© All Rights Reserved

1 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of Finite Amplitude
- RET Bellmouth Sept
- Reentrant Cavitation Implosion Surface Tension
- Bernoulli's Principle
- Boiler Feed Pump Recirculation Valves
- Aerodynamics 1
- Abstract SCLI Warwick 2
- Bernoulli's Principle - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- pamm.201710149 (1).pdf
- MIT2_29F11_lect_6
- BLACOH Products
- Fitting a propeller
- Bernoulli's Principle - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- AOPA ASF Propeller Safety
- The performance of an axial-flow pump
- Computational Methods in Multiphase Flow VI
- Lecture_1_Eqn of Continuity_UPDATED.pdf
- On the Mechanism and Prevention of Cavitation
- Designing Quieter Hydraulic Systems
- Preventing Cavitation Damage in Liquid Ring Pumps

You are on page 1of 54

net/publication/303676909

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2863.8325

CITATIONS READS

0 3,030

1 author:

Oliver Ayris

2 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

All content following this page was uploaded by Oliver Ayris on 30 May 2016.

University of Strathclyde

MEng Naval Architecture with Ocean Engineering

Cavitation

supervised by

Abstract

In this project, a study and evaluation of the relation between geometrical char-

acteristics of marine propellers and the phenomenon of sheet cavitation during their

operation has undertaken. A review of current literature was conducted to establish

the known correlations for propeller optimisation with regards to cavitation perfor-

mance. A validation procedure was conducted to assess the accuracy of the selected

software. Subsequently, the modelling of 6 groups of propellers was achieved, to-

talling 40 models, with each group varying from a parent model in either diameter,

blade number, blade area ratio, pitch, skew or rake through a prescribed range of

values. The cavitation tests were simulated using a limited version of the Propeller

Panel Method (PPB) code provided by the Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA).

The Boundary Element Method (BEM) implemented into the software produced fair

results in open water and poor results for cavitation. The results of the systematic

study are in close agreement with design recommendations in industry, suggesting a

consideration for balance between efficiency and long term costs in the interdepen-

dent selection of the diameter, blade number and blade area ratio. Pitch increases

cavitation and must be cautiously chosen along with the diameter. Skew can indeed

be used to favour cavitation performance effectively, whereas rake has no notable

impact on cavitation.

iii

iv

Acknowledgements

First and foremost, I must thank my supervisor Dr Panagioti Kakli for his sup-

port, understanding and advice in every step throughout the process. I would also

like to express special thanks to Sotiri Chouliara, who repeatedly went out of his

way to assist me when I was in need. This project was also supported by Dr Heinrich

Streckwall and the Hamburg Ship Model Basin who provided me with their useful

tools and guidance. Finally, I would like to show my appreciation towards my family

for their unconditional support and faith in me.

v

Contents

Abstract iii

Acknowledgements v

Table of Contents v

List of Tables x

Nomenclature xi

Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Types of Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Propeller Performance Evaluation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.4 Numericals Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.5 Project Aims and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Literature Review 5

2.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.2 Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.3 Blade Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.4 Blade Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.5 Pitch Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.6 Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.7 Warp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.8 Rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.9 Blade Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.10 Propeller Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3 Propeller Modelling 16

3.1 Validation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.2 Comparative Study Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

vi

4 Propeller Simulations 21

4.1 Numerical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4.2 Open Water Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4.3 Cavitation Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.4 Comparative Study Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5 Results 27

5.1 Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.2 Blade Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.3 Blade Area Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.4 Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.5 Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

5.6 Rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

References 38

vii

List of Figures

1.2 Various types of cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.2 Optimum diameter selection graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.3 Correlation between optimum diameter, blade number and blade area

ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.4 Burrill’s cavitation diagram for uniform flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.5 Blade section pitch P, nose-tail pitch angle θ and inflow angle β . . . 9

2.6 Left – Velocity distributions at (a) positive, (b) ideal and (c) negative

angle of attack. Right – Cavitation bucket diagram . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.7 Pressure distribution for various cavitation numbers at 5◦ angle of

incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.8 Observation from experimental tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.9 Unwrapped view of section showing the relationship between warp

and skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.10 Comparison between undistorted, 36◦ and 72◦ skew, and 36◦ and 72◦

warp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.11 Novel camber distribution compared to the NACA08 camberline . . . 13

2.12 Right – The influence of thickness on cavitation inception. Left – The

influence of camber on cavitation inception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.13 Hub shape and its effect on cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.2 CAD drawing of the parent propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.2 Open water performance comparison between PPB and experimental

results by Boswell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4.3 Total cavitation inception as predicted by PPB compared to the ex-

perimental prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.4 Flowchart demonstrating the derivation of the PPB input variables . 26

5.2 Sensitivity of cavitation at lower cavitation number with diameter

variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5.3 Cavitation with blade number variation at σ = 0.15 . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.4 Sensitivity of cavitation at lower cavitation number with blade num-

ber variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

5.5 Optimum blade number suggestion by MAN Diesel & Turbo . . . . . 30

viii

5.6 Cavitation with BAR variation at σ = 0.25 (left) and σ = 0.15(right) 31

5.7 Sensitivity to cavitation at lower cavitation number with BAR variation 31

5.8 Cavitation with pitch variation at σ = 0.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.9 Sensitivity to cavitation at lower cavitation number with pitch variation 33

5.10 Cavitation with skew variation at σ = 0.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5.11 Sensitivity to cavitation at lower cavitation number with skew variation 34

5.12 Cavitation with rake variation at σ = 0.25 (left) and σ = 0.15 (right) 35

5.13 Sensitivity to cavitation at lower cavitation number with rake variation 35

ix

List of Tables

3.2 DTNSRDC Propeller 4381 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.3 Comparative Study Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

x

Nomenclature

Symbols

AP Projected blade area in2

c Chord length m

Cp Pressure coefficient

D Propeller diameter m

f Camber m

fmax Section maximum camber m

g Gravitational acceleration m/s2

h Submersion of 0.8R of blade at 12 o’clock m

J Advance coefficient

KQ Torque coefficient

KT Thrust coefficient

n Rotational speed rps

p Pressure Pa

P Propeller Pitch m

p0 Free stream pressure Pa

patm Atmospheric pressure Pa

ps Static pressure at the shaft centreline Pa

pv Vapour pressure Pa

q Dynamic flow pressure Pa

r Radius of a propeller section m

R Propeller radius m

t Thickness m

T Thrust lb

ti Time

tm ax Section maximum thickness m

TP Thrust N

V Free stream velocity m/s

x Non-dimensional radius (r/R)

Section chord-wise position m

xs Section skew induced rake m

Z Blade number

∆p Propeller blade pressure difference Pa

β Section inflow angle degrees (◦ )

η Open water efficiency

θ Section nose-tail pitch angle degrees (◦ )

xi

θs Section skew angle degrees (◦ )

ρ Water density kg/m3

σ Cavitation number

σ0 Free stream based cavitation number

σm Mean cavitation number

σn Rotational speed based cavitation number

σ n0.8 Local cavitation number at 0.8R

φ Perturbation potential

Abbreviations

BAR Blade Area Ratio

BEM Boundary Element Method

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

CPP Controllable Pitch Propeller

HSVA Hamburg Ship Model Basin

MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology

NACA National Advisory Council for Aeronautics

PPB Propeller Panel Based method

USS United States Ship

xii

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Cavitation

Cavitation, also referred to as “cold-boiling”, is the phenomenon of the formation

of vapour pockets – cavities – within a fluid, caused by pressure reduction below

a certain value named “vapour pressure”. When the cavities find themselves back

in a higher pressure environment they implode, causing the liquid to rush towards

its centre to fill it, hence generating large pressures (up to 1 GPa). These are

subsequently propagated in the form of pressure waves to their surroundings.[1]

cal applications, cleaning technologies, the automotive industry and, of course, has

developed a dedicated research branch under fluid mechanics. In marine hydrody-

namics this phenomenon is especially present in pumps, turbines and propellers,

which often comprise of multiple hydrofoils. As pressure is a decreasing function of

velocity, according to Bernoulli, the flow around each propeller blade section expe-

riences rapid pressure changes, which lead to the inception of cavities around them.

