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Department of Electrical Engineering

Riphah College of Science & Technology


Faculty of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Riphah International University, Lahore

Program: B.Sc. Electrical Engineering Technology Semester: II


Subject ETL-102 Electronics Date: ……………….

Experiment 5: To Implement and verify specifications of a full-wave


rectifier.

Student Name: ……………………………………………………………

Lab Performance

No. Title Marks Obtained


Marks
1 Ability to conduct experiment 5
2 Data Analysis & Interpretation 5

Lab Reports

No. Title Marks Obtained


Marks
1 Organization / Structure 5
2 Calculations and Data Presentation 5

Remarks (if any): ………………………………….

Name & Signature of faculty: …………………………………


Apparatus

i. Oscilloscope 01
ii. Function Generator 01
iii. Diodes Silicon 04
iv. Resistor 01
v. Project Board 01

Circuit Diagram

D1 D4

AC R
V0

D3 D2

Figure 1

Background
This type of single phase rectifier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed loop
“bridge” configuration to produce the desired output. The main advantage of this bridge circuit is
that it does not require a special centre tapped transformer, thereby reducing its size and cost.
The single secondary winding is connected to one side of the diode bridge network and the load
to the other side.
The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in “series pairs” with only two diodes conducting
current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2
conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the
load.
Positive Half-cycle
During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1
and D2 switch “OFF” as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through the load is the
same direction as before.
Negative Half Cycle
As the current flowing through the load is unidirectional, so the voltage developed across
the load is also unidirectional the same as for the previous two diode full-wave rectifier,
therefore the average DC voltage across the load is 0.637Vmax.
However in reality, during each half cycle the current flows through two diodes instead of
just one so the amplitude of the output voltage is two voltage drops ( 2 x 0.7 = 1.4V ) less
than the input VMAX amplitude. The ripple frequency is now twice the supply frequency
(e.g. 100Hz for a 50Hz supply).
Procedure (1)

i. Fixed the apparatus on bread board according to the circuit diagram.


ii. Connect the input from function generator Connect the output to the oscilloscope and
a. observe the wave shapes.
iii. During positive half cycle D1 and D2 are forward bias and vice versa. Note the drop
a. across the diodes.
iv. The output across the resistor is pulsating DC.
v. Draw the corresponding waveforms of input and output as shown by the oscilloscope.

Observations

Vd1(volts) Vd2(volts) Vd3(volts) Vd4(volts) Vo(volts)

+ve -ve +ve -ve +ve -ve +ve -ve +ve -ve
S.No Vin(volts)
Half Half Half Half Half Half Half Half Half Half
cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle

Table 1

Procedure (2)

i. Make the full wave bridge rectifier on bread board


ii. Insert a capacitor across load resistor
iii. Calibrate oscilloscope and attach it with circuit
iv. Observe the output. Take different readings by changing capacitance and frequency.
Observations

PIV Vr p-p Vdc Form Factor=


S No Vpeak Vav
Volts Volts Volts Vrms/Vdc

Table 2

Conclusion
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Department of Electrical Engineering
Riphah College of Science & Technology
Faculty of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Riphah International University, Lahore

Program: B.Sc. Electrical Engineering Technology Semester: II


Subject ETL-102 Electronics Date: ……………….

Experiment 6: To Study and Implement the simplest series clipper circuits.

Student Name: ……………………………………………………………

Lab Performance

No. Title Marks Obtained


Marks
1 Ability to conduct experiment 5
2 Data Analysis & Interpretation 5

Lab Reports

No. Title Marks Obtained


Marks
1 Organization / Structure 5
2 Calculations and Data Presentation 5

Remarks (if any): ………………………………….

Name & Signature of faculty: …………………………………

……
Apparatus

i. Oscilloscope 01
ii. Function Generator 01
iii. Diode Silicon 01
iv. Resistor 01

Circuit Diagram

AC

R VR
VSinwt

Figure 1: Positive Series Clipper

AC

R VR
VSinwt

Figure 2: Negative Series Clipper

Background
A circuit which removes the peak of a waveform is known as a clipper. A clipper circuits clips a
fraction of its input signal keeping the remaining part of the signal unchanged. The circuit limits
an input voltage to certain minimum and maximum values. A clipping circuit consists of linear
elements like resistors and non-linear elements like junction diodes or transistors, but it does not
contain energy- storage elements like capacitors. Diodes can be used as switches depending on
the biasing type, reverse of forward. The clipping circuit also referred to as clipper, clips off some
of the portions of the input signal and uses the clipped signal as the output signal.
There are two types of clipper circuits, the series and parallel diode clipping circuits.
In these types of circuits, the diode is connected between the input and output voltage terminals

Series Diode Clipping Circuit


As Fig. reveals, the negative cycle of the input voltage can be clipped of by this type of series
clippers. Reverse of the diode pins yields to a positive cycle clipping circuit.

Procedure

i. Take the apparatus and make a circuit on bread board.


ii. Set frequency and amplitude of waveform which is displayed on a oscilloscope
iii. Note the output waveform on the oscilloscope, change the orientation of the diode and
observe the result.
iv. Note down readings on observation table.
v. Also draw the corresponding waveforms of output as shown on the oscilloscope.

Observations
Name of the Clipper Negative Clipper Positive Clipper

Wave form I/P O/P I/P O/P


Conclusion

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