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Workshop on

‘Using CFD for studying wind


energy potential in the built
environment in Hong Kong’
Date: 12 Dec 2018
Time: 10:00AM to 12:00AM
Venue: CF304, PolyU
ECF Project
Development of a Wind-Field Simulation Platform to Assess
Installation Sites of Wind Turbines in Highly Urbanized Areas of
Hong Kong

Propose
 To develop the micro wind filed analysis platform in highly
urbanized areas of Hong Kong
 To resolve the distributions of power density and turbulence
intensity via computations simulated by CFD software
ANSYS/Fluent®
 To validate the wind resources available in a densely urbanized
locality through field measurements

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ECF Project
Development of a Wind-Field Simulation Platform to Assess
Installation Sites of Wind Turbines in Highly Urbanized Areas of
Hong Kong

Wind energy platform


 To select the most suitable position for installation of micro wind
turbines
 To evaluate the feasibility of achieving stable power supply
 To promote the development of micro-wind turbine

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Outline
1. Wind energy potential of realistic urban areas

• The Procedures

• CFD results

2. Wind energy potential of generic high-rise building

• Example on using “Gambit 2.4.6”

• Example on using “Fluent 15.0”

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1. Selected the model region A circle of radius 1 km with center at IFC
2. Bought the Digital Map
from the Survey and Mapping Office, The Lands Department
https://www.landsd.gov.hk/mapping/en/digital_map/mapprod.htm
3. Choose which type of Digital Map to buy
3. Choose which type of Digital Map to buy

Digital Topographic Map


• iB1000 (Scale 1:1000)
The i-Series Digital Maps, including iB1000,
• iG1000
iB5000, iB10000 and iB20000 Digital
Topographic Map, iC1000 Digital Land
Boundary Map and iG1000 Geo-reference
Database, provide more comprehensive
datasets in new data formats and enable
users to select the seamless version
covering users’ defined area-of-interest
so that they do not need to combine
discrete tiles of digital maps into one single
file for their work.
3. Choose which areas to buy
iB1000 Digital Topographic Map
iG1000 Digital Topographic Map

• Building ID
• Building Name
• Building Top Level
• Building Base Level
4. Generated 3D models

Step1 Step2

Step4

Step3

Step5
Step3: Merge 2D building models and 2D terrain models

2D building models
with 2D terrain contour lines
for each 5 meter
Step3: Merge 2D building models and 2D terrain models

2D building models
with 2D terrain contour lines
for each 10 meter
Step3: Merge 2D building models and 2D terrain models

2D building models
with 2D terrain contour lines
for each 15 meter
Step3: Merge 2D building models and 2D terrain models

2D building models
with 2D terrain contour lines
for each 20 meter
Step3: Merge 2D building models and 2D terrain models
Step5: Generated 3D models with building height

IFC

Footbridge
Footbridge

Check with 3D google map


for making sure the special features
Step5: Generated 3D models with building height

Footbridge

Footbridge
IFC
Step5: Generated 3D models with building height
5. Generated Computational domain
 Computational domain with boundary conditions with the requirements of
the CFD guidelines (up, down, top and lateral: 5H, 15H, 5H, 5H)
6. Generated Computational mesh
 ANSYS Meshing
 Numerical tetrahedron grid generated: total 120,268,151 grids
7. Computational setup and parameters
 Ansys Fluent
 3D steady RANS equations
 Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model (Shih et al., 1995)
 Near-wall treatment: Standard wall function
 Neutral Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) inflow profiles
 Pressure-velocity coupling: SIMPLEC algorithm
 Second-order discretization scheme
Continuity

Momentum

Realized K-ε
Two-equation
Turbulent Model
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong

四季酒店 Four
Seasons Hotel

國際金融中心一期
One International
Finance Centre

告羅士打大廈
Gloucester Tower

公爵大廈
Edinburgh
Tower
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted velocity magnitude contours

 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 150 m  Vertical cross-sections at Y= -450 m

告羅士打大廈
Gloucester
Tower

公爵大廈
Edinburgh
Tower
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted velocity magnitude contours

 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 200 m  Vertical cross-sections at Y= 35 m

國際金融中心一期
One International
Finance Centre

四季酒店 Four
Seasons Hotel
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Select the areas that have high wind power density and low wind turbulence
levels (Ti≦ 18%)
 Determine the potential mounting sites for micro-siting the objective building
 Exclude possible mounting sites with a wind turbulence intensity over 18%

Power Density = 0.593ρV3 Turbulence Intensity ≦ 18%


Betz's coefficient  International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
(Maximum possible power Standard 61400-2: “Small wind turbines should not be
where, density is limited by the Betz exposed to winds with a turbulence intensity greater than 16–
ρ = Air limit of 0.593) 18%”

density  European Wind Turbine Standards II: “Fatigue loads of


vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) have to be re-evaluated
V = Wind with the actual conditions for turbulence intensity higher than
15%”
speed
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted power density contours
PLANNED ACTIONS
 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 150 m  Vertical cross-sections at Y= -450 m

告羅士打大廈
Gloucester
Tower

公爵大廈
Edinburgh
Tower
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted power density contours

 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 200 m  Vertical cross-sections at Y= 35 m

國際金融中心一
期 One
International
Finance Centre

四季酒店 Four
Seasons Hotel
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted turbulence Intensity contours
PLANNED ACTIONS
 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 150 m  Vertical cross-sections at Y= -450 m

告羅士打大廈
Gloucester
Tower

公爵大廈
Edinburgh
Tower
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Predicted turbulence Intensity contours
PLANNED ACTIONS Vertical cross-sections at Y= 35 m
 Horizontal cross-sections at Z= 200 m

國際金融中心一
期 One
International
Finance Centre

四季酒店 Four
Seasons Hotel
8. CFD results for realistic urban areas in Central, Hong Kong
 Determine the final locations for installing the micro-turbines

Selected locations
Example on
using commercial software
“Gambit 2.4.6” & “Fluent 15.0”
Simulating the Venturi effect in passages
between perpendicular buildings
End of Workshop, Thank You!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study represents part of the results obtained under the support of
Environment and Conservation Fund, Hong Kong, ECF 51/2016).

Contact:
JUAN Yu-Hsuan
yhjuan@polyu.edu.hk
Office: GH034

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