the go can use iTunes to
quickly and easily sync their podcasts with their Apple device.
 After subscribing to podcasts, plug an Apple device into the computer
running iTunes.
 After iTunes recognizes the device, click on the device's icon in the left-hand
column to access the device settings.
 Clicking on the podcast tab will present the user with n umber of options to
configure which podcasts should be synced to the device every time the
device is connected and which podcasts should be automatically updated,
making podcasts easy to manage in the device's library.
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 Users may even specify how many episodes of each podcast they want to
keep synced with the device at any given time, helping conserve disk space
on the iPod.
 After syncing podcasts with an iPod, they can be accessed in the iPod's
library under the "Podcast" directory and can be played just l ike any music
file stored on the device.
Using Podcasts with Other Media Player Software
Some users prefer to listen to their podcasts with software alternatives to
iTunes. To listen to podcasts located on iTunes in another media player, follow
these steps:
 Right-click on any podcast in iTunes and select the "Copy Podcast URL"
option.
 This URL can be copied into the address bar of most media players.
 For podcasts found elsewhere on the Internet, simply right click the link to
the podcast
 Choose to "Copy Link Information" to obtain another URL that can be copied
to other media players.
20.3.5. TELECONFERENCING (AUDIO/VIDEO CONFERENCING)
Teleconferencing allows people in different locations to talk to each other as a
group. This is also known as an Audio-conference or simply a 'Conference Call'.It
works by each person 'logging on' to the conference call. When you switch on your
conference call device and enter your user ID number, an automatic voice saying
something like "Mr Jones has joined the conference" is broadcast. Everyone says
hello and carries on with the meeting.
Video conferencing is similar to teleconferencing except that people in the
meeting can now see one another because video cameras are used to send live
images over telephone lines. Now that broadband is offering good speeds, video
conferencing with friends and family is also popular.
Video Teleconferencing (VTC) is a communication technology that permits
users at two or more different locations to interact by creating a face -to-face
meeting environment. Videoconferencing (VC) is the conduct of
a videoconference (also known as a video conference or video teleconference) by a
set of telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to
communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It has also
been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. It transmits bi-
directional audio, video and data streams during the session. It allows people at
different locations to see and hear each other and work together on documents,
spreadsheets and other applications. The verbal communication through an
electronic medium, allows multiple parties to connect using devices. Such as phone
or videos links-up as it is an interactive group communication (three or more people
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in two or more locations). In general terms, teleconferencing can bring people


together under one roof even though they are separated by hundreds of miles.
How it Works
Teleconferencing was first introduced in the 1960s with American telephone
and telegraphic picture phone. At that time, however, no demand existed for the
new technology. Travel costs were reasonable and consumers were unwilling to pay
the monthly service charges for using the picture phone, which was regarded as
more of novelty than as actual means for everyday communication. With the
introduction of relatively low cost, high capacity broadband
telecommunication services in the late 1990s, coupled with powerful computing
processors and video compression techniques, videoconferencing has made
significant inroads in business, education, medicine and media. However supported
by numerous methods and technologies this is now widely being used in business.
Audio and video signals are transmitted using computers over a local area network
(LAN) or telephone lines or satellites.
Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a
conference or multiple locations rather than individuals. Videoconferencing uses
audio and video telecommunications to bring people at different sites together. This
can be as simple as a conversation between people in private offices (point-to-point)
or involve several (multipoint) sites in large rooms at multiple locations. Besides the
audio and visual transmission of meeting activities, allied videoconferencing
technologies can be used to share documents and display information on
whiteboards.
Teleconferencing is a technological innovation that has really changed the way
business is being conducted in global contexts. Usage of VTC has e xpanded
beyond corporation boardroom meetings. The demands for collaboration tools and
converged infrastructure have boosted VTC usage in recent years. VTC has been
gaining popularity in all government sectors including tactical and non -tactical
environments.
Technology
The core technology used in a videoconferencing system is digital compression
of audio and video streams in real time. The hardware or software that performs
compression is called a codec (coder/decoder). Compression rates of up to 1:500
can be achieved. The resulting digital stream of 1s and 0s is subdivided into
labelled packets, which are then transmitted through a digital network of some
kind (usually ISDN or IP). The use of audio modems in the transmission line allow
for the use of POTS, or the Plain Old Telephone System, in some low-speed
applications, such as video telephony, because they convert the digital pulses
to/from analog waves in the audio spectrum range.
Common components in a standard VTC network are Call Server, Video
Endpoint, Multipoint Conference Unit (MCU), Gateways, and an Ethernet switch. A
Call Server performs the registration and call control processing functions. Video
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Endpoints are devices from which users make and receive video calls. The endpoint
processes the bi-directional audio, video, and data streams and interfaces to the
users.
The other components required for a videoconferencing system include:
 Video input: video camera or webcam
 Video output: computer monitor, television or projector
 Audio input: microphones, CD/DVD player, cassette player, or any other
source of PreAmp audio outlet.
 Audio output: usually loudspeakers associated with the display device or
telephone
 Data transfer: analog or digital telephone network, LAN or Internet
 Computer: a data processing unit that ties together the other
components, does the compressing and decompressing, and initiates and
maintains the data linkage via the network.
20.3.6. TYPE OF VTC SYSTEMS
The two basic types of VTC systems are the dedicated systems and the desktop
systems.
1) Dedicated systems have all required components packaged into a single piece
of equipment, usually a console with a high quality controlled video camera.
These cameras can be controlled at a distance to pan left and right, tilt up and
down, and zoom. They became known as PTZ cameras. The console contains
all electrical interfaces, the control computer, and the software or hardware -
based codec. Omnidirectional microphones are connected to the console, as
well as a TV monitor with loudspeakers and/or a video projector.
Thus, dedicated systems have all the necessary components to process the VTC
sessions within a single console. The categories of dedicated VTC systems cover
different operational environments. The several types of dedicated
videoconferencing devices are:
i) The first category is large group VTC system. Large group videoconferencing
is a non-portable, large, more expensive device that is fixed to the room. It
supports large meeting rooms or auditoriums.
ii) The second category is small group VTC system. Small group
videoconferencing is non-portable or portable, smaller, less expensive
devices. It is designed to support small meeting rooms, is fixed to the room,
and is normally more economical to deploy.
iii) The third category of dedicated VTC system is the individual system. Individual
videoconferencing are usually portable devices, meant for single users, have
fixed cameras, microphones and loudspeakers integrated into the console.
These individual systems are designed to be portable single user solutions with
integrated camera, speakers, and microphone in a compact unit.
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2) Desktop systems are add-ons (hardware boards, usually) to normal PCs,


transforming them into videoconferencing devices. The desktop systems are
add-ons to existing PCs. They generally consist of a microphone, speakers,
and camera, but may also include a PC add-in card. A range of different
cameras and microphones can be used with the board, which contains the
necessary codec and transmission interfaces. Most of the desktops sy stems
work with the H.323standard. Videoconferences carried out via dispersed PCs
are also known as e-meetings.
20.3.7. TIPS FOR CONDUCTING A MEANINGFUL TELECONFERENCE
The following steps should be kept in mind in order to carryout meaningful
teleconference.
 Send prior information of meeting, clearly provide the data and time of the
meeting, dialing instructions, the meeting agenda and contact number for
any further enquiry or assistance.
 A last minute reminder in the form of short email should also be sen t to all
the participating members.
 The main equipments required for a teleconference are personal computer,
large TV monitor and a remote –controlled video camera.
 Turn on the computer, monitor and camera and when prompted using the
remote control and wait for the person to answer from the other end. To
make a multiple site conference, a multi -point unit (MCU) controller is used.
 Log into the system over the phone or the virtual meeting space online at
least half an hour before the meeting to check if any technical issue exist.
 Start the meeting right on time, introduce yourself and wait for your turn. If
you want to interject say your name and lookup if you are the camera. Once
the camera, is on, you can present your view.
 Use time properly irrelevant discussions have no place in teleconference. If
any participant starts diverting from the issue, redirect the person politely.
 Dress professionally, very bright colors and shining jewellery should be
avoided
 Use your facial expressions and voice modulation to communicate your
message effectively. Avoid using bold gestures.
 Speak clearly with a normal tone of voice. Avoid making any other sound
like tapping of feet or drumming you pen on the table.
 Ask everyone if any point needs to be added or discussed before you end the
meeting. Send meeting notes to the teleconference or virtual meeting
participants within 24 hours of the meeting.
 This allows them to review the material.
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20.3.8. ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES OF TELECONFERENCING


ADVANTAGES OF TELECONFERENCING
It is particularly satisfactory for simple problem solving and information
exchange since participants are generally better prepared than for face -to-face
meeting. Group members’ participation is high and their attitude is serious
socializing and useless gossiping is minimal. Compared to a face -to –face meeting.
Hence meetings can be short and less time consuming. Some routine meetings are
more effective since one can teleconference from any location equipped with
required technology.
It is possible to provide real time information, which can help in solving
problem. It helps because people at distant locations can be involved in decision -
making crucial discussions and meetings even when they are not physically present
at the venue. People who would not able to attend a distant face -to-face meeting
can participate. Even the follow-up to earlier meetings can be done easily.
Disadvantages of Teleconferencing
The main disadvantages of teleconferencing are the technical difficulties
associated with smooth transmission that could result from software, hardware or
network failure. Remote connections are sometimes known to be hampered by the
environmental changes. Sometimes technical failures with equipment or at other
times lack of participants familiarity worth the equipment may disrupt the meeting.
Greater participant preparation before the meeting and more coordination among
the participating members are required during the meeting. Sometimes one person
may lead the meeting.
Another major disadvantage is the lack of personal, one-to-one interaction, which
is crucial for setting the tone of many business meetings in cross cultural societies. A
handshake and eye-contact are essential to develop a rapport for interpersonal
communication during any business meeting. All type of face-to-face communication,
such as negotiation or bargaining is not possible via teleconferencing.
Advantages Disadvantages
There is no need to spend time and Business-level conferencing facilities can be
money travelling to meetings. expensive and everyone who is going to attend the
meeting needs access to suitable hardware and
software. Although domestic conferencing is
virtually free as long as you have a computer and a
fast internet connection.

You can have a 'meeting' with people A very reliable, fast data link is needed. Many
from many different offices /countries companies hire a connection specifically to allow
without any of them having to travel. video conferences to take place.

You can see people as well as hear Even with a fast connection, there might be a slight
them. This means you can see their delay between responses. Especially from one side
body language which you can't do with of the planet to the other.
a telephone call.
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Advantages Disadvantages
You can all view a document on the If the hardware breaks down for any of the
screen at the same time. People can participants, they cannot 'attend' the meeting.
work together and add their ideas. The
document can be emailed to all of the
people at the meeting later on.

Ideas and knowledge can be People could be in different time zones around the
communicated between all those at the world. This might mean that some people have to
meeting very quickly and responses stay up through the night in order to attend the
gathered. meeting.

Video conferencing is an excellent way The video camera might not be able to see all parts
of keeping in touch with friends and of the room at the same time. Some people might
family, even if they are in a different not be easy to see at the meeting.
country.

Video conferencing is good for There is no substitute for a face-to-face meeting in


'brainstorming'. getting to know someone.

