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Experiment No.

To study the degrees of freedom of RV-2AJ Mitsubishi robotic arm.

 To understand the robotic arm movement.
 To analyze the work space of robotic arm.
 To learn about kinematics related to robotic arm.
Students will be able to understand the robotic arm movement and angular & linear workspace
and also the safety assessment related to work space of robotic arm.

Figure 1: RV-2AJ side view

Figure 2: RV-2AJ Front view

a) Introduction of RV-2AJ:
RV-2AJ has five degrees of freedom and each degree is controlled by motor that may be
controlled electrically or pneumatically. Degrees of freedom are important to determine the
workspace of robotic arm. It has a base motor at the bottom and end effector which is basically
manipulator that can be easily detachable. Teach pendant is used to control robotic arm. PLC
programming is used to operate the robotic arm which works on matrices.
b) Workspace:
In this arm, angular workspace depends upon base motor of arm and 60° is not access able by
robotic arm, hence angular workspace of robotic arm is 300°. While the linear workspace
depends upon the length of end effector therefore the maximum workspace of arm is 410mm
and minimum is 220mm radius with respect to base motor.
c) Robot kinematics:
Robot kinematics applies geometry to the study of the movement of multi-degree of freedom
kinematic chains that form the structure of robotic systems. [1]
Types of kinematics:

 Forward kinematics:

In this type, joint angles determines the reach of robotic arm.

 Inverse kinematics:
In this type, position is given to robotic arm and we can determine the joint angles to reach the
d) Specifications: [2]

Model Units RV-2AJ

Degree of freedom of motion 5
Structure Vertical, multiple-joint type
Drive system AC servo motor
Type Absolute encoder
Arm length Upper arm mm 250
Fore arm 160
Elbow shift 0

Wrist length 72
J1 300 (-150 to +150)
J2 180 (-60 to +120)
J3 230 (-110 to +120)
Motion range J4 Degree -
J5 180 (-90 to +90)
J6 400 (-200 to +200)
J1 180
J2 90
J3 135
Speed of motion J4 Degree/s -
J5 180
J6 210
Maximum resultant velocity mm/s Approx. 2100
Maximum 2
Load capacity kg
Rating 1.5
Position repeatability mm ±0.02
Ambient temperature ºC 0 to 40
Mass kg Approx. 17
J4 -
Allowable J5 2.16
J6 1.10
J4 -
Allowable inertia J5 kg m2 3.24 × 10-2
J6 8.43 × 10-3
Arm reachable radius
mm 410
(front p-axis center point)
Four input signals (Hand
Four output signals (Base
Tool wiring
Motorized hand output (Hand
Supply pressure MPa 0.5 ±10%
Table 1: Specifications of RV-2AJ

PLC Programming: [3]

A PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program written for a PLC consists basically of
instructions to turn on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program. In
this respect, it is similar to how a standard computer application is used.
Once a PLC program is activated, however, it will typically run continuously as a loop for an
indefinite period. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial
environment. A PLC can run an automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They
are designed to withstand most harsh environments.
Different cycles in PLC programming:
 Scan Cycle.
 Overhead
 Input cycle.
 Logic execution.
 Diagnosis and communication.
 Output scan.
This session was interesting as we come to know about working, degrees of freedom, kinematics
and controller of robotic arm. Understanding the working of Robotic Arm gives us a great
exposure w.r.t understand the arm thoroughly and its parts.
Comments should be based on what students have learnt from this experiment and compare the
perception of automation before and after the experiment? What is the main role of this
equipment in industry?

Experiment No.02

To study the operation of a FESTO Robotic Work cell.

 To understand the working of robotic work cell.
 To know about sensors and gauging method of work cell.

After this experiment, student will come to know about the working of robotic cell, role of infrared and
capacitive sensor, gauging techniques used by work cell and applications of robotic work cell.


Figure 3: FESTO Robotic work cell

Figure 4: Part feeder of FESTO robotic cell


a) Introduction:

FESTO is a German company who is manufacturing robotic work cell. This robot is an industrial
robot. It performs drilling operation after that it measures the hole’s diameter and depth with
the help of go and not go gauges and differentiate the parts w.r.t color of part with the help of
capacitive and infrared sensors. Its control are pneumatic.

b) Sensors:

There are two types of sensors that are used in this cell:

1: Capacitive proximity sensor: [4]

Capacitive sensing is a noncontact technology suitable for detecting metals, nonmetals, solids,
and liquids, although it is best suited for nonmetallic targets because of its characteristics and
cost relative to inductive proximity sensors. In most applications with metallic targets, inductive
sensing is preferred because it is both a reliable and a more affordable technology.

Figure 5: Working diagram of capacitive proximity sensor

The sensor consists of four basic components:

 A capacitive probe or plate
 An oscillator
 A signal level detector
 A solid-state output switching device
 An adjustment potentiometer

Capacitive proximity sensors are similar in size, shape, and concept to inductive proximity sensors.
However, unlike inductive sensors which use induced magnetic fields to sense objects, capacitive
proximity generate an electrostatic field and reacts to changes in capacitance caused when a
target enters the electrostatic field. When the target is outside the electrostatic field, the oscillator
is inactive. As the target approaches, a capacitive coupling develops between the target and the

capacitive probe. When the capacitance reaches a specified threshold, the oscillator is activated,
triggering the output circuit to switch states between ON and OFF.

The ability of the sensor to detect the target is determined by the target’s size, dielectric constant
and distance from the sensor. The larger the target’s size, the stronger the capacitive coupling
between the probe and the target. Materials with higher dielectric constants are easier to detect
than those with lower values. The shorter the distance between target and probe, the stronger
the capacitive coupling between the probe and the target.
2: Infra-red sensor: [5]
An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain characteristics of its
surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors are also
capable of measuring the heat being emitted by an object and detecting motion.
1. Thermal infrared sensor.
2. Quantum infrared sensor.
Principle of operation of IR Sensor: [6]
IR Sensors work by using a specific light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the Infra-
Red (IR) spectrum. By using an LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the
sensor is looking for, you can look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close
to the sensor, the light from the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results
in a large jump in the intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold.

Figure 6: Infrared sensor

c) Working Procedure of Robotic Cell:

 Firstly, Work piece is fed from part feeder to rotatory table.
 Then, Drilling is performed at this point.
 After that, go and not go gauge check the diameter and depth of hole.
 Then, RV-2AJ picks the part from that place to capacitive proximity sensor which detects
whether the work piece is metal or non-metal on the behalf of capacitance.
 Then, from capacitive sensor work piece is placed in front of infrared sensor where color
of work piece is detected and IR sensor on for a specific time period and gets off after that
 And finally, work piece is stored in specific storage area for a particular part.

Specifications: [7]
Sr. no Elements Details
1 Maximum working stroke Y axis is 1900mm and z axis is 50mm
2 Max. speed 5 m/s
3 Max. acceleration 50 m2/s
4 Repetition accuracy +/-0.1mm
5 Absolute accuracy +/-0.5mm
6 Contour accuracy +/-0.5
7 Rated load for max. dynamic 4 kg
8 Motor Stepper motor
Table 2: Specifications of work cell

This session was really informative as it gives a lot of information related to robotic work cell,
working of work cell and also the applications of sensors such as capacitive sensor, infrared
sensor. And also the use of robotic arm in material handling was also studied. Although this
equipment was not workable due to some technical problems but overall session was
Comments should be based on what students have learnt from this experiment and compare the
perception of automation before and after the experiment? What is the main role of this
equipment in industry?