This effect is amplified at high inflow speeds but is also dependent on the body

geometry.[2]

1

Its occurrence has detrimental impact on its surrounding environment. First

and foremost, the pressures exerted by the imploding cavities cause erosion of the

propeller blades, the encompassing hull plates and other nearby equipment such as

the rudder etc. Also the effects cause vibrations to be radiated towards the vessel

and transmitted structurally, which not only endanger the vessel and its machinery,

but also is uncomfortable for the crew and passengers on-board. On that note, the

collapsing vapour pockets produce noise which is not only undesirable to the people

on-board, but is also an environmental concern. Additionally, it is an important

subject of concern to engineers in the naval industry, where stealth is a primary

aspect of a successful product.[3]

Finally, cavitation causes loss of thrust in marine propellers due to the reduced

contact area between the blades and water and thus efficiency degradation is ob-

served. There are certain instances when the propeller is required to operate at high

rotational speeds and cavitation is unavoidable. In these cases, propellers can be

designed to take advantage of the flow characteristics, for example by reducing the

curvature of the leading edge of the blade and making it sharper. Propellers that

operate with fully developed cavitation are called “super-cavitating” propellers and

are employed exclusively for high speed scenarios, as their operation at lower speeds

is sub-optimal.[2]

Propeller cavitation has been found to manifest itself in different locations of the pro-

peller and with certain unique forms. Thin string-like cavities at the tip of the blade

and from the hub of the propeller are called vortex cavities and are fully developed.

On the other hand, we also encounter sheet cavities, which are relatively stable and

present the least modelling difficulties in numerical methods. Sheet cavities start

from the leading edge of the blade whereas if they start from mid-chord they tend

to turn into bubble cavitation from there and aftward. Root cavitation may appear

just forward of the hub at certain rotation angles of the propeller and often joins the

hub vortex. Finally, cloud cavitation is visually similar to sheet cavitation, however

is very unstable and presents many modelling difficulties.[4]

Experimental tests have been the prime method for the performance evaluation of

propellers in both full and model scale settings. The former is achieved in ship trials

and involves a non-uniform inflow wake due to the hull shape, while the latter can be

done with or without the presence of a dummy hull model. Performance charts are

produced by undergoing open water propulsion tests, conducted ideally in a deep

water basin, to avoid wall interferences. The tests are carried out by attaching a

propeller on a moving carriage via a horizontal shaft, selecting a fixed rotational

speed, and then conducting a number of runs, each with different forward speed

until the desired range of advance coefficients J is achieved.

Cavitation tests on the other hand are conducted in cavitation tunnels which have

the ability to increase and reduce the pressure to recreate the needed environmental

setting. Standard procedures require the propeller to be mounted on a shaft, a

2

Figure 1.2: Various types of cavitation

constant inflow speed and gradually increasing the rotational speed up to the motor’s

capabilities, usually achieving a range of at least 0 to 50 percent slip for inception

tests. For studying the cavitation extent and behaviour on a propeller, a certain

advance coefficient is selected, normally according to a thrust identity between model

and full scale, while also retaining cavitation number similarity.[5][6]

These evaluation methods have been implemented with wide acceptance by re-

searchers and the industry, however they involve a certain number of disadvantages.

Firstly, satisfying flow similarity between model and full scale is impossible, and

thus various techniques are needed to transform tank test results. This demands

a certain amount of empiricism and also allows for technique variation between

different testing facilities. Additionally, the time requirements and costs involved

are not always feasible, which has led to a restricted amount of experimental data

to become available. A combination of the above, and the complex geometry of

propellers, which are tailor made on a case-by-case basis, make the process quite

restrictive and prone to errors.

With rapid improvement of computational power, numerical methods have been

a focal point for hydrodynamic analyses, including propeller testing. Both viscous

and inviscid methods are constantly being developed and improved, becoming useful

tools for initial design stages. Due to the high demands of viscous CFD in both

time and computer resources, simplifications of the fluid flow can be introduced

with acceptable accuracy. One such idealised scenario is potential flow solvers, i.e.

a flow which is irrotational, incompressible and inviscid. The time savings gained by

replacing the Navier-Stokes equations and continuity equation with a simple linear

equation, the Laplace equation, while still producing results close to experimental,

have made such methods popular amongst naval architects.

Boundary Element Methods (BEM) implement the potential flow assumption

and discretise the fluid domain over the boundaries rather than the whole fluid,

3

yielding surfaces as opposed to volumes, and the velocities are computed on each

individual panel. Depending on the nature of the grid generator and solver, this

vastly accelerates the computation while retaining great accuracy due to its semi-

analytical nature. They also have benefits over lifting-line methods with regards to

errors near the leading edge and root of the blades.[5] The main issues that arise from

these methods is the complex programming required and the flow at the propeller

tip is not effectively captured, which in the case of cavitation, does not allow the

research of tip vortex cavitation.[7]

Propeller design optimisation for cavitation has been ongoing since the beginning

of the 20th century and research has been applied in practical cases. An example

of such work can be seen with the USS Pennsylvania submarine, which employed a

greater number of propeller blades amongst other modifications to reduce the radi-

ated noise.[8] There has been an accumulation of valuable information concerning

the effect of propeller geometry on cavitation, yet it is not clear how they have been

implemented in the design process as part of recommendations.

This project aimed to review existing conclusions derived particularly from ex-

perimental observation, but also from applications of numerical solving methods,

with regards to correlations between propeller geometry and cavitation. Addition-

ally, taking advantage of the availability of current computational resources, a study

was conducted using a BEM solver to investigate the accuracy and subsequently, its

agreement with current findings. The ultimate objectives were defined as follows:

of cavitation and cases of how the former influences the latter.

• Tabulate the above interrelations for use in propeller design and also the con-

firmation study that took place.

• Undergo a validation study that evaluates the accuracy of the available nu-

merical method.

of varying geometrical characteristics and their simulation in cavitation tests.

• Study the results and derive conclusions based on the above findings.

objectives and the conclusive thoughts are described in the ensuing sections of this

report.

4

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Background

Cavitation in fluid flows is quantified using the cavitation number σ , which is defined

as the ratio of the static pressure head over the dynamic pressure head. The static

head is usually defined at the shaft centreline or either a radial position of 0.7 to

0.9R depending on the needs of the study. The dynamic head is based on either

a single or vector sum of the axial and rotational velocities of the propeller, once

again, possibly at an intermediate radial position of the blade. The following are

various forms in which it can be defined.[5]

p 0 − pv p0 − pv p0 − p v

σ0 = 1 σn = 1 σm = 1

2

ρV 2 2

ρ(πxnD)2 2

ρ(V 2+ (πxnD)2 )

This parameter is a means of measuring the difference between the inflow stream

pressure compared to the vapour pressure, the point at which vapour cavities will

start to form. When compared to the pressure coefficient obtained from the pressure

distribution on the propeller blades it allows us to identify possible locations at which

cavitation will occur due to significant loads and pressure imbalance. The pressure

coefficient at a certain point is defined as follows:

p − p0

Cp = −

q

When the resultant velocity of the blade increases, the pressure imbalance on

the face and back of the propeller blade increases, leading to the low pressure side to

possibly fall below vapour pressure. This pressure limit, although not an absolute

requirement for the inception of cavitation, is identified for a certain cavitation num-

ber and it is to be avoided during operation by manipulation the propeller geometry

amongst other methods, and therefore the change of the pressure distribution.