20.4. REVISION POINTS


1) Computer assisted language learning (CALL) is both exciting and frustrating
as a field of research and practice. It is exciting because it is complex,
dynamic and quickly changing – and it is frustrating for the same reasons.
2) Voice over Internet Protocol, is a method for taking analog audio signals, like
the kind you hear when you talk on the phone, and turning them into digital
data that can be transmitted over the Internet.
3) VoIP is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework
the world's phone systems. It can turn a standard Internet connection into a
way to place free phone calls.
4) Podcasting is a free service that allows Internet users to pull audio files
(typically MP3s) from a podcasting Web site to listen to on their computers or
personal digital audio players.
5) Video Teleconferencing (VTC) is a communication tec hnology that permits
users at two or more different locations to interact by creating a face -to-face
meeting environment.
20.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What is a podcast?
2) Expand CALL and TELL.
3) Name the two types of video conferencing systems.
20.6. SUMMARY
A latest technology that allows users in different locations to hold face -to-face
meetings without having to move to a single location is video teleconferencing. This
technology is particularly convenient for business users in different cities or even
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different countries because it saves the time, expense and hassle associated with
business travel. Uses for video conferencing include holding routine meetings,
negotiating business deals and interviewing job candidates.
20.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) Podcasting combines the freedom of blogging with ___________________
technology to create an almost endless supply of content.
2) Podcast is derived out of the combination of ________ and __________________.
3) Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a
conference or multiple ___________________ rather than individuals.
20.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) http://www.ipodder.org/whatIsPodcasting#ixzz3gL1RRx7b
2) http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lee-CALLbarriers.html
3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning
4) http://monitor.icef.com/2015/04/the-promise-and-challenge-of-technology-
in-language-learning/
5) http://www.fcc.gov/guides/voice-over-internet-protocol-voip
6) http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony.htm
7) http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/voicefaxoverip/g/bldef_voip.htm
20.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Discuss the applications of Computer Aided Language Learning.
2) Explain the procedure for tuning in Podcasts through iPods.
3) Discuss the challenges in conducting video conference and explain how to
overcome it.
20.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Collins Sandra D. Et. Al (2013), Communication in a Virtual Organization,
Cengage India.
2) Kristen Bell DeTinne, (2001) Guide to Electronic Communication, Prentice
Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey.
20.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
The project manager does not need to facilitate each meeting. By rotating that
responsibility, each team member has a chance to play a leadership role and have
an opportunity to have their voice heard as they lead the con ference call activities.
Cast yourself in the role of the Project manager conduct a conference call and
record the deliberations.
20.12. KEY WORDS
 CALL  iPod
 TELL  iTunes
 VoIP  Tele conference
 Podcast  Video conference

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LESSON – 21

FUNDAMENTALS OF REPORT WRITING


21.1. INTRODUCTION
C.A. Brown defines report as communication from someone who has some
information to someone who wants to use that information. A report is a
professional communication in a formal mode in an organization, institution or
office. It may report facts, investigate information, present the feasibility of a new
product or project, evaluate the existing procedures or assess the progress of
projects. The basic understanding about the c lassification of reports, the purpose of
generating reports, the content of the reports, time involved in preparing the report,
the level at which it is reviewed determine the length and style of the report.
21.2. OBJECTIVES
After studying the lesson you should be able to
 Identify the essential features of a good report
 Understand the strategies of writing reports
 Know about the significance of a report
 Learn different types of reports
21.3. CONTENTS
21.3.1. Significance of Reports
21.3.2. Characteristics of a Good Report
21.3.3. Writing Strategies
21.3.4. Types of Reports
21.3.5. Structure of Formal Reports
21.3.1. SIGNIFICANCE OF REPORTS
A report is a fundamental management document used in decision –making.
The reports are critical elements in administration. In large organizations reports
are the mechanism by which the information from various offices are gathered and
complied for the review of top level executives. These organizations are engaged in
the multifarious activities, which are being handled by different departments and
various other strategic units. The Chief executive or his immediate subordinates
may not be able to keep a personal observation over the activities of the
organization. Thereby they need rely on communication received from different
offices, especially reports to take decisions.
Objectives of Report Writing
The objectives of report preparation vary from situation to situation. However
some important objectives are enlisted below.
 To present record of research or investigation
 To communicate the expectations of consumers
 To inform the progress of a project
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 To record the competitive position of a brand


 To communicate the results of an enquiry
 To document the status of a research
 To record the results of an experiment
 To certify the accomplishment of a task
 To record specifications of a product
 To present the compilation of performance
 To recommend action against an offender
21.3.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD REPORT
Accuracy of Information
A good report must contain accurate data, information and facts. The author
of the report must verify and validate the information received by him before
preparing the report. He will source it from authenticated sources, if it happens to
be secondary information. If it is primary information he must use valid instrument
for collecting accurate information.
Brevity
A report should be as brief as possible. The executive time is valu able. It
should not be taxed unnecessarily. The brevity should not be achieved by
compromising on clarity. The information analyzed and synthesized must be
complete. Inadequacy of information may led to wrong decisions. For example the
top level executive may call for one page report every week for tracking the income
and expenditure or cash flow in the organization. The format of the report must
contain vital income sources and major expenditure heads.
Clarity
Effective reports must be completely clear. Arranging facts, data and
information in a coherent manner make the report clear. The reporter must clearly
spell out the purpose, source of information, his findings, opinion, suggestions and
recommendations. Every word must be meaningful. Always use simple words and
divide the report to as many paragraphs as possible.
Preciseness
In a good report, the writer is very clear about the exact purpose of writing it.
His investigation, analysis and recommendation are directed by this central
purpose. Precision give a kind of unity and coherence to the report and makes it a
valuable document.
Relevance
The facts presented in a report should be relevant to the purpose of the report.
While it is essential that every fact included in a report has a bearing on the ce ntral
purpose, it is equally essential to see that nothing relevant has escaped inclusion.
Irrelevant facts make a report confusing exclusion of relevant facts renders it
incomplete and likely to mislead.
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Reader-Orientation
A good report is always reader–oriented. The position of the person who is
going to read and review the report must be kept in mind while preparing a report.
A report meant for top level must be concise and middle level can be a detailed one.
The report exchanged among the professionals can have the technical jargons.
Objectivity of Recommendations
If recommendations are made at the end of a report, they must be pragmatic
and impartial. They should come as a logical conclusion to investigation and
analysis. They must not carry personal prejudices of the reporter.
Simple and Unambiguous Languages
A good report is written in a simple, lucid, unambiguous language. The use of
appropriate words eliminates confusion. It is a kind of document prepared for
practical utility; hence it should be free from various forms of poetic embellishment
like figures of speech, idioms and phrases.
Grammatical Correctness
The grammatical correctness of language of the report is the basic
requirement. In this information technology age, grammar and spell check facilities
are available in word processing software. It may not be a big issue for those who
prepare the reports.
Specific Format
If the person who is going to review specified the format, it must be presented
in that format. The project report submitted by a management graduate may be
prescribed by the University. It must be prepared in that format.
Illustrations
The use of tables, graphs and other graphical presentations make it easily
understandable. The photographs, drawings and charts illustrate the information
in a crystal clear manner.
21.3.3. WRITING STRATEGIES
Whether one has to write a short informal report or a long formal report, one
needs to adopt effective writings strategies. As reports are systematic attempts to
discuss problems, situation, or conditions, and stimulate thinking or action, in the
individuals and the group, a systematic plan of writing should be followed.
The following steps will help in organising and presenting the report
systematically.
1) Analyse the problem and purpose
2) Determine the scope of the report
3) Determine the needs of the audience
4) Gather all the information
5) Analysis and organise the information
6) Write the first draft
7) Revised, review, and edit
8) Write the final draft.
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Analyse the problem and purpose


The process of writing and effective report begins with an objective analysis of
the problem that is to be discussed and the objectives of writing the report. In
other words, the following two questions need to be answered before beginning to
write a report:
1. What do you want to present or discuss in the report?
2. Why do you want to present it?
Answer to these questions will help identifying in problem that lead to the
writing of the report and the determining the purpose of the report. The problem
may be written down in the form of a statement. Expressing the problem in the
words will provide clarity of purpose and helping writing the report systematically.
Defining the purpose of the report will give it direction and make it focused.
Identifying the specific purpose of reports involves identifying and observer able
measureable action that the readers would after reading the report. The writer’s
purpose should match the audience’s needs, knowledge, expectation, & interests.
It should focus on audience behaviour and restate the theme of the report.
Determine the scope of the report
In order to kept the report precise and to the point, the amount of information
gathered should be limited to the most essential and important facts. It is
important to define a reasonable scope of the report. By determining the scope of
the report, the writer will be able to scope of the report should be narrowed down
and made specific so that reasonable length is maintained.
Determine the needs of the audience
When a report is begin planned, the writer should know who will eventually
read it . However, many report writers ignore their readers. A report will be
effective only if the writer is able to connect his/her purpose with the interest and
needs of his/her readers. When planning a report, the writer should think from
his/her readers’ perspective. He/she should avoid making false assumption about
his or her readers and should strive to be practical and rational. The following
questions are relevant in this connection context.
 Who is the audience? (Age, education, subject knowledge, professional
afflation, status, reference, biases, attitude, interest, language level, and so
on.)
 How is the report relevant to the audience?
 What is in it for the audience?
 What does the audience expect from the report?
 How much background information will the audience need?
Answer to this question will provide essential information about the readers
that will help the writer to make important discussion about the content, the
nature of information that he/she needs, and the level of language that he/she
should use in his/her report.
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Gather all the information


Once the problem and the purpose has been ananlysed, the scope is defined,
and the audience has been analysis, the writer is ready to gather information. As
he/she knows what he /she is looking for, he/she may not find it very difficult to
gather information. He/she may gather information through primary source,
(discussion, interviews, observation, surveys, questionnaires, experiments, and so
on) or secondary source, (internet, reports, books, journals, distraction, magazines,
pamphlets, news papers, and so on). However, it is important to insure that the
information is accurate, bias free, current, and relevant.
Analyse and organise the information
Once the information has been gathered, the report writer needs to analysis
and organised it. Analysis of information involves revaluating the information
objectively, making comparative analysis of different sets of information for
obtaining new ideas, and interpreting facts and figures for their relative important.
Organising the information involves using inappropriate logical pattern to arrange
the information in the report (ref to chapter 2). Before actually organising the
information, and outline may be prepared by choosing the central idea, main ideas,
the major supporting ideas, and developing the details.
Writing the first draft
Once the outline has been prepared and the organisational pattern of the
report has been decided, the first working draft can be written. While writing the
first draft, the following points must be remembered.
 Focus on the scope and purpose of the report
 Simple and direct language should be used but perfect expression should
not be overstressed.
 A computer should be used for preparing report
 The draft should be written rapidly.
Reviewing and revising
Once the rough draft of the report has been written, it should be reviewed,
edited, and revised in order to improve the quality of its content and presentation.
Reviewing is the process of analysing whether the report achieved its propose,
whereas editing involves correcting its format, style, grammar, spelling, and
punctuation, revision, focus on improving the content and language of report.
Writing the final draft
Once the rough draft of the report reviewed and revised, the final draft can be
composed. When writing the final draft, the following points should be taken care of:
 The report should be simple, clear, concise, direct, and readable.
 Appropriate words, short sentence and mean ingful paragraphs should be
used.
 Appropriate linking device should be used.
 Graphic highlighting techniques to improve readability and comprehension
should be applied.
 Important point should be emphasised.
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21.3.4. TYPES OF REPORTS