The geometrical parameters for the review are identified as:

• Diameter

• Blade number

• Blade area

• Pitch angle

5

• Skew

• Rake

• Warp

• Blade section

• Propeller hub

2.2 Diameter

A larger diameter is favoured by naval architects, as it means that the vessel can

achieve higher thrust, and so higher forward speed for the same rotational speed

of the shaft. Usually, the design limitation is the tip clearance from the bottom

of the hull and also high-speed planning vessels are an exception. For optimum

efficiency, the propeller diameter determination is a complex procedure involving

various empirical formulae.[9]

With regards to cavitation, a larger diameter is beneficial as the rotational speed

of the propeller could be reduced and still achieve the required forward movement.

A reduced rotational speed would mean that the pressure imbalance on the blades

would be reduced with the reduction of the inflow forces and so cavitation would be

decreased or alleviated. So for a certain engine output or desired forward speed, a

large diameter propeller would allow for slower rotation and reduced cavitation, as

seen in Figure 2.2.[10]

6

Figure 2.2: Optimum diameter selection graph

The primary effect that is to be avoided with propeller number selection is resonance,

as the number of blades affects the frequency of vibrations and the strength of

vibrations that occur during operation. There is also a strong interrelation between

diameter, blade area and blade number, with a greater diameter requiring fewer

blades and a greater area requiring more blades. An increase in propeller number can

reduce sheet cavitation of the suction side due to a reduced load per blade, however

it can increase root cavitation due to reduced clearance between each blade.[5]

It is recommended that an area ratio of 16-18% should be assigned to each blade,

with a decrease of 4% in the diameter per each additional blade. This guideline has

been obtained with both performance and cavitation efficiency in mind.[10]

There are several cases in which the blade area is subjected to constraints. For

example, in the case of controllable pitch propellers there must be enough space

between the blades to allow for reversibility. An increase in blade area can also lead

to an increase in drag, and hence a balance must be found between it and thrust

for optimum efficiency. For cavitation purposes, according to early studies it was

shown that cavitation on the back and suction side that caused thrust breakdown

could be reduced by increasing the blade area. There are two methods to determine

the blade area of the propeller, namely Burrill’s and Keller’s.[5]

7

Figure 2.3: Correlation between optimum diameter, blade number and blade area

ratio

8

Burrill’s method can provide recommendations for fixed pitch propellers using

Figure 2.4. For a certain “permissible” level of cavitation, the graph provides the

thrust loading coefficient at the 0.7R section of the blade. This estimate was deter-

mined from cavitation tunnel tests in uniform axial load.

The projected and expanded propeller areas would be calculated using the fol-

lowing two formulae respectively:

T AP

AP = 1 AE =

τ ρ(V 2

2 c

+ (0.7πnD)2 ) 1.067 − 0.229P

D

where τc is obtained from Figure 2.4.

Keller’s method is based on the expanded area ratio:

AE (1.3 + 0.3Z)TP

= +K

A0 (ps − pv )D2

The value K varies from 0.2 for single screw propellers, to 0.1 for slow twin screw

merchant ships, and 0 for fast twin screw naval ships.

The pitch angle of the propeller is a crucial parameter, determining the angle of

attack of the blades with the incoming flow and largely dictates the variation of

the pressure exerted on the blades. The determination of the pitch of a propeller

is made in conjunction with diameter and rotational speed to achieve the desired

forward speed. A reduced angle of attack (θ–β→0 in Figure 2.5) leads to a reduction

in back cavitation by creating a more even distribution of pressure, when combined

with appropriate camber to produce lift. On the other hand, increasing the angle of

attack, often with the combination of decreased camber, reduces cavitation on the

face of the blade and the risk of negative angles of attack occurring.[11]

The pitch of the propeller has been researched extensively by testing blade sec-

tions at various angles of attack. The results are presented in various forms, in-

cluding velocity distributions, bucket diagrams and pressure distributions, as seen

Figure 2.5: Blade section pitch P, nose-tail pitch angle θ and inflow angle β

9

Figure 2.6: Left – Velocity distributions at (a) positive, (b) ideal and (c) negative

angle of attack. Right – Cavitation bucket diagram

in Figures 2.6 and 2.7. It can be observed with these graphs how the angle of at-

tack can be modified to move cavitation inception from the back to the face of the

propeller. It has been deduced from studies that cavitation inception is limited to

lower numbers of the cavitation number for small angles of incidence, however as it

increases, the susceptibility spreads to the wider range.[5]

Bucket diagrams can show the type of cavitation occurring at a certain com-

bination of angle of attack and cavitation number while also expressing the non-

cavitating capabilities of the 2-dimensional section in the width of the “bucket”.

The fact that this refers to a section rather than a 3-dimensional blade leaves room

for uncertainty with regards to tip and root cavitation, and so other design methods

must be used to optimise those areas in particular. Nevertheless, they are often used

during the design process.[5]

incidence

10

Figure 2.8: Observation from experimental tests

2.6 Skew

Skew is considered to be the most effective geometrical parameter that can be ad-

justed in order to manage the extent and inception of cavitation, due to not having

a simultaneous effect on thrust.[12] The optimum amount to be applied has been

suggested to be in the range of 45-60◦ , where the greatest amount of blade unloading

occurs. Angles in excess of 60◦ have been shown to cause the increase of negative

pressure at the tip region, nevertheless moderate angles of skew have been shown to

be beneficial in normal operations.[13]

Skew weakens sheet cavitation and moves it from the blade tip to the leading

edge, however this can be aggravated at low cavitation numbers and turn into leading

edge vortices.[14] The resultant pressure fluctuation produced for skewed propellers

is 50-70% less than that commonly found.[15]

2.7 Warp

Warp is defined as the angular displacement equal to the projected skew angle mea-

sured after the skew induced rake is made up with opposite rake.[16] Warp has been

proven to have a very similar effect to skew, with a good comparison test showing

that warp might even be more effective for moderate cavitation numbers, while, only

for very low values of the cavitation parameter, skew might be superior.[12]

11

Figure 2.9: Unwrapped view of section showing the relationship between warp and

skew

Figure 2.10: Comparison between undistorted, 36◦ and 72◦ skew, and 36◦ and 72◦

warp

2.8 Rake

Evidence for the use of rake for cavitation reduction was not sufficient to confirm

its use for cavitation management purposes. The main purpose for which it is

introduced is for increasing the clearance between the blade tip and the hull bottom.

There is some evidence that slight backwards rake can reduce cavitation with small

reduction of propeller efficiency.[17] Since rake also allows for the use of a larger

diameter, it might implicitly lead to cavitation improvement.

On the other hand, it leads to an increase of the load experienced by the propeller

blades and therefore a greater section thickness is used, the effects of which will be

discussed in the next section. Although blade rake does not seem to be used for

cavitation mitigation purposes, blade tip rake has been found to be of great interest

and benefit.

12

2.9 Blade Section

The blade section geometry comprises of the section thickness, camber and chord

length. For better cavitation characteristics, NACA sections have become a popular

choice for newer ships with marked improvements.[18] The vast amount of experi-

mental data on NACA foils makes them an attractive option for engineers, who will

go on to modify them to fit their particular case. The flat pressure distribution on

the suction side provides a wide bucket diagram, on the pressure side however the

phenomenon is not so well controlled. To solve the problem of high loading at the

leading edge of the blade, which is the source of severe cavitation, the maximum

thickness is suggested to be positioned forward of 50% of the chord length with an

S-shaped camber.