The reports are classified on the basis of its purpose, frequency, functions,
levels of management, and mode of presentation. They are
Based on Purpose
i) External Reports – Reports intended for external parties of business
organization namely, government, shareholders, stock exchange authorities,
debenture holders, investors, financial institutions, financial analysts, press,
researcher, etc.
ii) Internal Reports – Reports prepared internal to an organization for internal
circulation and information. It is intended for the top and middle level
management namely Quality control reports, executive report, sales
performance report, Audit report, etc.
Based on Levels of Management
i) Top level management
ii) Functional management
iii) Junior level of Management
Based on Functions
i) Operating report
a. Control reports
b. Information reports
c. Venture Measurement reports
ii) Financial Report
a. Static reports
b. Dynamic reports
Based on Frequency / Time period
i) Routine reports
ii) Special reports
Based on Mode of Presentation
i) Oral reports
ii) Written reports
Other reports
i) Project Reports
ii) Progress reports
iii) Status Reports
iv) Periodic Reports
v) Inspection Reports
vi) Investigation Reports
vii) Interim Reports
viii) Completion Reports
ix) Research Reports
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Project Report
The project reports are prepared after making a thorough study about the
feasibility of starting a project. The investment required, the technical feasibility,
financial viability, market viability, cost of land, machinery, profitability, cash flow,
working capital arrangements and other relevant information are presented. Project
reports are basic document required by financial institutions for financing projects.
Usually PERT charts are appended to understand the time frame required for
completion of the project, location where resource transfer is possible, bottleneck in
completion of the project are easily identified.
Progress Report
The progress report are evaluation reports that facilitates monitoring the
progress or execution of the project whereby the stage of completion, problems
encountered, reasons for delay are identi fied and remedial actions are taken.
Status Reports
Status reports are yet another form of progress report which explicated states
the stage at which the project stands and the reason for the delay if any. It may not
state the different levels of progress, but the present status. For example if the
status report is called for about a road development project, the number of bridges
constructed, the culverts completed, the layer executed are to be stated in the
status report.
Periodic Reports
These kinds of reports are sent at period intervals like, daily report, weekly
report, fortnightly report, monthly report, bimonthly report or some other time
frame may be specified. These reports record information in time and hence it
cannot be adjusted on a later date . The monthly sales report presents monthly
sales figures. The management can take measures to reposition if there is slackness
in sales.
Inspection Reports
Inspection reports are sent by supervisory authorities to inform the top
management about the state of affairs in their units or branch set up. The Reserve
Bank of India may send inspection team to assess whether the commercial banks
comply with their instructions or not. All India Technical Council send inspection
team to various engineering colleges, management institutes, institutes of hotel
management, pharmacy colleges to assess the facilities provided in these
institutions.
Investigation Reports
In case there is fraud, corruption, complaint of harassment, an individual or a
team is dispatched to find out the truth. When there were complaints about the
large–scale omission of eligible persons from the votes list Election Commission
dispatched an inspection committee. At the end of the investigation the committee
submitted its report. In global level operations, investigation at periodic intervals
becomes the basic necessity.
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Interim Reports
Whenever the submission of reports take longer duration or delayed due to
some reason, interim reports are submitted for communicating quick assessments.
In case of disputes the delay in the award may jeopardize the interest of one of the
parties to the dispute, the committee or commission may give an interim report.
Pay commissions are appointed at a periodic interval of 5 years or 10 years. If the
reports are delayed for thoroughly assessing the needs and capability of the
employer, then an interim report may be released.
Completion Reports
The release of grant, aid or loan may depend on completion of the project. The
final instalment may be released after the execution of final phases of work. At this
juncture the completion report becomes inevitable.
Research Reports
Research is identification of a problem, setting hypothesis, gathering of
information, synthesizing and analyzing information, recording findings, suggestion
new approach or new ideas for solving a problem.
Oral and Written Reports
The basic classification of reports is oral or written. An oral report is simple
and easy to understand. It facilitates quick and immediate action. On the other
hand written reports are permanent records, easily retrieved and can be produced
as proof. It has got legal validity. It has got several advantages over the oral reports.
An oral report can be denied at any time. But a written report is a permanent
record. The reporter cannot deny what he has reported once.
An oral report seems to be vague. It may be weighed down by the presence of
irrelevant facts while some significant information may have been overlooked. In a
written report, the writer tries redraft and revise and present more accurate and
precise information or data..
A written report can change hands without any danger of alteration durin g
transmission, whereas oral report may get distorted when it pass through different
persons.
A written report can be referred to again and again and the oral report is one
time affair.
Informal and Formal Reports
Informal reports are communicated to higher level authorities when the person
is dissatisfied with the decision of the persons subordinate to the recipient of the
report. In order to assess the state of affairs the top level executive may ask
someone connected or not connected with the industry to report to him about
espionage, suspected fraud or bribery. These reports are investigative or suggestive
in nature.
Formal reports are sent to different authorities as per the orders or instruction
of higher authorities. It must be structured properly. It may be statutory or
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mandatory. Annual Reports are to be submitted to shareholders as per Law.


Reports are to be submitted to the prescribed authority in Government.
21.3.5. STRUCTURE OF FORMAL REPORTS
When writing formal reports, the choice of format as well the parts of the
report must be carefully planned. Although the circumstances in which a report is
written may determine its structure, the content of the report has to be organised
in a logical way to help the readers understand the message clearly .
Parts of the Report
A formal report may include the following parts of elements:
1) Title page
2) Preface
3) Letter of transmittal
4) Acknowledgements
5) Table of content
6) List of illustration
7) Abstract /Executive summary
8) Introduction
9) Methodology
10) Discussion/Finding/Analysis
11) Conclusions
12) Recommendations
13) Appendices
14) Reference and bibliography.
Each of these parts of formal report will now be discussed in details.
Title Page
A formal report usually begins with a title page. It contains the title of the
report, the name of the person or organisation to whom the report is being
submitted, the name of the report writer/s and the date.
Preface
The preface is an optional element in a formal report. It introduce the report
by maintaining its salient features and scope.
Letter of Transmittal
The transmittal letter is a brief covering letter from the report writer explaining
their causes for writing the report. It may contain the objectives, scope, and other
highlights of the report. It may also contain acknowledgement if the report does not
include an acknowledgement.
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Acknowledgements
The acknowledgement section contains the name of the person who
contributed to the production of the report and made the report possible it is just a
‘thank you’.
Table of content
The table of content ‘provides the reader and overall view of the report and
shows it organisation.
This section lists the main headings and the subheadings in the reports with
page numbers.
List of illustration
The list of illustration’ gives systematic information about tables, graphs,
figure, and chart used in the report. It is usually included if the number of does
illustration or more than ten.
Abstract /Executive summary
An abstract are an executive summary, summaries the essential information
in the report, focussing on key facts, finding, observation, results, conclusion, and
recommendation.
Introduction
This section introduces the reader to the report and prepares them for
discussion that follows by providing background information, defining its aims and
objectives, and discussing the scope and limitation of the reports. It help the
readers in understanding and analysing the report as it include facts that the
reader must know in order to understand the discussion and the analysis that
follow.
Methodology
While writing a report, information may have to be gathered from library and
archival source or through internet surfing, interviews, surveys, and
formal/informal discussion. The section on methodology summarises the methods
of data collection, the procedures for investigating the situation / problem, and the
criteria of survey.
Discussion/Finding/Analysis
This is the main part of the report as it presents the data that has been
collected in and organised from. It focuses on facts and findings of the report and
may included and objective description and discussion of the problem, and analysis
of the situation, and findings of the investigation. It is usually divided into section
and sub-section with well-structured and clear headings and sub-headings.
Conclusions
The section conveys the significance and meaning of the report to readers, by
presenting a summary of discussion and findings, the results and conclusions,
implication of the conclusion presented, and inferences
Recommendations
This section contains recommendations that are based on results and a
conclusion as they purpose a course of action to improve a situation or a condition,
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they may present several ways to solve a problem or improve a situation. It may
also indicate the need and nature for further work in the concerned area
Appendices
An Appendix contains supporting material or data, which is kept separate
from the main body of the report to avoid interrupting the line of development of the
report.
Reference and Bibliography
The section may contain reference to book, journals, reports, dissertation,
or/and published government documents, and other source used in the report. It
may also consist of a list of materials for further reference.
21.4. REVISION POINTS
1) A report is a professional communication in a formal mode in an organization,
institution or office. A report is a fundamental management document used in
decision–making.
2) The objectives of report preparation vary from situation to situation.
3) The reports are classified on the basis of its purpose, frequency, functions,
levels of management, and mode of presentation.
4) Informal reports are communicated to higher level authorities when the
person is dissatisfied with the decision of the persons subordinate to the
recipient of the report. Formal reports are sent to different authorities as per
the orders or instruction of higher authorities.
21.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Define: Report
2) What are the characteristics of the report?
3) What is Letter of Transmittal?
21.6. SUMMARY
The reports are important documents in business. The basic understanding
about the significance and character of the report facilitates preparation of good
reports. The report must be precise, clear, coherent, relevant and grammatically
accurate. It must be presented in a simple and unambiguous language. It is wiser
to make it concise. When writing formal reports, the choice of format as well the
parts of the report must be carefully planned.
21.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) The brevity should not be achieved by compromising on ____________ of report.
2) __________________ reports are sent by supervisory authorities to inform the
top management about the state of affairs in their units or branch set up.
3) The _____________________ is a brief covering letter from the report writer
explaining their causes for writing the report.
4) Arranging facts, data and information in a ______________ manner make the
report clear.
5) ________________ is a report that follows a structured and well-defined format.
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21.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS


1) Basics of Writing Reports
http://www1.ximb.ac.in/
2) How to Write a Report
http://www.skillsyouneed.com/write/report-writing.html
21.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Describe the different types of reports.
2) Elaborate the writing strategies for a report.
3) Explain the components of a formal report.
21.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Essentials of Business Communication, Chand & Sons, New Delhi .
2) Rajendra Pal, J.S.Korlahalli, Essentials of Business Communication,
Sultqnchand & sons, New Delhi.
3) Saravanavel.P, Research and Report Writing, V.K.Publishing House,
Bareilly(U.P).
21.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
You are the Personnel Manager of Raj Enterprises, a company that
manufactures soaps and other beauty products. There have been a series of strikes
in the past three months at the manufacturing facility in Jhansi. You have been
asked to investigate the cause of the strikes. Write a report to the Managing
Director regarding your findings and give recommendations for preventive
measures.
21.12. KEY WORDS
 Reports
 Periodic Reports
 Inspection Reports
 Investigation Reports
 Interim Reports
 Completion reports.


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LESSON – 22
BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
22.1. INTRODUCTION
A report is a professional communication in a formal mode of an organi sation.
It is necessary to understand the uniqueness of business reports and the process of
generating the reports. The electronic media is extensively used in Global business
operations for taking quick dicisions, take minimum reaction time, send
communication swiftly to out win the competition, creating awareness in the minds
fo consumers, expending and making payments in time to suppliers and
maintaining good relationship with Government and its agancies.
22.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you would be able to
 Know how to write effective business reports
 Understand the classification of business reports
 Understand and write business reports effectively
 Learn to write an impressive Business Proposal
22.3. CONTENTS
22.3.1. Business Report
22.3.2. Classification of Business Reports
22.3.3. Format of Business Report
22.3.4. Other Specific Types of Reports
22.3.5. Business Proposal
22.3.6. Structure of Business Proposal
22.3.1. BUSINESS REPORT
A report is a logical presentation of information based on facts. They are
required for making decisions, evaluating or reviewing progress, and for planning.
Business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information
that serves a business purpose. Business reports are important, formal, routine and
periodical part of management communication in modern business. Professional
communication includes a variety of reports common to business and industry. All
organizations need to evolve a system whereby many reports are received in time;
special reports are prepared as per the instructions of higher authorities.
Objectives of Business Reports
Reports are written for different purposes. The objective of business report
may be
 Updating information
 Identifying mission and vision
 Developing targets to the achieved
 Spotting new customers
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 Submitting monthly progress and accounts