Thicker foils also allow for the use of a wider range of angles of attack, however

the increased drag and reduced lift that result may not be welcomed. An increase

in camber can be regarded as an increase of the initial angle of attack, which would

eventually cause cavitation, but with less impact on the drag of the foil. Therefore,

cavitation-free operation can be carried out at larger positive angle and smaller

negative angle with a small increase in the width of the range.[19] The thickness is

also limited by the cord length, as a thickness-to-chord ratio above 0.35 can lead to

cavitation.

In the radial direction, although thicker blades are more prone to cavitation,

combining it with greater camber can help avoid the low pressure peak at the lead-

ing edge and hence reduce the possibility of sheet cavitation. On the contrary, a

thin blade with small camber is better for avoiding bubble cavitation.[20] Overall,

the blade section requires a significant amount of attention and an iterative and sys-

tematic process to accomplish a satisfactory design. More detailed characteristics,

such as the blade leading edge radius and shape are also important, but their study

could not be accommodated in this project.

13

Figure 2.12: Right – The influence of thickness on cavitation inception. Left – The

influence of camber on cavitation inception

Design processes require the hub to be as small as possible, for various hydrodynamic

reasons including cavitation, while still being able to serve its purpose, especially

for controllable pitch propellers (CPP) which have to house the mechanism. Also, it

must not be too small, as the spacing of the blades would be significantly reduced,

increasing the possibility of root cavitation. The hub ratio is defined as the diameter

of the hub over the diameter of the propeller equivalent actuator disk. For control-

lable pitch propellers this ranges from 0.24-0.32D, while for fixed pitch propellers

from 0.16-0.25D.[5]

The form of the hub is interestingly important and two designs, with either a

convergent or a divergent design being used. Convergent hubs are used for slow

merchant ships and see face and back root cavitation more easily. Slightly diver-

gent hubs are used for high-speed ship, patrol vessels and warships, while strongly

divergent hubs are less popular. Finally, parallel or divergent hub cones are often

employed in an attempt to reduce the root vortices generated.[5]

14

Table 2.1: Literature Review Summary

Diameter Increase (usually with rotational Blade tip clearance

speed reduction)

Blade Number Increase Blade spacing at the hub

Blade Area Increase Lift-drag balance

Pitch Angle Low to moderate angles are Highly dependent on blade

recommended section

Skew Moderate angles between 45-60◦ Negative effects after 75

Warp Moderate angles between 45-60◦

Rake Unclear Strength requirements

Thickness Increase Optimisation of pressure

distribution for lift and drag

Camber Increase – Negligible effect on

range

Chord Length Increase Rotational ability of blades in

CPPs

Hub Decrease Fit mechanism for CPPs

15

Chapter 3

Propeller Modelling

The modelling of the propellers was completed with the assistance of a parametric

modeller, with the capability of reproducing various series of widely known and

used propellers, such as the Wageningen B-series, Gawn, Kaplan and others. It also

allows for custom rules to be applied on the blades, hub and individual cross section,

making it a very useful tool for custom design.

Due to a restriction with regards to the flow simulation software, blades had to be

designed with cross-sections according to a NACA66-MOD thickness distribution

and NACA08 camber line. They are regarded as some of the most commonly used

forms and are designed for cavitation reduction, however they usually serve as a

starting point.[5] The distributions can be seen in Table 3.1.

First, the model of a propeller with such blade sections, i.e. not modified further,

had to be identified in literature, for which experimental data was also available.

This would allow for the validation of PPB. One such propeller was used by Boswell

in both open water experiments and cavitation tests as part of a study on the effect

of skew on cavitation.[21] Propeller 4381 has simple geometry in the form of sections

at various radial positions and thus the input parameters for the simulation were

manually reproduced using Excel.[5][21]

For this project a total of 40 propellers were produced, with one being the “parent”

propeller and the rest varying with respect to a certain characteristic for a range

of magnitudes. The initial aspiration was to be able to take advantage of the Wa-

geningen B-series wide range of experimental results, however due to the constraint

imposed by PPB, a modification was made to incorporate the NACA sections. All

propellers were defined according to a full pitch distribution, with the exception of a

second 4-blade propeller which followed a non-linear pitch distribution due to a 20%

pitch reduction at the hub. This is standard for B-series propellers, to assist with

adapting to the velocity distribution behind a hull.[6] All propellers had a hub-to-

diameter ration of 0.167, with the exception of the 3-blade propeller, which required

a ratio of 0.18.[22] The outline of the blades, thickness and skew distribution were

16

Table 3.1: Blade Section Thickness and Camber Distribution

Camber-line Distribution

x/c f /fmax t/tmax

0 0 0

0.0025 0.02 0.085

0.005 0.035 0.14

0.0075 0.05 0.18

0.0125 0.071 0.2248

0.025 0.1263 0.3094

0.0499 0.2236 0.4271

0.0749 0.3147 0.5122

0.0999 0.3975 0.582

0.1498 0.54 0.693

0.1998 0.6576 0.7804

0.3002 0.8338 0.9046

0.4001 0.9453 0.9763

0.5 1 1

0.5999 0.9967 0.9724

0.6998 0.9318 0.8787

0.8 0.7769 0.7016

0.9 0.4361 0.4228

0.95 0.2181 0.2344

1 0 0

Number of blades: 5

Hub diameter ratio: 0.2

Expanded area ratio: 0.725

Section mean line: NACA08

Section thickness distribution: NACA66-MOD

Design advance coefficient: 0.889

r/R c/D P/D θs xs /D tmax /D fmax /c

0.2 0.174 1.332 0 0 0.0434 0.0351

0.25 0.202 1.338 0 0 0.0396 0.0369

0.3 0.229 1.345 0 0 0.0358 0.0368

0.4 0.275 1.358 0 0 0.0294 0.0348

0.5 0.312 1.336 0 0 0.0240 0.0307

0.6 0.337 1.280 0 0 0.0191 0.0245

0.7 0.347 1.210 0 0 0.0146 0.0191

0.8 0.334 1.137 0 0 0.0105 0.0148

0.9 0.280 1.066 0 0 0.0067 0.0123

0.95 0.210 1.031 0 0 0.0048 0.0128

1.0 0 0.995 0 0 0.0029 -

17

Figure 3.1: Solid and wire representation of the parent model

according to B-series polynomials, while the rake distribution was linear. Finally,

the maximum camber was set at 0.01 of the section chord length.

The parent propeller consisted of 5 blades, a blade area ratio of 0.75, a 7m

diameter and pitch, 15◦ rake and the skew was determined by the modeller at 16.3◦ .

The first group of propellers consisted of 11 models that varied in diameter, starting

from 4 meters up to 9 meters in increments of 0.5 meters. The second group consisted

of 6 models, ranging from 3 to 7 blades, including the second 4-bladed model with the

80% pitch. Next, were 6 propellers with BAR ranging from 0.3 to 1.05 in increment

of 0.15. Group 4 varied in pitch from 4.2 to 9.8 meters in 1.4 meter steps and an

additional model with 3.5 meter pitch. The group of skew-varying propellers started

at 0◦ , then 16.3◦ and from 25◦ to 75◦ in 10◦ steps. Finally, rake began from -5◦ up

to 30◦ by 5◦ increments.