 Summarizing the activities for a specific period
 Disseminating information
 Explaining new process and procedures
 Setting new goals
22.3.2. CLASSIFICATION OF BUSINESS REPORTS
Business reports are like bridges spanning time and spaces. The term report
covers a variety of documents ranging from pre -printed formats to brief, informal
letters and memos to formal manuscripts. The purpose, length, mode of
transmission of business reports determine the classification to which it belongs.
Those reports are
 Letters
 Memo
 Pre–printed forms
 Detailed reports
 Vouchers
Letters
The letters are important forms of business communication. Letter reports are
different from letters. According to Meenakshi Sharma, the under mentioned five
steps are important in letter reports
 Authorization
 Statement of Problem
 Summary of findings
 Development of the report
 Conclusions and Recommendations
Memo
In order to communicate routine problems and decision to solve those
problems are communicated through a memorandum shortly called as Memo. The
memo contains instructions, information and request. It is kept as permanent
record. Usually it is closed with a si gnature at the end as means of authentication.
Memo report is shorter than the letter report.
Pre-printed Forms
In the case repeated use of format, pre-printed forms save time and effort.
Only the information is filled in so that the recipients need not waste his time in
reading the format. The inspection reports or informational reports are sent
through pre-printed forms. The application forms used by candidates to
communicate their credentials belong to this type. The Travelling Allowance Bills,
Advance Bills, Log books in vehicles, consumption statement of major inputs in
production are few reports sent in this format.
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Detailed Reports
The preparation of feasibility report for producing a new product, opening a
new branch, setting up of a strategic unit, and the idea of collaborating with other
players in the market warrant detailed study. The proceedings of disciplinary
committee, investigation reports, annual reports incorporating the profit and loss
account and balance sheet are detailed in nature. The structure of the report
usually contain, abstract, introduction, body of the report divided into few chapters,
Summary, Appendices, Annexure and Glossary. It may be written in few pages or in
several hundred pages. The time at the disposal of the recipien ts determine the
length of the report.
Vouchers
Vouchers are reports authenticated documents received for payments. The
expenditure statements are prepared on the basis of vouchers available. Vouchers
contain name of the recipient, date, the amount paid an d purpose of making such
payment
22.3.3. FORMAT OF BUSINESS REPORT
The reports can be identified by differences in audience and purpose. They
therefore contain different information and structures, including headings and
subheadings, and these forms the outline of the report. Every discussion of report
formats is complicated by the fact that reports within the same classification may
vary in
 Length
 Complexity of audience
 Formality
 Purposes and functions inside and/or outside the organization.
A Formal business report can take two forms:
 Long Formal Report and
 Short Formal Report
Long Formal Report
A formal report generally contains three major divisions:
 the Front section,
 the Body and
 the Back section.
The sequences in which these elements appear in a report are more or less
standardised by the prevailing practices in the professional world.
Front Section
 Cover
 Title Page
 Forwarding Letter
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
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 List of Illustrations
 Executive Summary
Body
 Introduction
 Discussion
 Conclusion
 Recommendations
Back Section
 Appendices
 List of References
 Bibliography
 Glossary
 Index
Short Formal Report
In day-to-day business, the long report form is not as extensively used as the
shorter versions namely, the short report, letter and the memo report. These
shorter versions are the everyday working reports needed for routine information
transmission, which is vital for any organisation. The short report usually consists
of the title and the text. The language is to the point and precise. This en ables the
recipient or reader of the report to understand the content quickly.
22.3.4. OTHER SPECIFIC TYPES OF REPORTS
Problem or needs analysis Reports
A problem or needs-analysis report is a very preliminary piece of writing that
examines a particular issue that the client faces. A problem or needs analysis is
particularly appropriate when the need or problem is complex or ill defined. A
problem or needs analysis names the problem that you think should be addressed
and provides analysis that supports your position.
Feasibility Reports
A feasibility report may respond to a single question or recommend a specific
option. "Feasibility" in this context refers both to technical feasibility in the limited
sense, as well as to a wider sense of feasibility that focuses on the desirability of a
certain course of action.
Recommendation Reports
Recommendation reports advice on what specific action should be taken by an
organization. They are composed at the end of a process of inquiry and notify the
reader that a certain course of action should be followed.
Proposals
Proposals include forms, letters, memos, and more formal reports. In some
companies and contexts (such as in the construction industry), a "proposal" refers
to a work contract with a customer. In this sense, a proposal (which is often called
a "bid") is a promise that specific work will be executed by a certain time for a
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certain cost (and such a promise is sometimes structured as a memo of


understanding).
"Proposal" could also refer to a grant proposal, which also needs to meets strict
informational criteria. Grant proposals, however, do allow the writer to convey and
explain his or her vision.
Proposals can also take the form of the "long proposal," a formal document
that proposes to complete a future project and that requests organizational
support. Often such proposals are in response to an RFP (Request for Proposal)
where Companies or organizations have jobs that need to be done and issue calls to
interested bidders.
White Papers
White papers provide background for decisions. These reports can be internal
and are often profoundly influenced by the particular discipline of their context.
They can present investigations of new methods or technologies or report on new
sales solutions. To offer an example of the internal white paper, novice engineers
are often asked to write a white paper for their division about some aspect of new
methods/technologies that they have been taught but the company does not
currently use. White papers can also meet the needs of external audiences in
responding to the frequently asked questions of customers. Used regularly in
information technology, these reports examine a technology problem, investigate
potential solutions, and highlight the solutions offered by the company.
White papers differ from recommendation reports and feasibility reports as
they do not reach a decision about what action a group should (or should not) take.
Instead, they offer backgrounds upon which decisions can be made, thus
functioning somewhat like term papers.
Marketing Plan
Companies use marketing plans to affirm and to revise their current
approaches to marketing products and services. These marketing plans review the
current strategy (or marketing principles) used to market one or more of the
company's products/services. Tactics used to enact that marketing strategy are
discussed in light of current market conditions. The plan is used not only for
budgeting reasons, but also as a key document in planning the company's future.
The marketing analysis performed in preparation for the plan examines the
changes in the market from the perspective of the customer. It identifies potential
customers and their purchase decisions. It asks the following questions: what are
the buying patterns? Are new technol ogies available to our customers? Have there
been changes in public perceptions? Are the target customers still the same? What
are this year's demographics? Should we adjust the target market? The marketing
analysis also looks at the selling situation for the product, evaluating past plans
and achievements and examining how changes in the selling climate may affect
future marketing tactics.
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The resulting marketing plan is organized—usually as a formal report—to


explain the marketing strategy, to match the marketing tactics to the target
customers, to detail the marketing implementation, and to provide a budget.
Marketing plans are also developed for new products, services, and even start-
up businesses.
Progress Reports
A progress report informs readers of the status of a project-in-progress. Its
primary informational mission is expressed in two ways:
 Informing the reader of the status of the project—is it proceeding as
planned? Is it on schedule? Have there been any significant changes in the
scope or organization of the project?
 Presenting preliminary findings— what initial data do you have to report?
What tentative conclusions can you offer?
A good progress report provides actual results. It doesn't merely state "I've
made lots of progress on this project." Instead, it reports preliminary key findings.
In short, a progress report previews the final report to follow. Conventionally, a
progress report discusses two major topics: Work Completed (or Results to Date)
and Work Remaining.
Test Reports
A test report presents the conclusions from the test of a product or service and
usually recommends changes in the product or service. (A usability report is one
kind of test report.)
A test report is often written with a social science model of organization:
 identification of problem or question to be addressed
 review of relevant literature or previous test findings
 description of test methodology (subjects, methods, procedures)
 data presentation and analysis
 conclusions
 recommended changes
(In some contexts, a test report is not considered a type of recommendation
report, but is regarded as more akin to a journal article or lab report.)
Strategic Plans
A strategic plan is a comprehensive report analyzing the current situation in a
department or company. It recommends a plan to follow over some future course of
time. Such a report usually focuses on the goals and objectives of an organization,
reviews those goals and objectives, and perhaps recommends a shift in direction or
policy (or a reorganization or shifting of resources).
Strategic plans are a favored document in companies that adopt management
by objectives approaches to evaluation. You probably won't be asked to draft a
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strategic plan before you are a supervisor, but you may be asked to comment on
one or perform to the criteria stated in one.
Business Plan
A business plan is a formal report developed by new businesses to raise start-
up capital or by exisitng businesses that need to raise new capital.
Most business plans are organized in the following manner: The front matter
normally includes a cover letter, a non-disclosure statement, title page, and table of
contents. The executive summary pitches the plan (the business concept, the
current situation, key factors for success, and financial situation) and sometimes
stands by itself. The body of the report starts with the corporate vision, moves to a
market analysis (including identifying the target customers), an analysis of the
competition for that market, and the marketing strategy your business will employ.
Subsequent sections develop the company approaches to operations, sales, and
products. It closes with a financial section that includes forecasts, assumptions,
balance sheets, profit/loss projections, and cash-flow projections. Appendices
include financial data, personnel credentials, and other relevant exhibits.
Design Reports
Design reports describe in detail the implementation of a solution to an
engineering problem and the testing methodology that has been applied to draw
conclusions about the effectiveness of a solution. If the design has some problems,
the report also voices those problems and considers alternatives and adjustments
to the design.
Design reports are often assigned to help complete advanced engineering
projects. These reports are developed as formal reports with front material (cover
letter/memo, title page, table of contents, table of figures, abstract), introduction,
background of the project, circuit design, supporting analysis, data, discussion,
summary, conclusions, and appendices.
22.3.5. WRITING BUSINESS PROPOSALS
A business proposal is systematically written and properly developed
documents made by one party to another, to offer a product or service at a specified
cost. The main purpose of proposal is to persuade the potential client that you have
the required expertise, resources and reputation to make a promise and that your
product or service can fulfill a need or solve a problem within a specific time
schedule and available budget. Simply stated, a proposal is a persuasive document,
designed to sell a concept to a specific audience. In brief a proposal is a
combination of logos, pathos and ethos, as it relies or logical presentation of facts
and ideas as its basic tool of persuasion within the ethical framework. However, “A
well written proposal is not a substitute for expertise in providing a specific product
or services, not is it a substitute for the reputation you have established by the
previous performance. To be successful, a proposal must begin with something
worth offering”.
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Typical reasons for writing business proposals may include the following,
 A bid for an infrastructure or construction project
 A bid for technical project
 Application for a grant for academic research
 Application for funding certain community projects
 Seeking approval for new policies or procedures
 Proposals to corporate bodies for training of staff.
Proposals are thus the requests made multiple objectives, such as new
business infrastructure improvement expansion research etc.
KEY ELEMENTS OF SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS PROPOSALS
Solution:
A business proposal usually begins with highlighting, the target company’s
needs and problems. This should be followed up with a detailed presentation of
deliverable solutions which your business can provide. When solutions are
presented in a succinct manner, the customers are motivated to give things a try.
Benefit:
The effective business proposal must clearly inform the customer the benefits
they will derive by engaging in business with you or employing your services.
Credibility:
Endorsements from other client in the same field builds confidence in the
prospective client that you can deliver all that you promise. Also show that you are
capable of making meaningful contributions. Thus an event management company
which has handled 3000 guests will be preferred over one which has handled 300
guests if the prospective client has an upcoming event with 4000 guests.
Samples:
Samples and evidence of your ability to deliver enclosed in the proposal goes a
long way in gaining the winning bid, for example, a design company submitting a
proposal for logo design can enclose their other logo designs.
Target Audience:
Effective business proposal must communicate and speak the language of the
target audience. Thus an engineering company must be provided the appropriate
engineering jargon. If the customer is a bank, use of appropriate finance jargon
would be helpful.
Persuading the Customer
A Proposal is made to persuade someone – namely the customer. Thus, it is
important to know the costumer and understand that customers needs. Organize
your proposal chronologically or functionally, depending on what the customer
wants include details like references pricing and other contractual details if the
customer wants them. If you are not sure that the customer wants you have to
make the efforts to find it out. If the customer does not know what they want, you
need to help them to figure things out by providing appropriate criteria. Never load
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the customer up with a bunch of paper just because they might want something.
Give them what they want. No more, no less.
The 5W and 1H formula
Simply doing a better job of answering your customers questions can give you
a competitive edge when everything else between two competitors is equal.
 Who: who will do the work, who will manage the work, whom does the
customers call if there is a problem, who is responsible of what?
 Why: why have you chosen the approaches and alternatives you have
selected? Why the customer should select you?
 What: what needs to be done/deliver, what will be required to do it. What
can the customer expect, what it will cost?
 Where: where will the work be done, where will it be delivered?
 When: when will you start, when will key milestones be scheduled, when will
the project be complete, when is payment due.
 How: how will the work be done? How will it be deployed? How will it be
manage, how will you achieve quality assurance and customer satisfaction,
how will risks be mitigated. How long will it take how will the work ben efit
the customer?
TYPES OF BUSINESS PROPOSALS
A proposal may be casual or formal, short or long, general or specific, written
or verbal. However, formal proposals are normally presented in written form as it
involves commitment of resources, such as mone y, manpower, materials and above
all time. Proposals may be presented by an individuals or organization or
institutions.
Proposals can be easily classified into two categories (Fig) – business proposal
and research proposal. Business proposals may be futu re classified into two
categories- solicited or unsolicited and internal and external.
Solicited and Unsolicited Business Proposal:
A solicited business proposal is one, which is prepared in response to a
specific invitation or demand. The solicitation may be made face-to-face, by the
telephone or in writing. Request for proposal (REP) or an invitation for Bids (IFB)
may directly be sent to the relevant organizations or may also be advertised in
appropriate newspaper. The main difference between an REP and an IFB is that
the IFB defines the product or service more specifically than the REP.
Proposals are not always invited by somebody. An individual or a group of
individuals may submit a proposal, thinking that a new technology can be
developed by working on definite plan; the proposal thus made will be called as
unsolicited proposal.
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Figure: Types of Proposals

Internal and External Proposal


When a proposal is made by someone within the organization to the higher
authorities or the management, of the same organization, it is an internal proposal,
internal proposals are typically directed to a specific individual, department or
functional head, these may range from informal handwritten suggestions, drop box
entire is, informal malls to lengthy printed and bound reports.
When a proposal comes from persons, or parties outside the organization, it is
called an external proposal. External proposals are usually longerand more formal
than internal ones. A lot of time, money and effort are required in doing research,
developing the concept and preparing the proposal. When submitting proposals to
external organizations, it is important that the writer studies the goals and
expectations of the organization to which the proposal is being submitted. The
length of the proposal is determined by the level of formality depending on the
situation whether the proposal is meant for internal audience or external parties.
22.3.6. STRUCTURE OF BUSINESS PROPOSAL
A Proposal is quite like a report with many common parts, parti cularly the
beginning and the end. It differs only in the body which is the main part of the
proposal.
The Body or Main Part of Business Proposal
The part of the proposal shows the sequences of elements describing the
purpose followed by conclusion and rec ommendation it contain detailed
information regarding the proposed activities to persuade the reader to accept the
proposal.
The purpose statement helps the receiver understand clearly the reason for
making a proposal and the nature of the proposals, i.e. the why aspect or the
significance of the proposal. A detailed write up is created to tell the reader the
reason for sending or developing the proposal. It is in response to an advertisement
or RFP? Is it a follow –up for an earlier verbal discussion? It is a description of the
major objectives and the methodology, to achieve the objectives. It contains a
comparison between the client’s exception and your offering. Highlight how the
costumer’s expectation can be met by outlining in details, the benefits of the
services offered draws appreciation form the prospective client.
The main part or body of the proposal should contain a brief description of the
company the field in which it has an expertise, the objective of the company
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including the size and the workforce. It required, give details of the financial records
to assure the prospective client about the business’ credibility mentioned other
essential l information that would increase the company’s chances of getting the
project. It could also include the name of the experts who will work on the project.
In long proposals such information is a must, including a brief on each individual.
Depending on the nature of the proposal the information presented for each
individual will vary from a few lines to several pages. In some proposals, brief
summaries are presented in the qualification of personnel section and full resume
are provided in the appendix. If the organization is responding to an RFP, provide
exactly the amount and type of personnel informati on specified.
The cost may be presented in logical parts, such as personnel, equipments,
supplies and facilities. The cost of the proposed solution must cover the expenses
and, if appropriate, a profit. If the organization is following the guidelines in an
RFP, the format for the cost section will likely be specified and should be used.
Include reference or details of well-known clients you have worked with along
with the reference projects.
In conclusion, include a paragraph that will emphasize your assu rance of
providing the services according to the client’s expectations.
Layout and Design of the Proposal
Your proposal layout should be highly readable with ease of locating
information. You should make extensive use of graphics, because they enhance the
readability of the document and convey information well. In the absence of
instructions to the contrary your heading, typefaces, margins, headers/footer, and
other formatting attributes can be anything that you think will achieve the goal of
your proposal
The following could be adopted:
 A serif typeface such as Times New Roman
 12 point type
 A column width of 50-60 characters (either double column or “scholar’s
margins”)
 Page margins of at least I”
 The use of colour whenever possible
 Extensive use of graphics
 Full use of front matter (table of Contents, List of Figures, etc)
 “Navigation aids” such as cross reference matrix
 Appendices for data that must be provided but disrupts your proposals
story
 If the page count is large enough use binding
 Use tabs that break the content down into section and make finding
materials easier.
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22.4. REVISION POINTS


1) Reports are essential management tools and major forms of communication in
business.
2) A report is a description of an event carried back to someone who was not
present on the scene
3) A proposal is a persuasive document designed to sell a concept to a specific
audience.
4) Although the skills in writing a proposal are the same as in writing a report,
there are certain subtle points of differences between the two.
22.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What are short reports?
2) What are pre-printed forms?
3) What are the elements of business proposal?
22.6. SUMMARY
The business reports are used to monitor internal operation and
communication with other entities in conducting the business. The basic
understanding about the classification of reports, the purpose of generating reports,
the content of the reports, time involved in preparing the report, the level at which
it is reviewed determine the length and style of the report. In the busine ss world,
report and proposal writing is a source of information for the management and
individuals in decision-making process. These can also be used as solutions to
business problems.
22.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) A report follows a ____________.
2) A solicited business proposal is prepared in response to ____________.
3) _______________ proposals are typically directed to a specific individual,
department, or functional head.
22.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) Writing Business Reports
http://wac.colostate.edu/teaching/tipsheets/writing_business_reports.pdf
2) Report Writing
https://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/4b.html
3) How to write a business report
http://www.victoria.ac.nz/vbs/teaching/resources/VBS-Report-Writing-
Guide-2016.pdf
22.9. ASSIGNMENTS
In a TV manufacturing organisation, a meeting has been called to take a
decision about an advertising campaign to be launched by the company. You are
the Advertising manager of the company and hence expected to be preparing a
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proposal that is to be presented for discussion and approval. Prepare a proposal for
the same.
22.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS
1) Neera Jain, Shoma Mukherji (2012), Effective Business Communication, Mc
Graw Hill Education Private Ltd., New Delhi.
2) Saravanavel.P, Research and Report Writing, V.K.Publishing House,
Bareilly(U.P)
3) Mary Munter (2000) Guide to Managerial communication, 5 th ed., Prentice
Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey
4) Linda Driskill (1992) Business and Managerial Communication: New
Perspectives: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando.
22.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Collect two short reports from a company. See how you can turn them into
long reports by putting in additional information.
22.12. KEY WORDS
 Pre–printed forms
 Detailed reports
 Vouchers
 Preliminary reports
 Marketing plan
 Feasibility reports
 Business Plan
 Proposals
 Solicited Business Proposal
 External Proposal

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LESSON – 23

ACADEMIC REPORTS PROPOSALS, EMPLOYMENT


COMMUNICATION
23.1. INTRODUCTION
Report is an authentic form of communication which can be referred, even
quoted in a court of law, or cited in a news paper column. A report is the
description of an event, occurrence, incident, change or happening noticed in a
business operation. It is presentation of fact based on evi dence to a specific
audience. Academic reports include Research Project reports, research proposals,
and term papers. Reports needed for Employment communication namely the
Resume, Cover letter for job applications will also be dealt in this chapter.
23.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you would be able to
 Know how to write effective project reports
 Understand the difference between Curriculum Vitae (CV) and Resume
 Learn how to prepare a resume
 Prepare effective research proposals
23.3. CONTENTS
23.3.1. Research Reports
23.3.2. Structure of a Research Report
23.3.3. Report Formatting
23.3.4. Project Layout
23.3.5. Research Proposals
23.3.6. Employment Communication
23.3.7. Resume
23.3.8. Cover Letter
23.3.9. General Tips for Better Writing
23.3.1. RESEARCH REPORTS
All reports have the same purpose as to convey information. Reports differ
from essays in two main ways.
 The purpose of a report is to convey information, while the purpose of an
essay is to demonstrate your knowledge of the subje ct and writing skills.
 The information in a report will usually be new to the reader, while the
information in an essay may already be known.
There are two basic kinds of report.
 Informational reports tell the reader about a topic. They present
information without analysis or recommendations. The report writer's
task to select and emphasise the relevant facts clearly and concisely.
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 Analytical reports tell the reader to do something. They analyse and


interpret data and make recommendations. The report writer's task is to
select and emphasise the facts and arguments that support the
recommendations.
One of the first questions to ask yourself is: What kind of report are you
writing?
23.3.2. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT
There are many different types of reports. This information is a basic outline
only. Before you attempt to write a report, you should check the particular
requirements for the subject.
Preparing a report
The process of preparing a report begins long before you begin writing. The key
questions to begin with are:
 What is the purpose of your report?
 Who is the report written for?
 What are the key points of information that you want your reader to take
away?
Sections of a report
Formal reports also take many forms depending on the field and topic.
Different disciplines have their own format and style for reports. Formal reports are
usually divided into sections with numbered headings. Although report formats
vary, most reports contain the following sections.
Title Page
The Title Page must include the subject of the report, who the report is for,
who the report is by and the date of submission. Apart from the title of the report,
which should give a clear idea of the topic of the report, a title page usually
includes:
 Your name and position
 The name of the person or group that the report is addressed to
 The names of anyone else the report is distributed to
 The date
Abstract
An Abstract should be specific and precise so that the reader can get a good
understanding of the main points without having to read the whole report. It is
usually 100 to 200 words and should include the following:
 why the report has been written (i.e. what question or problem is it
addressing?)
 how the study was undertaken
 what the main findings were
 what the significance of the findings is.
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The abstract should be on a separate page with the centred heading