18

Table 3.3: Comparative Study Models

Number from Number from

Propeller Propeller

No.1 No.1

Diameter (m)

2 7.5 7 6

3 8 8 5.5

4 8.5 9 5

5 9 10 4.5

6 6.5 11 4

Blade Number

12 6 15 4 (80% pitch)

13 7 16 3

14 4

Blade Area Ratio

17 0.9 20 0.45

18 1.05 21 0.3

19 0.6

Pitch (m)

22 8.4 25 4.2

23 9.8 26 3.5

24 5.6

Skew (degrees)

27 25 31 65

28 35 32 75

29 45 33 0

30 55

Rake (degrees)

34 20 38 5

35 25 39 0

36 30 40 -5

37 10

19

Figure 3.2: CAD drawing of the parent propeller

20

Chapter 4

Propeller Simulations

The program used for this project was a limited version of the PPB code created and

distributed by the HSVA. It utilises a surface panel method, meaning it discretises

only the surface of the boundary of the body into panels, and with this particular

pre-processor, quadrilateral or, if need be, triangular panels are generated. The

trailing edge of the blades is forced to have triangular panels, as this has been

shown to be beneficial for the Kutta condition. One of the limitations imposed was

that the hub was not modelled to avoid issues brought up by the vorticity generated

at the junction of the blade and hub. Hence, all results are due to the blades

only. Additionally, as mentioned before, the blade sections were all forced to have

NACA66-MOD thickness distribution and NACA08 camber-lines.

To generate the mesh a geometry control file is needed, which includes the num-

ber of blade sections, their non-dimensional radial position, chord, maximum thick-

ness and camber, rake, pitch-over-diameter ratio and the distance of the leading

edge of the section to the generator line. These were obtained through spreadsheet

formulations of the modeller output, and, together with the diameter and blade

number specification, composed the whole pre-processor control file. The grid gen-

erator produces the mesh of one blade and then the solver uses a key-blade approach,

i.e. takes advantage of the rotational symmetry of the propeller and by solving for

one blade produces the solution for the whole propeller.[23] Each blade consists of

21 chord-wise and 11 radial ordinates, yielding a total of 200 panels on each side.

Modification of the grid density was not possible with the limited version of PPB.

PPB is also potential based, meaning it incorporates the assumptions of irrota-

tionality, incompressibility and absence of viscosity. The basic unknown which is

to be solved at the centre of each panel is the local perturbation potential φ(x,ti ),

which is solved in the frequency domain and satisfies the Laplace equation ∇2 φ= 0,

replacing the continuity and momentum equations to yield a faster calculation.[23]

The computation is derived directly for steady state, meaning the solver takes

into account only the zeroth harmonic order and saves computational time. The

derivation of the surface pressures is achieved through two steps: first the flow

potential is deduced for the whole blade and then surface strengths are evaluated

for each panel to give the pressures. Viscous corrections are also implemented on the

basis of the whole panel domain by adding up the shear force contribution of each

panel, which is estimated for every element from friction lines.[23] More detailed

21

Figure 4.1: Grid and mesh of the DTNSRDC Propeller 4381

modelling was not disclosed, however the method is loosely based on the panel

method approach used by Kinnas et al. and Lee et al.

The input file for the solver requires the following parameters: the advance

coefficient, the propeller rotational speed, the diameter, a wake parameter (set to

zero throughout the project as it relevant only to simulations of in-behind condition)

and finally the local cavitation number at 0.8R of the blade at the 12 o’clock position,

and is defined as follows:

patm + ρgh − pv

σn0.8 = 1

2

ρ(πnD)2

The file can be configured to run consecutive simulations, thus providing a table

of results. The output file provides the pressure coefficient on the suction and

pressure side for each radial ordinate at a position of 1/7th of the total chord. It

also provides a non-dimensionalised circulation and cavity volume, estimated from

the mean surface pressure, both for all 10 radially distributed panels. For this code,

only sheet cavitation is predicted.[24]

First, the pre-processor input was evaluated to produce the mesh of the blade. For

the simulation, the advance coefficient was increased in increments of 0.1 from 0

to 1.3. To derive the open water results with as little discrepancy as possible, the

propeller was set to a constant rotating speed of 7.8 rps and the inflow speed varied,

to achieve the desired J, from 3 to 10 feet per second, following the same process

as the experiment itself.[21] The report does not mention the submergence of the

propeller and so it is assumed that the shaft centre of the propeller is one diameter

deep under the waterline. With D,n,σ n0.8 and J in hand the open water results were

calculated, tabulated and compared to the experimental data, as shown in Figure

4.2.

22

Figure 4.2: Open water performance comparison between PPB and experimental

results by Boswell

Overall the open water results do follow the same trend as the experimental

results, however the discrepancy is on the higher end of the spectrum for engineering

applications; at the design point of J= 0.889 the percentage difference between

results is 8.8% for both thrust and torque. It is not specified in the experimental

test procedures if a run of the tank carriage was made in order to determine the

system friction and dummy hub torque and thrust. Therefore, it is unknown if

the results are solely due to blade action or not, and potential flow solvers tend to

predict a slightly higher thrust at the design point when modelled without a hub.[25]

In general it has been shown that below the design point BEMs are often unable

to properly predict torque when compared to other numerical methods.[26][27] The

efficiency is under-predicted by less than 1.5%.

This propeller was designed by a lifting surface procedure with additional correc-

tions based on thrust performance criteria. The overall performance of the models

tested was lower than the design condition, with 2.3% thrust, 0.4% torque and -1.8%

efficiency at J= 0.889. When these results are compared with the numerical results

the error of the method is reduced to 6.3% for thrust and 8.3% for torque, whilst

the error in efficiency increases to 3.2%.

23

4.3 Cavitation Validation

The study conducted by Boswell included cavitation results and thus the opportunity

to validate the performance of PPB in that aspect was utilised. The test procedure

was completed in a variable pressure water tunnel and so the cavitation number,

selected at the shaft centre-line, could be controlled independently. First, a value

for the advance coefficient was selected and then values for the inflow and rotational

speed were adjusted, always remaining between 10 and 20 feet per second for the

former, and 14 and 20 rps for the latter. Initially the propeller would operate in a

non-cavitating condition and a reduction of pressure was introduced until cavitation

would appear or change.[21]

To convert the free stream cavitation number to the local value required by

PPB, a systematic procedure was required for each advance coefficient. First the

advance coefficient was selected together with the highest possible inflow speed, not

exceeding the previously mentioned range. The rotational speed was now adjusted

by definition J=V /(nD). The static head needed to be converted from that at the

propeller shaft, to one at 0.8R of the blade at 12 o’clock, to achieve the correct local

number. If the two definitions can be expressed as:

σ0 = 1 and σn0.8 = 1

2

ρV 2 2

ρ(πnD)2

1 2 1

ρV σ 0 = ρ(πnD)2 σn0.8 + 0.4ρgD ⇒

2 2

1

2

ρV 2 σ 0 − 0.4ρgD

⇒ σn0.8 = 1

2

ρ(πnD)2

From here the cavitation number could be derived for the range of 1 to 12 of

σ 0 , and the whole process repeated to cover the range of 0.5 to 1 for the advance

coefficient. The results for cavitation inception are only an estimate as it would

require an extensive procedure to identify the exact value of J of its initiation. It

has been noticed that PPB detects the sheet at the very top ordinate and, as it

becomes larger, it spreads to lower parts of the blade. The two lines in Figure 20

represent the tip and 0.4R ordinate of the blade.

The results are not encouraging as they indicate a severe under-prediction of

cavitation at higher cavitation numbers. The cavity volume estimation is based on

the blade pressures, nevertheless there seems to be significant difference. However,

due to uncertainty with regards to the processes followed in the model experiments

it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion. For the comparison study lower

cavitation numbers will be used in order to avoid any potential issues with the

prediction.

The comparison of propeller cavitation sensitivity is done on the basis of the volume

of the cavity. The comparison of two propellers is done for same advance coeffi-

24

Figure 4.3: Total cavitation inception as predicted by PPB compared to the

experimental prediction

cient and local cavitation number. There is substantial discussion regarding the

ideal definition of the cavitation number for performance comparison in model test-

ing.[28][29][30] There is no definite consensus on the “correct” method, however it

is suggested that for model tests the local cavitation number is used, especially for

inception studies.[5] This is not relevant in this case, as all propellers are in full-scale

and no scaling of the model or the effect needs to be done.

Nevertheless, the strategy followed was to test all 40 propellers at 3 different local

cavitation numbers: 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25. First, the parent propeller was used, along

with an inflow speed of 10 m/s to determine the free stream cavitation number when

the shaft was submerged by one diameter. The result was kept throughout all the

tests and was approximately 3.3. For every new propeller the new static pressure was

determined always at a shaft submergence of one diameter and, using the free-stream

cavitation number the inflow velocity was determined for the particular diameter.

Every propeller was tested at advance coefficients ranging from 0 to 1.5, and for

each one a unique rotational speed was derived by definition of J=V /(nD). Finally,

the desired local cavitation number would be selected and this would eventually

re-adjust the static pressure, changing the free-stream cavitation number for each

propeller.

The reason for keeping the local cavitation constant is mainly due to the fact

that it is part of the input of PPB, and so greater consistency is achieved for the

comparison. The initial derivation of the inflow speed is justified as a “prediction”

of what forward speed the propeller would have to achieve the free-stream cavitation

number. The correction of the inflow velocity is an attempt to adjust for the pres-

sure change due to the modified submergence that would occur if the tests were not

performed in a pressure controlled environment, such as normal ship operation. Fi-

25

∆p ∼

∆p = patm + ρgD − pv σv = 1 = 3.3

2

ρV 2

where D = 7m

where V = 10 m/s

s

∆p

V = 1

J = 0, 0.1, 0.2 . . . 1.5 2

ρσv

where σv ∼

= 3.3

V V

J= ⇒n=

nD JD

Figure 4.4: Flowchart demonstrating the derivation of the PPB input variables

nally, since the ability to de-/pressurise the environment exists, it seems appropriate

to take advantage of it to keep other variables constant.

Overall this process is not necessary, as one could just keep either the local

or free-stream cavitation number constant and not take advantage of the pressure

adjustability. This would set either the inflow or rotational speed, depending on the

definition of the cavitation number, and for the range of advance coefficients, the

other speed would be determined. Yet the above process seemed like a justifiable

extra step in the process.

26

Chapter 5

Results

For all geometrical characteristics, two types of figures are presented. First, the

value of the volume of the cavity is shown as both the geometry and the advance

coefficient are varied through the prescribed range. The second type is an attempt

to investigate how the sensitivity to cavitation changes with the geometry, as the

cavitation number decreases. To achieve this, the increase in volume is measured

between consecutive cavitation number reductions. Then the difference between the

two increases is derived and plotted against the geometrical change and J.

5.1 Diameter

Larger diameter propellers generate more cavitation at a certain advance coeffi-

cient, with cavitation increasing almost linearly as J reduces. At the same J, the

growth of the volume is quadratic with the diameter and this is amplified at low

values of advance. This is not surprising, as the expanded blade area also increases

quadratically with diameter, leading to a greater surface area. However, the fact

the this effect is amplified at lower values of J seems to suggest that the optimum

rotational speed reduces as a propeller becomes larger, which is in agreement with

industry practice.[9] Therefore, an engineer must identify this reduction of optimum

rotational speed and compare it to the gains in forward speed and thrust. The

cavitation increase per unit diameter could be linear, however the slope of this line

depends on the above residual parameters.

Figure 23 also confirms the previous statement for optimum rotational speed, as

the local cavitation number reduces quadratically with n. For larger propellers, cavi-

tation increases drastically at low J, whereas smaller ones seem to reach a stagnation

point. The reduction of increase at low J - high D suggests a similar stagnation in

further growth. An important note, however, is that cavitation is conceived almost

at the same advancement coefficient for all diameters, therefore this is a matter of

tolerance of total cavity volume.

The increase of propeller blades presents a rapid reduction to the total volume, while

all other geometrical characteristics remain constant. This could confirm the advice

found in literature regarding the blade area ratio; the BAR of 0.75 is 15% per blade

27

Figure 5.1: Cavitation with diameter variation at σ = 0.15

variation

28

Figure 5.3: Cavitation with blade number variation at σ = 0.15

for the 5-blade propeller and 25% for the 3-blade, which greatly exceeds the recom-

mendation of 16-18%. The 80% pitch reduction for the 4-blade propeller suggested

for B-series models does seem to have a small favourable impact, but cannot negate

significant errors in design decisions. The further reduction in cavitation upwards

of 5 blades may not come along with other performance benefits or could be due to

the inability to detect root cavitation due to close blade proximity.

Although the difference in increase of cavitation when lowering the cavitation

number seems to be somewhat slightly affected by the number of blades, the 3-

bladed propeller exhibits an unanticipated vulnerability. In industry it is suggested

that lower blade number propellers have a higher efficiency but for strength reasons

cannot be utilised when high thrust is a requirement. However, the above advantage

is hindered by the diameter, which seems to fall below the advisable range for 3-blade

designs.[9]

The blade area affects cavitation in an interesting manner. At higher cavitation

numbers, a large blade area is beneficial, with an onset occurring at lower values of

J and reduction of the volume compared to the parent propeller. Benefit can also be

seen at low blade area ratios, but onset is not postponed as before. Comparatively,

intermediate values are unexpectedly not beneficial. As the cavitation number re-

duces, the benefit of using higher blade areas is diminished for lower J, even though

the delay of onset is still present to an extent.

Additionally, low blade area ratio propellers do not experience increases in growth

29

Figure 5.4: Sensitivity of cavitation at lower cavitation number with blade number

variation

Figure 5.5: Optimum blade number suggestion by MAN Diesel & Turbo

30

Figure 5.6: Cavitation with BAR variation at σ = 0.25 (left) and σ = 0.15(right)

variation

31

Figure 5.8: Cavitation with pitch variation at σ = 0.15

deduced from the previous figure, high areas show a significant disadvantage, which

contradicts literature.[5] At more reasonable operational values, however, this effect

is opposite. Since the rotational speeds at these values of the advance coefficient are

more possible for an actual operating condition, it would be sensible to agree with

current design procedures regarding BAR, namely Burrills method.

5.4 Pitch

Pitch demonstrates a linear response to both growth of the total volume. It also

appears earlier for propellers with higher pitch in a linear fashion, which seems like

a reasonable outcome since a linear pitch distribution was used for all propellers and

the variation of pitch effectively alters the angle of attack of the blade to flow. This

results in the effective pressure on the blade to increase with the angle of attack.

In an attempt to arrive at a useful conclusion, Figure 30 shows that as the

cavitation number reduces, at the speed of inception, all propellers experience the

same increase. Therefore, pitch, together with diameter, must be adjusted to fit the

rate of revolution that is to be selected. For lower rates of revolution, pitch-over-

diameter should be larger, and so should the diameter. Therefore, the losses due to

an increased pitch must be counteracted by the benefits gained from the increase in

diameter. This is in agreement with research findings and industry practice.[5][9]

32

Figure 5.9: Sensitivity to cavitation at lower cavitation number with pitch

variation

5.5 Skew

The use of skew for preventing cavitation is confirmed by the comparative study.