ABSTRACT in capitals. It is usually written in a single paragraph with no
indentation.
Table of Contents
The contents page should list the main section headings of the report with
page numbers. It may also list the tables and figures in the report. The Table of
Contents should be on a separate page. It helps the reader to find specific
information and indicates how the information has been organised and what topics
are covered. The table of contents should also include a list of figures and a list of
tables if any are used in the report.
Executive summary
A good executive summary allows a busy reader to get the main points of the
report without reading the whole report. It should be short and should include:
 The purpose of the report
 The problem or issues dealt with and the main points of discussion
 The conclusions of the report
 Any recommendations made
The executive summary comes at the beginning of the report, but it is a good
idea to write it after you have finished writing the whole report.
Introduction
The introduction explains the background to the report, its purpose and the
points covered. A good introduction will be short and will help to guide the reader.
The Introduction has three main components.
1) The Background which describes events leading up to the existing situation,
what projects have been done previously, and why the project or study is
necessary.
2) The Purpose which defines what the project or study is to achieve, who
authorised it and the specific terms of reference.
3) The Scope which outlines any limitations imposed on the project such as cost,
time etc.
Body
The Body varies according to the type of report. Basically, it answers the
questions Who? Why? Where? When? What? How? In an investigative report, it
would consist of all the information required to convince the reader that the
conclusions and recommendati ons are valid/reliable. This information must be
presented in a systematic way.
The main body of the report should contain a clear explanation of what you
have discovered and how you have found it out. It is often divided into sections with
headings that describe the topics covered. Another way to divide up the main body is:
 Procedure - what you did
 Findings - what you have found out
 Discussion - relating what you have found out to what the reader already
knows
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Many reports contain tables and figures. Each table or figure should have a
caption containing a number and a title. You should only include tables and figures
which contribute to the information you want to convey. It is not necessary to
summarise all the information in a table in your text, but you should always
explain the main points illustrated in the text following the table.
Conclusion
The conclusion should be as brief as possible. They should be presented in
descending order of importance and should not suggest action. Conclusions should
be drawn from the information presented in the main body of the report. Conclusions
should be firmly and briefly stated. They should be free from speculation (i.e. ideas
for which you have presented no evidence), have no new thoughts or references
introduced and contain no further discussion of points raised.
Recommendations
Recommendations are suggestions for actions or changes. They should be
specific rather than general. They should follow naturally from the conclusions. If
the purpose of the report is simply to present information on a topic for discussion,
a recommendations section may not be necessary. They should be offered in
descending order of importance and may be in point form when several
recommendations are being made.
Bibliography
A report may contain references or recommendations for reading in a
bibliography. A bibliography may not be necessary, however. In reports, full
references to readings introduced in the text are often given as footnotes. The list of
References is an accurate listing, in strict alphabetical order, of all the sources
referred to.
Appendices
Appendices may include tables, texts, graphs, diagrams, photographs,
questionnaires, etc. You should put these in an appendix when placing them in the
main body of the report would inte rrupt the process of reading. Items in an
appendices should be referred to somewhere in the main body. If you do not need to
refer to them in the main body, you might think about whether you need to include
them at all.
23.3.3. REPORT FORMATING
A formal report should be formatted so that it is easy to read and looks
professional. Microsoft Word and other word-processing packages can help you to:
 Use attractive fonts and page layouts
 Insert page numbers
 Automatically number headings
 Draw tables and figures
 Automatically number table and figure captions and insert references to
them in the text
 Generate a table of contents and lists of tables and figures.
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Before you produce your report, spend some time reading the help information
provided with your word-processor to find out how to use these features.
If you use Microsoft Word, you may also use a report template, which will give
you a basic layout for a professional report before you start writing.
23.3.4. PROJECT LAYOUT
A typical research project layout is presented with chapterisation
requirements:
Introduction
About the industry (optional)
About the organization
Topic importance / key concepts
Need / purpose of the study
Scope and limitations of the study.
Literature Review
Past research reports & findings pertaining to your topic and the variables
identified
Relevant concepts from text book
Objectives
Aim of the study
Selection of independent variables & dependent variables
Hypothesis (optional)
Simple statements / preconceived judgments one arrives at before conclusion
Finding relationship between independent & dependent variables
Methodology
Research design – type of design
Sampling – method, technique, size, area
Methods and techniques of data collection – Primary data, survey tool
description (questionnaire)
– Secondary data
Measurement scale
Data processing – Statistical techniques & tools used for analysis.
Analysis and Interpretation
Data analysis through relevant statistical techniques and inferences drawn
with appropriate tables, charts and graphs
Interpretation – based on data analysis – explaining the numerical values
derived out of data analysis in descriptive form
Findings
Key findings derived out of the analysis in a brief, precise manner. Findings
should be a reflection of the objectives.
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Recommendations
Concrete solution to a problem / suggestions to improve
Statements that have implications for policy and decision -making
Explain recommendations in a detailed manner – how, when, where & in what
form it could be implemented
Conclusion
Summary of points
Outcome of the research
Utility value of the research for the organization in future
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Books referred with author, title, edition, & publisher
2) Past projects reviewed in literature review c hapter with author, title & year
APPENDIX
Survey tool used, Addresses of respondents met, financial statements used etc.
23.3.5. RESEARCH PROPOSALS
Every organization has a special group of people engaged in what is called
Research and Development (R&D) activities. These people are involved in
suggesting changes for creating new and modified designs of products that are
more economical and more efficient according to the latest available technology.
The suggestions made are incorporated in the form of a proposal. A research
proposal is usually academic in nature. Academic institutions also submit
research proposals to obtain a grant in response to a request or an announcement
from the government or any other agency.
The Body or Main Parts of a Research Proposal
Start with a precise technical statement or a straight forward definition of the
problem that the project is expected to cover. It would be effective to outline the
scope of the study-does it cover a department, a company, a particular geographic
area , a particular group of people, etc.
The objectives maybe spelled outpoint by point keeping in view the definition of
the problem. It is important to define the boundaries of the proposal.
It is important to indicate the recent development at national and
international levels in the proposed field the work. Since this is based on
literature survey, it may also include a list of important review articles to enable the
referees to appreciate the effort that has been put in for preparing the project
proposal.
It is the qualifications and experience of the research personnel that
determines the actual shape of the activity. This information would help the
evaluators assess the competence of the personnel and would help establish
credentials for understandings the project. Include a brief and highly relevant
resume of key personnel including that of the project director or the principal
investigator and their proposed roles in the project. A detailed list of nationals and
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internationals publications with complete references, along with similar projects


undertaken earlier, maybe submitted.
The proposal should give a clear description of the research methodology or
technique to be employed in the execution of the project along with the sample and
technique of data collection, In other words the description should indicate
precisely how the stated objectives will be achieved.
The time schedule with specific milestones should be decided and stated
clearly in the proposal. This would help not only in timely completion of the project
but also in periodic evaluation of the progress of the project. It is important that
lead-time for creation of infrastructural facilities be computed on realistic basis.
Make sure to take care of all the constraints while suggestin g an estimated time
frame of different activities.
Year-wise summary of the budget under non-recurring and recurring heads
may be prepared. Non-recurring heads include equipment, books and other items,
which are one time purchase. Give realistic estimate of costs of different equipment
and be as specified as possible while naming the equipment, the make and model.
Recurring expenditure, such as stationery, travel and other incidental and
miscellaneous expenditure may also be included. Budget for man power like some
additional technical personnel or staff for full time or part time basis with their year
of deployment and remuneration may also be included. For both categories of
personnel, the extent of involvement may be expressed in terms of man -months per
year.
The project investigator may also submit a list of references and certificate
from the investigators stating that the proposal is not currently under
consideration for financial supports form any other agency. Endorsement in the
form of a certificate by the head of the proposing institution may be submitted to
ensure that the necessary facilities for carrying out the work will be made available
to the investigators of the project.
23.3.6. EMPLOYMENT COMMUNICATION
Employment communication is a communication you have with an employer.
In this communication you persuade the employer to hire you by demonstrating
that your knowledge and skills satisfy the job requirements in the best possible
manner. It is necessary to remember that looking for work is process, not a single
event. One has to invest time and energy in the job search process. It is possible to
land on a good job even in the tightness of markets. Often, it is not necessarily the
‘best’ person who get the job, but rather someone who performs adequately but has
excellent job search skills.
 Assessing your resources
 Identifying potential employees
 Applying for job
 Interviewing for the job
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Getting that all important job means convincing an absolute stranger that you
are exactly the right person it do a good job. It is important to know yourself-your
strengths, weakness and expectation. It is also extremely important to
communicate the information to the prospective employer.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CURRICULUM VITAE AND RESUME
People usually do not make any distinction between curriculum vitae and
resume and use both the term interchangeably. Though both are list of relevant
information of a person seeking employment, they are different in terms of their
formats and usage. While a curriculum vitae (CV) represents in-depth and
structured information about the professional experience and qualification of a
person, the resume is a skeletal representation of what would otherwise be given in
details in curriculum vitae. This is why while a CV is mainly used when applying
for international, academic, education, scientific, or research position, a resume is
meant for any position in the corporate world.
A CV, or Curriculum Vitae, to give it its Latin name, in an account of the entire
education and employment history. l the term translates ‘course of life’ and it really
is detailed record of the profession life of a person. It presents all the information of
an individual pertaining to the work. Every detail of the educational qualification,
professional achievements and skills are listed with the addition of affiliations and
recommendations. All previous work experiences must be properly listed with
elaborated job descriptions. Since a CV is long and detailed, it allows the
individuals to list all the achievements and awards received even in the distant
past. Based on the criterion of length, a CV may extend to there -four page
depending on the age, experience and achievements of a person.
‘Resume’ is French word, which means to summarize. It is one or two page
summary of the skills, experience and educational qualification. It is always brief,
concise and customized to fix the requirement of the prospective employer or
organization. Mention of unnecessary achievement or skills should be avoided.
Personal details i8n resume are limited to residence address, contact details and
date of birth. The typical resume consists of one page and includes job objectives,
past employment, education and skills.
23.3.7. RESUME
A resume is your first contact with your prospective employer. A few points
therefore should be kept I mind to create ‘the first impression’ while writing your
resume.
 The purpose of the resume is to ‘self yourself’. It is personalized business
document that must be designed properly using all y our effective writing
skills. The objective is to create a positive impression since on the basis of
the resume, the employer will make a preliminary determination about
whether the candidate qualifies job or not.
 It must be factual. Each statement needs to be accurate and not blown up
beyond its value. At the same time the achievements need not be
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underplayed. It is important to keep in mind that, while people are generally


not hired only on the basis of their resume, they could definitely be rejected
on basis of an unattractive resume.
 Since the recruiter screens hundreds of job application, they spend no more
than 30-40seconds on each resume. It should thus, be brief but succinct.
According to a survey of 200 executives from the major US firms, the most
serious mistake made by the candidates was to include too much
information in their resume.
 Your resume should reflect your future oriented approach. It is important to
present how your education and previous job experience make you the best
candidate for the specific job you are applying for.
While writing your resume, complete sentences are not necessary. You can
start your sentence with action verbs. Concrete verbs such an accomplished,
achieved, completed, conceived, conducted, implemented, developed,
organized, managed and transformed, presents your work experience in a real -life
manner. Avoid weak verbs, such as attempted, endeavored and tried.
 Select a format that suits your requirements as there is no best format.
 Select a simple, readable professional font (Arial, Time of Roman).
 Avoid using fancy fonts to create special effects.
 Limit font size 12 or 11 for the text and14 for the headings
 Arrange points in bullets within each heading content, grammar, spelling
and punctuation.
 If you are sending the hard copy of your resume, get it printed on a good
quality A4 size paper.
CONTENTS OF RESUME
The major sections of a resume include the following. Although many sections
can be move up and down depending on what information is relevant for the
specific job.
Personal data: Name with completer address, including telephone, mobile
number and email are crucial information to be placed in the beginning. Interview
calls would bemissed if the contact details are incorrect.
Job objective: This is a short statement about your carrer interest and area of
expertise, tailored to fit the requirements of the prospective employer. Do not give
exaggerated, generalized or vague statement like
 “interested in a challenging position that offer opportunities for growth”
 “Suitable position in a progressive organizing”
 “A responsible position that lets me use my education and experience and
provides opportunities for increased responsibilities”
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Your career objective must be personalized so that the rec ruiter gets an idea
where you might fit into the organization. Make it specific about not so specific
that would exclude you from much type of similar positions.
 “position in personal sales in a medium sized manufacturing firm”
 A public relation position requiring well-developed communication,
administrative and computer skills”
Work experience: Give the dates of starting and finishing the job you had.
Add the name and the address of the earlier company or employer. Sometimes it is
important to provide a brief about the job content emphasizing the skills and
abilities and the result obtaining ( a chronological or functional format maybe
adopted depending on your preferences).
Educational qualification: A list of degrees with name of
universities/institutions and courses. Include dates with grades/percentage to give
a clear idea to the recruiter about your capabilities.
Skills /Competencies: are skills or achievements that are relevant to the job
can be included. In recent years employers are giving more i mportance to social,
organizational and technical skills.
 Social skills refer to ability to-communicate well with the people. Working in
terms, being able to adapt easily in any kind of culture or environment.
 Organization skills deal with the ability to communicate well with the
people, working in teams, being able to adapt easily in any kind of culture of
environment.
 Technical skills are those related to the use of specific equipments,
computer software, etc.,
Career summary: This should be the most detailed part. It can be move
higher up the document if necessary each job should have a short description of
the skills used and achievements within the role. A few bullet points are sufficient,
with more detailed accounts of more recent/relevant position.
Reference: Reference should be included only if asked for. Mention the name,
address, telephone number of three experts (Belonging to your area of expertise)
who can comment on how suitable you are for the job.
23.3.8. COVER LETTER
First impressions count and when you’re applying for jobs, that means your
cover letter is your opening move. A good cover letter should cover the basics: your
skills and what you can bring to the role. But in today’s competitive job market,
there’s always more you can do to get noticed.
 Keep it brief. So keep your cover letter focused - anywhere between 150 to
350 words is best. You can still show why you’re worthy of getting onto the
shortlist within that word count. Keep your letter focused on your skills and
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potential and leave all the puffery behind - you’ll be surprised you ever used
those extra words at all.
 Be yourself. We’re always on our best behaviour when writing cover letters
but it can lead to awkward, formal writing. It’s the sort of writing that’s hard
to read because the details that will make a boss want to hire you are
hidden under a wall of “dear sir/madams”, “and “I am a self-starter team
player who can work without direction”.
That best behaviour voice won’t get you an interview because it’s missing
what’s so special about your job application. Write your cover letter with the
same voice you’d use at a meeting: relaxed, knowledgeable, to the point and
with the odd joke or bit of personality thrown in (if appropriate). Let
employers know who you are and why they want to arrange an interview.
 Show that you’re the solution to all their problems. Employers have a
problem: they need someone to fill a vacant role and reading applications
and interviewing people takes time away from their jobs. What they really
want is for you to show them you’re the solution to all their problems.
Research the company or industry and work out what challenges they’re
facing. Do you have a solution? Tell them how you can help with your ideas,
skills or experience. Even if you’re addressing key selection criteria, show
what you achieved and use their questions to show results.
 It’s more than repeating your resume. Don’t give a short version of
your resume in your cover letter. If an employer wants to read your resume,
they will grab that file. What they want to read is about you – what can you
show them that is different from every other cover letter? Why would they
want to read your resume? What is it that makes you the person they must
interview? It’s not just your work history: they want to know how you
approach problems, and your interest in both the industry and their
company.
The basic elements of a cover letter include the following:
1) Greeting: Address your cover letter to the proper person.
2) Opening: Write a personable, inviting opening paragraph that highlights
how your skills are a perfect fit to the job.
3) Hook: Highlight your past achievements as they relate to the job you're
applying for.
4) Skills: Highlight additional relevant skills, such as computer languages or
certifications.
5) Close: Briefly recap your strengths as a candidate, and include your
contact information.
A cover letter is a one page document that you send with your resume when
applying for a job. It is meant to:
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 Introduce yourself to the hiring manager


 Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job
 Fill in places your resume cannot describe
 Further explain other aspects of your resume
By hitting those 4 aspects, a cover letter can be a convincing and powerful
companion to a well-written resume. An effective cover letter is expected to be
written in the following manner:
1. Contact Information:
To begin your cover letter, include both the employer’s and your contact
information.
2. Introduction
Find out to whom you’re writing and introduce yourself.
In the first paragraph of your cover letter, begin by telling the employer the
position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity.
The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself,
including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how
they align with the goals of the company.
3. Sell Yourself
The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by
the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and
abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you
can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in
your cover letter.
To get impressed it is better to do some research about the company, and try
to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their
industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help
push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have.
4. Conclusion
The final paragraph is called the “call to action” portion of your cover letter.
Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact
with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for spending the time to
read your letter.
Format and Style
Here are a few quick tips when styling your own:
 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you having trouble fitting
everything on one page there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to
make the content look crammed together
 Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything
below 12 can strain the eyes.
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 Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that


looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their
website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the
font.
 Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all
paragraphs left-aligned.
23.3.9. GENERAL TIPS TO WRITE BETTER
The following are some general tips to do better writing while applying for a job
or for a business:
1) Start with something interesting: In today’s market scenario where several
resumes are lying at the desk, why does a particular resume gets picked than
the others in the lot? Thinking... It is because the resume has a cover letter /
introductory note that makes it saleable. A summary of a candidate’s profile is
always better than a simply stated one line objective which merely talks about
a candidate’s aspiration and does not tell about his / her profile summary.
2) Add a personal touch: While writing to potential clients for business, ensure
that the content is customized as per the client’s profile and requirement. This
helps creating a special bond with the reader.
3) Give examples and not just adjectives: A candidate must mention a relevant
example to demonstrate or justify the adjectives included in the resume. For
instance, if he / she talks about his strength in area of team management, he
/ she should mention an example on how well a team was handled. Avoid
giving micro level details, however, mention about achievements /
recognitions.
4) Leverage numbers: A candidate must back-up achievements / adjectives
stated with numbers. Same goes for the corporate looking for business.
Numbers form a strong base for generating commitment. A percentage
movement showing improvement in performance or scores always catches
attention of the readers.
5) Avoid jargons: If a candidate is applying in a completely different industry
than the one he has worked before in, he should avoid / not use jargons
which are not relevant to the new industry. Jargons tend to confuse people
and there is a possibility of the message being lost. In case a jargon is to be
used, the expanded form should also be mentioned. For instance a jargon
EMS should be written in a statement as "Employee Measurement System
[EMS]".
6) Do not misrepresent data: Write with integrity. Whether it is numbers or
years of experience or sales volume - all facts stated should be true.
7) Communication Skills: Ensure that the document is error free - no spelling
or grammatical mistake. Always proof read the document / proposal or get it
read by a friend / colleague.
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8) Follow-up: Most of the times a candidate submit a resume or a proposal to a


prospective client and does not follow-up. Remember, there are several other
resumes and proposals which are lying at the desk. A candidate needs to
ensure that a prompt follow-up [read "not too much"] should be done.
23.4. REVISION POINTS
1) Academic reports include Research Project reports, research proposals, and
term papers.
2) Two basic kinds of reports are Informational reports and Analytical reports.
3) A formal report should be formatted so that it is easy to read and looks
professional.
4) Curriculum vitae (CV) represents in-depth and structured information about
the professional experience and qualification of a person, the resume is a
skeletal representation of what would otherwise be given in details in
curriculum vitae.
5) A cover letter is a one page document that you send with your resume when
applying for a job.
23.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) What is a research proposal.
2) What are analytical reports?
3) What are the contents of Title page of research report?
4) What is the use of a cover letter?
23.6. SUMMARY
Academic writing and communication skills are a crucial part of your studies
and essential skills to have in the workplace, regardless of your chosen career.
Academic communication refers to the methods in which ideas are distributed
among scholars or students. Employment communication should be seen in a
positive action for the reason being that it is an opportunity to express yourself. For
the applicant, it would be an opportunity since the applicant can explain his or her
skills that are suitable for the position.
23.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES
1) A good ________________ allows a busy reader to get the main poi nts of the
report without reading the whole report.
2) _________ refers to books referred with authors, Edition and publishers.
3) While applying for jobs, a good _____________ is your opening move.
23.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide
2) https://www.seek.com.au/careeradvice/tag/
3) https://www.seek.com.au/career-advice
23.9. ASSIGNMENTS
1) Give a detailed layout of an academic research report.
2) Explain the essential parts of a resume.
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23.10. SUGGESTED READING/REFERENCE BOOKS/SET BOOKS


1) Saravanavel.P, Research and Report Writing, V.K.Publishing House, Bareilly
(U.P).
2) Mary Munter (2000) Guide to Managerial communication, 5 th ed., Prentice
Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey.
3) Rajendra Pal, J.S.Korlahalli, Essentials of Busi ness Communication,
Sultqnchand & sons, New Delhi.
23.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Devise a hypothetical issue, conduct a survey and prepare an academic
research report.
23.12. KEY WORDS
 Academic report
 Research Proposal
 Resume
 Curriculum Vitae
 Employment communication
 Cover Letter.

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LESSON – 24
BIBLIOGRARHY AND CITATION
24.1. INTRODUCTION
Every research work is based on previous research. Researchers begin their
research after reviewing the researches completed in that domain of research. This
process provides continuity in knowledge development and facilitates avoidance of
duplication in efforts. It has become convention among the researchers to
acknowledge the efforts of predecessors. Using other persons ideas, views,
expressions, quotations without giving due credit is considered as intellectual theft.
This kind of action is known as Plagiarism and it is moral and ethical offence rather
than a legal one.
24.2. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying the lesson you should be able to
 Be familiarized with the importance of citing sources.
 Learn about the different styles of citation
 Differentiate bibliography, references and works cited
 Appreciate the importance of documentation of references
24.3. CONTENTS
24.3.1. References
24.3.2. Elements of the Reference List
24.3.3. References, Bibliography, or Works Cited
24.3.4. Bibliography
24.3.5. Citation
24.3.6. Documentation of References
24.3.7. Other Citations
24.3.1. REFERENCES
Referencing is a basis for academic writing. By acknowledging all sourc es that
have been used in the preparation of a text, writers form part of the ongoing
exchange of ideas and data that signifies the academic community.
Supervisors pay so much attention to formal aspects of academic essay
writing. By teaching their students how a scholarly text is structured and in what
manner references are given, supervisors guide them into the research community
of their field.
Functions of Referencing
References in academic writing have different functions. A reference should
always have a clear function and it must be relevant to the argument of the text.
References are given whenever a source, which supplies some kind of fact or
evidence, is used. In most academic texts, references have at least one of the
following, sometimes overlapping functions:
 To acknowledge previous research in the field
 To position new research in relation to previous publications
 To present primary data to support the writer's claim
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24.3.2. ELEMENTS OF THE REFERENCE LIST


The list of references provides publication details of the sources that have been
used in the text. Unless a numbered reference style is used, the sources are listed
in alphabetical order (after last name of authors) in the reference list. Anonymous
works are often listed under their title.
Although the format of the entries on the list of references varies between
different reference styles and traditions, they contain the elements listed below
(note, however, that not all elements are included in all types of publications):
 Author
 Title
 Volume / Issue
 Place of publication
 Publisher
 Editor
 Date of publication
 URL/DOI/Provider
Author
The author of the book/article/etc. is identified by his/her last name and first
name(s) or initial(s), depending on the reference style used.
If there are several authors, reference styles provide information on how their
names should be listed. Some styles list all writers in last name -first name order,
whereas other styles invert the order after the first writer.
The authors should always be listed in the same order as they appear in the
source itself. Sometimes the names are listed in alphabetical order and sometimes
according to the authors' level of contribution; in the latter case, the name of the
main author will be listed first.
Title
Reference styles differ in the way they reproduce titles, especially titles of
articles. Whereas book and journal titles are generally capitalised and italicised in
English, practices regarding titles of articles vary: some styles stipulate that article
titles should be capitalised and written within quotation marks, whereas other
styles recommend non-capitalisation and no quotation marks.
Volume/Issue
Periodical publications, such as scholarly journals, are published on a regular
basis in installments that are called issues. A volume usually consists of the issues
published during one year, but the publication length of a volume may differ.
When compiling a reference list, writers must pay attention to the preferred
format; most reference styles state that not only the title of article and journal
should be provided, but also the volume of the journal (or book, if it is a multi -
volume publication) and sometimes the issue as well.
Place of Publication
When books are included in the reference list, the place (city) of publication
should be stated. In references to publications from the US, a two -letter
abbreviation of the name of the state is often added after the name of the city.
292
Some publishers and reference styles from the US also recommend that the
country is provided if the place of publication is located outside of the US.
Publisher
When books are included in the reference list, the name of the publishing
company is given after the place of publication. If the company is a university
press, the abbreviation UP (for University Press) is sometimes used.
Note that in entries for journal articles, the publisher is not stated.
Editor
If the source is a text within an edited volume (such as a chapter in an
anthology), it should be listed under the name of the author of the text used and
not under the name of the editor. The name of the editor should be given in the
bibliographic entry, however. For further information refer appropriate reference
style.
Date of publication
Whether it is a book or article, the year of publ ication should be included in
the bibliographic post. If there are several editions and prints, the year of the
source that has been referred to is to be used. Some references styles ask for
edition information too ('2nd ed.', for instance).
If the source is a journal article, volume number (and sometimes also issue
number) should be included in the reference list. Depending on style, these are
written in different ways; some reference styles give the volume number in bold
typeface, whereas other use italics or no emphasis at all.
URL/DOI/Provider
Many sources are retrieved electronically and some reference styles, but not
all, require the URL (the Internet address) from which the source was retrieved. To
avoid complicated web addresses in bibliographic posts, some reference styles now
recommend that a DOI (Document Object Identifier), if applicable, or the article
provider, is given instead of the web address.
24.3.3. REFERENCES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, OR WORKS CITED
Depending on reference style, the list will usuall y be called 'References', 'Works
Cited' or 'Bibliography'. As there are some differences between the uses of these
terms, it is important to use the one stipulated by the reference style used, and to
follow the format of that style.
The term 'bibliography' is often used as if it were synonymous with 'list of
references' and 'works cited'. There is one difference, however; a bibliography
sometimes includes works used in preparing the text, although they are not
referred to, whereas a list of references or a works cited list contain all sources that
have been referred to but no other sources.
The word 'annotation' in 'annotated bibliography' indicates that the text has
been provided with explanatory notes, comments or other kinds of extra material.
In an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief
description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source.
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24.3.4. BIBLIOGRAPHY
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether referenced
or not) in the process of researching your work.
In general, a bibliography should include:
 the authors' names
 the titles of the works
 the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of
the sources
 the dates your copies were published
 the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi -source
volumes)
24.3.5. CITATION
A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work
came from another source. A citation is the part of the reference that you include
within the main body of your work whenever you directly quote from, paraphrase,
summarise or refer to work produced by another author.
It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again,
including:
 information about the author
 the title of the work
 the name and location of the company that published your copy of the
source
 the date your copy was published
 the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
Purpose of Citation
Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use
other people's work without plagiarizing. Citing sources actually helps your reader
distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will emphasize the
originality of your own work. But there are a number of other reasons to cite
sources:
 citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more
about your ideas and where they came from
 not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more
accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will
keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas
 citing sources shows the amount of research you've done
 citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your
ideas
Situations that require Citation
Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source.
The following situations almost always require citation:
 whenever you use quotes
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 whenever you paraphrase


 whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
 whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
 whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own
ideas.
Citation Styles
The citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. For
example: APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Educatio n,
Psychology, and Sciences. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the
Humanities.
Types of Citations
There are two types of citations. The format will differ for APA and MLA style of
citation.
The first type are in-text citations (also called parenthetical citations), which
appear throughout your paper at the end of sentences that you are citing. In-text
citations tell which source you used at a specific point in the paper. These usually
include the authors, date of publication (APA only) and page number being cited.
The second type of citation is the works cited (MLA) or reference list (APA).
This is a list of all sources used in your research and appears at the end of your
paper. The works cited / references page lists all of the sources that you used.
24.3.6. DOCUMENTATION OF REFERENCES
While preparing a report or doing research if the person preparing the report
or dissertation comes across the information or opinion should site the sources. A
record of such sources is called Bibliography. A brief description about the system
of internationally accepted structure is presented below.
A. Book
Author’s Name
Title of the book
Edition
Place of publication
Publisher’s Name
Year of Publication
B. Article in a Scholarly Journal
Author’s Name
Title of the article
Title of the Journal
Volume Number
Year of Publication
Inclusive Page Number of the article (the number of the page on which the
article begins, a hyphen, and the number of page on which the article ends)
C. News paper or Magazine article
Author’s Name
Title of the book
295
Title of the periodical
Date of Publication
Inclusive Page number of the article.
D. Internet Source
Author’s Name
Title of the document
Full Information about any Previous or simultaneous Publication in print form
Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or professional or personal
site
Name of the Editor of the scholarly Project or data base
Date of electronic publication or last update
Name of the institution or organization sponsoring associated with the site
Date when you accessed the source
Network address or URL
E. Two or more Books by the same author
Two or more books by the same author is cited, give the name of the author in
the first entry only. Subsequent entries in place of the name type three hyphens
followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for the same name in
the preceding entry. If the person named edited, translated, or compiled the book,
place a comma (and not a period) after the three hyphens, and write the
appropriate abbreviation (ed., trans., or comp.) before giving the title. If the same
person served, as, say the editor of two or more works listed consecutively, the
abbreviation ed. must be repeated with each entries.
24.3.7. OTHER CITATIONS
Harvard Citations
In the Harvard style, the citation includes the author's surname and year of
publication.
Footnotes
Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or
comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to
add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not
directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the
symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol
and insert your comment.
Here is an example:
This is an illustration of a footnote.1
The number “1” at the end of the previous sentence corresponds with the note
below.
1 At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence

preceding the footnote.


When the reader comes across the footnote in the main text of the paper, he or
she could look down at the comments right away, or else continue reading the
paragraph and read the comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for
296
the reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in
the paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references (author,
date) in the body of the work.
Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they
simply refer to relevant sources -- they let the reader know where certain material
came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject.
Endnotes
Endnotes appear at the end of the document and are less intrusive and will
not interrupt the flow of the paper. The only real difference between a footnote and
an endnote is its placement.
Works Consulted
A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed
material. The reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes
because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other
information in order to see the sources from which the material is drawn. A "works
consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works
used, whether they were useful or not. Only the title is different from Bibliography
because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages,
and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in
footnotes or endnotes.
Paraphrase
When you want to introduce information from another source (a book, a
journal article, or website, for example) into your paper, You could approach this by
quoting the work directly or try to convey the information from the original source
in your paper by rephrasing it in your own words. This latter approach is
paraphrasing.
Quoting: To quote is to include the identical wording from the original source
in your paper. Quoted material in your paper is distinguished from your own words
by the use of " " or by indenting the quoted text (if quoting a longer passage). In
addition to quotation marks or indenting, all quoted material should also be cited,
using either footnotes, endnotes, or in -text citation.
Paraphrasing: To paraphrase is to include the ideas or information from an
original source in your paper by rephrasing those ideas or information in your own
words. The key to successful paraphrasing is to use as few words as possible from
the original text--be mindful not to change the meaning that you are trying to
convey as you rephrase--and to cite your paraphrase. Without proper citation, your
paraphrase could be construed as plagiarism.
An Illustration:
An illustrative format of both MLA style and APA style is presented below:
MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA)
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style guidelines presented here have
been adapted from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7 th ed.,
2009. MLA style is often used in the humanities. In an MLA -style paper, the writer
identifies the author and page of each source in parentheses after every reference.
297
That information then directs the reader to more detailed entries on a Works Cited
list at the end of the paper.
In-text Citation
Doris Graber suggests that “media are most influential in areas in which the
audience knows least” (210).
 Both direct quotations and paraphrases need a page number, but no
“p.” abbreviation precedes it (171).
Alice Park reports that “the U.S. currently enjoys the highest immunization
rate ever.”
 Discussion of citing sources without page numbers is on p. 221, which
says “do not count unnumbered paragraphs.” Indicating a section, if
possible, is appropriate.
Works Cited
Graber, Doris A. Mass Media & American Politics. Washington, DC: CQ Press,
2002. Print.
 Basic entry for a book is on p. 149.
 Most title words are capitalized; book titles are italicized (86-88).
 No periods with abbreviations of “state” names, including DC (237).
 Remember to include the word “Print.”
Park, Alice. “How Safe Are Vaccines?” Time. Time Magazine, 21 May 2008.
Web. 18 March 2011.
 Basic entry for an online magazine article is on p. 184.
 Most title words are capitalized; magazine titles are italicized and article
titles are in quotation marks (86-89).
 URL or DOI usually not required; access date required (p. 182).
 Remember to include the word “Web.”
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA)
The American Psychological Association style guidelines presented here have
been adapted from the 2009 APA Manual of Style, 6 th edition, second printing.
APA style is widely used in the social sciences. In an APA-style paper, the writer
identifies the author and year of each source in parentheses after every reference.
That information then directs the reader to more detailed entries on a Reference
List at the end of the paper.
In-text Citation
Graber (2002) suggests that “media are most influential in areas in which the
audience knows least” (p. 210).
 Direct quotations need “p.” or “pp.” and page number (171).
Park (2008) reported that “the U.S. currently enjoys the highest immunization
rate ever” (para. 2).
 Discussion of citing online source without pages is on p. 172.
 Other people’s works are ordinarily presented in the past tense (78).
298

References
Graber, D.A. (2002). Mass media & American politics. Washington, DC: CQ
Press.
 Basic entry for a book is on p. 202.
 Only first words and proper nouns are capitalized in a book title in a
reference list (journal titles are different). Book titles are italicized.
Other rules apply to titles appearing in the body of a paper: see p. 10 1.
 No periods with abbreviations of “state” names, including DC (p. 88).
Park, A. (2008, May 21). How safe are vaccines? Time. Retrieved from
http://www.time.com
 Basic entry for an online magazine article is #8 on p. 200. In this case,
though, Time does not offer volume and issue numbers.
 Only first words and proper nouns are capitalized in an article title in a
reference list—journal titles are different. Article titles are not italicized
or placed in quotations. Different rules apply to titles appe aring in the
body of a paper (p. 101).
 URL or DOI required; access date usually not required. No period after
URL(p. 192).
24.4. REVISION POINTS
1) It is important to be able to properly read and understand citations and
bibliographies we come across when reading the works of others.
2) Citation is notating when you quote, paraphrase, use an idea, or summarise
from someone else.
3) In-text citations let us know the information we are reading didn't come from
the author, but from another person or body of work.
4) All references will be listed in alphabetical order starting with the author's last
name in a bibliography.
24.5. INTEXT QUESTIONS
1) Elucidate the style of documenting the sources of information.
2) What are the major citation formats?
3) Define In-text Citations.
4) Differentiate Works cited and In-text citation.
5) What is Paraphrasing?
24.6. SUMMARY
The research is built on the prior research. Previous research contributions
are to be properly acknowledged. Bibliographies are lists of publications cited in
Research Papers, Books, Articles, Scholarly Journals, Newspaper or Magazines or
accessed through internet. The ethical and moral dilemma is a crucial question in
all spheres of activities. The information being the basic input in decision making
process, following ethical codes become inevitable task for those take part in the
communication process. In the international business diversity and chances for
cross cultural conflict are more. The ethical codes may be evolved for ensuring fair
play in communication.
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24.7. TERMINAL EXERCISES


1) APA stands for ___________________.
2) MLA stands for ________________________.
3) Parenthetical Citation means ________________.
24.8. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
1) guides.library.bloomu.edu
2) http://study.com/academy/lesson/how-to-read-citations-in-texts-and-
bibliographies.html
3) MLA handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7 th Ed., Modern Language
Association.
24.9. ASSIGNMENTS
Explore the various bibliographical tools and services in India.
24.10. SUGGESTED READING / REFERENCE BOOKS / SET BOOKS
1) Saravanavel. P, Research and Report Writing, V.K. Publishing House,
Bareilly(U.P).
2) Rajendra Pal, J.S.Korlahalli, Essentials of Business Communication,
Sultqnchand & sons, New Delhi.
3) MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3 rd Ed. By the Modern
Language Association.
4) Mastering APA Style: Student Workbook and Training Guide, American
Psychological Association.
24.11. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
A literature review is an integral part of research writing. Reflecting on
examples from your own interest, explore how you might be able to integrate your
research findings with your literature review when it comes to writing a report.
24.12. KEY WORDS
 Documentations
 References list
 Bibliography
 Citation Index
 Parenthetical citations
 Plagiarism.

300

TYPES OF CITATIONS
Following are examples of the most common types of sources students find in
bibliographies and in databases:
Book Citation

Popular Magazine Article Citation

Scholarly Journal Article Citation

Government Publication Citation


301
Article or Chapter in a Book

Internet Source Citation

Internet sources vary widely in quality and reliability. Always look at the
domain of a web site. Generally speaking, you can find reliable information
published by:
 federal government agencies (.gov)
 colleges and universities (.edu)
 professional societies and organizations (.org).
MLA style is used for the above examples.


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