The effect is not of great significance, however given that skew does not have a

consequence on thrust, it is a useful tool for this purpose. A delayed onset rotational

speed and a reduced rate of growth is observed. In a numerical study [13] it was

found that optimum skew is around 45-60◦ , however the results from PPB indicate

that the benefits continue at higher values, which agrees with studies that used both

numerical and experimental methods.[12][14]

An increase in skew also reduces the rate of growth of cavitation as the cavitation

number reduces, meaning that it can benefit high rotating speed propellers. One

important note is that, although skew has beneficial effects, the manufacturing of

the blades may require other geometrical changes, such as an increase in thickness,

which could negate the positive gains.

5.6 Rake

The study reveals that cavitation is almost totally independent of rake. The effect

is negligible, however it is interesting to note that it is positive for large angles at

higher cavitation numbers, whereas it is negative for larger angles at lower cavitation

numbers. Thus, it seems unlikely that rake would be used with this goal in mind,

considering the additional measures that are required to cater for the strength of the

blades. This also confirms the implementation of warp in marine propellers, where,

when skew is implemented, skew induced rake is removed by applying negative rake.

33

Figure 5.10: Cavitation with skew variation at σ = 0.15

variation

34

Figure 5.12: Cavitation with rake variation at σ = 0.25 (left) and σ = 0.15 (right)

variation

35

Chapter 6

The validation of PPB produced mixed results that were not re-assuring in regards

to accuracy for its purpose. Open water results were reasonably accurate, with a

deviation of 8.8% compared to experimental methods. Over-estimation of torque

and thrust is a normal behaviour of potential flow solvers; however, in this case

results could be improved significantly by increasing the mesh density.[23]

Cavitation prediction was underwhelming in the validation process, indicating

that the cavity volume estimation from the blade pressures might not be sufficient.

A late onset of cavitation was found; still there are various differences between the

experimental and numerical tests that might occur and lead to such deviation. First,

the exact values of inflow and rotational velocity were not provided in the experi-

ment description by Boswell, and therefore the precise values of the local cavitation

number, required as input for PPB, could be affected slightly. Additionally, there

are environmental parameters, such a water density, water air content and tank wall

effects, that are a significant factor for cavitation inception.[5][28][29][30] Finally,

there was no mention of a dummy hub test, which means the effect of the hub on

the results could be a reason for the discrepancy.

Overall, the results from the comparative study are in agreement with the knowl-

edge applied to marine propeller design. Although the diameter produces higher

volumes of cavitation, it increases linearly per meter of diameter, and therefore the

designer must take into account operational speed and thrust requirements. A re-

duction of the number of blades causes a large spike, as the area per blade becomes

excessive and the width of the blade exceeds its root-to-tip height. For a 5-blade pro-

peller, the increase of BAR is welcomed, as it delays the onset of cavitation, however

due to the conclusions from blade number variation, one must be cautious with the

reaction with different geometry. In general, the above three geometrical properties

are interconnected, yielding an optimum design based on requirements.[10]

Although a larger pitch is usually beneficial for performance, the onset of cavi-

tation moves to lower rotational speeds in a linear fashion with pitch increase. Skew

was confirmed to be successful in reducing cavitation throughout the range of 0◦ to

75◦ . This does not agree with certain numerical studies, which show that pressure

loading at the tip increases further from 60◦ [13], and this could be due to the in-

ability of BEMs to identify tip vortex cavitation. Finally, rake was not found to

be useful in alleviating cavitation, especially when the negative consequences of its

implementation could harm a propellers service life.

Throughout the study there were a number of decisions and techniques involved

36

that could be a source of eventual faults in the outcome and conclusions. Potential

flow introduces various simplifications to a real flow, and hence may not necessarily

lead to representative results. The mesh generated on the blades, although refined

at the leading and trailing edge may not be dense enough to capture the flow in

detail. The above, combined with viscous corrections applied to the results may

even lead to further inaccuracies.

An additional source of potential error can be found in the validation with the

absence of a more detailed description of the experimental procedures. Combined

with an uncertainty for the accuracy of the cavity volume estimation through the

surface pressure prediction, a deviation of the results for cavitation is not entirely

unlikely. Finally, the absence of the propeller hub, although a common technique in

such studies, is still another source of discrepancies between the real and simulated

scenario.

This study could be extended to provide similar insight on the effects of the

blade section on cavitation inception and extent. It is possible that camber could

be particularly useful for controlling cavitation, utilised appropriately with pitch. A

collection of the all the above could be coded into a program similar to “OpenProp”,

which started at MIT and since moved to Dartmouth College. It uses a generalised

lifting line method for model design and analysis, while it can also perform basic

stress calculations on the blades and output geometries for further work.[31] It would

form as a useful optimisation tool for cases where cavitation is a significant issue,

and would give suggestions on which geometrical parameter one should change, to

control sheet cavitation in the most efficient way.

37

References

Taylor & Francis, 2006.

[2] J. N. Newman, Marine Hydrodynamics. MIT Press, 1977.

[3] P. Eisenberg, H. S. Preiser, and A. Thiruvengadam, On the Mechanism of

Cavitation Damage and Methods of Protection. Hydronautics, Incorporated,

1965.

[4] S. Kinnas. (1996). Photographs of Different Types of Cavitation, [Online].

Available: http://cavity.ce.utexas.edu/kinnas/cavphotos.html.

[5] J. Carlton, Marine Propellers and Propulsion. Oxford: Butterworth-

Heinemann, 2012.

[6] W. P. A. van Lammeren, J. D. van Manen, and M. W. C. Oosterveld, “The

Wageningen B-Screw Series”, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engi-

neers Transactions, vol. 77, no. 8, 1969.

[7] B. Volker, Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford,

2000.

[8] P. F. Johnston. (2000). The Taming of the Screw, [Online]. Available: http:

//americanhistory.si.edu/subs/anglesdangles/taming.html.

[9] MAN Diesel & Turbo, “Basic Principals of Ship Propulsion”, MAN Diesel &

Turbo, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2011.

[10] AB Volvo Penta, “Propellers - Inboard Propellers and Speed Calculation”, AB

Volvo Penta, Göteborg, Sweden, 1998.

[11] D. Bertetta, S. Brizzolara, S. Gaggero, M. Viviani, and L. Savio, “CPP Pro-

peller Cavitation and Noise Optimization at Different Pitches with Panel Code

andVvalidation by Cavitation Tunnel Measurements”, Ocean Engineering, vol.

53, pp. 177–195, 2012.

[12] J. E. Kerwin, S. D. Lewis, and S. Kobayashi, “Systematic Experiments to

Determine the Influence of Skew and Rake on Hull Vibratory Excitation Due to

Transient Cavitation”, presented at the Ship Vibration Symposium, SNAME,

1978.

[13] M. A. Mosaad, M. Mosleh, H. El-Kilani, and W. Yehia, “Propeller Design

for Minimum Induced Vibrations”, presented at the Port Said Engineering

Research Journal, Port Said University, 2011.

[14] Z. F. Zhu, “Numerical Study of the Effect of Propellers Skew on Cavitation

Performance”, Advanced Materials Research, vol. 705, pp. 405–409, 2013.

38

[15] B. Ji, X. Luo, and Y. Wu, “Unsteady Cavitation Characteristics and Al-

leviation of Pressure Fluctuations Around Marine Propellers with Different

Skew Angles”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 4,

pp. 1339–1348, 2014.

[16] D. R. Smith and J. E. Slater, “The Geometry of Marine Propellers”, Defence

Research Establishment Atlantic, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 1988.

[17] Y. Ukon, K. Kume, J. Fujisawa, H. Takeshi, Y. Kawanami, J. Hasegawa, R.

Fukasawa, S. Yamasaki, J. Ando, and T. Kanai, “Research on Improvement of

Propulsive Performance of a High-Speed Ship Equipped with a High-Powered

Propeller”, National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan, 2008.

[18] J. Dang, “Improving Cavitation Performance with New Blade Sections for

Marine Propellers”, International Shipbuilding Progress, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 353–

376, 2004.

[19] S.-W. Chau, K.-L. Hsu, J.-S. Kouh, and Y.-J. Chen, “Investigation of Cavita-

tion Inception Characteristics of Hydrofoil Sections via a Viscous Approach”,

Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 147–158, 2004.

[20] G. Kuiper, “Cavitation Inception on Ship Propeller Models”, TU Delft, Delft

University of Technology, 1981.

[21] R. J. Boswell, “Design, Cavitation Performance, and Open-Water Performance

of a Series of Research Skewed Propellers”, Department of the Navy Naval Ship

Research and Development Center, Washington, D.C., 1971.

[22] R. Biven, “Interactive Optimization Programs for Initial Propeller Design”,

University of New Orleans, New Orleans, 2009.

[23] S. Gaggero, J. Gonzalez-Adalid, and M. Perez Sobrino, “Design of Contracted

and Tip Loaded Propellers by Using Boundary Element Methods and Opti-

mization Algorithms”, Applied Ocean Research, vol. 55, pp. 102–129, 2016.

[24] H. Streckwall, “User Manual for HSVA’s Propeller Panel Method ”ppbfdom””,

Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt GmbH, Hamburg, Germany, 2001.

[25] S. Brizzolara, S. Gaggero, and D. Grassi, “Hub Effect in Propeller Design

and Analysis”, presented at the Third Internationals Symposium on Marine

Propulsors smp’13, 2013.

[26] L. Greco, R. Muscari, C. Testa, and A. Di Mascio, “Marine Propellers Perfor-

mance and Flow-Field Prediction by a Free-Wake Panel Method”, Journal of

Hydrodynamics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 780–795, 2014.

[27] S. Gatchell, D. Hefermann, and H. Streckwall, “Open Water Test Propeller

Performance and Cavitation Behaviour Using PPB and FreSCo+”, presented

at the Second International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp’11, Ham-

burg, Germany, 2011.

[28] “Comparative Tests of Propellers in Cavitation Tunnels”, presented at the

Fifth International Conference of Ship Tank Superintendents, London: The

International Towing Tank Conference, 1948.

[29] “Comparative Cavitation Tests”, presented at the Sixth International Confer-

ence Ship Tank Superintendents, Washington: The International Towing Tank

Conference, 1951.

39

[30] “Comparative Cavitation Tests of Propellers”, presented at the 8th Interna-

tional Towing Tank Conference, Madrid: The International Towing Tank Con-

ference, 1957.

[31] B. Epps and R. Kimball. (2013). OpenProp v3: Open-Source Software for

the Design and Analysis of Marine Propellers and Horizontal-Axis Turbines,

[Online]. Available: http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/epps/openprop.

40

- Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of Finite AmplitudeUploaded byRebecca Clark
- RET Bellmouth SeptUploaded byaakk75
- Reentrant Cavitation Implosion Surface TensionUploaded byVincent J. Cataldi
- Bernoulli's PrincipleUploaded byepaese
- Boiler Feed Pump Recirculation ValvesUploaded byShameer Majeed
- Aerodynamics 1Uploaded byHawk Gatus
- Abstract SCLI Warwick 2Uploaded byAnurag Sharma
- Bernoulli's Principle - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byanilchowdary2005
- pamm.201710149 (1).pdfUploaded byMustafa Moussaoui
- BLACOH ProductsUploaded byPoncho Rmz
- Fitting a propellerUploaded byAlfi Delfi
- Bernoulli's Principle - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- MIT2_29F11_lect_6Uploaded bysayantan2210
- AOPA ASF Propeller SafetyUploaded byFran Garita
- The performance of an axial-flow pumpUploaded bycbaraj
- Computational Methods in Multiphase Flow VIUploaded byAnoop Uchagawkar
- Lecture_1_Eqn of Continuity_UPDATED.pdfUploaded byShanmukShannu
- On the Mechanism and Prevention of CavitationUploaded byRhonda Bush
- Designing Quieter Hydraulic SystemsUploaded bybee140676
- Preventing Cavitation Damage in Liquid Ring PumpsUploaded byhimadri.banerji60
- NavCad2013DemoGuide.pdfUploaded byOscar Eduardo Parra Guerrero
- # Propeller Basics &PitchUploaded byflanavone
- Chapter 02 Fluid PropertiesUploaded bymdkhayum
- 332326062 Kenzi Tamaru Auth J R Jennings Eds Cata BookZZ OrgUploaded byMuhammad Naeem
- cd166bd1c6f0c3d3ca006acd8e7ffa14Uploaded byramihey
- Syllabus TemplateUploaded byMohammad Kazemi
- Chapter 2 Potential FlowUploaded byAnonymous KX7VeX
- 1-s2.0-S187661021501111X-mainUploaded byChristopher Lennon Dela Cruz
- 16-0254---SKF-Supergrip-BoltUploaded bydwi maryadi
- 6_4_inviscid_flowUploaded byGhanim Munir

- 0091A14AUploaded byKimao Lim
- i3143sUploaded byJohnny Diaz Vargas
- Centrifugal Pump PipingUploaded byBhupender Sharma
- Centrifugal Pump Complete Lab ReportUploaded byriz485
- Super Russian Torpedo RevealedUploaded bystugsturmpanzer
- op050109x.pdf sonocrystallizationUploaded byMeera Patel
- ULTRASONIC DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- Damages of ConcreteUploaded byKrisha Desai
- Pic RenderUploaded byBabboo
- Airfoil TheoryUploaded byRafael Sanchez
- Corrosion Atlas First Few Pages Failure AnalysisUploaded byravikanth_r
- 13 09 2016 - PBV Ball ValveUploaded bybayu
- SchineiderUploaded byguipimentel
- SI_FM_2e_SM__Chap14Uploaded byttaerack
- 959 Tp Severe Service Power Applications Handbook Low ResUploaded bypneuma110
- 5 Industrial Noise and Vibrations ControlUploaded bywhereareyoudear
- A Refresher on Pump Cavitation and NPSHUploaded bymuhammad_asim_10
- COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF POPPET VALVES ON FLOW FIELDSUploaded byPamela Coleman
- Bungartz CatalogueUploaded bytricky11
- Chapter 2 - Hydrodynamics of Pumps - Christopher E. BrennenUploaded bymete2009
- The Limits of Fine Particle FlotationUploaded byrittils
- Main Principles of Pumps SelectionUploaded bynaveen kumar
- DCEUploaded byAnonymous OuRkJ8i71
- TurbineUploaded byGheghel Gutierrez Huaman
- Instruction Manual Lkh Centrifugal PumpUploaded byultrasonicoverdrive
- pump characteristic report.docxUploaded byIlman Faiq
- IALT00130 Mseries BrochureUploaded byJavier Perez
- 04-2429GUploaded byzanella159051
- Suction Jet Design DocumentUploaded byasniff08
- Dams and ReservoirsUploaded byjoaoaugusto79

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.